Teen Pregnancy Essays (Examples)

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Teenage Pregnancy the Dollar-A-Day Program

Words: 1330 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15302396


Ideally, parents should have the responsibility of teaching their children what Planned Parenthood and other organizations teach them, but it is often being left up to various organizations, as more and more parents decide that they are too busy to instill real values in their children. These organizations have a wonderful opportunity to take this unfortunate lack of societal interest and make it as positive as possible.

It is important to think of various ways that these young women can be helped, and the Dollar-a-Day Program is only one way to address this issue. Another good way to help teenagers make good choices is by giving them good role models. Popular teens at school are often looked up to, but they are not necessarily good role models. Not all of them engage in the very behavior the schools are trying to prevent, but it seems that too many of them do. There are other ways for teens to connect with each other, however.

Teen hotlines are becoming more popular with some communities, as teens can talk to other teens without the fear that their parents will have to be told. Some things should be told to parents -- a…… [Read More]

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Teenage Pregnancy Concerns

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20493610

Teen Pregnancies

Young women who become pregnant will be in a vulnerable position regarding the completion of their education and in realizing all of their goals. Women who become teen mothers are less likely to finish high school, less likely to go on to college, and extremely less likely to earn even a middle class salary. Becoming pregnant as a teenager is a situation that needs to be avoided at all costs. However, there are a host of legal and ethical issues which are directly connected to teen pregnancies which this paper will address. The desired goal of the issue of teen pregnancies as it manifests in society today is to find an adequate and effective means of combating it, without sacrificing any of the moral and ethical needs of any involved parties.

Gather Data

The legal issues tend to abound from the issue, entangling it and obfuscating a more definitive method of treatment: "Legal issues which arise include those relating to the human rights of the teenager, consent to treatment and the determination of competence, confidentiality, rights of the parents vis a vis the teenager" (Dimond, 2002). Thus, as an autonomous individual, the teenager no doubt has rights over…… [Read More]


Allmark, P. (2002). Pregnant minors: confidentiality issues and nurses' duties. British Journal of Nursing, 257-60.

Anderson, S. (2006). Adolescent patients and their confidentiality: Staying within legal bounds. Contemporary OB/GYN, 53.

Dimond, B. (2002). Teenage pregnancy and the law . British Journal of Midwifery, 105-108.

Goldbas, A. (2013). Whose Body Is It Anyway. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 79.
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Teenage Pregnancy Has Been on

Words: 3993 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87589880

We made every possible attempt to contact as many programs as possible. This was mainly through contacting various advisors, coalitions, staff, networks and directories. There were also several telephone calls as well as reminders (in the form of both mail, and fax) to the various programs. This was however done to the ones that never returned their surveys. After initiating second mailing attempts as well as phone calls and faxes, an average of 12 completed surveys was received representing a 60% rate of response. A total of 13 programs were visited .There was interviewing of the staff members during the various site visits. The intention was to obtain as much information as possible from their programs as well as to come up with fully completed surveys.

The move aided us to find out that there were various prevention efforts that were instituted in various clinics, community agencies as well as in various schools. All the agencies as well as participating schools had the privilege of being supported with grants from the Arizona Department of Health Services. The grants were aimed at the primary prevention of teenage pregnancies in the county. The programs were targeted towards the prevention of tee pregnancies…… [Read More]


ACAPP (2006). By the Numbers: The Public Costs of Teen Childbearing in Arizona


Annie E. Casey Foundation. (1998). Kids count special report, when teens have sex: Issues and trends. Baltimore, MD.

The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (2004). U.S. teenagepregnancy statistics: Overall trends, trends by race and ethnicity and state-by-state information. Retrieved February 19, 2004, fromwww.guttmacher.org/pubs/state_pregnancy_trends.pdf. Ranks and percent change in rates calculated by the National Campaign.
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Problem of Teenage Pregnancy

Words: 1648 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85539327

Teenage pregnancy can be defined as pregnancy that occurs in young females aged under 20 years (Dickins, Johns, & Chipman, 2012). In Western civilization, teenage pregnancy is treated negatively, because young females are expected to study and only give birth once they have reached maturity or over 20 years. Teenage pregnancy disrupts and affects a teenager's education, as they now have responsibilities that might affect their education. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unwanted Pregnancy has indicated that there were 26.6 births per 1000 teen girls aged between 15 and 19 in 2013. There have been a steady decline in this rate since 1991 where it stood at 117 per 1000 teens of the same ages. The Centers for Disease Control reported that United States teen birth rates have declined since 1991. There were 34.3 births per 1000 teens in 2010, compared to 1991, which had 61.8 births per 1000 teens. In 2013, there were fewer babies born to teenagers than any other year since 1946. The sad part is that 17% of teen births occurred in females who had one or more babies. This demonstrates the need for education and prevention strategies especially amongst this population.

The most…… [Read More]


Chung-Park, M.S. (2008). Evaluation of a pregnancy prevention programme using the Contraceptive Behavior Change model. Journal of advanced nursing, 61(1), 81-91.

Dickins, T.E., Johns, S.E., & Chipman, A. (2012). Teenage pregnancy in the United Kingdom: A behavioral ecological perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 6(3), 344.

Herrman, J.W., Waterhouse, J.K., & Chiquoine, J. (2011). Evaluation of an infant simulator intervention for teen pregnancy prevention. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 40(3), 322-328.

Strunk, J.A. (2008). The effect of school-based health clinics on teenage pregnancy and parenting outcomes: An integrated literature review. The Journal of School Nursing, 24(1), 13-20.
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Does Certain Economic Factors Affect Abortions in Teenage Pregnancy

Words: 5378 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97620330

Teen Abortion

Abortion among teenage girls has been an issue of much debate for many years. Many people believe that all abortions should be illegal while others believe that there are circumstances that warrant the right to choose. Currently there is a 40% occurrence of pregnancy among teenagers an estimated 25% of these pregnancies end in abortions. (Pregnancy & Childbearing among U.S. Teens 2003) At the forefront of this issue is an organization called Planned Parenthood, which provides teenage girls with abortions. There are many reasons why teenagers choose to have abortions rather than carrying their children to term. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the factors that influence a teenager's decision to have an abortion. These factors include; economics, Planned Parenthood Programs and parental consent laws.

Research Questions

Do certain economic factors affect abortions in teenage pregnancies?

Do Planned Parenthood programs reduce the amount of abortions?

Will Parental Consent laws reduce the number of abortions?

Literature Review

Economic factors

When examining the factors related to teenage pregnancy and abortion, socioeconomic factors can not be ignored. An article found in the Canadian Journal of Human sexuality discusses findings of teenage pregnancy studies that were conducted in the United…… [Read More]


Preventing Teen Pregnancy Challenge or Illusion. (2003). Retrieved March 26, 2004 from;



Retrieved March 26, 2004 from; http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pressreleases/121098AGI.html
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Popular Media and Teenage Pregnancy

Words: 2790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60388609

communicated about teenage pregnancy in the media. The paper has randomly selected 10 articles written within the last year (2013) on teen pregnancy in popular media likely to be read by potential clients (i.e., Cosmopolitan, New York Times, Men's Health, Newsweek, etc.). The paper is divided into the following 3 main sections relevant to these articles. The paper summarizes the main points of the selected articles in section 1. Section 2 conceptualizes the 10 articles into different headings. Lastly, in section 3, the paper explains how a therapist may use this information to help a client define healthy sexuality and how having that understanding can help the client make wise decisions in their relationships.

Article Summaries: Summarize the main points of the selected 10 articles

Amanda Marcotte (2013) wrote an article on dealing with the teenage pregnancy. In the article she describes how, contrary to the popular American belief, the rate of teenage pregnancies has actually declined. She goes on to explain that this declining trend started in the 1950s and 2012 turned out to be the year with the most drastic decline as, between the years of 2011 and 2012 the rate of teenage pregnancies fell by approximately 6%.…… [Read More]


Amanda Marcotte. (2013). The MTV Effect: Tackling Teen Pregnancy. Accessed from:  http://www.thedailybeast.com/witw/articles/2013/09/17/what-works-and-what-doesn-t-when-it-comes-to-lowering-the-teen-birth-rate.html 

Catherine Abate. (2013). Fighting Teen Pregnancy With Peer Influence. Accessed from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/catherine-m-abate/teen-pregnancy-new-york_b_2971063.html

Howard K. Koh. (2013). Prevention Delivers for Teens in the U.S. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/dr-howard-k-koh/prevention-delivers-for-t_b_3326122.html

Liz Henry. (2013). I Got Pregnant at 14. Ask Me About Plan B. Accessed from: http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/i-got-pregnant-at-14-ask-me-about-plan-b/
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Decline in the Teenage Pregnancy

Words: 4711 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88386946


Teaching teenagers about abstinence would likely mean stronger families in the community, which by comparison would also mean that the community was stronger as well.

Additional studies presented data that could also be taken into consideration concerning the causes and the effects of teenage pregnancies, both positive and negative in nature. Many of the studies found that poverty and race both had impacts on the teenage pregnancy and birth rates, and that consideration of such factors might be conducive in attacking the problem. A 2004 study showed that teenage pregnancies were 2.8 times more common among Blacks than among non-Hispanic Whites in 2000" (Alan Guttmacher, 2004).

It would make sense then to concentrate on African-American teenage girls or to provide programs in those neighborhoods where African-American girls reside. A fact sheet produced by teenpregnancy.org asks the question: "What are the chances of a child growing up in poverty if 1) the mother gives birth as a teen, 2) the parents were unmarried when the child was born, and 3) the mother did not receive a high school diploma or GED" (Why it matters, 2006). The fact sheet provides the answer; 27% if one event occurs, 42% if two events…… [Read More]


Alan Guttmacher Institute (2004) U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics: overall trends, trends by race and ethnicity, and state-by-state information, New York, Available at http://www.guttinacher.org/pubs/state-pregnancy-trends.pdf. Accessed August 20, 2008

As teen births drop, experts are asking why, (2004) Policy and Practice of Public Human Services, Vol. 62, No. 4, p. 7

Brown, S.S. (2005) Interview, Issues in Science and Technology, Vol 21, No. 3, pp. 65-70

Caldwell, P.; (2003) Trends in reproductive behavior among young single women in Columbia and Peru: 1985-1999, Demography, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 659-673
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Solution to Teenage Pregnancy The

Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81037224

The teen pregnancy classes will consist of learning about contraceptives, learning about abstinence and learning about the cost of having and raising a child. In addition, each participant will be paired with a teen mother or teen father volunteer to shadow for 48 hours. This will serve as real life experience about being a teen parent, before actually becoming one. The teen parent volunteers will be provided free activities in exchange for their participation in the program.

Members of the community will be recruited to volunteer as advocates and mentors to the teens who belong to the center. The teens will be encouraged to shadow the adults on their jobs and in their lives to see alternatives to becoming teenage parents and to encourage them to have goals and ambitions other than sex.

The center will provide a nurse practitioner once a week to handle check ups and birth control needs. In addition the center will provide condoms for free. The center will also set up a 24-hour hotline for teens to call with any problem they have so that they do not feel they have no one to talk to or turn to other than a romantic partner.

The…… [Read More]


What teens want adults to know about teen pregnancy.

Nation's Cities Weekly; 8/4/2003; Albert, Bill

Teen Pregnancy 2001-Still No Easy Answers.

Pediatric Nursing; 9/1/2001; Koshar, Jeanette H.
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Controversy Teenage Pregnancy Probability Chances Reduced Education

Words: 450 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2387185

controversy teenage pregnancy probability chances reduced education good parenting. Choose a technology create a presentation technology. Technologies combined, adding audio clips a slide presentation.

PSA: Teen pregnancy: Myths and Facts


(Boy and girl making out in a car)

Girl: (pulling away) I'm not on the pill. I'm not so sure about this.

Boy: Hey, you know you can't get pregnant on your first time.

Voice-over: Fact -- you can get pregnant your first time. (Cut to picture of tired girl rocking baby in the middle of the night) (Teen sex -- pregnancy myths, 2012, Web MD).


(Mother, walking in a supermarket, talking to the camera)

Mother: Oh, I know my Janie. She's an honor student and she would never do anything without discussing it with me first. She's focused on her future.

(Cut to picture of girl and a guy making out with a pile of textbooks in front of them)

Voice-over: Fact -- "3 in 10 teen girls in the U.S. will get pregnant at least once before age 20. That's about 745,000 teen pregnancies each year" (Teen pregnancy, 2012, Stay Teen). That number includes girls of all levels of intelligence, ethnic groups, and areas of the…… [Read More]


Abstinence-only education does not lead to abstinent behavior, researchers find. (2011)

ScienceDaily. Retrieved: http://www.sciencedaily.com / releases/2011/11/111129185925.htm

Teen pregnancy. (2012). Stay Teen. Retrieved:

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Sociology Teenage Pregnancy Teenage Pregnancy

Words: 1558 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67714521

Teenage pregnancy issues should be undertaken by putting into practice programs that will help prevent teenagers from becoming pregnant. Health care providers need to devise intervention programs that allow family, school and society in general to provide the necessary information to teenagers through sexual education. The family portion should involve parental education and information on sexual health issues. Schools need to be more focused on offering courses about gender issues and more training for teachers regarding sexual education. Schools and families need to work together in order to prevent teenage pregnancies. The aim of these programs should be to reduce the number of teenage pregnancies among girls by increasing their knowledge of sexual health issues. This can be done by offering teenagers information in a convenient, friendly, and familiar environment so that they are well informed of the choices that they have (Sarantaki and Koutelekos, 2007).

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

East, Patricia L., Reyes, Barbara T., and Horn, Emily J. "Association Between Adolescent

Pregnancy and a Family History of Teenage Births." Consumer Health Complete. 39.2


Langille, Donald B. "Teenage pregnancy: Trends, contributing factors and the physician's role."
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Health Needs for Teenage Pregnancies What Are

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98973660

Health Needs for Teenage Pregnancies

What are the special needs of teenagers who are pregnant? Certainly the fact that an expectant mother in her teens is quite different than a married woman in her mid-twenties in terms of the psychology -- and the physical needs -- of her condition, and so there are things a pregnant teenager needs that are likely different from a mature woman. This paper delves into those special needs and basic situations that teenagers face when pregnant.

The Healthcare Needs of Pregnant Teenagers

First of all, according to Tricia Michels, writing in Public Health Reports, pregnant teens are already facing "stigmatization in many aspect of their lives" just by the mere fact that they are pregnant and all their friends are living normal teenage lives (Michels, 2000, p. 557). Hence, tending to their new unborn babies is another challenge that must be approached with intelligence and good planning. Michels interviewed forty teenagers who were pregnant and one of the themes that came from those interviews is that "providers and healthcare systems" should be willing to "combat" the "negative [social] influences" surrounding the pregnancies (557).

Michels' article also points to the attention the teenager must have if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coila, Bridget. (2010). Health Risks for Pregnant Teens. Livestrong.com. Retrieved December

13, 2012, from  http://www.livestrong.com .

Michels, Tricia M. (2000). "Patients Like Us": Pregnant and Parenting Teens View the Health

Care System. Public Health Reports, Volume 115, 557-575.
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Pregnancy Rates and Educational Attainment

Words: 12922 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69642112

These number from Halifax and Brunswick counties are alarming not only because of the high correlation between teen pregnancy and dropping out of school, but also because the interrelationship between educational proficiency and teenage pregnancy. For example, only "forty-one percent of teenagers who begin families before age 18 ever complete high school." (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2006). Furthermore, "parenthood is a leading cause of high school drop out among teen girls." (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2006). Finally, "only about 2% of teen mothers have a college degree by age 30." (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2006). What seems clear is that teenage mothers are unlikely to finish their secondary educations and dramatically less likely to pursue post-secondary education than their non-parenting counterparts. Clearly, these teenage mothers are likely to remain financially disadvantaged, because there is a clearly established relationship between education and financial security.

However, the relationship between teen pregnancy and dropping out of school is not directly causal, and it would be patently incorrect to say that teen pregnancy causes girls to drop out of school. On the contrary, a "recent study found that approximately fifty percent of first-time teen mothers…… [Read More]


Creech, J. (2000). Reducing dropout rates. Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board.

Farber, N. (2003). Adolescent pregnancy: policy and prevention services (Springer series on social work). New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Sawhill, I. (October, 2001). What can be done to reduce teen pregnancy and out-of-wedlock births? Retrieved August 30, 2007 from the Brookings Institution. Web site: http://www.brookings.edu/es/research/projects/wrb/publications/pb/pb08.htm

Smith, L., T. Stallings, B. Hudson, & L. Ellis. (March, 2006). Halifax County state-of -- the county health report: 2005. Halifax, NC: Halifax County.
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Teen Dating Violence Is an

Words: 3837 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33586800

Economic exploitation also includes the "threatening to take money, forcing a date to pay solely for items that are to be shared, or stealing money or property," (Jackson & Oates 1998:92). These forms of abuse are much harder to identify and combat, and in many cases go unnoticed within large bodies of previous research.

Identifying the real victims within teen dating violence can also prove to be a challenge for modern research. In traditional thinking, construed by the facts of domestic violence experienced by older generations in a married or committed relationship, females in violent relationships tend to be the focus of the abuse over their male counterparts (Holt & Espelage 2005). Therefore, many assume that this is the same within the context of teen dating violence. So, many programs and prevention initiatives have focused on helping the female victim of abuse, while largely under-estimating the need to combat abuses suffered by male teens within the context of their relationships. However, numbers of male and female abuse victims in terms of both physical and emotional abuse are relatively close. Some studies have even found that within the context of teen relationships, females tend more to be the perpetrator of the…… [Read More]


Holt, Melissa K. & Espelage, Dorothy L. (2005). Social support as a moderator between dating violence victimization and depression/anxiety among African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Psychology Review. 34(3):309-341.

Howard, Donna E.; Qi Wang, Min; & Yan, Fan. (2007). Psychological factors associated with reports of physical dating violence among U.S. adolescents females. Adolescence. 42(166):311-332.

Howard, Donna E.; Qi Wang, Min; & Yan, Fan. (2007). Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of forced sexual intercourse among U.S. high school adolescents. Adolescence. 42(168):629-641.

Jackson, Nicky Ali; Oates, Gisele Casanova. (1998). Violence in Intimate Relationships: Examining Sociological and Psychological Issues. Butterorth-Heinemann: Boston.
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Teen Drinking Media Campaign a

Words: 4337 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29506360

One of those alarming physical changes is that the younger a person is when they begin drinking, even at low levels the more likely they are to become alcoholics. This change even overrides a known genetic predisposition for alcoholism. (Butler, July 4, 2006) Time forward ads regarding adult failure could be developed at a later time but again such images and concerns do not seem to sway teens. Funding for such a campaign would likely come from national and local foundations that stress clean living, and possibly from litigation funds that have been secured for healthier youth programs.

Alcohol use may begin simply as an exciting experiment, or as a way for a teen to feel a part of his or her peer group, lowering the feeling of awkwardness that often comes with the territory. Yet teen drinking can become a social disaster, that brings on extreme grief and loss. Legal problems, social problems, death of friends or family and even teen pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases can be spread because your whole mind is not working when you are drinking (Plant & Plant, 1992). "-Sixty percent of college women diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease were drunk at the…… [Read More]


"AH shoes the best pillow when your a drunk teen and can't get up!" April, 10 2005 http://www.myspace.com/babyjenaya

"American Academy of Pediatrics Survey of Teen Alcohol Consumption: Summary Findings,"

American Academy of Pediatrics, September 30, 1998.

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Teen Sex and Pregnancy Including

Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64921786

The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is associated with a higher probability of suspension, a higher probability of unexcused absences from school, a lessened affinity for school, and reduced aspirations to attend college" (Sabia), and all of those results can lead to an increased drag on the social services of a community, too.

Another problem with teen…… [Read More]


Editors. "U.S. Teen Sexual Activity." Kaiser Family Foundation. 2005. 18 Nov. 2008. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf

Nichols, Sharon L., and Thomas L. Good. America's Teenagers -- Myths and Realities: Media Images, Schooling, and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Sabia, Joseph J. "Early Adolescent Sex and Diminished School Attachment: Selection or Spillovers?" Southern Economic Journal 74.1 (2007): 239+.

Teen Sex Linked to Early Friendships." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Apr. 2003: 7+.
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Teenage Sexuality

Words: 1347 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85765194

teenage sexuality. The writer links research and theory to a practical problem and discusses how they are similar. The writer also discusses teenage sexuality in the context of education. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

Americans have adjusted a lot of their thinking when it comes to teenage sexuality during recent years. There was a time when a pregnant teen would have been removed from the school and sent to a school for unwed mothers. There was a time when a sexually active female was labeled a slut, or said to be loose. Those days are on the retreat as Americans accept teenage sexuality more than ever before. With that acceptance comes the question of when and how to teach sex education. Schools are at a crossroad because they are dealing with pregnant teens but many parents are opposed to the sex education of their children within the school system. Teen pregnancy, teen sexual preference and many other topics are not being addressed today in teen living classes, and students are gaining their education on the street. The adults are not going to stop teen sexual activity, nor will they stop those who are gay from being…… [Read More]


Mallet, Pascal; Apostolidis, Themistoklis; Paty, Benjamin (1997). The development of gender schemata about heterosexual and homosexual others during adolescence.. Vol. 124, The Journal of General Psychology, pp 91(14).

Feigenbaum, Rhona-Weinstein, Estelle-et al.,(1995). College students' sexual attitudes and behaviors: Implications for sexuality education.. Vol. 44, Journal of American College Health, pp 112.

Brody, Stuart; Rau, Harald; Fuhrer, Niklas; Hillebrand, Heiko; Rudiger, Daniela; Braun, Manuel (1996). Traditional ideology as an inhibitor of sexual behavior.. Vol. 130, The Journal of Psychology, pp 615(12).

National Poll Shows Parents Overwhelmingly Support Comprehensive Sex Education Over Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage by 5 to 1 Margin (Accessed 10-23-2002) http://www.siecus.org/media/press/press0028.html
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Teenage Substance Abuse Substance Abuse

Words: 5378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9674352

Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.

Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.

Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage other community members to do the same. Get parents and teachers involved in the process. Make sure that young people know what their options are in preventing pregnancy, ranging from abstinence to contraception, and allow teenagers the freedom and platform to discuss these topics with each other in a supportive…… [Read More]


Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html

Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm

Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html

Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
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Teen Smoking Behaviors Current Consequences

Words: 3189 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9699318

e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).

The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the first place, and why they quit.

The objective of this information is to apply the information learned to future ad campaigns, most of which are funded by state tobacco settlement money.

Research Design

The study will focus on a high school in a mid-sized Texas town, but also include those…… [Read More]


Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.

Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.

Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.

Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
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Pregnancy Outcome and the Time Required for Next Conception

Words: 1656 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72356972

Pregnancy outcome and the time required for next conception, Jain (1969) looks at a large group of presumably fertile women and seeks to determine the average age of conception after a previous pregnancy or the length of time between pregnancies in the absence of birth control. According to the study the average length of time between pregnancies remains high in those under the age of 20, then levels out to spike again in individual women according to advancing age. Additionally the outcome of the pregnancy was also considered, where those who had live births ending the pregnancy or fetal death via natural or artificial means also experienced shortened pregnancy intervals, though higher among ages less than 20 and which gradually increases with maternal age.


The paper hypothesis surrounds an empirical exploration to add to the knowledge base regarding the length of pregnancy interval by age of women and to help provide an inferred length of amenorrhea among these same women all in the absence of contraception, with the assumption that in the absence of contraception the natural pregnancy interval will be determined.

Statistical Methodology

The methodology employed is demonstrative of a simple mean and variance report, where the average…… [Read More]


Arafa, M.A., Alkhouly, A., & Youssef, M.E. (2004). Influence of inter-pregnancy interval on preterm delivery. Paediatric & Perinatal Epidemiology, 18(4), 248-252. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2004.00564.x

Cecatti, J.G., Correa-Silva, E.B., Milanez, H., Morais, S.S., & Souza, J.P. (2008). The Associations between Inter-Pregnancy Interval and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Brazil. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 12(2), 275-281. doi:10.1007/s10995-007-0219-y

Gold, R., Connell, F.A., Heagerty, P., Cummings, P., Bezruchka, S., Davis, R., & Cawthon, M. (2005). Predicting Time to Subsequent Pregnancy. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 9(3), 219-228. doi:10.1007/s10995-005-0005-7

In this issue. (2004). Paediatric & Perinatal Epidemiology, 18(4), 245. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2004.00573.x
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Teenage Issues in America While Many Parents

Words: 1023 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74950132

Teenage Issues in America

While many parents would like to believe that teenage culture in the United States is just about hanging out with friends, movies and fun, statistics reveal that teenage issues, such as alcohol and drug abuse, violence and sexual orientation, are one of the most critical problems in America (Sound Vision, 2003). The following statistics, while not representative of every teenager, demonstrate the extent of these problems.

Teenage sexual orientation has become a major problem in the U.S. (Sound Vision, 2003). In the U.S., seven in 10 women reported having had sex before age 14, and six in 10 of those who had sex before age 15 reported having had sex involuntarily. Nationally, one-quarter of 15-year-old females and less than 30% of 15-year-old males have had sex, compared with 66% of 18-year-old females, and 68% of 18-year-old males who have had sexual intercourse.

In addition, nearly one million young women under age 20 become pregnant each year, meaning that nearly 2800 teens get pregnant each day (Sound Vision, 2003). Teen childbearing costs U.S. taxpayers nearly $7 billion annually for social services and lost tax revenues. Currently, in the U.S., one in four sexually active teens become infected…… [Read More]


Dew, Diane. (March 11, 1995). The Troubles Teens Face. The Covington News.

Karzon, S. (August 1, 2003). Juvenile delinquency. The Daily Star.

Sound Vision Foundation, Inc. (2003). U.S. Statistics on Teens. Sound Vision. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.soundvision.com/Info/teens/stat.asp

The Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1996). Facts in Brief: Teen Sex and Pregnancy, New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
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Vermilion Parish Louisiana and Teen

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12723197

Certainly it would give rise to debate within the community, and would perhaps because it circumvents the authority that was asserted by the community in limiting the teen's awareness to abstinence, would eventually have to be abandoned because of the ways in which the community would relate the process to what it actually is: getting the kids the information on birth control.

If educating the kids as to the alternatives available to them is prohibited, then it becomes incumbent upon the health professionals to take the discussions to the parents. Since most kids, estimated at 47%, say that their decisions about sex are most influenced by their parents (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2007, found online at then educating the parents must become the focus of the effort. If Vermilion Parish and other places within and outside of Louisiana would tie the hands of educators and health professionals by limiting discussion with the teens to abstinence, then taking the information to the parents must be a consideration. Mandatory discussion with the parents, before the course of abstinence training commences, must be conducted wherein the subjects of teen pregnancy, and what it means to the family in the way…… [Read More]

Reference List

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Sexual Health Statistics for Teenagers and Young Adults in the United States, September, 2006.

The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 'American Opinion on Teen

Pregnancy and Related Issues 2007, found online at retrieved 14 March 2009.
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Counseling Be Mandatory for Teen

Words: 2439 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3126196

The study indicated that children born to teenagers aged below 15 are twice as likely to be an indicated case of child neglect or child abuse in the first five years of their lives as compared to the children who are born to mothers between the ages of 20 and 21 Fergusson & Woodward, 2000()

Another separate study found that the living standards and the situation at home for the teenage mothers was the most predictive variable for maltreatment of the children. Teenage mothers who are living with an adult are less likely to neglect or abuse their children as compared to those who are bringing up their children on their own.

Children of teenage mothers are at a higher risk of getting problems that affect regulation which includes both aggressive behavior and flattened affect. The children who are born to teenage mothers also suffer from poor cognitive development. This was shown by a study which showed that children born to teenage mothers scored poorly in tests of their cognitive ability as compared to children of older parents. The children of teenage parents were also not likely to be seen as their teachers as having improved in their performance by…… [Read More]


Adams, G., Sharon, a.-T., & Pittman, K. (1989). Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Problem, Solutions, and Resources. Family Relations, 38(2), 223-229.

Adler, E.S., Bates, M., & Merdinger, J.M. (1985). Educational Policies and Programs for Teenage Parents and Pregnant Teenagers. Family Relations, 34(2), 183-187.

Anastasiow, N.J. (1987). Programs Developed in Response to Teen Pregnancies. Infant Mental Health Journal, 8(1), 65-75.

Brien, M.J., Loya, G.E., & Pepper, J.V. (2002). Teenage Childbearing and Cognitive Development. Journal of Population Economics, 15(3), 391-416.
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TANF and Teen Mothers Will

Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45351082

The question of whether TANF is working to reduce the number of teen pregnancies is inconclusive. The literature review leaves many more questions than answers.


The literature review found many conflicting results and studies that were significantly flawed. The real impact of TANF on teen pregnancies cannot be determined from the studies conducted thus far. The mass media was found to quote inconclusive findings. The body of evidence found is in need to further studies to determine the status and effects of TANF on teen pregnancy. This research will fill the gap in research by providing a reliable assessment of the impact of TANF on the ability to teen mothers to become independent and successful.

The literature review found many effects of TANF on the status of mothers as a result of the program. However, there were many flaws found in the program as well. In order for TANF to provide a valuable resource for pregnant teens, the problems accessing the system must be resolved. This research will help to pinpoint many problems with the system in hopes of improving the TANF program so that it truly accomplishes the goals that it was intended to accomplish.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Acs, G. And Koball, H. (2003). TANF and the Status of Teen Mothers under Age 18. No. a-62 in Series, "New Federalism: Issues and Options for States." Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310796.

Center for Impact Resarch (CIR) (2001). Accessing TANF Assistance: A survey of Low-Income

Young Mothers in Chicago. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at  http://www.impactresearch.org/documents/chicagotanfexecutive.pdf 

Kaestner, R., Korenman, S., and O'Neill, J.(2003). Has Welfare Reform Changed Teenage
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Birth Control Teenage Birth Control

Words: 442 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32122449

Studies indicate that most teen mothers do not finish high school, and spend much of their lives in poverty. They also indicate many children of teenage mothers will grow up to be teenage mothers themselves (Simmons A21). Thus, teenage pregnancy has ramifications far beyond the birth of a child. To give a fair chance to all children, teens should have access to birth control without parental consent, allowing older, more mature women to have children, and reducing the number of teen pregnancies across the country.… [Read More]

Medora, Nilufer P., and Cheryl Von Der Hellen. "Romanticism and Self-Esteem among Teen Mothers." Adolescence 32.128 (1997): 811+.

Scully, Sean. "Birth-Control Access Irks Conservatives." The Washington Times 16 Feb. 1998: 4.

Simmons, Deborah. "The ABC's of Teen Parenthood; What Are the Facts about Abstinence vs. Birth Control." The Washington Times 15 Feb. 2002: A21.
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Teenage Sex

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59152120


According to Fulbright (2010), parents are the people best qualified to teach their children about sex and intimate relationships. The theory behind Fulbright's (2010) proposition is that parents and their children gain a more honest and open relationship, which fosters healthier identity and sexual development than if parents shun their children's questions or avoid discussing sensitive matters like these. Moreover, children will receive incorrect, patchy, and conflicting information when they rely only on friends, rumors, and formal sex education in schools. Parents teach from their own experience, and can confer not only values but also valuable practical information. In many cases, the child's experiences in terms of biology and social interactions will parallel those of the parents, which allows for more intimate and meaningful discussions than what would take place in the more generalized setting of a school. While I still believe in the importance of formal sex education in school, I fully agree with Fulbright's open and frank approach to sexuality.

Unfortunately, it is difficult to broach the subject of sex at home. Teenagers can be especially uncomfortable discussing sex with their parents. This does not mean parents should not try and be persistent. According to Planned Parenthood…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Sexual health. Retrieved online:  http://www.cdc.gov/sexualhealth/ 

Fulbright, Y.K. (2010). Who Better Than You? Sexuality Source [Audiobook].

Pawlowski, W. & Hamilton, G. (n.d.). Stages of adolescent development. Retrieved online: http://www.cicatelli.org/tctp/Files/Stages%20of%20Adolescent%20Development.pdf

Planned Parenthood (2012). "Half of All Teens Feel Uncomfortable Talking to Their Parents About Sex While Only 19% of Parents Feel the Same, New Survey Shows." Retrieved online: http://www.plannedparenthood.org/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/half-all-teens-feel-uncomfortable-talking-their-parents-about-sex-while-only-19-percent-parents-40375.htm
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Changing Attitudes

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13083782

Teenage Pregnancy as a Social Problem

Changing attitudes

Teenage Pregnancy

Teenage pregnancy is an established phenomenon in any social setting as Albarracin and Handley (2001) observes. Recently, the phenomenon has turned out to be a social problem moving from an empirical social fact. The move comes from the realization of rising costs to governments while the teenage girl is robbed-off the opportunity to embrace education. Once this observation is made the phenomenon assumes a reality position and becomes a concern to individuals, families and communities.

According to (Bonell, 2004), teenage pregnancy is regarded as a social problem owing to the fact they are closely associated with childrearing unsupported by men or strong family background. The result is higher social cost to government through single young mothers uptake of welfare provision from the government (Bonell, 2004)). (Albarracin & Handley, 2001), adds Teenage pregnancy can spur cycles of deprivation that fuel the expansion of a poor, unemployed and undereducated community. Teenage pregnancy is in turn viewed as encouraging further economic marginalization of the individuals concerned. Young people are often portrayed as agents for the transmission of social values, be these linked to continuity or change. In situations where mechanisms that promote social…… [Read More]


Albarracin, D., & Handley, I.M. (2001). The time for doing is not the time for change: Effects of general action and inaction goals on attitude retrieval and attitude change. . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 983-998.

Bonell, C. (2004). Why Is Teenage Pregnancy Conceptualized as a Social Problem? A Review of Quantitative Research from the U.S.A. And UK. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 6(3), 255-272.
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Music on Teens Actions in the Past

Words: 2022 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58030228

Music on Teens Actions

In the past 40 years all kinds of music has turned out to be more and more overt predominantly towards the negative side like sex, drugs, aggression and violence. Lately two of the genres which have caught great attention is hard rock music and rap music. In most of the cases, the lyrics of the music are made in such a way that they induce negativity in the developing minds of the teenagers. This negativity is reflected in their actions in the form of drug abuse, aggression, violence, sex and rebellious actions towards parents, family, family and society in general. This kind of negative music is a major concern these days because it poses mental and physical threat to the teens of today. Some of the other alarming effects of such music are pregnancy, STDs, accidents, killing and this has resulted to be the normal lifestyle for most of the teens today. This paper discusses the different types of music and the effects each one has on the actions and behavior of teens.


In the past, there had been doubts about music related to teens. A lot of philosophers believed that music is very dangerous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns, Kate. The American Teenager: Examining Pop Culture. Annotated Edition. Publisher Greenhaven Press, 2003. ISBN 0737714670, 9780737714678, pg 150-189.

Connell, J., and C. Gibson. Sound tracks: Popular music, identity and place. London: Routledge. Pg 145-147. 2003.

Hawkins, S. Settling the pop score: Pop texts & identity politics. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. Pg 121. 2002.

Martino, S.C., Collins, R.L., Elliott, M.N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D.E., & Berry, S.H. Exposure to degrading vs. non-degrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 2006, 118, 430 -- 444.
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Autonomy and Pregnancy Personal Autonomy Lies at

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34209029

Autonomy and Pregnancy

Personal autonomy lies at the heart of the pro-choice movement and is an issue that impacts every pregnant woman. Any person who has been pregnant can tell you that pregnancy has consequences to the individual, both short-term and long-term. Some of those consequences are seemingly minor, but others can be literally life-threatening. However, while the pro-choice anti-choice debate focuses on maternal rights and fetal rights, there is little discussion of the impact of maternal choices on fetuses when mothers choose to carry a pregnancy to term, but engage in behaviors that are less-than-optimum for fetal health. The reality is that maternal behavior has consequences for the lifelong health for the developing child. There are several maternal behaviors, such as alcohol or drug usage during pregnancy that can lead to lifelong disabilities for the developing child. However, there are other maternal behaviors that are linked to optimal fetal health and the question of autonomy goes beyond limiting maternal engagement in negative activities to whether it is appropriate to force mothers to behave in positive activities.

The arguments against maternal autonomy are significant and substantial. However, they should not be confused with an anti-choice position. Determining that a mother…… [Read More]


Munson, R. (2011). Intervention and Reflection: Basic Issues in Medical Ethics. Cengage Learning.
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Healthy Pregnancy How to Go

Words: 452 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55558829

Additional aid from social service agencies to facilitate a better diet and breast-feeding would be optimal in such instances. Yet for all women, simply having individuals around them who stress that the lifestyle changes are important can have a critical social facilitation effect. Prenatal care also can play a role in creating such an informed support network for the woman.

Above all, the woman must be motivated to change and aware of what changes are needed. Education, age, and other factors may act as enablers for the woman to appreciate the gravity of her situation, and to appreciate the long-term affects her health decisions can have upon her fetus and subsequent postnatal development. However, although "traditionally it has been felt that women who are better educated tended to make healthier lifestyle changes" according to one survey, physicians were the most influential in their decision-making processes regarding their pregnancy, and all women regardless of age and income level expressed the commitment and the desire to alter their life choices to improve outcomes for their baby's health (Einarson & Koren 2006, p.5)… [Read More]

Works Cited

Einarson, Adrienne & Gideon Koren. (2006, February). A survey of women's attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle changes during pregnancy. JFAS International 4:e2.

Retrieved February 12, 2009 at  http://www.motherisk.org/JFAS_documents/JFAS_6001_e2.pdf
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Pains of Pregnancy and Childbirth

Words: 1758 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94193689

Pain Management of Obstetric Patients


Causes and Management Intervention

Two Sources of Pain

Pain is classified into nociceptive or neuropathic (ICEA, 2014). Nociceptive pain develops from tissue, muscle or bones. It is dull, aching, burning, stretching or beating. It crosses through mylenated nerve fibers. Neuropathic pain, on the other hand, emanates from the nerves when some damage has been inflicted on them (ICEA, 2014). It may be chronic when it is numbing, tingling or burning. Over-stimulation of the nerve fibers can damage them as in a burned-out state (ICEA),

The three stages of the birth process are antepartum or before birth, intrapartum or during delivery, and postpartum or following childbirth or delivery (ICEA, 2014).

Antepartum -- These are visceral and somatic or perineal (ICEA, 2014). Visceral pain emanates from the internal organs located in the abdominal and pelvic cavities and spreads and referred to nerve pathways. This occurs in the first stage of labor. During this stage, sporadic uterine contractions begin and become regular, more frequent, more intense and longer. The uterine muscles expand and then relax alternately. The cervix opens and small blood vessels at the walls of the vagina and cervix break. This inflammatory…… [Read More]


Ekabua, J.E., et al. (2011). Awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness

in Southeastern Nigeria. ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology: International Scholarly

Researchers Notices. Retrieved on November 20, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.hlm.nih.sgov/pmc/articles/PMC314473

Hughes, A., et al. (2009). Mindfulness approaches to childbirth and parenting. Vol. 17 #
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Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child

Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59576460

Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child Behavior. This is designed to provide better insights about how parental postpartum depression (PPD) is impacting the mother and the child. The findings are determined based upon looking at different cultures and the frequency of them. It is at this point, when there is a focus on previous research and any kind of gaps in existing theories. (Lukose, 2011)

In the future, these conclusions can improve everyone's understanding of how this is impacting both the patent and child during the pregnancy process. Then, after they are born is when these factors are taken into consideration to see how this is influencing their development. Over the course of time, this will enable healthcare professionals to understand the impact PPD on the parents and their children. (Lukose, 2011)

Provide a summation of the research conducted and the research findings

The research looked at the effects of PPD on different mothers from various cultures around the world. The basic idea is to establish a frequency of the problem on the mother and analyze how this influences their behavior. Evidence of this can be seen with Lukose (2011) saying, "Biological risk included a history of medical conditions,…… [Read More]


Lukose, A. (2011). Maternal Mental Health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 (4), 351 -- 361.
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Intervention and Prevention Strategies

Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23857459

Teen Pregnancy


Teenage pregnancy is described as being pregnant or being a mother below 20 years of age in most of the conducted researches. Only two researches considered had an age limit of 20 years, while another one had a limit of 21 years (Noll, Shenk, & Putnam, 2009).

The rate of teenage child birth differs by a 10 factor in case of first world nations. Netherlands on one hand has a negligible rate of 12 infants per 1,000 teenagers each year while Russia on the other hand has a rate of 100 infants per 1000 teenagers. During the 1990's United States of America spiked with teenage pregnancies which was the same in 1980's as well. Japan and European nations have controlled pregnancy rates (40 infants per 1,000). England peaks the European bloc with teenage pregnancy. One research in 2000 concluded that annually in England, around 90,000 child births were noted. 7,700 girls belonged to the 16 years bracket, while 2,200 belonged to 14-year bracket. The statistics show that teenage pregnancy is a huge national issue in England and it needs to be addressed immediately (Sarantaki & Koutelekos, 2007).


A research has shown that in some European nations,…… [Read More]


Amoran, O. (2012). A comparative analysis of predictors of teenage pregnancy and its prevention in a rural town in Western Nigeria. Amoran International Journal for Equity in Health, 2-7.

Dickins, T., Johns, S., & Chipman, A. (2012). Teenage Pregnancy In The United Kingdom: A Behavioral Ecological Perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 344-359.

Fonseca, L., Araujo, H., & Santos, S. (2012). Sexualities, teenage pregnancy and educational life histories in Portugal: experiencing sexual citizenship? Gender and Education, 647-664.

Hoggart, L. (2012). I'm Pregnant...what am I going to do? An examination of value judgments and moral frameworks in teenage pregnancy decision making. Health, Risk and Society, 533-549.
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Planned Parenthood and Defunding

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54244027

Teenage Pregnancy in the United States

Teenage pregnancy has long been on the public health agenda in the United States. There are a plethora of different perspectives in which this public health issue has been addressed from any many forms of interventions have been designed and implemented. Despite making significant progress on teen sexual activity and teenage pregnancy, there still exists many disparities in access to care across many demographic categories (Brindis, 2006). Therefore, there are many opportunities for policy makers to support more effective regulations and policies to continue to combat the public health issues related to teenage pregnancy.

School-based health clinics can have many advantages over traditional health care delivery methods for many demographic categories. The main advantage is that school-based health clinics can specialize in the individual needs of the adolescents and teenagers while a primary care physician. Other healthcare channels may not have an intimate knowledge of this age group and the specific challenges that they may face. However, with the school-based clinics, the healthcare providers concentrate and specialize in the specific challenges that these adolescents face while also and providing information about how they can get access to traditional healthcare providers. Given the passage of…… [Read More]


Brindis, C. (2006). A public health success: understanding policy changes related to teen sexual activity and pregnancy. Annual Reviews in Public Health, 277-295.

Brindis, C., & Sanghvi, R. (1997). SCHOOL-BASED HEALTH CLINICS: Remaining Viable in a Changing Heatlh System. Annual Review of Public Health, 567-587.

HRSA Press Office. (2011, December 8). Affordable Care Act support for school-based health centers will create jobs, increase access to care for thousands of children.

Szabo, L., & Ungar, L. (2015, July 31). Family planning budgets in crisis before Planned Parenthood controversy. Retrieved from USA Today: http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/07/30/family-planning-budgets-crisis-before-planned-parenthood-controversy/30861853/