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Tax Avoidance vs. Tax Evasion
The main objective of a tax advisor is to assist his/her clients avoid taxes as much as possible through within the confines of the law in order to avoid crossing the line into tax evasion. In this case, the tax advisor guides his/her clients based on the law regarding tax avoidance and tax evasion. This paper focuses on comparing the concepts of tax avoidance and tax evasion based on Gregory v. Helvering case as well as other cases that mention this case. In this case, the paper will include a discussion of tax avoidance and tax evasion based on cases citing Gregory v. Helvering case. The use of these cases in the discussion is for the purpose of enhancing understanding of tax avoidance and tax evasion and how an individual can avoid evading taxes. This paper will also discuss whether tax liability minimization falls under…
Leagle. (2013). Bank of N.Y. Mellon Corp. v. Commissioner. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from http://www.leagle.com/decision/In%20TCO%2020130211A00/BANK%20OF%20NEW%20YORK%20MELLON%20CORPORATION%20v.%20COMMISSIONER%20OF%20INTERNAL%20REVENUE
This source provides details regarding the Bank of N.Y. Mellon Corp. v. Commissioner case in relation to taxation. The source includes a description of the facts, issues, and rule of law relating to this case. It also includes an explanation of the court's ruling and the reasoning behind the decision.
Leagle. (1935). Gregory v. Helvering. Retrieved June 29, 2017, from http://www.leagle.com/decision/1935758293US465_1704/GREGORY%20v.%20HELVERING
This source provides details regarding the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case of Gregory v. Helvering in relation to taxation. The source includes a description of the facts, issues, and rule of law relating to this case. It also includes an explanation of the court's ruling and the reasoning behind the decision.
Offshore tax evasion is one of the major issues that has faced Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in the United States. This issue has had considerable negative impacts on economic growth and development of the United States with respect to taxation. The existence of multiple tax havens in Switzerland has facilitated massive tax evasion by the super-rich and companies. One of the most commonly used measures for tax avoidance or evasion is corporate profit-shifting. Individuals and companies continue to take advantage of tax havens i.e. countries that enable foreign individuals and companies a minimum tax liability, to engage in tax avoidance. Some of the major tax evasion incidents or cases include the UBS offshore tax evasion and Credit Suisse offshore tax evasion. This paper seeks to examine the history or development of Swiss bank cases and their impact on Swiss bank secrecy laws. This discussion also includes an evaluation of efforts…
Emmenegger, P. (2014, May). “A Nut Too Hard to Crack”: Swiss Banking Secrecy and the International Campaign for Automatic Exchange of Information in Tax Matters. Retrieved May 30, 2018, from https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/231925/1/A_Nut_Too_Hard_To_Crack_Emmenegger.pdf
Grossman, A., Letzing, J. & Barrett, D. (2014, May 19). Credit Suisse Pleads Guilty in Criminal Tax Case. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/credit-suisse-top-brass-dodge-tax-evasion-bullet-1400505829
Henning, P.J. (2010, February 3). What’s Next for Swiss Bank Secrecy? The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2010/02/03/whats-next-for-swiss-bank-secrecy/
Lee, M.D. (2016, May 9). Today’s Panama Papers Release May Require Immediate Action to Mitigate Risk of Criminal Prosecution. Retrieved May 30, 2018, from https://taxcontroversywatch.com/category/offshore-voluntary-disclosure-initiative-ovdi/
Mauldin, W. & Saunders, L. (2016, April 5). The Panama Papers Scandal. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://blogs.wsj.com/briefly/2016/04/05/the-panama-papers-scandal-at-a-glance/
Saunders, L. & Sidel, R. (2012, September 11). Whistleblower Gets $104 Million. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390444017504577645412614237708
The Economist. (2013, November 23). Uber-warehouses for the Ultra-Rich. The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/briefing/2013/11/23/uber-warehouses-for-the-ultra-rich
Soyoung Kayla Kim
Law and Economics
Economic Analysis of Tax Evasion
The taxation system in the United States is highly complex and growing more so each year, with a mass of different types of taxes. The issue of tax reform arises in every election season in the United States as politicians try to reassure as many voters as possible that they will pay the least possible amount of taxes (while still receiving all of the services that they find valuable!). But beyond the issues of how much in taxes it is fair and reasonable to expect people to pay and what services should be provided by the government and so funded with taxpayer contributions is the question of tax evasion. The current tax codes in the United States are complex to the point of opacityso far from being clear that there is far too much room for people to avoid…
The other side of this is that the companies have to spend finances in areas of language training or job training when they outsource. However, over the years, many U.S.-based companies haven't been discouraged by these additional costs because the overall costs of outsourcing with the job training session and language teaching and outplacement requirements are still far less when compared to the costs that they would have to endure when they don't outsource. If the overall costs of outsourcing was even marginally close to the costs on domestic hiring then there is a high probability that the overall right of firing of the employers would not be employed as much as it ahs been in the past. Of the negative perception of using the firing right at such an extensive level does create negative images which the company has to spend money to correct and rebuild into positive images…
Poor Payers to a Degree," the Economist, June 10, 2004.
David Cay Johnston. "How Offshore Havens Helped Enron Escape Taxes." New York Times. January 18, 2002.
David Cay Johnston. "Tax Inquiries Fall as Cheating Increases." New York Times. April 14, 2003.
Duncan Campbell. "Havens that Have Become a Tax on the World's Poor." Guardian. September 21, 2004.
The people who opt for early retirement stop staring contribution to pension system where as they start getting the benefits of pension system. (Prieto, 1997)
The traditional unfunded social security system is facing lot of problems in the United States and other developing countries with the increasing life expectancy of the people. The cost of providing any level of service is directly linked to the percentage of people who are employed against people who have already retired and enjoying pension in a pay-as-you-go system. The problem is continuing and increasing with people's move towards early retirement which is encouraged in many countries social security system. Even in the event of retirement being stabilized, the steep increase in the ratio of the aged against that of working age is contributing to the substantial raise in the cost of pay-as-you-go system. The United States estimators, who work for social security system, forecast…
Aronson, Jay Richard; Hilley, John L; Maxwell, James Ackley. (1986) "Financing State and Local Governments" Brookings Institution Press.
Brainard, William C; Perry, George L. (1990) "Brookings Papers on Economic Activity:
Macroeconomics" Brookings Institution Press.
Campbell, John Y; Feldstein, Martin S. (2001) "Risk Aspects of Investment-Based Social
tax system of one country with that of another is an exercise fraught with dificulties and ultimately doomed to failure . tax system will never be much more than a reflection of strongly national cultures and forces. discuss this statement in the light of your knowledge of comparative tax system in developing and/or developed countries i
The following pages focus on analyzing the factors of influence on different countries' taxation systems. The paper begins with an introductory section that allows readers understand the point-of-view used in this paper. The following section refers to describing the taxes pand taxation systems used by most countries and their objectives, in order to understand the similarities and differences between these taxation systems. The paper continues with the analysis of several factors that influence countries' tax system design, like cultural factors, technological developments, and natural resources. In order to exemplify this, the taxation…
1. Pasekova, M. et al. (2011). Comparative Analysis of Tax Systems: Some Evidence from CEE Countries. World Academy of Science, Engineering, and Technology. Retrieved February 27, 2012.
2. Greenhouse, S. (2011). Tiny Tax on Financial Trades Gains Advocates. The New York Times. Retrieved February 28, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/07/business/global/micro-tax-on-financial-trades-gains-advocates.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all .
3. Ross, M. (2004). Does Taxation lead to Representation? Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
4. Seto, T. (2008). Four Core Principles of Tax Design System: Introduced and Applied to the Taxation of Multinationals. Loyola Law School. Retrieved February 28, 2012.
The United Kingdom is one of the largest markets in the world for Starbucks, with over 700 stores, by far the largest in Europe. The company ran into a scandal, however, when it was revealed that the company was not paying taxes in the UK, but was rather paying the taxes in the Netherlands and Switzerland, which has a much lower tax rate. Some politicians decided to make a name for themselves by attacking the foreign company (Starbucks' major competitors in the UK are local chains Costa and Caffe Nero, both domestic companies). The ensuing negative publicity hurt Starbucks' sales, which fell below ?400 million for the first time since 1998 (Campbell, 2014).
At issue is the fact that the UK signed into membership with the European Union. The EU established rules that allowed companies to headquarter in one European country and operate subsidiaries in another…
Bergin, T. (2012) How Starbucks avoids UK taxes. Reuters Retrieved December 18, 2014 from http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/10/15/us-britain-starbucks-tax-idUKBRE89E0EX20121015
Burnett, J. (1999). A strategic approach to managing crisis Public Relations Review. Vol. 24 (4) 475-488.
Campbell, P. (2014). Sales slide as Starbucks feels tax backlash. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 18, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2612668/Sales-slide-Starbucks-feels-tax-backlash-Coffee-chain-axes-six-shops-14m-drop-business-past-year.html
Campbell, P. (2014, 2) Anger as Starbucks boss says may not pay UK tax for up to three years. Daily Mail Retrieved December 18, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2856284/Starbucks-chief-reveals-coffee-giant-not-pay-normal-tax-THREE-YEARS.html
One of the important procedures involved in Federal taxation is the apprehension of those persons and firms and trusts and others who evade tax payment and thereby break the law. This means that these entities may either conceal facts and/or misrepresent them so that the result would be beneficial to them. Such individuals may under declare their income levels and the earnings and profits that they may have earned during the course of their jobs. They may even over declare the deductions so that any losses would be made up this way. These are all the methods of tax evasions generally used by dishonest individuals who wish to avoid paying taxes to the federal government. However, tax avoidance is another issue wherein individuals and firms exploit the entire tax regime so that they will gain the ultimate advantage.
This way, they break the legal laws that govern taxation…
'Criminal Tax Case Procedures" Retrieved from http://www.usdoj.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title6/4mtax.htm#6-4.010 Accessed on 18 November, 2004
"Grand Jury Proceedings" (May 6, 1998) Retrieved from http://www.usdoj.gov/ust/ustp_manual/vol5ch11.htm Accessed on 18 November, 2004
"Judicial Subpoenas" Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/irm/part42/ch03s01.html#d0e28222 Accessed on 18 November, 2004
"Letters Rogatory" Retrieved from http://www.irs.gov/irm/part42/ch03s02.html Accessed on 18 November, 2004
..individuals are taxed in their total annual income minus their net new additions to savings, which equals annual consumption (eiler).
Both forms of consumption tax are not without their troubles and for the most part there is no consensus on the benefits of either alternative. Overall, the quest to reform the current system of taxation rages on. It will be very difficult to reform the current progressive tax system of because it is so steeped in bureaucracy and tradition.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine the progressive income tax. e found that the this tax system operates by taxing a certain percentage of individual income excluding certain deductibles. The investigation detailed the history of progressive taxation and clearly defines progressive taxation. The investigation revealed that the implementation of such taxation was controversial since its inception which came as a result of an amendment to the constitution. In…
Boyd T. 2002. Guide to the Tax Act of 2001: The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001. Review of Business. Volume: 23. Issue: 1. Page Number: 33+.
Creedy J., Gemmell N. 2002. The Revenue Responsiveness of Consumption Taxes. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: Economic Record. Volume: 78. Issue: 241. Page Number: 186+.
Fougere M.., Ruggeri Giuseppe C. 1998. Flat Taxes and Distributional Justice. Review of Social Economy. Volume: 56. Issue: 3. Page Number: 277+.
Fratantuono Michael J. The Great Tax Wars: Lincoln to Wilson -- the Fierce Battles over Money and Power That Transformed the Nation. Contributors: - author. Journal Title: Parameters. Volume: 33. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 2003. Page Number: 168+.
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…
Cody, J. (2012). Chicago called most corrupt city in the nation. CBS Chicago. Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2012/02/14/chicago-called-most-corrupt-city-in-nation/
Politico. (2013). N.Y. state senator arrested in alleged mayor race plot. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Stensota, H. (2010). The Conditions of Care: Reframing the Debate about Public Sector Ethics. University of Gothenburg; Blackwell Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601%20Fall%202010/Reframing%20the%20debate%20about%20public%20service%20ethics.
Ventriss, C. (2012). Democratic Citizenship and Public Ethics The Importance of Civic Stewardship in an Era of Public Distrust and Cynicism. Public Integrity, Summer 2012, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283 -- 297.
Human esources & Change: The Internal evenue Service
Tax season is upon Americans. Every working American knows that when dealing with tax issues, which at some point, every working American does, interactions with the Internal evenue Service are inevitable and often profoundly displeasing. Citizens make feel powerless against the institution of the IS because it is a part of the federal government. Citizens may feel they have to put up with the treatment and negligence of the IS and that organization will not be held accountable. It is untrue. In 1998, a piece of legislation was passed as response to charges brought upon the IS by a Senate Finance Committee. Therefore, the paper finds the IS an organization ripe for change in regards to Human esources. The paper will propose a change in the IS and hypothesize the implications as well as the implementation of such a change.…
Henning, B. (1999) Reforming the IRS: The Effectiveness of the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998. Marquette Law Review, 82(405), 405 -- 427.
Thompson, J.R. (2006) The Federal Civil Service: The Demise of an Institution. Public Administration Review, 66(4), 496 -- 503.
Entrepreneurs Should Know bout Federal Taxes for Corporations
ll corporations are subject to the corporate income tax on their net income. Taxable income is the gross income of the corporation, less the deductions allowed. Major sources of corporate income include: gross profits from sales; dividends received; interest; rents; royalties; and gains and losses. Still, there can be other factors that must also be considered in determining the corporation's income. There include: receipts that are actually contributions to capital; property distributions received by the corporation; rentals paid to shareholders of a leasing corporation; and income from a sinking fund.
Each business's tax liability is based on a graduated tax rate scale. Depending on individual factors, a corporation may also be subject to penalty taxes in addition to their regular income tax. The form of business that is operated determines what taxes must be paid. The four general kinds of business taxes…
Adam Smith believed that there should be limitations on what corporations should and shouldn't be allowed to get away with. He pinpointed a solution to the complex nature of taxes -- a simple and fair system that minimizes compliance and administrative costs. The U.S. tax code has one of the most complex tax codes in the world, which has become a burden on its economy. Smith's ideas should be used by the U.S. To design a tax code that would ease the collection burden and force interest groups to look for money elsewhere.
Appendix A Corporate Income Tax Rates -- 2002
Taxable income over Not over Tax rate
Aid to Dependent Corporations
The government of United States is incurring heavy revenue loss on account of the corporate sector subsidies and other special rebates. The friendly policies of the government aimed at promoting a positive business climate are sadly being exploited. In their interests to evade tax, businesses today are taking undue advantage of the favorable federal policies. In this regard I feel that our governments tax policies and corporate procedures need to be reexamined in order to eliminate the loopholes in them and at the same time support the common welfare schemes. Let us analyze the scenario in a little detail so that we can better appreciate the situation.
One by one our leading business corporations are reeling under accounting scams. I need not mention how well such a giant corporation like 'Enron' managed to disguise its financial information from the government and the stockholders. In the prevailing…
Chuck Collins, "Dollars & Sense," 'Aid to dependent corporations: exposing federal handouts to the wealthy', May-June 1995, pg 15
Business Law and Christian Ethics
The terms limited liability and liability protection are often used interchangeably to describe business arrangements that limit the amount of a firm's liability, generally to the amount of assets held by the firm. In other words, those types of business arrangements protect an individual's personal assets from judgment should the person be sued in a professional capacity. One frequent example of a limited liability business arrangement is the limited liability partnership, which essentially "protects each partner from debts against the partnership arising from professional malpractice lawsuits against another partner" (Pakroo, 2013). In those instances, the liability limitation is not limited the individual assets of the partners, but also extends to property owned by the partnership.
Whether or not limited liability or liability protection aligns with a Christian worldview is a tricky moral question because it presupposes that all people who enter into those types of…
Pakroo, P. (2013). Limited Partnerships and Limited Liability Partnerships. Retrieved September 24, 2013 from NOLO website: http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/limited-partnerships-limited-liability-partnerships-29748.html
Scalici, S. (2007, March 30). The Christian Taxpayer. Retrieved September 24, 2013 from Crosswalk website:
economic data that has been released in 2005 are somewhat contradictory, but the general impression is that the U.S. economy is managing a strong and sustainable growth. Indeed, the report published on January, 18th 2005 showed investments in U.S. assets of around $81 billion for November 2004, more than enough to finance and fund the current account deficit of $60 billion.
In terms of weaknesses, we need to mention the enormous trade deficit and budgetary deficit that the U.S. is currently encountering. These deficits have diminished confidence in the dollar, as its strong descent over 2004 has shown.
As any measure in time of economic growth and growing demand, the officials should now be concerned on policies meant to stabilize and prevent any inflationary factors. One such policy is increasing the interest rates and the Federal Reserve has already taken specific measures in this sense, increasing the rates to 2.25…
1. Snow: Bush will trim U.S. spending. December 2004. CNN World Business. On the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/2004/Business/12/20/us.budget.snow/index.html
2. Wolfe, Elizabeth. November 2003. Botswana-AIDS. Associated PressOn the Internet at http://www.achap.org/press/botswana_aids.htm
Snow: Bush will trim U.S. spending. December 2004. CNN World Business. On the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/2004/Business/12/20/us.budget.snow/index.html
Wolfe, Elizabeth. November 2003. Botswana-AIDS. Associated PressOn the Internet at http://www.achap.org/press/botswana_aids.htm
In the shifting views about the health effects of marijuana, there is a general trend for states to relax the rules around this substance across the nation. Some states have already lifted the ban against marijuana for recreational purposes. The state of California set the pace in this discussion and shifting perceptions when it passed a proposal now popularly known as proposal 215 to allow possession of small amounts of the substance for medical uses (Murphy and Carnevale 2016). Other states have followed suit. The most notable among these states are the District of Columbia and six other states. They represent about 6% of the population of the nation. They have all allowed possession of marijuana; not for medical use only, but for recreational purposes.
There are several contributing factors to this phenomenon. One of the most outstanding reasons is that the much-touted war on drugs across the nation has…
Railroad Land Grants: Economically Justified?
The American government's land grant policy and provision of subsidies to private railroad companies in the nineteenth century has been the subject of much discussion by historians and economists alike. However, few writers have examined the economic issues involved in the subsidies in detail, leading at times to the wrong conclusions. Lloyd J. Mercer, a rofessor of Economics at the University of California (Santa Barbara) is one of the select few who have attempted to carry out an economic analysis of the land-grants policy in order to determine whether the policy was economically justified and socially beneficial. This paper summarizes the professor's article Land Grants to American Railroads: Social Cost or Social Benefit (1969) by identifying the main thoughts of the author followed by a critical analysis of what he has suggested in the article.
rofessor Mercer disagrees with the commonly held view of…
Perhaps, due to the reason that economics is not an exact science, the economic theories and analysis of economists often suffer from the personal political leanings of the economist. For example, if an economist is a "leftist" he would tend to favor social welfare and economic equality through his work while a proponent of laissez faire economy would tend to justify minimal government interference in the market through his work. Professor Mercer's analysis of the railroad land grants too seems to suffer from such a bias as he justifies the land grants and subsidies as a profitable deal for the public while ignoring the unsavory aspects of the issue such as price fixing, illegal kickbacks, real estate speculation, tax evasion et al. By the big business interests.
The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate at which the Present Value (PV) of the annual stream of earnings minus the investment costs over the life of the project is zero
See Railroads & Clearcuts Campaign Website [http://www.landgrant.org/]
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial
Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
no. 2, pp. 377-379.
There are ten Fraud Detection Centers across the United States, and these are meant to detect refund fraud and to identify prevention measures. Each of these offices has a Resident Agent in Charge to direct, monitor, and coordinate operations supporting electronic and paper tax filing, and each Center performs activities that include educating Submission Processing Center and Customer Service Center personnel on fraud awareness and detection.
Criminal investigation in the agency started shortly after the Revenue Act of 1913 was passed, and that act imposed a modest tax of 1% on net incomes of individuals, estates, trusts, and corporations. In addition, another tax, or surtax, graduated from 1 to 6%, was applied to income exceeding $20,000. Over time, many laws have been passed that have changed the rates and other aspects of revenue assessment. Tax evasion was noted as early as 1919, when many serious allegations concerning alleged tax frauds…
Baker, Jeremy and Rebecca Young. "False Statements and False Claims." American Criminal Law Review, Volume 42, Issue 2 (2005), 427.
Berlau, John. "Return of the 'Audits from Hell': IRS Commissioner Charles Rossotti Once Pledged to Champion Taxpayer Rights, but Instead Americans Find Themselves Facing the Resurrection of Random Audits." Insight on the News, Volume 18, Issue 27 (July 29, 2002), 15.
Cochran, Amanda a. "Evidence Handed to the IRS Criminal Division on a 'Civil' Platter: Constitutional Infringements on Taxpayers." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 91, Issue 3 (2001), 699.
Craig Jr., James L. "Guidance on Financial Status Audits: It's Not Just for CPAs." The CPA Journal (2007), http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/1996/0796/features/Guida.htm .
Australia's taxation system is seen by some as being extremely complicated. It promotes tax evasion and limited understanding of the overall taxation process in Australia. Brinsden found that "Our system is ranked highest in 'complexity' and second lowest in 'fairness' when compared to the UK, USA, Canada, Singapore and Hong Kong." (1-2)
Rather than providing people with a more simplified tax system, the present day taxation policies have increased in complexity prompting some to believe Australia is headed towards an economic downturn. Businesses and the upper class are already using the complex tax policies to evade or seek further tax breaks as the middle class, immigrants, and working class suffer from the unfair policies.
One of the biggest hurdles faced by Australia's government is tax avoidance or evasion leading to a need for more revenue. Brinsden writes: "He said rather than the Australian Tax Office launching costly, large-scale taskforces, making…
Brinsden, Colin. "Australian tax system complex: survey." Sunday Morning Herald, June 19th, 2008.
Colebatch, Tim. "Business fears poor revenue outlook will hit tax breaks" Sunday Morning Herald, April 18th, 2013.
Dixon, Daryl. "How to pay less tax by splitting two incomes." The Canberra Times, October 30th, 1988.
Forrest, Andrew. "Tax will leave WA with little but dust." The West Australian, August 20th, 2010.
This indicates that the government must take necessary measures to limit or reduce the extent of criminal activities within the economy. This can occur through legalization of human smuggling while tightening the rules and regulations governing property or product smuggling.
Smuggling and Price Disparity odel
In the Bhagwati and Hansen odel (Bhagwati-Hansen odel), smuggling is a trade at the world or international prices. This indicates that there is evasion of taxes. This trade involves less favorable transformation curve in comparison to curves under the free trade condition in the absence of the taxation system. This is under the assumption that smuggling involves real cost such as additional transport costs. In their illustration of smuggling and welfare, Bhagwati and Hansen indicate that smuggling has negative effects on welfare. This illustration explains that smuggling reduces welfare in the presence of co-existence between legal and illegal trade (smuggling). Bhagwati and Hansen explain that…
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Illicit finance has come to be a significant issue not only locally, but also internationally. There are numerous delineations of illicit finance, but fundamentally it comes about from the practices, approaches and crimes targeting to transfer financial capital within and out of a nation in violation of national and global laws. Across the world, government administrations are working in tandem and joining forces to combat different illicit financial flows, which include tax evasion, global bribery and money laundering (OECD, 2014). Despite the fact that the precise scale of the problem is unidentified, illicit finance has had shattering and disparaging effects on developing nations. In the recent number of years, nations have executed and put into practice standards and abided by most recommendations provided (OECD, 2014). The fight against illicit finance is largely dependent on the quality of state regulations and whether they abide by the set global best practices. This…
Gossel, S. (2016). Africa Needs New Ways to Stem Illicit Financial Flows. Eyewitness News. Retrieved from: http://ewn.co.za/2016/05/10/OPINION-Africa-needs-to-develop-new-ways-to-stem-illicit-financial-flows
Herkenrath, M. (2014). Illicit Financial Flows and their Developmental Impacts: An Overview. International Development Policy.
OECD. (2014). Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: Measuring OECD Responses. Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/corruption/Illicit_Financial_Flows_from_Developing_Countries.pdf
The World Bank. (2016). Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs). Retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/financialmarketintegrity/brief/illicit-financial-flows-iffs
The economic environment of Greece is that of a capitalist economy, but with significant public sector contribution – about 40% of total GDP is from government activity. This speaks more to the relatively small size of the Greek private sector than to excessive government ownership of industry. Tourism is one of the major drivers of the Greek economy, accounting for 18% of GDP (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Thus Greece would be characterized as a mixed economy with some government-owned entities. Greece is a member of the EU, but has also received several bailouts in recent years, and struggles with tax collection, and overall economic development. Tax evasion ranges between 6-9% of total GDP in Greece, which makes it a significant economic problem (Georgakopoulos, 2016).
Recent Macroeconomic Data
In recent years, Greece\'s economy has flatlined. The country has received several infusions of capital from other EU countries, but there…
In other words, these companies expand their business, reach a peak in their business activity, and then go through a period of recession, followed by a period of business expansion, and so on.
It is important that companies understand that the economic sector they represent follows the same business cycle. Therefore, it is difficult for companies to expand their business during periods of recession in the economic sector they represent. But they can expand their business during recession periods of other business sectors, represented by products from indirect competition. This situation can be observed in McDonald's situation.
This can be an explanation of the fact that the company's sales have significantly increased during the crisis. The incomes of most people have been reduced, which means that their purchasing behavior has modified. In such cases, people usually spend less. This means that they purchase less, or they purchase cheaper products. In…
The Greek government has faced an ongoing fiscal crisis for the past several years. ecently, for the third time, its Eurozone partners have been compelled to offer a bailout to the country. This is done to stabilize Greece's finances and to impose further measures on the Greek government to remedy the nation's budget and to ensure that there are no similar issues in future. The first part of the paper is a brief overview of the situation. The second part will outline some of the key issues that lead both to favor the bailout and to oppose it, and finally there will be analysis and a conclusion about whether or not bailing out Greece is the right thing to do. It will be argued that it is not, at least in the current form.
There are several key issues at work with the Greek bailout. Greece…
BBC. (2013). IMF admits mistakes on Greece bailout. BBC. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-22791248
Bloomberg. (2012). Greek crisis timeline from Maastricht Treaty to ECB bond buying. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-09-05/greek-crisis-timeline-from-maastricht-treaty-to-ecb-bond-buying.html
Chu, B. (2012). Interview with economist Paul Krugman: Greece will leave Eurozone within 12 months. The Independent. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/interview-with-economist-paul-krugman-greece-will-leave-eurozone-within-12-months-7804753.html
Esparza, A. (2013). Chinese investment in Greek port the biggest FDI after the crisis. Marketpulse. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.marketpulse.com/20131127/chinese-investment-greek-port-biggest-fdi-crisis/
Siemens AG Scandal
Siemens AG had over one hundred fifty years of experience making business deals internationally by the time it became embroiled in several bribery scandals in 2006. Beginning in the mid-1800s, the company set up products such as telegraph networks and maintenance and initiated business practices such as fixed-hour workdays and employee career training that helped it get ahead. ith a long and solid history as a leading company in Germany and internationally, the accusations against it might seem surprising, but investigators turned up plenty of evidence that Siemens AG had made frequent bribes of foreign officials and businessmen in order to turn business its way. It was also accused of embezzlement and tax evasion. The resulting scandal, which involved authorities in Germany, Switzerland, Greece, the U.S., and other countries, cost Siemens billions of dollars, landed some managers in legal trouble, and harmed Siemens AG's reputation. The Siemens…
Agence France-Presse. (July 30, 2008). Siemens Posts Strong Results. Retrieved from the IndustryWeek.com website: http://www.industryweek.com/articles/siemens_posts_strong_results_16938.aspx
Deresky, Helen. (2010). International Management: Managing Across Borders and Cultures, 7th edition. Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
Kaylan, Merlik. (March 24, 2009). Fork Over That Bonus Money. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/2009/03/23/aig-taxpayers-outrage-opinions-columnists-bonus-payments.html
Vanhonacker, Wilfried R. (2004). Guanxi Networks in China. The China Business Review, May-June, 2004, 48-53. Retrieved from: http://www.lombardglobal.com/attachments/Guanxi_Networks_in_China.pdf
The Eurozone is currently facing a crisis on a number of fronts. The most pressing of these is Greece, which is heavily indebted to other Eurozone countries, creating a budget crisis in the country (Raman, 2011). As the risk of default on Greek sovereign debt increases, this puts downward pressure on the value of the euro. Other nations within the Eurozone are, in order to salvage the integrity of the currency, more or less obligated to back Greek debt. hile Greece is a significant problem for nations within the Eurozone, the currency would not be considered to be in a state of crisis if Greece was the only problem. The reality is that many peripheral Eurozone countries are in various states of financial disarray -- Spain, Italy, Portugal and Ireland all have problems (Ibid). Spain and Italy are in particular a problem, because they are too big to…
BBC. (2001). Greece joins Eurozone. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1095783.stm
Gow, D. (2011). Shock as €6 billion German bond sale ends in failure. The Guardian. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2011/nov/23/eurozone-doomed-without-central-control-barroso
Krugman, P. (2011). Romantic views threaten Europe. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Romantic-views-threaten-Europe-Paul-Krugman-2281150.php
NPR. (2010). A brief history of the EU. National Public Radio. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128389419
Financial and law enforcers, military and reporting of intelligence are carried out by respective agencies drawn on limited coordination efforts (Whitmore, 2002). While agencies can pull and push intelligence data, these structures lack a centralized system for collecting intelligence. This limits the ability to conduct a meta-analysis of data across inter-agencies systems. Lack of proper coordination efforts reduces the usefulness of financial intelligence thus making it difficult to link the financial intelligence with other useful information. Critics claim that financial evidence is useful in supporting a case; it does not lead to prevention of terrorism attacks (Linden, 2007).
However, a centralized system of coordination may be an effective way of exploring financial data through linking it with other useful information. This can be made useful if the agencies improve their overall understanding of the financial networks of terrorists. The new homeland security departments are signals that there are efforts for…
Amos, M. & Petraeus, D. (2009). The U.S. Army Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field
Manual. New York: Signalman Publishing
Center for Excellence Defense against Terrorism (2008). Responses to Cyber Terrorism.
California: IOS Press
Organized crime has existed in society for hundreds of years in one form or another. It generally exists in prosperous societies where strong class distinctions -- sometimes brutally enforced -- exist. The history and dealings associated with major crime organizations have been well documented. In this paper, the effect of La Cosa Nostra (Our Thing or Cause) will be discussed in relation to its effects on modern society. This paper will also discuss the efforts and results of law enforcement on the Mafia.
Organized crime in the United States has been around for a long time. Since the early 1900's, "organized" crime has existed and continues to exist in the United States today. Organized crime is generally prevalent in regions of high population density, where there are sufficient opportunities available to make money illegally. Organized crime can be therefore classified as a society-influenced crime. In recent years, however, the growing…
Donn, J. "Boston Mob Informant Scandal Involved Highest Levels of FBI, Documents Show." Boston Globe 2002,
Furriel, V.J., and California Community Colleges. Office of the Chancellor. Organized Crime: History and Control. California State Peace Officers' Training Series; 80. Sacramento: Chancellor's Office California Community Colleges, 1976.
Glasgowcrewtripod.com. The Pizza Connection Case. 2003. Glasgowcrewtripod.com. Available: http://glasgowcrew.tripod.com/pizza.html. November 20, 2003.
Infoplease.com. Andreotti, Giulio. 2000. Infoplease.com. Available: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0803962.html . November 22, 2003.
communication and information technologies that help e-commerce firms to perform work in a virtual work environment. The paper adopts the approach of a consultant tasked with performing SWOT analysis of Amazon. Based on the SWOT analysis of Amazon, the report recommends that the company should adopt DIVA, a group-ware communication and collaboration tool proposed by Sohlenkamp and Chwelos (1994). The model will help Amazon compete with the new e-commerce firms such as Boxed®. The wholesale competitor has efficiently used communication and information technology tools to create a niche in the market.
New communication system: Impact on e-commerce and business communication
Businesses increasingly provide telecommuting facility for their employees. To effectuate this working design, internet and intranet are used as communication sources. To communicate through web-based applications and systems, employees require effective communication skills both formal and informal. The remote working model requires that employees collaborate with the employer through reliable…
Cascio, W.F. (2000). Managing a virtual workplace. The Academy of Management Executive, 14(3), 81-90.
Mims, C. (2013, Nov). How 10 people built a competitor to Amazon.com for $1 million-in 90 days. QUARTZ. Retrieved from: http://qz.com/149811/how-10-people-built-a-competitor-to-amazon-com-for-1-million-in-90-days/
Sohlenkamp, M., & Chwelos, G. (1994, October). Integrating communication, cooperation, and awareness: the DIVA virtual office environment. In Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work (pp. 331-343). ACM. Retrieved from: http://pdf.aminer.org/000/121/938/integrating_communication_cooperation_and_awareness_the_diva_virtual_office_environment.pdf
Featuring an Analysis of a Corporation
Starbucks Company Analysis
In the year 1971, Starbucks opened its first store in Seattle's Pike Place Market. At the time, it engaged in selling ground beans over a small counter. In addition, the location was an open-air market, and its beginning, was more or less similar to a hobby. The friends, who started the now renowned global company, were not profit oriented. However, the joining of Howard Schultz is the primary cause of its current growth. He first expanded to Italy, and in the year 1990, the firm began expanding in the United States. The company expanded its headquarters in Seattle, built other plants, including stores in renowned cities in nationwide (Green).
Its growth was partly because of the contracts the director negotiated with the United Airlines, Nordstrom, Barnes and Noble, and the Sheraton Hotel. In addition, the director made efforts to expand beyond…
Baker, Rosie. "Starbucks' reputation grinds to a halt over tax decision."Marketing week,
35.52(2012): 5. Print.
Bose, Nandita,"Starbucks signs pact to enter India."Reuters.com. 13 January 2011.
Web. 16 March 2014. Retrieved from Colchester, Max, "Starbucks Resumes Tax Payments in Britain."Wsj.com.
For one reason, the super rich are some of the biggest political contributors, and so, it pays Congress to ensure their continued support and fiscal maintenance. He also uses economic theories and trends to illustrate his point and make the text more credible and believable.
Throughout the book, the author shows not only that he deeply understands his material, but he has the ability to explain it so most readers understand it as well. With all the economic information this book contains, it could be dry and uninteresting, but instead, the author presents facts and figures in a way that shows he understands the material, but also has the ability to explain it to others, which is extremely important in this type of book. It is also essential if the author hopes to have Americans read his book, and act on it, which is clearly one of the author's purposes…
Johnston, David Cay. Perfectly Legal: The Covert Campaign to Rig Our Tax System to Benefit the Super Rich - and Cheat Everybody Else. New York: Portfolio, 2003.
Is Current Business Immoral?
Current business is immoral in one way or another. It is clear that the top rich people in the society strive as much as they can to avoid situations where regulations or laws are applicable (Lippencott, 2011). This means that they use their financial power to make sure that decisions are made to favor them and not against them. Tax evasion is one of the major issues that make the current business immoral because such corporations find ways of circumventing the system. Large corporations across the globe do not want to pay the taxes that they should. This makes the tax burden to be taken or carried by the rest of the small companies in a specific country. The effect of this is that most of the nations end up losing a lot of money that would have been paid in the form of taxes.
Judge roderick concluded that the Compulsory Process Clause of the Sixth Amendment does not give a defendant the right to require immunization of a witness, but that such a right is "probably" contained in the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Id. However, he declined to accord the defendants the benefit of this "probable" Fifth Amendment right to defense witness immunity for two reasons. First, he ruled that the defendants' motion was untimely, since it should properly have been made at the beginning of the trial. Second, he concluded that defense witness immunity would be available only to secure testimony that was material and exculpatory and that the defendants had not shown that any of the witnesses for whom they sought immunity would give material, exculpatory testimony."
The only federal appellate decisions that have ruled in favor of defense witness immunity are stated to appear to be the Third…
Cornell University Law School (2009) "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. United States Constitution. LIT/Legal Information Institute. Online available at: Cornell University Law School. "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School
Charters of Freedom - The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights
Sosnov, Leonard N. (nd) Separation of Powers Shell Game: The Federal Witness Immunity Act. Temple Law Review.
UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Norman TURKISH, Defendant-Appellant. United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit May 27, 1980 623 F.2d 769. Online available at: http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/557484
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org/museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
There is no discussion of physical property rights in the annual report, and no insight is provided into physical property rights in a search of online resources either.
Corporate Social Responsibility Efforts
KBR generally has a poor CSR record. In recent years, the company has become embroiled in a number of scandals relating to its operations in the Middle East in particular. In addition to accusations of shoddy workmanship causing deaths, rape and subsequent cover-up, and human trafficking, the company has also committed environmental violations regarding so-called "burn pits" that contained a number of toxic chemicals to which American soldiers were exposed (ise & Olsen, 2010), has come under fire for essentially embezzling $12 billion (Newton-Small, 2007), and has been charged under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act for bribery in Nigeria (CNN, 2009). Over the past ten years, therefore, there is a profound pattern of lacking any semblance of corporate…
AFP. (2008). Nepalese man sues KBR on human trafficking charges. AFP. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5jmOzaTXaMkCsqiqqmIK6gc_rpg1g
Clanton, B. (2009). KBR profit jumps 40% on acquisition, government contracts. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/business/energy/6554652.html
CNN. (2009). KBR charged with bribing Nigerian officials for contracts. CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/U.S./02/06/KBR.bribery/index.html
Cooper, L. (2008). KBR completes $550m acquisition of BE&K. Birmingham Business Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from http://www.bizjournals.com/birmingham/stories/2008/06/30/daily11.html
Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.
This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Framing the Problem
Chapter 3. Study Questions
Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction…
A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:
Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,
2013 from The Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/dc/barry/timeline.htm
Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism: Q. Hotel
A Critical Analysis of Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism:
Italy is a country in a stage of transition. It is no longer a predominantly agrarian society nor yet a fully industrialized economy. It is also a land of striking contrasts, with no unified social or economic patterns. As a society, Italy is centuries old; as a modern sovereign state it was born but yesterday. The very nature of the political unification process probably accounts for some of the disunity. It was not a broad-based movement but occurred predominantly under the auspices of one family, the Savoys, who succeeded in expanding their influence and political rule throughout the country (Rosenzweig & Nohria, 1994). The masses participated only vicariously through national figures and agitators, such as Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Cattaneo, whose dreams of a republican…
Adams, E. 1991. "Quality Circle Performance." Journal of Management, 17 25-39.
Adler, N. 2006. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.
Adler, N., and Jelinek, M. 1986. "Is Organisational Culture 'Culture Bound'?" Human Resource Management, 25, 1, 73-90.
Aran, J.D., and Walochik, K. 2007. "Improvisation and the Italian Manager." International Studies of Management and Organization. 26, 1 73-89.
4. Retributive justifications for punishment- such as theories about making punishment "fit" what the crime or criminal "deserves" have been criticized on grounds that they assume we know a lot more than we do. For example, it is notorious that different jurisdictions assign different punishments for the same offense. In addition, it is notoriously difficult to assess an individual's personal blameworthiness for criminal conduct in terms of his or her personal history. However, neither of these factors is substantial enough to challenge the validity of retributive justice schemes. After all, it is to be expected that different jurisdictions would have different punishments for the same criminal behavior, because cultural values vary across the United States, with certain cultures and regional areas placing greater emphasis on different values. The federal system of government practically dictates that there will be conflict among the many criminal justice systems in the United States. Furthermore,…
Disciplined Application of Intellect to Public Problems
Leslie Pal defined public policy as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities in addressing given problems or a set of interrelated problems (2010)." In essence, this implies that policies are instrumental in tackling issues of concern to the political community. ationalists argued the importance of policy analysis as having enough data and analysis hopes to solve problems in technical terms, without having to contaminate values. In public policy, the most important overarching value is the interest of public and is a benchmark or touchstone demonstrating what is done by democratic governments. For example, the Public Service has Values and Ethics Codes and under the law, the "democratic mission is to assist Ministers serve the interests of their public." The political system analyzes policies with an attempt to gain consensus, competition, the rule of law, inclusion, and gain good governance.…
Pal, L.A. (2010). Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, (4th Eds.). Nelson Press.
com, 2009). Lower-level employees are less likely to make decisions, saving all decisions for top executives. This can cause frustration with American firms, who can be comfortable allowing mid-level managers to make important decisions. This can impact the pace at which negotiations move and there may be offense taken on the part of senior executives of Asian companies if they are not meeting with their equal in the American company. The U.S. company in this situation would need to be more patient in the early stages of negotiation and take time to understand the differences in the decision-making process when dealing with Asian companies.
3.2. One cultural difference that can cause significant problems for American companies could be the status of women in Arab nations. omen are not accepted in business in that part of the world, which could prove difficult for U.S. companies with female senior executives, performing their…
Investopedia.com (2011). Asymmetric information. Investopedia. Retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/a/asymmetricinformation.asp
Geert-Hofstede.com (2009). Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved April 8, 2011 from http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_japan.shtml
, 10). Certainly, it is no mystery that given this reliance upon the mother country that the British government would be surprised and ill equipped to deal with a full scale and united rebellion in the American colonies on the eastern American seaboard.
The policy of the British prior to the period of the evolution had largely been hands off. However, the Tea Party went too far and the British had to respond (one wonders what else they would have done). They had just won the equivalent of world war in 1763. British had fought in almost every of the globe from India to Canada, India, the Philippines and the 13 American colonies. Unfortunately, to borrow an apt analogy, the British had only the military in the tool kit once their tax collection efforts failed. If a hammer is all one has in the toolbox, most solutions will look like…
Beer, George Louis. British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 2010. (accessed February 9, 2012).
McDougall, Walter. "The Colonial Origins of American Identity." Orbis (2004): 7-19.
White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region.
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…
Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .
Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
electronic money, and a description into the various types of electronic money.
Computers and telecommunications devices may come in place of paper currency and checks - during a course of time. Also, electronic ways of transaction of money have turned out widely prevalent. Anyhow, in the recent past debate about "electronic money" has witnessed a dramatic change, narrowing down to the level to which new ways of electronic money will in course of time turn central banks out of date, making them fragile that they cannot manipulate inflation. (Stevens, 72) Electronic money can be considered in terms of electronic substitute for coins and banknotes, which is saved on an electronic gadget such as a chip card or computer memory and which overall is meant for the reason of influencing electronic payments of restricted loans. (Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2)
Electronic money is not…
Bank of International settlements, (BIS). Security of Digital Money. Basel, 1996, 1-11
Board of Governors (BoG) of the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve System: Purpose & Functions. Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve System. 1994, 1-18.
Bonorris, Steven. Institute for Technology Assessment (ITA) (ed.): Digital Money: Industry and Public Policy Issues. Washington: ITA, October 1997, 44
Directive 2000/46/Ec of the European Parliament and of the Council, 2000, Official Journal of the European Communities, 27 October, 2000, 1-10
HSBC is one of the world's largest banks, and it has the third-largest market share among UK retail banks. This massive global footprint supports a differentiation strategy that is encapsulated by the "the world's local bank" slogan. HSBC plays to its strengths with a presence in many major markets around the world, but its strength in retail and commercial banking belies a relative weakness in investment banking.
The banking industry is highly competitive. In the UK at the retail level it is in an oligopoly state. The company also competes among the global banks of the world, which is a business more in a state of monopolistic competition. It has a differentiated strategy, which is loosely based on a broad geographic scope and customer service. The latter is a difficult area in which to differentiate. There have been some problems with the geographic scope, too, and HSBC has recently left…
Fortune Magazine (2015) Global 500. Fortune. Retrieved December 3, 2015 from http://fortune.com/global500/
Hofford, A. (2015). HSBC restructuring shows universal banks are coming back down to earth. The Conversation. . Retrieved December 3, 2015 from http://theconversation.com/hsbc-restructuring-shows-universal-banks-are-coming-back-down-to-earth-43034
HSBC 2014 Annual Report. Retrieved December 3, 2015 from http://www.hsbc.com/~/media/hsbc-com/investorrelationsassets/annual-results-2014/hsbc-holdings-plc/annual-report-and-accounts-2014
Interbrand (2015).. Top 100 global brands. Interbrand. Retrieved December 3, 2015 from http://interbrand.com/best-brands/best-global-brands/2015/ranking/
S. is the world's leading producer of pornographic media. The Reagan dministration was obsessed with prosecuting pornographers, and eventually convicted one of the industry's earliest producers, a man named Reuben Sturman, on charges of tax evasion. Ironically, the dministration claimed to worship dam Smith and free enterprise -- except, of course, when it conflicted with its ideals of Christian morality.
Republican administrations have felt less uncomfortable with the prospect of illegal labor, as Schlosser's chronicles of the conditions of strawberry pickers illustrate. Children, men, and women work at the back-breaking labor for $6.75-$10 a day (Schlosser 2003, p. 92). gain, hypocrisy is evident -- the same right-wing advertisers who created the Willie Horton ad campaign that defeated Michael Dukakis have fought unionization of the migrant workers, and local authorities have refused to set up low-income housing (Schlosser 2003, p. 106). The market rewards only efficiency, Schlosser muses: "every other human…
Attitudes about sexuality are even more hypocritical. For example, the United States has some of the strictest rules in the world about what can be said and shown on television, yet the U.S. is the world's leading producer of pornographic media. The Reagan Administration was obsessed with prosecuting pornographers, and eventually convicted one of the industry's earliest producers, a man named Reuben Sturman, on charges of tax evasion. Ironically, the Administration claimed to worship Adam Smith and free enterprise -- except, of course, when it conflicted with its ideals of Christian morality.
Republican administrations have felt less uncomfortable with the prospect of illegal labor, as Schlosser's chronicles of the conditions of strawberry pickers illustrate. Children, men, and women work at the back-breaking labor for $6.75-$10 a day (Schlosser 2003, p. 92). Again, hypocrisy is evident -- the same right-wing advertisers who created the Willie Horton ad campaign that defeated Michael Dukakis have fought unionization of the migrant workers, and local authorities have refused to set up low-income housing (Schlosser 2003, p. 106). The market rewards only efficiency, Schlosser muses: "every other human value gets in the way," in the case of these workers (Schlosser 2003, p. 108).
It is especially interesting to read this book in light of the recent failures of the free market system to regulate itself. Supposedly, the dangers and costs of illegal enterprises should be too great for the producers -- yet these industries remain wildly popular, and laws have proved ineffective in curtailing their growth. This is partially due to the powerful nature of the demand for drugs, sexuality, and money, but also because of the piecemeal nature of legislation designed to curb 'vices.' On one hand, big tobacco supports candidates in Congress, while Congress passes stringent laws regarding the drug trade in marijuana. On one hand, pornography is condemned and limited through zoning legislation, yet it is widely available on the internet. On one hand, businesses grow rich because of the low wages they pay illegal workers, yet the politicians who support tax breaks for those businesses are also vociferously anti-immigration. Schlosser selects three, seemingly unrelated industries and demands that Americans look at all of them through the same lens, and confront America's collective, blind hypocrisy.
We make reference to your letter dated September 1st, 2004 by which you requested our opinion regarding issues related to decentralization, autonomy and transfer pricing policies and their influence on Wickam's current choice of business opportunities.
We intend to present to you the theoretical foundations on which we have based our opinion i.e. transfer pricing policies (definition, functions, issues, methods) and the actual solution we deem as fit for your company. We believe that a slight change of policy should bring more profit as a result of increased convergence, or synergy, between the companies of the Wickam group.
Large organizations are often a conglomerate of two or more smaller firms. These firms have each an entire system of operation parameters on which their daily existence is based. Central management units cannot keep track and control all these parameters for each of the subunits. Therefore,…
Gavious A., (2004) Tranfer Pricing http://www.bgu.ac.il/~ariehg/tpintro.htm
protect the privacy of the individual via EU Directive for Protection of Personal Data
The internet revolutionized the human life as we know it. It established a culture of liberty aided by not just ingenuousness but also standardized protocols. This was achieved by transmitting the essential products for business-related growth, adopting a model of governance with no formal existence of regulations along with free availability of abundant software packages. This internet revolution can't be underestimated as it has its pros and cons, which also comes under discussion in this paper. With the surging popularity of internet, there happen to be a plethora of new dilemmas knocking at the door. There are tons of merits of Internet for that matter while its demerits have been ignored and hidden along the sidelines. These issues have materialized in the preceding decade and the demand is urgent to solidify a legislation which is tasked…
Andrew, S. (2011). The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy: Defining Enforcement and Encouraging the Adoption of Best Practices, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809, 854 -- 56.
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security vs. privacy in technology law: A balancing act? Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 130 -- 143
Asinari, M and Poullet, Y. (2004). Public security vs. data privacy -- Airline passengers' data: adoption of an adequacy decision by the European commission. How will the story end?' Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 370 -- 376.
Bambauer, D.E. (2013). Privacy vs. Security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Vol. 103, No. 3.
Globalization and its discontents: The pros and cons of globalization
Globalization has been defined as the "process of increasing the connectivity and interdependence of the world's markets and businesses" (Globalization, 2010, Investor ords). Opponents of globalization have stressed the unequal levels of prosperity that this interdependence has generated internationally. And recent events in the European Community have suggested that even for the developed world, the impact of economic interdependence may be a mixed blessing. Technological changes have occurred so quickly that less developed nations have not had a chance to culturally adapt to the new environment. "The anti-globalization group argues that certain groups of people who are deprived in terms of resources are not currently capable of functioning within the increased competitive pressure that will be brought about by allowing their economies to be more connected to the rest of the world" (Globalization, 2010, Investor ords). But globalization…
Balzli, Beat. 8 Feb 2010. Greek debt crisis: How Goldman Sachs helped Greece to mask its true debt. Der. Spiegel. http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/0,1518,676634,00.html
[Accessed 10 Jun 2010]
Daley, Suzanne. 28 Apr 2010. Digging deep and seeing Greece's flaws. The New York Times.
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/29/world/europe/29greece.html?fta=y [Accessed Jun 10, 2010]
Policy ecommendation in Combating Terrorism
Policy Project Part 1: Project outline
In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government and the international community reviewed typologies for the financing of transnational terrorism and examined ways to combat such financing. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that al Qaeda and other terrorist groups apparently affiliated with or inspired by al Qaeda have worked quite economically, using low-budget methods to operate. After reviewing two typologies, this part of the paper discusses applicable legal mechanisms for preventing and prosecuting the financing of transnational terrorist networks and considers proposals for improving the effectiveness of efforts to combat foreign-affinity terrorist financing (euter & Truman, 2004; Carter, 2008).
The evolving effects of globalization and the transnational nature of terrorism have combined to create almost limitless possibilities for terrorists looking to finance operations (Sheppard, 2008). One problem with combating terrorist financing is that many forms of…
Alexander, Yonah, and Donald J. Musch, eds. (2012). Terrorism, Documents of International and Local Control. Vol. 35. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana.
Andreas, Peter, and Ethan Nadelmann. (2013). Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carter, Barry E. (2008) International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cesari, Jocelyne. (2009) Muslims in the West after 9/11. New York: Routledge.
The structural issues that underlie the crisis remain unresolved. The austerity measures that have been implemented have failed miserably to restore business confidence -- they are crippling any economic recovery and have not given investors any reason to be confident about resolving the long-run debt problems faced by any of the peripheral Eurozone nations. The specter of increased Eurozone interest rates to meet the needs of Germany will only hurt the recovery of the peripheral economies further. As a result, a resolution of the sovereign debt crisis in the Eurozone does not appear to be on the horizon. Economists have made a number of proposals for the resolution of the crisis, none of which appear to have any political traction: a single Eurobond (De Grauwe & Moesen, 2009); addressing the divergence between Euro-level monetary policy and sovereign-level fiscal policy…
Arezki, R.; Amadou, N. & Candelon, B. (2010). Bad news spreads. Finance & Development. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.perjacobsson.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2010/12/pdf/arezki.pdf
BBC. (2011). Greece debt rating cut further by Moody's. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12664681
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Greece: Economy. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html
De Grauwe, P. (2010). The Greek crisis and the future of the Eurozone. U. Leuven. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://www.econ.kuleuven.be/ew/academic/intecon/Degrauwe/PDG-papers/Discussion_papers/EuroIntelligence-March-2010.pdf
The field is represented as the earth, which was once free of weeds and negative influences. The seeds the followers of the Lord, some of whom have been corrupted by the devil, the enemy of the Lord. God has chosen not to separate the good from the bad right away, but instead to allow each seed to grow to fruition and prove him or herself as wheat or a weed, "Let both grow together until the harvest" (Matthew 13:30). The harvest as the apocalypse, where the Lord will weed out the sinful and only accept the good seeds, or the wheat, into the Kingdom of Heaven. Even the messages of the foreshadowing of the evelation were something known by the people of the time, who were typically of Jewish faith; "Jesus' message was shaped by Jewish eschatology; that is, Jesus proclaimed the end of all time," (Charlesworth 4). Thus, Jesus…
Bovon, Francis. The Last Days of Jesus. Westminster John Knox Press. 2006.
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abdingdon Press. 2008.
Crossan,, John Dominic. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. 1995.
Holy Bible: King James Version. Pew Library ed. Thomas Nelson. 1994.
15). Much of his early work was set in Lebanon and other familiar childhood places. His work criticized the monk and their wealth in relation to the impoverished peasant population (McHarek, p. 15). One example of this is in the poem War where another is punished for someone else's crime (Gibran, War). This work was a play on Hammurabi's code, where an eye for an eye was used as punishment. As these works were published first in Arabic, it is apparent that the intended population was that of his native heritage. This drew much criticism, as his works condemned a state that was not accustomed to such open criticism. Gibran also drew inspiration from writers such as Neitzsche and William Blake (McHarek, p. 25).
Gibran's work became more committed towards ending oppression of Syrians all over the world and an attempt to stress the interconnectedness o everyone. "My path is…
The film version of the 'GodFather' became famous. The reason is that it was essentially a portrayal more on the family and emotional side rather than the gun toting violence. Thus the viewer shows the discernment between a good and bad movie by analyzing the depth of the portrayal rather than stunts. The argument that violence in cinema begets violence in real life falls flat. The viewers are not imbeciles, although many film producers take that for granted. Scarface 1932 version was all about the real gang rule of America. However the film not only depicted the violent lives of these people but also examined the psychology of the gangster and challenged the administration and there was depth in the portrayal. The viewer was absorbed in the passions of Tony to which they could relate, if not with the violence. Could that film have goaded viewers to become criminals? It…
Youtube. (2011) "Scarface movie that released in 1932" Retrieved 11 June 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qx6DhjaAP8
Youtube. (2011) "Scarface" Retrieved 11 June 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3jin2t_sJM&feature=related
Pells, Richard H. (1998) "Radical visions and American dreams: culture and social thought in the Depression years" University of Illinois Press.
Lyons, Charles. (1997) "The new censors: movies and the culture wars"
normal size). You
The scores of teenagers and adults who have turned the character and film Scarface into a universal symbol of a cultural icon would more than likely be shocked to know that there is nothing new about Tony Montana, his relish for his enemy's girlfriend, or several other facets about the motion picture that has earned a devout cult following in the several years since its opening. Scarface is actually a fairly liberal remake of the 1932 original film of the same name, written by Ben Hecht and directed by Howard Hawks, respectively. The original depicted another "Tony" (last name Camonte, not Montana) and his involvement in the illegal mob world of Chicago's notorious south side, rather than south Florida. The cocaine floundering around in the contemporary version was originally illicit alcohol, while Tony's lust for his rival's girlfriend, and his overbearing, fairly Freudian overprotection of…
Scarface is the nickname which was given to one of the most famous and infamous members of organized crime. Scholars and crime-buffs throughout the United States know all about Alphonse "Scarface" Capone and how he grew to head the mafia in Chicago, Illinois in the 1920s. Capone was able to achieve his success in the underworld by being smarter and perhaps luckier than his enemies. He was a strategist, as focused on the destruction of his opposition as any general of any army. Although his actions were nefarious and his endeavors only intended to his financial betterment, it cannot be denied that the likes of Capone served an important role in the formation of American history. The original film Scarface is based on the life of Al Capone, gangster films being very popular in the 1930s and early 1940s while the 1980s remake of Scarface tells a similarly themed story…
"Al Capone." 2012. Biography.com 11 Feb 2012,
"Organized Crime." United States History.
Raab, Selwyn. Five Families. New York, NY. Thomas Dunne. 2005. Print.
British Judge Lord Bringham warned states powers intrude liberty privacy individuals justification fight a "war terror." Using specific cases examples countries studying (United States, Canada Great Britain) discuss extent intrusion rights privacy freedom occurred justified a democracy? This essay 2000 words (7-9 pages) Also sources needed paper.
The issue of national security has been a subject that has kept the headlines of the newspapers especially since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The events in the United States demonstrated that the world, as it was in 2001, was not prepared for a security breach that was unconventional in nature and modus operandi. Since then, the national security strategies have changed dramatically throughout the world. One of the most significant change if not the most significant, took place in the United States that considered itself a true victim of the terrorist phenomenon and decided to prevent further events to ever take place on…
Cockfield, A. (2011) "Surveillance as law" Grifith Law Review, Vol 20, no 4, 795- 816.
Evolving Threats To National Security" Stanford Law and Policy Review, Vol 22:1, 11-39.
Sheldon, B. (2011). "Camera surveillance within the UK: Enhancing public safety or a social threat?" International Review of Law, Computers & Technology Vol. 25, No. 3, November 2011, 193 -- 203.
Special Project National Security (2005). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 58:5:1623- 1627
Human trafficking is defined as the trade in humans for the purposes of forced labor, sexual slavery, or organ extraction Avdan, 2012.
It has been estimated that human trafficking is a lucrative industry that represents around $32 billion per year. Human trafficking is a serious crime that violates human rights. This trade affects almost all countries in the world. There are thousands of people (men, women, and children) who fall in the hands of traffickers. The traffickers are mostly located in the home country of the victims. The recruitment, transfer, transportation, receipt, or harboring of persons by using threats, coercion, force, abduction, deception, fraud, or power is also referred to as human trafficking. The traffickers are mainly intent in exploiting these persons for their own benefit.
Human trafficking should not be confused with people smuggling. People smuggling usually involves people hiring an individual who will transport…
Avdan, N. (2012). Human trafficking and migration control policy: vicious or virtuous cycle? Journal of Public Policy, 32(3), 171-205. doi: 10.2307/23351562
Department of Justice. (March 24, 2011). Sex Trafficking Ring Leader Sentenced to 40 Years in Prison, from http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2011/March/11-crt-373.html
Feingold, D.A. (2005). Human Trafficking. Foreign Policy (150), 26-32. doi: 10.2307/30048506
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004