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Taoism is one of the great philosophical systems and religions which has come from ancient China, debuting fully in the 4th century .C. Taoism can be difficult or controversial to define because so much of Taoism has an elusive, adaptable quality to it, which can make it more challenging to peg down. It goes without saying that Taoism has been able to exert a tremendously powerful influence on Chinese aesthetics, hygience and religion (cuny.edu, 2013). Taoist did receive a certain influence from uddhism and adopted a certain degree of monasticism and anxiety for spiritual afterlife rather than seeking an immortality of the flesh. One of the major concepts of Taoism has been immortalized forever by the Yin and Yang symbol. This symbol may have been embraced by pop culture, but ultimately it's a traditional expression of Taoism and this form of harmony. It's a symbol of how the Taoists view…… [Read More]
Teachings of Taoism and their application
Taoism, also referred to widely as Daoism is known as an indigenous Chinese eligion which is closely associated with Tao Te Ching which was a philosophical and political manuscript written by Laozi in the 4th Century BC. The writings focused on Dao (Tao) as a path or way and this stood for the appropriate manner of behavior and also the way to lead others. It also stood for something that was there before the earth and the heavens came into being. However, in the context of this paper, the prime focus will be on the teachings and the beliefs of Taoism and how they can be applied in the contemporary society in order to shape and make the society better.
Taoism developed in four stages which include: Proto Daoism-During this period classic works were the Daode Jing, the Zhuangzi in particular they were…… [Read More]
Introduction to Terms and Concepts of Taoism: The origins of Taoism are explained in the book, The Taoist Vision (illiam McNaughton, 1-5): of the main Chinese religions, Buddhism originated in India but Confucianism and Taoism were both from China originally. Taoism, McNaughton explains, is the philosophy "of the Tao," or "Lao-Chuang philosophy." It's called Lao-Chuang because the two most important philosophers in the Tao faith were Chuang Tzu (from the fourth century B.C.) and Lao Tzu (from the sixth century B.C.). Hence, Lao-Chuang.
A few of the basic concepts of Taoism (also known as Daoism), which are not always easy to understand, and need careful, thoughtful examination, are found in McNaughton's book, and presented as follows: a) "Tao" means that knowing you don't know is a superior realization (10) (the sage "takes his flaws to be flaws, and that's how he lacks flaws"); b) "darkness of the Tao" ["Hsuan"]…… [Read More]
"Creative quietude" was key to these men's interpretation of the Tao and wu wei, or the second life-giving force of the Tao which flowed through human beings without the force of will, if only it was allowed to do so by a yielding spirit (207-208).
The contrasting camp of Philosophical Taoist were adepts who emphasized using rather than bending with the Tao through herbs, yoga, breathing, and other active methods deploying matter, movement, and their minds to use the Tao with maximum efficacy (201). Meditational Taoists tried to use the Tao to enhance the community, fusing Taoism's spirit with Confucianism (200). Selflessness, cleanliness, and calm and purity of mind were the ideals of this brand of Taoism. Virtually all forms of Philosophical Taoism rejected worldly competition and the pursuit of world values, as well as anything but total simplicity in art and life (213) Simplicity and an emphasis on nature…… [Read More]
Yin and Yang
The concept of Yin and Yang is fundamental to Taoism. Yin is considered the dark/female while Yang is the light/male. Yin represents the negative and feminine, while yang is the positive and masculine; together they represent the balance required for everything to exist. They are dualities that co-exist as well as exist to balance the other. One can not find harmony, without it's opposite.
Wu Wei, is also defined as the way of action through no action, or doing without doing. A visual example of wu wei is to stand in a stream so that the water flows in the opposite direction to that which you face. Visually, even though you are standing still, you will appear to be moving against the current. This essentially is the driving force behind Taoism. A Taoist must plan in advance and consider what to do before committing themselves…… [Read More]
As a popular religion it became more and more widespread and accepted by the imperial court as important factor in social life and the people's mentality." (Theobold, "Daoism," 2000)
During this time, most critical to its populist embrace, Daoism developed a substantial pantheon of deities that made the religion even more comprehensible and accessible, even to the semi-literate while its more abstract concepts still earned "imperial respect," although "it never again existed as an imperial cult but flourished as the religion of the masses" after the Song Dynasty. (DeBarry, Chan & Bloom, p.258) One of the reasons for Daoism's collapse as an imperial cult amongst later emperors might be the fact that Chinese historians saw the veneration of the "passive" Taoist religion as one factor in the downfall of Northern Song "and the numerous registers and incantations did not prove to be an effective weapon against intruders." (Theobold, "Daoism, 2000)…… [Read More]
In fact, Hindus consider their religion not as a form of religion per se, but spirituality in general. Selvanayagam (2005) discussed the Hindu concept of spirituality, which takes into account all possible ways or manner in which enlightenment can be achieved. In India, wherein the Hindu religion is the dominant and an integral part of people's lives, Hinduism is considered more than a religion -- it is also a political state. ecause of the unorthodox nature of Hinduism, India is a secular state, according to Selvanayagam, wherein 'all the interests of religious communities are safeguarded without bias' (114). More specifically, the Hindu religion paved the way for individuals to achieve enlightenment independently (114-115):
Allied with the comparative study of religion that finds 'faith' or a transcendental dimension as a common core in humanity, the movement of interfaith dialogue across the world, particularly in the ecumenical movement, has helped to maintain…… [Read More]
In contemporary life, the Taoist moral rule is useful as an appropriate guide for reciprocating for moral behavior in kind while prohibiting the harshness inherent in the human impulse for revenge that tarnishes the character of the initial recipient of immoral conduct (ussell 1992).
Empathy and Social Concern:
Taoists believe that the appropriate neighborly perspective is to rejoice at the good fortune of neighbors and to experience sorrow in response to a neighbor's loss.
This contradicts some of the negative human reactions evident in many societies in which individuals are more likely to take perverse pleasure in the plight of others as encompassed by the notion that "misery loves company." This Taoist perspective is useful in contemporary life because ultimately, sharing in other's pleasures and empathizing with their disappointments is more conducive to the natural interconnectedness between individuals that creates a harmonious social fabric.
Taoism emphasizes the notion…… [Read More]
Confucianism and Taoism
Confucianism is a moral and religious system of China, dating back to the Analects and the teachings of Confucius, and to ancient commentaries, including that of Mencius (Confucianism pp). Before the third century B.C., it was basically a system of ethical precepts for the proper management of society, envisaging man as a social creature bound to others by "jen," a term meaning humanity or human kindness (Confucianism pp). Jen is expressed through five relationships: sovereign and subject, parent and child, elder and younger brother, husband and wife, and friend, all of which function smoothly by the exact adherence to "li," which denotes a combination of etiquette and ritual (Confucianism pp). In many of these relations, an individual may be superior to some while inferior to others, thus, if someone in a subordinate status wants to be treated properly, then he or she must apply a principle similar…… [Read More]
2. Discuss the concepts of non-action and spontaneity (tzu-ran) in the Tao-Te-Ching and Chuang-Tzu
The main tenants of Taoism were put forth by Lao Tzu and Chuang-Tzu in their writings. The principles of non-action and spontaneity were the most important principles that the Taoists preached, and were central to their understanding of true knowledge. Paradoxically, they believed that knowledge is not to be attained by accumulation of information, but actually by diminishing the quantity of information:
ithout stirring abroad / One can know the whole world; / ithout looking out the window / One can see the way of heaven. / the further one goes / the less one knows."(Tzu)
From this, the Taoists derived the principle of non-action or stillness, which implied that the way or the "tao" is to be seen by looking deeper into things, rather than by pursuing learning. Non-action was preferred to action because it…… [Read More]
Taoism is a mindset, philosophy, and way of life that is all about flow and harmony. The quote about being like water relies on nature metaphors—something that is central to Taoism. Being like water is a powerful statement, because as soft and formless as water is, water also has the power to transform mountains over time. Brute force is often not the best way to create lasting or meaningful change. It is often better to go with the flow, being more like water than like dynamite in one’s ways and attitudes towards the world.
Of course, given Taoism’s respect for nature and what it can teach human beings, the environmental movement can draw from Taoism. Taoism teaches human beings how to live in harmony with nature, not pursing a path of unbridled economic growth but one that fulfills both the desires of human beings to live comfortably and the need…… [Read More]
Taoism, Confucianism, Judaism
Taoism, Confucianism, and Judaism
There are several major religions in the world and in different parts of the world the religions are quite diverse. In China, two major religions are Taoism and Confucianism, while in the West one of the oldest religions is Judaism. These religions are quite different, with historical, theological, and philosophical differences. But they also have certain aspects in common, such as honesty, integrity, and compassion. These religions espouse doctrines on how a person should to live their life, how they should behave in relationships, and how they should treat other people. This essay will explore these three religious traditions; their histories, differences, and similarities.
Sometime around 550 BCE, in the Chinese kingdom of Lu, there was born a man named Confucius, called "Kung Fu Tzu" in Chinese. After opening a school and serving as a minister for his ruler, Confucius was forced to…… [Read More]
Taoism and Later World Religions
Laozi -- the legendary author of the Dao Dejing -- may not have been a real person, since his name is simply the Chinese for "Old Master." Yet the Dao itself would not want this fact to get in our way inquiring what Laozi himself would have thought of something -- after all, the Dao teaches that "the name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name." Indeed, the Dao's insights are particularly interesting in considering developments in world religion after the time in which the Dao Dejing was composed (somewhere between about 500 and 300 B.C.E.). I hope to apply the principles of Laozi to take a Daoist view of the two major religions to rise out of Judaism -- Christianity and Islam.
A Daoist view of Islam would be somewhat contradictory. Islam itself means submission unto the will of Allah.…… [Read More]
There are three major religions that have established themselves in China: Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; and of the three, only Buddhism is not indigenous to China. Buddhism found its way to China along the Silk oad, brought by missionaries from India. For centuries, the three religions have co-existed with many Chinese adopting elements of each in their daily lives. Whatever similarities, or symbiotic elements each contains, the three religions have also competed with each other for prominence and prestige within Chinese society. At different times each has been the dominant religion, fully supported by the Imperial Court, however, Buddhism, since it's incorporation into Chinese society, has viewed itself as the superior religion. While most Buddhists are completely comfortable with the idea of other religious ideals in society, and even embrace certain aspects of them, they still feel that Buddhism is superior. One piece of Chinese literature, generally accepted as…… [Read More]
Traditional Chinese Beliefs that played a part if Taoism and Confucianism
Taoism and Confucianism both have their roots in the ancient beliefs of Chinese people. The core of Taoism and Confucianism is still based in the ancient Chinese beliefs. Taoism emphasizes the significance of being compatible with nature by balancing the forces of yin and yang. In reference to the traditional Taoist cosmology, matter and force are contemplated to be ruled by five movements. Earth exerts its presence strongly before the beginning of every season.
Taoism is in favour of a simple life. It is a strong follower of acquiring spiritual harmony by incorporating positive attitude, compliance, and serenity in our lives. The simplest way of life is the ideal one. A wise person always complies with to the rhythm of the world.
Taoism is about accepting life and everything associated with it in its natural form. Taoists…… [Read More]
Another element shared in common by Shinto and Taoism is religious purity. The concept of purity is taken to a greater extreme in Shinto, in which physical illness is perceived as spiritual impurity. A Taoist is concerned with both physical and spiritual health, but practices Tai Chi and similar methods of calming and balancing body and mind.
Shinto is an indigenous Japanese religion, whereas Taoism originates in China. Although the two religions have different geographic origins and different means of worship, they share some elements in common. Both include reverence for ancestors or ancestral spirits, and both are concerned with physical and spiritual purity.
Written Assignment Unit Three
2. Discuss the process that led to the formation of the Talmud. Explain the basic contents of the Talmud and their relation to the Torah.
The Torah refers to the Hebrew Bible as a sacred text. The Talmud evolved as a living…… [Read More]
Both Taoism and Buddhism encourage meditation as a means by which to liberate the mind and achieve emptiness. One of the Buddhist practices that encourages emptiness is mindfulness meditation, or vipassana. However, there are numerous specific methods that be used during the meditation practice. Some are more Tibetan in origin as those espoused by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche and the Vajrayana tradition. Other meditation practices are like those I learned at the Hsi Lai Temple, which combine Ch'an (Chinese Zen) Buddhism with Buddhist humanism. Taoism, unlike Buddhism, also offers ancillary spiritual practices such as Tai Chi and Chi Gung. The teachings of Buddhism and Taoism go neatly hand in hand.
Therefore, I am continually growing from becoming more open to spiritual teachings. The spiritual journey is like a flower blossoming. I do not believe that religious dogma or ideology are necessary, and in some cases they can be harmful. As Chogyam…… [Read More]
Religions of the Far East are often clumped into a monolithic entity, perceived as essentially alike by those not familiar with the complexity and individuality of these traditions. Closer examination, however, shows that the major religions with roots in the Far East demonstrate a wide variety of beliefs. The tendency to group them under the heading of "Eastern religion" alone does not allow for the different histories, beliefs, and practices of these traditions. This tendency, however, has some validity in that Eastern belief systems do share many characteristics. In this essay, I will explain the basic precepts, including similarities of, differences in, and the relationship between three major Eastern traditions: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.
First, I will give a basic overview of the three belief systems, exploring their histories and general precepts . Then, I will explore the specific beliefs which these faiths share, as well as the beliefs which…… [Read More]
Buddhism and Jainism
Based on Michael Molloy's three patterns for comparing and contrasting religions, there seems to be a great deal of similarity between Buddhism and Jainism and marked differences between Hinduism and aoism (Experiencing the World's Religions: radition, Challenge, & Change, 2002.)
o start with, Buddhism and Jainism both meet the definition of religion as a 'spiritual path' and Carl Jung's description of religion as meeting the need for personal fulfillment or "individuation." Buddhism and Jainism also share a common prophetic and mystical orientation: nontheistic in nature; believing in guidance from enlightened beings (the Buddhist 'bodhisattva' and the Jain 'tirthankara'). Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was himself believed to be the twenty-fourth 'tirthankara' and according to Buddhist Cosmology, an enlightened being is born in each era (Gautama Buddha is regarded as the fourth Buddha). Both religions are similar in upholding the path of 'dharma' and 'ahimsa.' he two religions…… [Read More]
From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy. The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life (this implies the belief in reincarnation). It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society (and from this all the other individual benefit as well).
All in all, it can be stated that the conceptual differences regarding the idea of the superior man in the Confucian and Taoist philosophies have more to do with form and less with substance. The ultimate goal is that…… [Read More]
Similarly, by realizing that the ultimate goal of war is peace and prosperity ("There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare" -- para 6, Chapter II) Sun Tzu suggests the harmony of war and peace just as Taoism emphasizes the harmony of yin and yang. He also amalgamates the concepts of wuwei, yin and yang and harmony in universe by suggesting the path of least resistance ("...in war, the way is to avoid what is strong and to strike at what is weak." Para 29, Chapter VI) and proposing flexibility in action ("Water shapes its course according to the nature of the ground over which it flows; the soldier works out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing." Para 30, Chapter VI).
Daoism." (2007). Article in Encyclopedia Encarta Online, 2007. etrieved on February 7, 2007 at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555647/Taoism_(Daoism).html
Sun Tzu…… [Read More]
Western civilization has been developing according to a set of coordinates that are entirely separated from the ones of its Eastern counterpart. The focus of this paper is to propose subjective psychologically-minded interpretations to a series of Asian stories and poems extracted from the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism.
The storyline of Searching for Buddha begins with the account of a monk's lengthy and arduous journey towards finding Buddha. When he finally locates Buddha's whereabouts, he finds that he needs to cross a river in order to reach the region of destination. Therefore, he solicits the help of a boatman. On waiting to get across, the monk notices something floating on the river, right towards the boat. As it gets closer, the floating object is revealed to be the monk's very own dead body, and the shock of the realization sends the traveler into a fit of distress. The…… [Read More]
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…… [Read More]
Evil in Judaism and Taoism
(2) How does the answer to the existential "why" given by the karma theodicy differ from the answer given by the eschatological theodicy?
The karma theodicy suggests that the existence of evils upon earth, and of evils within the individual human life, should be understood in two directions -- looking back at a state before a person was born, and ahead towards a state after a person will be dead. Here life on earth becomes a sort of purgatorial existence -- the heaven to be reached is an escape from earthly incarnation. The reward of people for suffering is ultimately a removal from earth itself, and the justice of the universe is manifest in the logic of this process of death and rebirth. Time, in the karma theodicy, is understood as cyclical: souls have been here before and will be here again, and presumably samsara…… [Read More]
Tao de Ching is one of the most influential and important philosophical texts in human history. Attributed to Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu between 500 and 400 BCE, the teachings contained within the Tao de Ching have become collectively known as Taoism. The term "tao" or "dao" is usually translated straightforwardly as "the way," but the entire title of the text Tao de Ching may refer to a cluster of concepts including "the way of integrity" (Walter 1) or the "way and its power," ("Lao Tzu: The Father of Taoism," 1). Knierim points out that the term "ching" means scripture, and the term "te" means both strength and virtue. Thus, Tao de Ching does refer to a scriptural text about the way or path of strength and virtue. The Tao de Ching is not a narrative text, but a prescriptive one written as short verses containing wisdom quips and advice for…… [Read More]
By placing these lessons within the context of the battlefield, Sun Tzu provided thousands of years of audiences with a Taoist approach to conflict and to warfare.
Taoism is traditionally thought of as a peaceful, natural philosophy that avoids fighting much like Buddhism. But this is untrue. Taoism recognizes that life involves conflict, but that the wise man can mediate this conflict and control it so that it is least destructive and most productive. Thus, war is not an anathema to Taoists, merely a last resort. Sun Tzu concludes, "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence under no circumstances can it be neglected" (Sun Tzu 9). Taoists would agree: conflict is an inescapable part of life, thus a deeper understanding of it such as Sun Tzu provides is the…… [Read More]
Women are just mere followers of what the males would decide.
Taoism is a combination of psychology and philosophy and evolved into a religious faith in 440 CE when it was adopted as a state religion. Taoism, along with Buddhism and Confucianism, became one of the three great religions of China. Taoism currently has about 20 million followers. About 30,000 Taoists live in North America, 1,720 in Canada (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005).
Taoist concepts, beliefs and practices include (http://ssd1.cas.pacificu.edu/,2005):
Tao is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life. "The Tao surrounds everyone and therefore everyone must listen to find enlightenment."
Each believer's goal is to become one with the Tao.
Taoists strongly promote health and vitality.
Taoists believe that the five main organs and orifices of the body correspond to the five parts of the sky: water, fire, wood, metal and earth.
Each person…… [Read More]
Religious Taoism is the third objective of all Taoist followers although it entails a deep commitment into the priesthood. Priests in ancient China were more than just religious leaders -- they were the doctors, lawyers and intellects of the times as well as the individuals who could deal with evil spirits and the occult. Some things that have come from this function are ideas like Feng Shui where the church helped communities become in sync with nature or the absolute.
Confucianism can be considered to be nothing more than a type of humanism. In other words, it is a philosophy that focuses on just that, human beings. By dictating human achievements, interests and social conduct rather than with abstract ideas like god or heaven, Confucius made life simple.
Confucianism entails that man is the center of the universe but he must also share the universe with his fellow man…… [Read More]
The holistic theory of health, "Therefore... looks for the signs of disharmony in the external and internal environment of a person in order to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease." (Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS)
It is also important to note that the Chinese medical theory is closely linked to their ways of thinking or philosophy. This includes the theory of complementary opposites such Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system and others. (Traditional Chinese medicine) the following quotation clearly shows the way in which Chinese medicine attempts cures and better health by looking at the overall situation of the individual. This is a very different approach to the conventional estern method focusing only on the central area of illness or concern.
Traditional Chinese medicine has a "macro" or holistic view of disease. For example, one modern interpretation is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria…… [Read More]
Taoism offers an ideal of nonaggression that does not strive to improve upon the existing order. However, unlike Buddhism, which can advocate action of present mindfulness to relieve suffering (such as the protests of Tibetan monks striving to create a free society) Taoism seems more passive, and less apt to critique existing society, in contrast to Buddhism. Taoism's main critique of Confucianism, for example, was not that Confucianism promoted an inequitable and hierarchical society of age and social class but that it tried to change things in the existing world, which was already perfect. Taoism is a philosophy that is proudly one of submission, not resistance. Even a good ruler, in the Taoist view "sidesteps" the need for direct action -- unlike Buddhism, which provided a path for warriors, so long as they upheld a virtuous ethic, and remained 'in the moment,' responding only with as much force as was…… [Read More]
Lao Tzu Psychology
Dreaming: Exploring Philosophy through Psychology
What are we, really? Are we the human, or are we the butterfly? Our cognitive reasoning is definitely limited to our mere mortal senses, and so this question is actually quite difficult -- if not impossible -- to ask. One thing that is certain, the brain has a degree of complexity that is perplexing. According to the philosophy of Lao Tzu, the father of Taoism, we are connected to the universal life force and thus all other living creatures. This is part of our most basic foundations of existence, thus residing deep within what modern psychologists would label the unconscious. Dreaming, as seen in modern psychology, is a way to allow that unconscious much more freedom to explore and grow. Ultimately, it is the mind's increased flexibility that occurs during sleep that allows us to better connect with the universal Tao and…… [Read More]
Religious Daoism has reconciled itself with philosophical Daoism by claiming its purpose as "cultivating this special epistemic ability, obediently following teachers and traditions. The philosophical strain's emphasis on natural spontaneity, freedom and egalitarianism, leads them to favor political anarchy." (Hansen, 3) as a result, while Religious Dao tends to views itself as a complement to the philosophical doctrine, philosophical Dao rejects such a relationship. Instead, there is a perception in the relativist worldview that religion, or any such social organization designed to pigeonhole the purposes of Dao's questions or parables, is in fact a subversion of its most important values. However, we are at least reconciled in our own distance from the faith aspects of Dao's observance. Instead, we find that when taken together, the core elements of Daoism bear great relevance to our understanding of Buddhist spiritual traditions just as they do to our understanding of eastern philosophical impulses.…… [Read More]
Eastern Religion Elements Matrix
Countries of origin
In Historical figures and events
Founded: 1500 BC
Founded 2,500 years ago by Indian Prince Siddharta Gautama
Origin: China; founded between the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.; Confucius developed cultural values and taught that learning above all should be the goal
Daoism also spelled Taoism was founded in China in 550 B.C.
In the afterlife, if Karma is not resolved, the soul is born into a new body; life's purpose is to be liberated from reincarnation
Like Hinduism, a goal is to be liberated from the cycle of reincarnation;
"benevolence" and optimism and being loyal to one's own nature; being unselfish, giving back (reciprocity) and seeking a virtuous life
This spiritual Taoism and philosophical Taoism; Taoism focuses on social duty and adheres to the principles of Confucianism; death is simply from being to non-being,…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the religious belief systems that existed in the Ancient Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Indeed, there will be a recitation of what they have in common and how they differ. The religions in question would include ones like Judaism, those of ancient Egypt and others like Mesopotamia and beyond. The more Eastern religions like Confucianism and Daoism is also in the discussion. hile the religions in the regions cited are alike and similar in many ways, there are still absolutely differences and variations that exist.
Some of the religions in question are Taoism/Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are often collected in a set that is known as the "three teachings. All of the religions in question date back about fourteen centuries. One thing that they absolutely have in common is that…… [Read More]
Dreher, Diane. The Tao of Personal Leadership. Harper Business, 1996.
After having written several books on applying Taoism to the modern world and to Western society, Diane Dreher offers her interpretation of how Taoist principles can be applied to business and leadership. The book is divided into two parts, corresponding to the binary of yin and yang central to Taoism. Part I is entitled "The Yin of Inner Leadership," and addresses topics like cultivating the qualities conducive for interpersonal and personal success. Part II is entitled "The Yang of Leadership in Action," and includes sections on building community, communication, conflict resolution, and empowerment. Not a traditional text on business and leadership, The Tao of Personal Leadership offers a unique approach towards cultivating an attitude, mindset, and skills that can greatly enhance communication style, conflict resolution, and therefore ultimately, sales objectives.
Because I am familiar with Eastern philosophy, this book did…… [Read More]
Long Days Journey Into Night by Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill's work "Long Day's Journey into Night" has been critically described as an autobiographical work, a tragedy with universal appeal and a Taoist manuscript among other descriptions. Long Day's Journey into Night might indeed be described as the autobiographical work of one of the most well-known dramatists, who incorporated aspects of every day living and the nature of human instinct and despair into his work. Clearly O'Neill attempts to describe the longing and tragedy that is inherently part of the human psyche. What better way to do this than to pull from true life experiences. These ideas and the critics that support or refute them are described in greater detail below.
Winther (1961), one of O'Neill's earlier critics, suggests that O'Neill deals with tragedy from a universally appealing standpoint. O'Neill according to Winther, deals with the fall…… [Read More]
When Neo-Confucianism arrived in Japan in the 16th century, it built on the pre-existing ideas of Confucianism that had already been imported into the island centuries earlier (Tsutsui 104). As far back as the 5th century, the Japanese had mixed with Confucian ideas about society and the role of the person in the world. Confucian ideas taught the Japanese about what it means to be a moral person. However, the Japanese also incorporated Buddhist concepts into their culture -- and these focused on the metaphysical side of nature and how to define reality (or unreality). These two systems of thought, along with Taoism, molded Japan for hundreds of years. By the time Neo-Confucianism arrived, the Japanese were ready to address the issues that the schools left unresolved. Buddhism presented life as basically unreal and that nirvana was the real reality. Confucianism taught values about society and how to respect life,…… [Read More]
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…… [Read More]
By avoiding extremes, a sage can avoid conflict.
"Therefore the sage:
Eliminates arrogance" (Chapter 29)
Sage prefers Non-action:
This is the most vital attribute of a sage. The sage doesn't seek to impose or interfere and hence let people follow him on their own will. There is no compulsion in sage's rule. The sage seeks to rule people by example instead of force. He quietly observes and does and people then do the same as he wishes because they like the way the sage acts.
Therefore the sage says:
I take unattached action, and the people transform themselves
I prefer quiet, and the people right themselves
I do not interfere, and the people enrich themselves
I have no desires, and the people simplify themselves (Chapter 57)
Sage doesn't believe in ostentation:
A sage is a person of calm action which means that while he does what…… [Read More]
ecause of rhetoric that was rampant through the region, the result was "a skewed perception among some Chinese intellectuals that Indian must have been a race of violent and uncouth barbarians" (Mather, 1992). The once positive relationship between the two regions was tarnished, as evident by the "Discourse on Triple Destruction" which illuminates the barbarian traits that the Indian people have (Mather, 1992). This laid, along with the foundational elements Scripture of Lao-tzu Converting the arbarians, for a negative perception of India and allowed for huddism to flourish on Chinese terms.
uddhism in China was taught as "radical dualism," with teachings that focused on sudden enlightenment on salvation through grace rather than through ascetic practices" making it more appealing to a larger population of Chinese (Whyte, 2008). The Consul General of China asserts that "in Northeast Asia and some Southeast Asian countries, the historical influence of Chinese culture could be…… [Read More]
In this field attachment is seen, as it is in uddhism, as a continual pattern of never-ending desire for further attainment and objects. "Social psychological research on subjective well-being supports the assertion that people's desires consistently outpace their ability to satisfy their desires."
McIntosh 39) further issue that relates to Western psychology and the uddhist view of attachment is the nature of existence as impermanent.
The nature of existence is that nothing is permanent. Therefore, even when people attain the object of their attachment, it is only a temporary situation, and people's attempts to maintain the object of their attachment are ultimately doomed to fail. As people struggle to maintain possession of things to which they are attached, those things inevitably continue to slip through their fingers, so people with attachments suffer.
There have been many psychological studies on the effects of attachment structures as a form of…… [Read More]
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…… [Read More]
An excellent example of this principle is the art of cooking. hen one cooks, they may follow a recipe. However, if they find in the middle of the recipe that the dish is cooking too quickly, they may have to exercise flexibility and make adjustments to avoid ruining the dish. They cannot follow the recipe without thought, but must make adjustments as they go along. Flexibility must occur spontaneously and must be integrated into what the situation requires (Fox).
Practicing the uwei produces a seamless dance in which the elements are not noticed of their own accord (Fox). hen the actions are appropriate to the situation and the proper amount of flexibility is applied, no one will notice the transitions that have taken place. If one turns down the flame on the stove, naturally, as if without effort, no one will notice. However, if one were to choose to follow…… [Read More]
Columbus reveled in making distinctions between his own culture and 'the other,' in a way that prioritized his own culture, even though ironically he went in search of a non-estern civilization's Indian bounty of spices.
Columbus' eradication of another civilization is the most extreme form of estern civilization's prioritization of distinction, in contrast to Buddhism's stress upon the collapse of such distinction. The most obvious negative legacy of Columbus, for all of his striving and inquiry, is the current racial divisions of our own society and the damaged material and cultural state of Native Americans. Although a change of attitude cannot heal these distinctions alone, adopting at least some of the Buddhist spirit of the acceptance of the 'Other' as one with the self or 'non-self' might be an important first step in creating common ground in our nation. Our nation was founded not simply in democracy, but upon European…… [Read More]
This is pantheism defined cinematically.
Pantheism is a departure from Christianity or other theisms as it does not have at its center a God, but suggests that all things, people, animals, creatures, elements, are of the collective; that the collective, together, in its entirety, is the "god (Levine, Michael P., 1994, p. 147)."
The philosophies that surround pantheism are many, and make sound and tempting arguments in favor of a superior being as opposed to the superiority of being the collective. Renee Descartes was one such philosopher, and certainly Descartes' philosophy is supported by many philosophers and academicians today. Descartes set about to prove the existence of God, and he began his research by becoming a skeptic and questioning everything, even existence itself (de Spinoza, Benedictus and Britan, Halbert Hans, 1943, p. 12). Descartes proved, at least in the minds of many philosophers, the existence of God (de Spinoza and…… [Read More]
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…… [Read More]
Fire (the hottest element) and metal (the hardest) both are associated with yang. Nevertheless, the Blue Dragon that symbolizes wood is a principal symbol of yang, while the hite Tiger that symbolizes metal is a principal symbol of yin. This kind of reversal turns up frequently in the I Ching..[Newborn, 1986]
The I Ching is based on the principle of a broken line, representing yin, and an unbroken line, representing yang. There are eight trigrams: The I Ching [Y" Jing1] uses the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams reuse the trigrams by combining pairs of them into 64 hexagrams. The hexagrams represent states of affairs, and the I Ching is consulted through the construction of a hexagram to answer one's question. The construction is carried out either through a complicated process of throwing and counting yarrow stalks, or by throwing three coins. The obverse (head)…… [Read More]
14). Certainly, the vast majority of people in the West have come to think about the world around them in terms of the Greek philosophical tradition, combined with some version of the Judeo-Christian-Islamic religions. For example, Freiberg (1977) reports that "Philosophical systems based on positive and dialectical logic have co-existed throughout Western history, but dialectical philosophies have become increasingly important during the last two centuries" (p. 3). This author suggests that the emergence of formal symbolic logic in recent years can be attributed, at least in part, to the development of dialectical logic following the philosophy espoused by Hegel, particularly as it concerns its subsequent sociological reinterpretation by Marx (Freiberg, 1977). By sharp contrast, though, the Daoism traditions are virtually outside this hard-wired way of thinking about the world, and it quickly becomes clear that there is some type of conscious effort required in order to "think outside the box"…… [Read More]
In sports terms, to which most Americans can relate, it is the idea of passing backward in soccer in order to move forward with the ball. Also, in arguments, it is making a concession to keep the communication going. In labor disputes, it is compromising to find a middle ground. Many times one has to yield, back down, empty oneself before overcoming, feeling straight, filling up.
James Autrey wrote, eal Power: Business Lessons from the Tao Te Ching that covers a prime way that this paradoxical thought of Tao Te Ching can be understood by the modern manager -- as a means of gaining the most valued and elusive prize in business: power.
Autrey responds to the questions, What exactly is power, and where does it come from? Does power automatically come with authority? Does it come from one's superiors, or do people create it for themselves? And why is…… [Read More]
United Airline Multinational Ventures
United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.
The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…… [Read More]
I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley
Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]
The same has been the fate of many of the…… [Read More]
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. New Jersey: Princeton University
Press, 1907-1964. In this text, Professor Kenneth Ch'en writes a historical account of the development of Buddhism and how it modified as it grew. Buddhism is a unique religion in that it has been adapted to incorporate the cultural attitudes of the various countries in which it is found. Within China, Buddhism took an especially strong hold because it was able to incorporate the philosophical ideas of people like Confucius.
Ch'en's main argument of the piece seems to be that Buddhism is different from other religions. This is what makes the book a useful tool for academic research. There is not one set of dogmatic rules that have to be accepted, but rather many different versions of the religion. In this text, Ch'en has identified all of the social,…… [Read More]
During this Diaspora, the African Slave Trade transferred 9-12 million people from one continent to another with major repercussions on cultural and political traditions in the New World. There have been a number of modern Diasporas based on the post-Cold War world in which huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from developing countries (Southeast Asia, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Latin America, South American, Rwanda, etc.).
Part 1.2.1 - Civil Law is a legal system inspired by Ancient Roman law. In Civil law, laws are written into a codified collection that is a group of ideas and systems that work in tandem to help organize societies without the need for judicial interpretation. Overall, civil law is in place to formulate general principles and to distinguish substantive rules from procedural rules, and is based on the tenet that legislation is the primary source of law.
Conceptually, civil law is a group…… [Read More]
The seeking of salvation is an admission of ignorance while authority-based communication is an assertion of knowledge. The two are incompatible.
Instead, communication has to be understanding-based. All communication should recognize the suffering of the human beings and have the aim of discovering the nature of that suffering, to understand that suffering. Christians have heard it in the Prayer of Saint Francis, which reads: "..grant that I may not so much seek to be consoled as to console; to be understood, as to understand..."
Even secular thinkers understand this concept, as demonstrated by popular Personal Development guru Stephen Covey's principle of "Seek First to Understand, Then Be Understood."
In understanding-based communication, disagreements would no longer express judgment and authority, but trust and compassion. Trust that the other person has your best interests at heart and compassion for the other person who shares your suffering. Although doctrine and theology will inevitably…… [Read More]
Again, he does not choose his ruler, but he must still obey him. Being born to certain parents and being under the authority of a certain ruler is fate. One cannot fight against it.
Building upon the comparisons of these two relationships, Confucius then describes another, the relationship one has with one's mind:
'…[S]erve your own mind so that sadness or joy do not sway or move it; to understand what you can do nothing about and to be content with it as with fate this is the perfection of virtue. As a subject and a son, you are bound to find things you cannot avoid. If you act in accordance with the state of affairs and forget about yourself, then what leisure will you have to love life and hate death? Act in this way, and you will be all right.' (60)
It may seem as if Chuang Tsu…… [Read More]
It must be recognized that religion in East Asia has had a complex and long history, including its influence upon the law. itual and religion in the region have been much more integrated and for a much longer time in history than has been the case for the Western paradigm. Hence, although the country appears to have adopted the basic paradigms of Western legislation, it is also true that the heart of the region remains in its history, and is likely to be extracted only by time and patience.
Xinping notes that there are two opinions that relate to the religious paradigm as it relates to the Chinese context specifically. The first views religion in the country on a positive and active platform; where religion adapts itself the socialist and contemporary society of the region. eligion is thus easily and actively able to adapt itself to the applicable laws of…… [Read More]
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]
Many of them are either uddhist or Taoist, and both of these religions teach respect very seriously. In order to understand the idea of respect amongst siblings in the way that the Chinese individuals see it, it becomes necessary to also understand some of the Taoist and uddhist traditions and beliefs. These are not always seen as being very significant, largely because many individuals in the west do not understand Taoism and/or uddhism, and therefore it gets largely ignored. However, it is also important to understand the importance of schooling and how this affects the way that the Chinese individuals think when it comes to the respect that they show to their siblings (ogdan & iklen, 1992).
Integration of the Elements by Locals
Religion and usiness in China
uddhism is the religion that is generally seen in the Chinese culture. uddhists seek an elimination of suffering. The uddha teaches that,…… [Read More]
For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.
Other factors affecting decision
Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.
In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…… [Read More]
This represented a sharp turn in public beliefs, and it represented a new type of America that no longer welcomed immigrants with open arms, and that has continued unchecked to the present day.
This shift in public thought and government legislation resulted in the first immigration law to exclude immigrants because of their race and class, and laws continued to tighten until after World War II ended in 1945. Potential immigrants were screened for health problems, but they were also interviewed, tracked, and monitored, something new to immigrants in the country. They began being treated as if they were second-class citizens, and they started settling in specific areas of a city or town, and keeping to themselves, attempting to hold on to their culture and way of life for as long as possible (Lee). This regulation resulted in many more laws governing who could immigrate and why, and led to…… [Read More]