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The history of television is at once familiar and unexpected, in that television, like every new medium, experienced a time when it was simultaneously written off as a fad and hailed as a world-changing wave of the future. The truth was somewhat more nuanced, because although television did change the world in serious, wide-ranging ways, it did not do so in the way many early critics and theorists suspected. By examining the evolution of television, including the context of its invention and its impact on other media, it will be possible to better understand not only how the history of television exemplifies the development of all new mediums, from the novel to videogames, but also how the unique qualities of television and its affect on the public consciousness shaped the contemporary world by transitioning humanity from structured monopolies to anarchistic experimentation.
Like many of inventions arising out of the…
Armes, R. (1988). On video. London: Routledge.
Edgerton, G. (2007). The columbia history of american television. New York: Columbia
Huff, W.A. (2001). Regulating the future: Broadcasting technology and governmental control.
Westport: Greenwood Press.
Television in Australia
Television itself was quite an invention and made significant changes all around the world. It became common in the United Kingdom and the United States by the end of the Second orld ar. The American system basically had the commercial system in which government interference wasn't so pronounced. On the other hand, the British system was more government owned and dominated by BBC. The television in Australia has always been caught up a struggle regarding which side to lead on. There has always been a tension between the regionalizing and centralizing pressures. Basically, the struggle has remained amidst the commercial television proprietors who want their shows to reach the entire nation. On the other hand, there were persons who wanted to maintain the region laity and locality of television based on which region it was showed in. [footnoteRef:2] [2: Anthony R. Smith, Television: An International History (New…
Arrow, Michelle. "The Introduction of Television in Australia." Originally published in Crotty, Martin, and David Andrew Roberts. Turning points in Australian History (Sydney: UNSW Press, 2009.).
Groves., Derham. "Gob Smacked! TV Dining in Australia between 1956 and 1966." Journal of popular culture 37, no. 3 (2004): 409-417.
Smith, Anthony R. Television: An international History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
atching TV Makes You Smarter -- Really?
A number of television programs of today are praised for their grittiness and realism. It is true that dramas such as Law and Order draw from real-life events, particularly ones whose circumstances and outcomes are controversial. Compared to the idealized families of Father Knows Best and The Brady Bunch, shows such as Modern Family portray likeable but flawed human beings whose problems are not necessarily solved in the time frame of an episode or two. The argument that today's television is "better" is a complex one. It begs the question: "Better for whom?" Story lines may indeed be a more accurate reflection of life in the twenty-first century. Characters are more realistic in that they represent a wider demographic than characters of even a generation ago; African-Americans, Latinos and Asians are more prominently featured, women are seen in roles requiring them to…
Johnson, Steven. Everything Bad is Good for You; how Today's Popular Culture is Actually Making Us Smarter. New York: Riverhead Trade, 2005. Print.
An article published in 2002 in the Journal of Communication further explored television's impact on marriage. In their study, 285 never married college students were interviewed about their idealistic marriage expectations. In the vast majority of those interviewed, their marriage preferences were based upon television shows, such as soap operas and romantic comedies.
It should go without saying that this notion is appalling. In an age where divorce is at its highest, parents have an even stronger responsibility to model ideal marriage traits to their children. Instead, parents are so absent that young adults turn to the numbing and idealistic television for their marriage perspective. Just as with an anesthetic, the effect of television on the family does wear off when the television is removed from the home. All it takes is a willingness of families to turn off the television and begin living. The key to improving the American…
Segrin, Chris, and Robin L. Nabi. "Does television viewing cultivate unrealistic expectations about marriage?." Journal of Communication 52, no. 2 (2006): 247-263.
Winn, Marie, Television: The Plug-In Drug. 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004.
Marie Winn, Television: The Plug-In Drug. 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology. Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004.
Segrin, Chris, and Robin L. Nabi. "Does television viewing cultivate unrealistic expectations about marriage?." Journal of Communication 52, no. 2 (2006): 247-263.
Television's Depiction Of American Family In The 1950s And 1960s
Television depiction of the American family in the 1950s and early 1960s
Television has for many years shaped the American society depending on the prevailing circumstances at that time. Ordinarily it is expected that television as a form of art would mimic the real life, but this has not always been true across the eras since at some point, television shaped and gave direction of style to be followed and presented the viewers with the 'ideal' society that the programmers thought kept the viewer glued to their channels, rather than the real society out there.
The depiction of the American family by the television in the 1950s through to 1960s was geared more toward the portrayal of a peaceful culture devoid of the challenges facing other parts of the world, financially stable and happy. This trend caught up to act…
Ella Taylor, Prime-time Families: Television Culture in Postwar America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989).
Jenkins H, (n.d:27). The politics and Pleasure of Popular Culture.
George Lipsitz, 1990: Pp44). Time Passages: Colective Memory and American Popular Culture.
Taylor Ella, (1989). Prime Time families: Television Culture in Postwar America. University of California Press.
Television viewing has become a very common thing in the entire world today. In fact, Television viewing is perceived to be having the largest audience as compared to any other forms of media. In the current media ecosystem the content in televisions is distributed through various platforms such as wed, TDT, mobiles and so on. This has provided an increased level of interactivity that has led to an increase in the level of connections of programs and networks with television audiences. Public and commercial broadcasters are both developing cross media processes that lead to the enhancement of audience participation. These networks provide a variety of initiatives that enable the audience to engage through sharing, promoting, criticizing and commenting on programs and at the same time elaborating their material or even getting involved in production, design or even the distribution of the television content. The paper will look at…
Garcia-Aviles, J.A.(2012).Role of Audience Participation in Multiplatform: From fans and Consumers, to Collaborators and Activists. Retrieved August 9,2013 from http://www.participations.org/Volume%209/Issue%202/24%20Garcia-Aviles.pdf
Hearn, G.(2011). Active and Passive Conceptions of the Television Audience: Effects of a Change in Viewing Routine. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://hum.sagepub.com/content/42/10/857.abstract
Hennerberger, S, XU, S. & Franklin, C.(2001). Active Audience Theory.
Livingstone, S.(2000).Television and Active Audience. Retrieved August 9, 2013 from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/1004/1/Television_and_the_active_audience%2Bcover.pdf
In terms of a feature film like the Spiderman series, there is much revenue to be generated from merchandise, DVD and video sales, tie-in promotions from companies like McDonalds, and spin-off video games. Therefore, the stakes are higher. A feature film producer who has been granted a 200 million dollar budget had better deliver an audience, and deliver it in spades. A telemovie producer, however, working much faster with much less time and money, has fewer expectations. Most telemovies have a built-in audience - the viewers of the network's regular drama or comedy productions. Though a network will often spin-off into outside advertising, such as trade publications, popular magazines, websites and billboards, they do not advertise in cinemas, nor do they have to pay exorbitant fees to advertise on other networks.
More recently, the rise of cable television has given birth to a change in the made-for-television film format. Studios…
Abramson, A. The History of Television, 1942 to 2000. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2003.
Hilmes, M. The Television History Book. London: British Film Institute, 2004.
("The Lunar Extinction Episode," 2010) What this shows, is how the overall topics and materials discussed on both show represent a microcosm of modern day society. Where, the episode of I Love Lucy depicted her as unable to manage her own affairs without her husband. While, the ig ang Theory highlights how Sheldon is able to effectively manage all areas of his life, accept socially.
How is it the same?
The way that I Love Lucy is similar to many modern day comedy genres is through the overall relationship between: Lucy, Ricky and the Mertzes. While, the modern day comedies will follow similar plot line. ("Job Switching," 2010) a good example of this can be seen in the show the ig ang Theory, where it about the relationship between: Sheldon, Leonard, Penny, Raj and Howard. ("The Lunar Extinction Episode," 2010) This is similar to the basic plot for I Love…
Job Switching. (2010). Retrieved June 5, 2010 from TV.com website: http://www.tv.com/i-love-lucy/job-switching/episode/15119/recap.html?tag=episode_recap;recap
The Lunar Extinction Episode. (2010). Retrieved June 5, 2010 from TV.com website: http://www.tv.com/the-big-bang-theory/the-lunar-excitation/episode/1339372/recap.html?tag=episode_header;recap
S. (Larson-Duyff, p.412).
As cable television increased the availability of youth-oriented television programming and children spent even more time in front of the T.V., several sociologists made observations similar to those previously published in connection with the amount of advertising absorbed by children in connection with their exposure to violence on the screen (Henslin, p.67). According to them, constant exposure to violence on television, (even if it was mostly fictional), corresponded to increased aggression in person, by virtue of desensitization. It was even suggested that watching the highly caricatured violence represented in cartoons like Bugs Bunny constituted "violence" in terms of its effect on the minds of children.
The most modern incarnation of that concern relates more to computer video games, which may be more plausible because of its extreme realism and the high degree of thematic violence and murderous representations. Several retrospective investigations of actual violence, most notably the…
Esposito, V.J. (1964) a Concise History of World War I. New York: Praeger
Nevins, J., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.
New York: Pocket Books
DBQ 16: Why Did We Enter World War I? Document 1.
Television and School Performance brief glance at the publishing history of books about the effect of television on academic performance makes one thing clear: there was a boom in interest in the topic in the 1970s, and a lot less now. Information about the subject seems much more extensive in recent and current periodicals, however.
There are two possible conclusions this dearth of academic research, along with a relative wealth of popular writing, can lead two. The first conclusion is this: the detrimental effects of television-watching on academic performance are so well recognized that researchers no longer see it as worthy of in-depth research.
The second conclusion is the more jaded view: television networks (many of which own both book publishing companies and periodicals) and their advertisers have put the damper on any such undertakings, except in the most cursory manner.
hatever the reason for the relative paucity of recent…
Guidelines for Family Television Viewing." 2003. The Effects of Television Viewing / Family Education Web site. 28 September 2003. http://www.familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,63-23816,00.html .
Inge, M. Thomas, Ed. Handbook of American Popular Culture. Volume: 1. Westport, CT, 1978.
Luke, Carmen. Constructing the Child Viewer: A History of the American Discourse on Television and Children, 1950-1980. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
O'Keefe, Lori. "Academy supports efforts to loosen grip of media violence on children." AAP News. 2001. American Academy of Pediatrics. 28 September 2003. http://www.aap.org/advocacy/OKeefemediaviolence.htm .
Rothwell also mentions the Willie Horton advertisement run against Michael Dukakis in 1988 and the increase in soft money for advertisements in 1996 as instances in which television played a role in the outcome of the presidential election.
The author then talks about television as a political medium. Television, she wrote, "prefers images to words, icons to understandings... And arguably, emotion to reason." Rothwell then says that television exaggerates those preferences in political ads.
Rothwell writes that television has blurred the lines between politics, journalism, and entertainment. She uses examples such as presidential candidates appearing on late-night television programs.
This, in turn, has led to a simplification of the issues. She cited a 1996 study by the Center for Media and Public Affairs that found that the amount of time spent on political issues and the depth of the stories about political issues were both declining. For example, she said…
Rothwell, Jennifer Truran. "Presidential Elections in the Age of Television." Social Education. September 1, 2000. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-67412067.html (accessed 03/11/07).
Television and Its Effects
The extent of television's influence on American cultural values is, ironically, often portrayed on television shows. For example, in an episode of South Park, all the men and boys in town become "metrosexuals," after watching the popular series Queer Eye for the Straight Guy. Queer Eye for the Straight Guy shaped gender norms in the fictitious town of South Park, just as television shows like South Park in turn shape cultural values in real-world American culture. As Rushworth M. Kidder states in his article "Television, Values, and the American ay," "from what TV does show me, I would conclude that this is a nation of anguished gossips mesmerized by stocks, wrestling, and the weather. Nearly all must be unmarried, divorced, or gay." Animated shows like South Park in particular have the power to satirize television's powerful effect on molding the American mind because they are detached…
Kidder, Rushworth M. "Television, Values, and the American Way." Institute for Global Ethics. 2000. Online at < http://www.globalethics.org/newsline/members/issue.tmpl?articleid=04300021470834>.
Warren, Michael. "Storytellers Shape Spiritual Values." Center for Media Literacy. 2003. Online at < http://www.medialit.org/reading_room/article99.html>.
Childhood Education and Media Literacy
Media technology is a part of our everyday lives even from a very young age. This is true for many children who are entering elementary school today. These children are likely to already be familiar with such media as television and the internet, which have both recreational and educational merits as the child grows up. This early-aged familiarity is proving to be a great opportunity for educators to use the interests which are already existing in young students. By using such technology-based ways of educating such as the use of television to help develop literacy, teachers may be better able to work with a diversity of student needs. Using these technology-based media also have some risks for the development of student literacy. These relate to the formation of symbolic understanding as a result of media exposure. This is explored in greater detail later…
Alexander, A. & Hanson, J. (2006). Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Mass Media and Society. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin; 9th Ed.
Cesarone, B. (2000). Computers in Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Childhood Education. Online at .
Hobbs, R. (2007). Reading the Media. Teacher's College Press.
Mokhtari, K. (2009). ISU Study Finds College Students are Online Regularly and Reading More Overall. Insciences Organization. Online at http://insciences.org/article.php?article_id=3664
Television Viewing and Violence in Children
Television has become a kind of a modern, technological 'babysitter' for children. It is not unusual for even very young children to have unsupervised television time. Because of the famous studies conduced by Bandura which suggested that children are apt to mimic observed behaviors and imitate the behaviors of others (even when they are not directly praised for doing so) many researchers have attempted to draw a causal link between violent television viewing and actual violent behavior in children. They also argue that children are desensitized to violence through repeated viewing of violent programming. This notion of desensitization is supported by studies which found that measures of arousal in children declined upon repeated exposure to violent content. Children exposed to violent television also seem more apt to articulate a suspicious view of the world (275-276).
However, it is somewhat problematic to draw a direct…
Moreover, electronic communities provide a sense of common experience and involvement that seems lacking in much of modern society (Komito pp). Most of society today has no problem with the idea of "imagined community," where national solidarity is a projection, on the part of individuals, rather than a practice founded on face-to-face interaction and communication (Komito pp).
Komito points out that it is rare, within any group, that social relations are without conflict, hierarchy and inequality, and no matter how strong the commitment to shared values based on family, kinship or ethnicity, there is negotiation based on conflicting individual interests and concerns (Komito pp). Although collective solidarity is often a goal, it is rarely achieved, because communities are composed not only of people who like each other, but also hate each other, and thus, both co-operate and compete with one another (Komito pp). Komito warns that "one must avoid both…
Benedict Anderson: The Nation as Imagined Community." The Nationalism
Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata. "Theorizing community development."
Journal of the Community Development Society. 7/1/2004;
Some of these incidents use evidence in new ways: in one episode aired recently, someone killed two people and wounded a dog. They had no human blood on them because they shot the people from some distance, but one shooter did get dog blood on his jacket. Cold case detectives solved the problem with DNA testing, but used dog blood from the dog, who survived. The detectives found out that DNA testing is just as accurate for animals as it is for humans.
The show provides a satisfying feeling that people cannot get away with very serious crimes such as murder, because the detectives simply will not give up until the crime is solved, no matter how long that takes. Such innovative detective work as using the dog's DNA to prove that a specific person had committed a specific crime is creative, and generates a feeling in the viewer that…
Television Pogam Review
Intoduction and Bief Summay of Pogam
The pogam being eviewed is Real Time, hosted by comedian and political commentato Bill Mahe. It ais live, once a week on HBO on Fiday nights at 10:00 PM with peiodic epeats theeafte. The show is an hou-long a mix of social commentay, humo, and political satie. Geneally, the pogam opens with a shot monolog deliveed by host Bill Mahe duing which he comments about the top news stoies and political issues that aise duing the week.
The opening monolog is usually followed by a one-on-one inteview of a guest chosen because he o she is knowledgeable about one of the cuent-events topics that is scheduled fo moe in-depth discussion late in the show. Afte the one-on-one inteview, Mahe usually hosts a ound-table type of discussion that geneally includes one o two subject-matte expets, political commentatos, news epotes, politicians, and entetaines.…
references to Republican political positions that could easily be construed as politically conservative rhetoric. However, to viewers without particularly strong political affiliation or party orientation, the program is probably a valuable source of commentary; the one-on-one and round-table segments are particularly valuable because they cover various important national and international events and situations in much greater depth than they are ordinarily covered in network news programs and other types of "light" news programs.
On the whole, the program definitely does have a beneficial value that goes beyond superficial entertainment. It provides valuable information that is relevant to some of the most important contemporary issues in society and it presents subject-matter experts in a format where they have more of an opportunity to explain issues and circumstances than they may have in network news programs. More importantly, it covers some of the same types of issues that are covered in-depth "straight" network news shows that many of its viewers may not choose to watch as often such as Meet the Press or Face the Nation. The show is much more appropriate for an adult audience than for children younger than high school age, primarily because it sometimes involves adult themes and because it is not edited for adult language. Likewise, younger viewers may not necessarily understand the difference between genuine commentary and satire and they may also misconstrue sarcasm for literal statements and beliefs.
In fact, the relationship between academic performance and television is not clear cut. esearch has shown that children who watch a large amount of television typically do poorly in school, yet those who spend a moderate amount of time in front of the television do better than non-viewers. There is a small negative relationship between television viewing and a child's IQ. However, there are significant subgroup differences. There are several examples, such as -- a high IQ is positively related to television viewing for children until they reach their teens. In addition, the negative relationship found with television viewing and IQ is stronger for boys than girls. Another important subgroup difference that is lost in the generalization of the subject of children and television is that television viewing and reading are positively related, up to a viewing of ten hours per week ("Children & television"). In addition to the direct…
Chang, H. & Nayga, R. (Jul 2009). "Television viewing, fast-food consumption, and children's obesity." Contemporary Economic Policy, 27(3). Retrieved November 14, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Children and television. (2008). Retrieved November 13, 2009, from http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=childrenand .
Dennis, P. (1998). "Chills and thrills. Does radio harm our children?" Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences, 34(1). Retrieved November 14, 2009, from America History & Life.
Forbes, S., van Teigilingen, E. & Clark, T. (2007). "Behaviours and attitudes towards physical activity and lifestyle factors." International Journal of Health Promotion & Education, 45(4). Retrieved November 14, 2009, from CINAHL.
S., Canada, and in South Africa. He chooses South Africa because TV was banned there from 1945 to 1974. Homicide rates increased enormously in the U.S. And Canada (93% and 92%, respectively) in those time periods -- but homicide rates declined by 7% in TV-less South Africa. Is that really empirical evidence to support his case? Hardly.
Meantime, Centerwall asserts that because minority households didn't all have TV at a time when Caucasian households did, the white homicide rate increased much quicker than minority homicide rates. Again, it would be very difficult to verify such a strange juxtaposition of assertions. Centerwall injures his case by saying things like "…every violent act" is the result of "forces coming together" (drugs, poverty, crime, booze, stress). But what about sports-related battles, domestic violence, bullying in school? Going way out on a limb, Centerwall insists that if there were no TV then there would…
Centerwall, Brandon S. "Television and Violent Crime." The Public Interest, No. 111 (1993):
Murray, John P. "Television Violence and Its Impact on Children." (1995)
Siano, Brian. "Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed: Chasing the Monster of TV Violence." the
Television and Social ehavior
As a pervasive media, television has a significant impact on people of every age group. Regular dose of violence, aggression, killing, rape and other criminal activities creates both short-term and long-term effects. esides the risk of desensitization and development of a violent disposition, television also causes other social behavioral issues. Too much television viewing has been shown to affect active peer relationships. Research on 'mirror neurons' has now offered a neurobiological mechanism underlying imitative violence. There is enough evidence to suggest that television viewing beyond appropriate limits can be damaging to the normal behavioral development in children. Parents should actively monitor and control both the quality of the content and length of time that children watch television.
Television and its impact on social behavior has been the subject of intense research over the last several decades. Particularly, the content of television programs and their effect…
1) Mary L. Gavin, (Oct 2008), 'How TV Affects Your Child', retrieved March 20th 2011, from, http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_affects_child.html #
2) U.S. Dept of Health Education and Welfare, (1971), 'Television and Growing up: The Impact of Televised violence' Report to the Surgeon General United States Public Health Service,
3) Rowell Huesmann, (Dec 2007), 'The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research', J Adolesc Health. 41 (6), retrieved from, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704015/?tool=pmcentrez
4) Jonah Lehrer, (July 2008), 'The Mirror Neuron Revolution: Explaining what makes humans Social," Scientific American, retrieved mar 20th 2011, from, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-mirror-neuron-revolut
No one could determine Caylee Anthony's cause of death; Casey Anthony's DNA was not on the duct tape covering Caylee's mouth, and there was no evidence that Anthony had been in the same location where the body was dumped (Hoffmeister, 2011). In other words, there was no physical evidence linking Casey Anthony to the crime. Therefore, when the jury decided to acquit Anthony, many people believed the acquittal was due to the CSI effect. Certainly, had there been any physical evidence linking Anthony to the crime, a conviction would have been almost a certainty given Anthony's bizarre behavior after her daughter's death.
However, it is important to realize that a conviction against Anthony would have been difficult to achieve even in the days before TV shows like CSI. There was no evidence linking her to the commission of a murder. The defense's theory was unusual, but it was not unreasonable.…
Heinrick, J. (2006). Everyone's an expert: the CSI effect's negative impact on juries. Retrieved November 3, 2011 from Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes website: http://www.cspo.org/documents/csieffectheinrick.pdf
Hoffmeister, T. (2011, Jul. 6). Did 'CSI' effect sway Anthony jury? Retrieved November 3,
2011 from CNN website:
TV in the modern world forms a crucial part in affecting societal perception on a number of issues. One of these issues is the family. The traditional family in the American context is closely knit and held around Christian norms. This means two parents and kids born within the marriage. This is commonly referred to as the societal norm format (sitcom), and it is common in the majority of shows. However, the Roseanne show presents a very different format for the family. For instance, the Conners are white and speak English, the family is a two-parent household, and fall to what is commonly referred to as the working class. in addition, the Conners didn’t have careers and at times, they even found it difficult to find jobs. They have three kids and they took one of their daughter’s boyfriends to live with them because his mother was abusive (Probyn, 1990).…
Probyn, E. (1990). New traditionalism and post-feminism: TV does the home. Screen, 31(2), 147-159.
The range of television programs that I watch includes HBO dramas like "Six Feet Under," animated comedies like "The Simpsons" and "South Park," and occasionally the news and "The Daily Show." I also enjoy watching professional sports on TV too. The shows I watch occasionally relate to my daily life but usually they do not. For example, "Six Feet Under" portrays relationships and family more realistically than any other show I know but for the most part the shows I watch, including "The Simpsons" are exaggerated, which is why they are funny. I enjoy shows that make me laugh, but some dramas like "CSI" are occasionally fun to watch, even if they have no bearing on my every day life. In generally I like shows that entertain me for whatever reason, whether they make me laugh or whether they simply distract me for an hour or two.
In addition, protests against the war were readily televised at that time and protesters became more aware of the benefits of televised protest.[footnoteRef:4] the efforts of black anti-segregationists also benefits from televised coverage and became more conversant with valuable uses of the medium.[footnoteRef:5] in addition, popular culture became more open to black citizens: a "black sitcom" called "The Jeffersons" debuted in 1975 and revolved around the lives of a prosperous, cantankerous wealthy black man, his family and an interracial couple.[footnoteRef:6] in addition, in 1977, the 7-part mini-series "Roots" -- a story of numerous generations in of a black family stretching from capture/slavery to freedom in America -- aired with approximately 130 million Americans -- more than half the U.S. population of that time, watching at least part of the series and approximately 100 million viewers watching the final episode.[footnoteRef:7] There was also increased "agitation" for women's rights, which was aided…
Convenience rather than creating cuisine is the priority of Kraft ads. Adult tastes are given less of a priority than suiting the palate of children. Nutrition is paid homage to, but only in the sense of giving a family a starch, protein, and vegetable on a plate in the Hormel TV dinner advertisement.
One ad that occurred towards the end of the show, a Domino's Pizza advertisement, seemed to clash with the demographic of the other advertisement. However, the cheapness of Domino's many specials enables a mother to feed a large family quickly.
It is interesting to compare the Martha advertising with the advertising for later-night television programs aimed at a younger demographic, with a larger male audience. These ads favor snack food like sodas, have hipper and more conceptual features, and in the case of many fast food advertisements like KFC and McDonald's, often feature minority actors, even those…
hile neither of his parents were substance abusers, they were also normal dogs. It is possible that Brian's abnormal nature as a dog with human qualities may leave him with underlying identity issues, however. These issues may manifest as narcissistic personality disorder in Brian. The character has a strong sense of entitlement and feels superior to others. Yet his outcomes are seldom successful and this may in fact reinforce Brian's underlying feelings of inferiority. The fact that he is superior to other dogs but as a dog is inferior to humans is a potential root cause of narcissism but there is insufficient evidence for a full diagnosis.
Brian's behavior patterns represent abnormality in that he at times finds his drinking becoming an obstacle to achieving his goals, and because his drinking is a mechanism by which to medicate his underlying issues. At no point does the drinking actually help him…
DSM-IV: Narcissistic personality disorder. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/personality/narcissism.html
DSM-IV: Substance abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/substance/substanceabuse.html
DSM-IV: Substance dependence. Retrieved March 6, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/disorders/substance/substancedependence.html
Television and America
There have been many technological advances within the past sixty years that have fundamentally influenced the way that we live in the United States. Among the most influential is the invention and proliferation of the television.
Though there are other advances which, are equally important it is still the television that dominates the background noise of nearly every home. In fact most homes have more televisions than they have bathrooms. It is not unusual for television to be the single most used avenue for national and international information. "From its early position as a new medium for political coverage in the 1950s, television quickly supplanted radio and eventually newspapers to become by the early 1960s the major source of public information about politics."
This information includes political, social and popular issues that have helped shape the culture of America. It is through the influence of television and…
Lynda Lee Kaid. "Political Process and Television." 2003
Paul Schatzkin "Television is 75" 2002 http://www.philo75.com
Since the 1950s, television has become an increasingly vital part of life, providing both an escape from the pressures of everyday life as well as offering social commentary. Television shows that center on family life have historically been among some of the highest-rated shows. One of the reasons why these shows are among the most popular are that they reflect the realities of actual families and family problems yet do so in a unique and refreshing way. In order to understand the role of television in explaining family structures, it is necessary to compare television shows from the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s with contemporary television shows.
TELEVISION SHOWS COMPARED
There are numerous similarities and differences between television shows of the 1950s, 1970s, and 1980s that center on family life and television shows depicting contemporary families and family forms. In general, television shows have adapted to reflect changing…
TV & Internet
Mass media technology has become omnipresent in our society. It is not uncommon for children to now be raised with personal electronics, constant television and an overall barrage of sensory stimulus. Moreover, electronic devices are becoming the main means of communication for the younger generation, which can challenge their ability to relate to others. While many in the media have called into question the impacts of these socio-technical changes, others point the benefits that technology offers, and note that change is inevitable and the negative effects are overblown. This paper will take a look at the effects of television and Internet consumption on the young generation.
There are a number of different influences the have been hypothesized for children based on their exposure to television and the media, none more prevalent than the argument that children are exposed to much more violence throughout their childhoods than…
AAP. (2011). Children, adolescents, obesity and the media. Pediatrics. Vol. 128 (1) 201-208.
Castillo, M. (2013). Parents' TV time may be the biggest influence on kids' viewing habits. CBS News. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/parents-tv-time-may-be-the-biggest-influence-on-kids-viewing-habits/
Donnerstein, E. (2010). The media and aggression: From TV to the Internet. University of Arizona. Retrieved April 30, 2014 from http://www.sydneysymposium.unsw.edu.au/2010/chapters/DonnersteinSSSP2010.pdf
Harris, J., Speers, S., Schwartz, M. & Brownell, K. (2012) U.S. food company branded advergames on the Internet: Children's exposure and effects on snack consumption. Journal of Children and the Media. Vol. 6 (1) 51-68.
(Fishman & Cavender, 1998) To some degree this, as well as the fictional license many "reality" and "reality based" programs take with technology applications put a great deal of pressure on real law enforcement and force public scrutiny that many find unwelcome. (Arcuril, 1977)
The challenge is then placed squarely on law enforcement as well as their support systems, like crime scene investigators (usually for legal reasons a completely separate entity), to resolve crime in hours rather than days, months or years. Most people who have been victims of crime are fundamentally aware that these images are functionally unrealistic, and yet they and others are still building a case, through viewership for the value and continued desire for such programming. The visual imagery, possible through technology has also challenged the public to learn to stomach, and even covet more and more Technicolor representations of "reality." Where Perry Mason utilized static…
Arcuril, A.F. (1977). You Can't Take Fingerprints Off Water: Police Officers' Views Toward "Cop" Television Shows. Human Relations, 30 (3), 237-247.
Fishman, M., & Cavender, G. (1998). Mark Fishman, Gray Cavender. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Surette, R., & Otto, C. (2002). Journal of Criminal Justice, 30 (5), 443-453.
The role of advertising, especially television commercials, in influencing social lifestyles has long been a raging debate between public interests groups, government and industry. Critics believe that advertising imagery, coupled with television programming, preys on susceptible minds. Pro-choicers, on the other hand, point out that freedom of speech and expression constitutes a basic, inviolable constitutional right, and that advertising merely facilitates consumers to exercise choice in their lifestyle decisions. Much of the debate, though supported by research, is based on the rhetoric of ideology. As against this, it is the objective of this paper to establish that advertising has a very fundamental and valuable contribution, in as much that it fuels economic and social progress. For one, advertising stimulates economic growth through creating new desires, thereby increasing the demand for goods and services. Second, advertising allows consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Third, advertising revenue enables affordable, mass…
Bennett, C.L. "Effects of Magazine Advertisements on College Females' Drive for Thinness, Self-esteem and Body Satisfaction." College of Communications, Schreyer Honors College. The Pennsylvania State University. Spring 2003. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2004: http://www.ipa.udel.edu/students/bennett/ugthesis_bennett.pdf .
Brown, S. "The role of advertising today." Marketing Monthly. Oct. 2003.
Retrieved Feb. 7,
2004, One Vision Web site: http://www.onevision.co.uk/xq/ASP/id.864/qx/default.htm?CT=LeftNav
(eilly, 1980) The program had the highest per episode viewer ratings of any before it and the plot has been called "the shot cheered round the world." (eilly, 1980) Another great example is the M.A.S.H. season finale, as the program held a huge record for most viewers of any finale in television history and the viewership record has served as an enduring benchmark in television until the Super Bowl XLIV, in 2010, when the battered city of New Orleans LA sent the Saints to the super bowl and the whole nation was rooting for triumph for the city, and the team. Many contend that the viewership rating was skewed in large part due to the expansion of the Nielsen system as well as the vast number of televisions in homes today, as compared to the M.A.S.H. finale in 1983. According to the record the M.A.S.H. finale had 105.97 estimated viewers…
Fishman, M., & Cavender, G. (1998). Mark Fishman, Gray Cavender. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Klowden, K., Chatterjee, A., & DeVol, R. (2008, June). The Economic Impact of Digital Distribution. Retrieved August 1, 20010 from http://www.milkeninstitute.org/pdf/writers_strike.pdf
NFL Wire Reports. (2010, February 8). Super Bowl XLIV beats 'M-A-S-H' finale for U.S. viewership record. NFL.com, Retrieved August 1, 20010 from http://www.nfl.com/superbowl/story/09000d5d8164bc7b/article/super-bowl-xliv-beats-mash-finale-for-us-viewership-record .
Reilly, S. (1980). Who Shot JR? People, 14 (2), Retrieved August 1, 20010 from http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20076970,00.html .
That relieves all the pent-up anxiety of a Trump wannabe. Therefore, such a viewer remains content with his or her current life, acquiescing to (and as a result reinforcing) current hegemonic power structures (i.e., the real power of big corporations, and corporate players like Trump, over all the rest of us)).
"The Apprentice" is especially successful at pro-hegemonic reinforcement, moreover, since it focuses on a subject we all (except for those born independently wealthy, or winners of huge lotteries) recognize and experience day-to-day: work. Hegemonic power of corporate workplaces, and, by association, a national government that allows, and encourages, corporate uses and abuses of power, are validated by "The Apprentice's" implicit suggestion that a high-powered corporate career, the higher paid and more prestigious the better [the stuff that makes the Ken Lays of the world tick], is exciting, fun, glamorous, where the winners are, and something to aspire to, rather…
"Dinsdag." November 30, 2004. Swerve Left. Retrieved May 11, 2005, from:
"Inkwell." Independent Women's Forum. Retrieved May 11, 2005, from:
The Contest" draws attention to the level of humor that pervades the lives of television show characters, especially characters on sitcoms. hile many people do enjoy hearty laughter and excitement with their friends on a regular basis, few in real life do so to the extent of the Seinfeld characters. It is possible that people who watch the show are attempting to discover ways to enliven their real-life friendships, to infuse more humor and outrageousness in them. hether through devising masturbation contests or not, individuals use ideas from shows like Seinfeld to add color and lightness to their often troubled lives. hen our relationships fall short of being as lighthearted as the relationships depicted on Seinfeld, we may be disappointed.
In the spirit of "The Contest," when we claim that we are "master of our domain," we are relying on Seinfeld to provide us with euphemisms related to sex. Seinfeld…
Crawley, Mark. "Favorite Seinfeld Episodes." Movieprop.com. Retrieved July 21, 2005 online at http://www.movieprop.com/tvandmovie/Seinfeld/favorite.htm
David, Larry. "The Contest." Dir. Tom Cherones. Starring: Jerry Seinfeld, Michael Richards, Jason Alexander, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Estelle Harris (as Mrs. Costanza), and Jane Leeves (as Marla). Broadcasted November 18, 1992. Script retrieved online July 21, 2005 at http://www.seinfeldscripts.com/TheContest.htm
Simon Cowell: The Man with Two Faces
The enormous popularity of American Idol gave many people in the United States their first taste both of Simon Cowell and the singing-superstar contestant shows that he seems to have made it his life's work to popularize, but in fact the acerbic Brit was prominent on the producing end of the music industry for decades, and before his American Idol fame he was a creator, producer, and judge on the UK television show X Factor, which has since spawned many versions in other nations. It is not all that surprising to discover that Cowell started a show similar to American Idol in his native country, but it is somewhat striking to see the difference in his temperament and character between the two shows.
The Simon Cowell that for so long graced U.S. airwaves as a judge on American Idol was a…
The lizard is improbably likeable, with his enormous bright eyes and Cockney accent. The commercials are effective, in part, because they ask us to suspend belief. The lizard is the foil for whatever human character appears. The human does something silly or illogical and the lizard is the voice of reason. The situations are bizarre, which is what makes them funny. Geico is smart to change the commercials frequently. Just about the time the viewer tires of one, there is a new commercial starring the lizard in a fresh situation. As soon as the Geico logo appears on the television screen, the viewer is primed with anticipation for what the lizard will say and do next.
In each of these cases, the basis for appeal is appropriate to the product. Apple wants to appeal to our emotions while maintaining a serious tone. The iPad is supposed to be seen as…
'Geico Gecko Dollar Commercial,' YouTube. n.d. Web. 12 May 2011.
'If You Asked.' Apple iPad 2 TV Commercial. 4 May 2011. Web. 12 May 2011.
'Prius Harmony,' 2011 Toyota Prius TV Commercials. 2011. Web. 12 May 2011.
It said that most parents would support new limits to be established on content of television programs and shows. Approximately half of the surveyed parents and their peers expressed concern that their own children saw what they saw on TV. More lack and Hispanic parents expressed this concern than did white parents. More than three-fourths of them said that inappropriate television and media material worried them the most. Two-thirds of them said they closely watched TV shows their children watched. Those who said they could not do very much said that the exposure had gone too widespread to be controlled or that they were too busy. The Kaiser study also reported that one in four of the parents surveyed admitted that the media were the main negative influence on their children. The rest said it had positive influence and the rest said it had little impact. Four in the 10…
Better Nutrition (2002). TV Bashed. 2 pages. PRIMEDIA Intertec: PRIMEDIA Company
Bower, B. (1985). Social Channels Tune in TV's Effects. 2 pages. Science News: Social Science Service, Inc.
Etzioni, a. (1993). Lock Up Your TV Set: Violence on Television. 4 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Fram, a. (2007).Most Parents Concerned About Violence in Media. 2 pages. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers
According to Graff (2010), less than one percent of Americans live without television. Living without television has become a radical lifestyle choice. Moskowitz (2008) claims that living without a television might be the only lifestyle issue to unite the ultra-liberal and ultra-conservative Americans. Television aversion "is a common ground for the very liberal and the very conservative," both of which are the most likely demographic to do without the boob tube (Moskowitz 2008). However, the Internet is becoming an increasingly viable means of acquiring and viewing content including television shows. Many families that do without television watch their favorite shows online using Websites like Hulu. What Hulu and other Web-based television content providers offer is greater control over the viewing experience. The user still watches advertisements, but not as much. Elberese & Gupta (2010) point out that Hulu viewers only see one quarter of the number of ads that…
Fleiss, P. & Hodges, F.M. (2000). Sweet Dreams. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Graff, A. (2010). Family life without a television. The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/blogs/sfmoms/detail-entry_id=56466
"Kids' TV watching linked to unhealthy eating habits," (2001). CNN. Jan 8, 2001. Retrieved online: http://articles.cnn.com/2001-01-08/health/tv.eating_1_fruits-and-vegetables-salty-snacks-healthy-habits?_s=PM:HEALTH
Moskowitz, C. (2008). Out there: People who live without tv. Live Science. Retrieved online: http://www.livescience.com/2836-people-live-tv.html
Marketing success is almost always found in celebrity endorsements. We can take a look at Pepsi ads which have featured Madonna, Michael Jackson, Brittany Spears, and even Mike Tyson. Pepsi is known around the world, just as the celebrities whom are featured on the Pepsi commercials. In other words, in using the notoriety of celebrities, a corporation may be able to increase its market share into the pockets of consumers who are more familiar with the celebrity than the product. The celebrity thus is a bridge between the consumer and the product. But what happens when those celebrities are notorious for other things as well as their entertainment or sport talent? And why do the corporations continue to utilize these celebrities if these celebrities have been known to engage in improprieties or dubious activities?
Corporations have a business model that has multiple branches leading from three or four…
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…
There was also significant risk of increased attention problems associated with watching nonviolent television for the same age group, but no risk was associated with viewing educational programming. Older children ages 4 and 5 showed no increased risk five years later for attention problems from watching violent or non-violent programs. This second study was based on data collected from parents of 933 children and shows that the effect of violent television content on attention problems is much higher than previously estimated when program content was not identified." (Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008)
The work of Josephson (2005) entitled: "Television Violence a Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages" states that children at the preschool age, or between three and five years of age "...begin watching television with an "exploration" approach. They actively search for meaning in the content, but are still especially attracted to vivid production features,…
Reebye, Pratibha (2005) Aggression During Early Years - Infancy and Preschool. T h e C. A n a d I a n C. h I l d a n d a d o l e s c e n t P. s y c h I a t r y R. e v I e w F. e b r u a r y 2-0 0-5 (1-4): 1. Online available at http://www.irm-systems.com/onottaca/doc.nsf/files/B5699D7CBA111CF48725712D00526DF5/$file/Feb05AggressionDuringEarlyYears.pdf
Watching Violent TV at Pre-School Age Linked to Aggression in Young Boys (2008) Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute, 2008. Online available at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/87763.php
Josephson, W.L. (2005) Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Online available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ncfv-cnivf/familyviolence/html/nfntseffevage_e.html .
Screen Violence Tied to Boys' Aggression: Study (2007) Reuters News. 5 Nov 2007. Online available at http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSN0460670820071105
As children are our future, showing violent and frightening images on television has a negative impact on society because it aids in the creation of a society that is both aggressive and fear. And what causes war and conflict other than aggressive fear?
n addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a…
In addition to creating a society filled with those who are both aggressive and fearful, television creates a society filled with those who do not succeed academically and intellectually, preparing the world to spiral into a downturn of less than qualified leadership. According to Hedley et al.'s book, the negative correlation between television viewing and academic performance can be supported by five major studies. These studies, conducted mostly during the 1980s, used data collected primarily from educational and academic sources, such as the Educational Testing Service, the California Assessment Program, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Susan B. Neuman, in Literacy in the Television Age, a book published in 1999, adds to this data by arguing that the television could have been a great educational tool. Tha I t is not, and is rather a tool commonly seen as eroding academic ability, certainly speaks volumes to its nature. Neuman argues that three arguments have been made, associating television with negative affects on society. Some have argued that television takes time away from more academic pursuits like reading and imagining, while others suggest that it shapes the way that students' think. The other argument holds that TV makes students exhibit poor behavior during class. Clearly, one of the most important pursuits of a child or adolescent's life is education. Without it, society will be doomed to malfunction. Because television impacts education negatively, it has a negative impact on society.
Now that we've established how television can have a negative impact on society through encouraging violent behavior and poor academic performance, we can start to consider what can be done. Clearly, children are the focus of television's negative affects on society. Therefore, it must be children that are targeted in order to improve this situation. The burden must fall on parents, who should closely monitor what children watch and how much television they watch a day. Parents should encourage children to engage in other, more intellectually stimulating behavior, such as reading. By doing this, the negative societal affects or television can be removed. So make sure the children in your life aren't watching too much TV or shows that are inappropriate for them.
Thus, the television has been a wonderful invention that has helped us travel to other worlds. But the amount of children watching televisions for periods as long as their parents go to work is causing problems, impacting society negatively. In order to create future leaders who are not aggressive or intellectually stunted, parents must strictly monitor children's television watching.
Attitudes and practices varied by age of the child and the gender of the parent.
Colorito, Rita. (2002) "Violence on elevision News Programs is a Serious Problem." Is Media Violence a Problem? Ed James orr San Diego: Greenhaven, 2002. 24- 30.
Colorito says that even though rates of crime decreased in the 1990s, television news coverage of violent crime increased. V news shows like 20/20 and Dateline frequently show stories on horrible crimes, sometimes with bloody crime scenes and re-enactments of the crime. his makes people think that there is more violent crime than there really is.
Felson, Richard. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22. 1996. [Electronic Version]
he topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. here are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of V on aggression. However, no review looked at the…
The topic of violence in the media has been continually debated over the past several decades. There are a lot of empirical studies that show the effects of TV on aggression. However, no review looked at the criminal aggression. The author concluded that even though the possibility of TV and film violence can lead to violent crime remains, most of the studies show that viewing violence does not cause crime.
Kirsh, Steven. Children, Adolescents, and Media Violence. A Crtical Look at the Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2006
This book gives a very good overview of variety of studies about media violence and children and adolesence. The book includes information on what is aggression and different theories about aggression and human behavior. Kirsh wants readers to be critical of the studies they read and make sure they are scientific. Although he does not believe that violence in the media is harmful based on the studies, he does say that it should not be ignored. He concludes by saying that there should be more positive media for younger children when they will be effected most.
Television, the Plug-in Drug": Negative Effects on "Plugged-in" Children and Families
Based on Marie Winn's essay, "Television, The Plug-In Drug," the all-too-frequent role of television on our lives today is that of either (1) babysitter; (2) too-frequent family entertainer; and (3) emotional narcotic. Moreover, according to Winn, television, when watched excessively or as a substitute for human interaction, is a negative "plug-in drug," in its mind-numbing effect on individuals and families alike. Therefore, I agree with Winn that the role of television in our lives is too often to distract us; numb us, and keep us preoccupied and distant from one another, compromising (if not destroying) communication within families, and among people in general. I therefore agree with Winn's overall view that television is capable of damaging (and often does damage, or even destroy) interpersonal; family, and other relationships among peers and within society. Viewing television, especially for long periods,…
television shows such as Dexter influence and/or desensitize people?
The aim of this particular thesis question was to understand the perception of the idea of 'attaining justice through any means'. Hence, this proposed thesis will mainly look to understand how a TV show like Dexter can influence the idea of justice as well as how and through what means justice can be implemented and achieved in reality.
eception Idea: Summary
eception concept is a variation of visitor feedback fictional idea that highlights the visitor's reception of a fictional content. It is usually called audience reception in the analysis of interactions designs. In fictional researches, reception idea stemmed from the job of Hans-obert Jauss in the 1960s. It was most prominent throughout the 1970s and very early 1980s in Germany and United States (Fortier 132), and amid some remarkable function in Western Europe. A type of reception idea has actually likewise…
Geiser-Getz, G. (1998). Chapter in Critical Approaches to Television (Berg, L.R.V., Wenner, L.A. And Gronbeck, B.E.). Houghton Mifflin Company. New York: Boston.
Real, M.R. (1996). Exploring Media Culture: A Guide. Communication and Human Values, Sage Publications. International Educational and Professional Publisher, Thousand Oaks, London.
television show onto the air in America is a difficult task. It requires a great investment of time and effort, and is often discouraging and disheartening. To get an idea to air, the an idea must be carefully nurtured through the complex processes of creating a script, getting the script read by someone in Hollywood, getting the script to pilot, and finally getting the pilot to air.
There are many important steps that must be undertaken to get an idea for a television show onto the air in America. The first and most important of these steps is to get a pilot episode made to show to networks that might pick up the show. A pilot episode is simply the first episode of your television show, and should showcase the show in the best possible light. Getting an idea to the stage of a pilot show is a difficult undertaking,…
Adventures in Hollywood, Scene 1. 18 February 2004.
Glatzer, Jenna. Interview With Lynn Barker. 18 February 2004.
Therefore there should be more in-depth research into the types of content that are associated with television addiction.
The analysis of this article and other sources also raises the important issue of whether one can or even should avoid the influence of television in the information age. Television and other related media have become part of our everyday world and the problem of possible television addiction should be dealt with in terms of a healthy balance in television viewing. ather than a carte blanche condemnation of television there should be a more intensive focus on the negative forms of content that may lead to forms of addiction and other problem areas.
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. etrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Bogart, L. (1956). The Age of Television: A Study of Viewing Habits and the Impact of Television on American Life (3rd ed.). New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35619009 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433
Brock, B.J. (1994). Recreation Programming for the '90S Family: Demographics and Discoveries. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65(6), 64+. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002209433 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449752
Bryant, J. & Bryant, J.A. (Eds.). (2001). Television and the American Family. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106449755 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704
Gambling Ads on TV Will Fuel Addiction'. (2007, August 10). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 1. Retrieved August 12, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022193704 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001238566
The most important complementary product for TV sets is represented by the Home Theater System. The demand for such products is increasing. The increase is also due to a diversity of suppliers, which led to reduced prices.
Another product that can be considered TV set's complement is the VCR, or the DVR, its modern and more searched for version. Just like in the case of TV sets, the DVR comes in a very wide range, there are numerous suppliers fir this product, the prices vary in accordance with the quality and degree of technology advance. The demand for this product has a similar evolution as the demand for TV sets. However, the demand for DVRs is smaller than that for TV sets.
Given the circumstances presented above, one may conclude that the demand for TV sets is an inelastic one. The characteristics that generate this situation are: the reduced availability…
1. The U.S. television set market (2007). Goliath. Business Knowledge on Demand. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-7000795/the-U-S-television-set.html .
2. Richards, David (2009). 3D TV Set to Be in Big Demand. Smarthouse. The Lifestyle Technology Guide. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://www.smarthouse.com.au/TVs_And_Large_Display/3D_TV/C4W2G8V7.
Television and Cultural Plagues in America
American society is both one of the most litigious and one of the most violent in the world. ut violence is not the only cultural quagmire: Sexual promiscuity -- along with the itinerant sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies -- is another cultural minefield. And of course, racism, drug use and alcohol abuse are other major, seemingly unsolvable problems.
A common thread behind these social problems is the fact that social critics and activists blame television and its centrality to American culture for all. Television's pervasiveness especially among children is the concern. Today, often with both parents working and out of the house, latchkey kids come home from school and immediately turn on the television and start absorbing its disparate and often uncontrolled and only lightly censored messages.
Consequently, activists point their finger at television for corrupting the minds of our youth and steering…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Television and the Family. http://www.aap.org/family/tv1.htm
American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org / .
Christenson, Peter. Substance Abuse in Popular Prime Time Television. Mediascope, Inc.: 2000.
Collins, Rebecca L., Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, Dale Kunkel, Sarah B. Hunter, and Angela Miu, "Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior," RAND Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 3, September 2004.
Television, the four powers of television are characterized as the power to entertain, the power to socialize and educate, the power to inform, and the power to create community and consensus. The four are not mutually exclusive and can be found operating in pairs or larger groupings on individual shows.
The power to entertain is understood by everyone and is the primary power for most people. The television networks have played to this power from the beginning, carrying over what they had been doing on radio into the new medium to create programs that would gather large audiences around comedies, dramas, variety shows, and the like. This primary power has continued into the cable era, with many cable networks imitating the broadcast networks in these terms by presenting movies, dramatic shows, and comedies or by shaping non-fictional programs so they entertain, seen in the many so-called reality shows that are…
television has brought irreversible damage to the American family in t least two ways, by corroding marks, and by making the 'good enough' family less likely to be 'good'.
There are, she says, three types of families: the 'spectacular' -- that which eats together with children, reads aloud to them, plays with them, is simply the uncommonly ideal family that you read about in books. To the other extreme is the failing family where the father may be an alcoholic, the mother may be depressed, the children are on the streets, and the family can barely function, if at all, as a unit. On the contrary, they function as a badly meshed unit. In the middle, is the 'good-enough' family which most of us are just trying to do our best and rear ourselves and our children in the best way whilst coping with the survival demands of the routine…
Dr Heller.com Parenting and marital advice Is Technology Destroying Family Life?
television media research of Nielsen, Scarborough, & Arbitron
This is an essay comparing the pros and cons of television media research. Discussed are Nielsen, Scarborough, and Arbitron research. Two sources are used. APA.
Scarborough Research is a leader in consumer and media research tools.
It provides a syndicated research service on a local, regional and national level to newspapers, television and radio stations, cable systems, outdoor media, Internet companies, advertisers, agencies and sports teams and leagues. It conducts on-going studies in the top seventy-five markets and interviews over 200,000 adults annually (http://www.scarborough.com/scarb2002/press/pr_partner.htm).Itdelivers twice yearly updates of its local market reports to a diverse client base that spans all major media, advertisers and their agencies. These reports examine a variety of characteristics including online and offline consumer habits, local consumer shopping patterns, traditional and online media usage, demographics and lifestyle activities. Scarborough Research is a partnership between VNU Marketing…
Nielsen Media Research and Scarborough Partner for Qualitative Measurement Service to Local TV Station." Scarborbough Research. November 8, 2001. http://www.scarborough.com/scarb2002/press/pr_partner.htm .(accessed08-12-2002).
Interactive Television Research Institute. Murdoch University Perth Australia. http://www.itri.tv/.(accessed08-12-2002).
television shows Parks and ecreation and the American version of the Office deal with similar themes regarding the nature of the modern workplace and the relationships which populate it, but although both shows are shot in the same single-camera, mockumentary style, they end up saying very different things about their shared subject. This is ultimately a result of each particular show's setting; in The Office, the story follows the employees of a small paper company, but in Parks and ecreation, the story is about the public employees of the parks department in a small town. This difference is ultimately responsible for the different interpretations of similar themes seen both shows, and examining the ramifications of this distinction will serve to explicate the particular meaning of either show.
For much of its history The Office focuses on the ineptitude of management and the failure of the commercialized masculine ideal, implicitly critiquing…
Aronstein, A. (2011, May 05). The personal politics of parks and rec. Retrieved from http://splitsider.com/2011/05/the-personal-politics-of-parks-and-rec
Griffin, J. (2008). The americanization of the office: A comparison of the offbeat NBC sitcom and its british predecessor. Journal of Popular Film & Television, 35(4), 154-163.
TV and Magazine Ads. There are five references used for this paper.
Americans see numerous advertisements on TV and in magazines, all aim at getting them to spend their money. It is interesting to look at five such ads and who their target audience is.
The Libmen Company offers a wide array of products for cleaning the home. Their newest product is the Nitty Gritty Roller Mop which is targeted for the middle-class, homemaker.
The ad promises the product will "get to the nitty, gritty of cleaning a floor (Libmen)."
The company demonstrates this benefit by showing the consumer bristles on the mop, as well as the roller portion.
The consumer is shown the mop being used, further successfully illustrating the virtues of the product.
Odor Eaters has a product called Odor Eaters Plus. The product is aimed mainly at middle-class athletes or workers who may…
AT&T Text Messaging Ad. (observed 02 September, 2002 at 1:20 P.M.).
Jeep Grand Cherokee Ad. Time. (2003): 10 February.
Liberman Nitty Gritty Mop Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at Noon).
Odor Eaters Plus Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at 12:45 P.M.).
In contrast, TV influences children in abandoning the theories they were taught and embrace other concepts, most related to violence. Also, after being exposed to TV violence children feel that it is perfectly natural for them to behave similar to the characters on TV (Langone, 1984, p. 48).
It is extremely important for a child to be assisted by an adult when watching TV. Studies have shown that children are influenced by the way adults perceive TV programs, meaning that a child is likely to gain a better understanding of right and wrong when he or she is supported by a mature individual. Even with that, TV violence can negatively influence children, as they will merely hide their aggression in the cases when they are assisted by an adult who disapproves of violent behavior in watching TV (Langone, 1984, p. 56).
Children are generally willing to do anything in ordered…
1. Barker, M. & Petley, J. (2001). Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate. New York: Routledge.
2. Hoffman, A.M. (1996) Schools, Violence, and Society. Westport, CT: Praeger.
3. Josephson, W.L. (1995). "Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages." Retrieved August 16, 2010, from the Media Awareness Network Web site: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/research_documents/reports/violence/tv_violence_child.cfm
4. Langone, J. (1984). Violence!: Our Fastest-Growing Public Health Problem. 1st ed. Boston: Little, Brown
Much has been said about the violence on television and its potentially harmful effects on children. Everything from cartoons to toy commercials depicts violence in some form, and it is understandable that parents may be frightened. However, television can be a valuable tool for children's social and academic education. Programs like Sesame Street have for years taught young children the basics of reading and math in a multicultural framework. Educational children's programming abounds, and each show has something unique to offer. By watching these shows, children are encouraged to be creative. Educational programming also includes shows on stations like the Discovery Channel and the History Network. Many of these shows can be watched by both adults and children and can therefore stimulate dialog within the home. Even entertainment television such as sitcoms can help children make sense of their world. An early exposure to popular culture can be…
Children (boys especially) are predisposed to watching scenes of violence for long periods of time without feeling the need to change the program. Consequent to this, they are expected to display antisocial behavior.
Cartoons are essential in influencing children, given the fact that most seem innocent to most parents, thus preventing them from wanting to change the channel. Studies have shown that cartoons have a more negative influence on children in comparison to violence seen directly on TV. hile cartoons do not necessarily influence a violent behavior in children, they are apparently responsible for children having a decreased capacity to create neurotic connections.
Advertising is yet anther domain which catches children of guard, taking into consideration that they are less capable of ignoring advertisements. hen they are specially made for children, advertisements have an even greater influence, as they can affect their "beliefs, values, and moral norms" (Moniek Buijzen, Patti…
1. Buijzen, Moniek and Valkenburg, Patti M. "The Impact of Television Advertising on Children's Christmas Wishes," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 44.3 (2000)
2. Gunter, Barrie; Charlton, Tony; Coles, David and Panting, Charlie. "The Impact of Television on Children's Antisocial Behavior in a Novice Television Community," Child Study Journal 30.2 (2000): 65.
3. Johnson, Marilou M. "The Impact of Television and Directions for Controlling What Children View," Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45.4 (2001).
4. Reis, Raul "The Impact of Television Viewing in the Brazilian Amazon," Human Organization 57.3 (1998).
One study showed that "White characters are more often rich and well educated, while characters of color break the law, are lazy, and act goofy." (Kleinman) Additionally, the study showed that young children thought it was important to see people of their own race on television. Another study showed that a majority of children expected lack actors to play negative roles and White actors to play positive roles.
The negative portrayal of minorities in the media affect the way children see themselves and other people, according to studies. Children, and other members of society, both consciously and subconsciously take negative racist stereotypes away from the under representation of positive minority characters on television. Under-representation leads to the impression that there are few opportunities and limited choices available for that group. "The media can grant legitimacy by including people and showing them respect, he argues, and so fair and equal representation…
Kleinman, Katherine M. "Minorities in Prime-Time Television." Portfolio. The Website of Katie Kleinman. 15 November 1999. http://katiekleinman.neoartists.net/portfolio/minoritiesmedia.php
Larner, Bob. "Are minorities really under represented in the media?" The University of Washington Student Newspaper. 2 March 2001. http://archives.thedaily.washington.edu/2001/030201/O2.Fridayconv.html
Ure, Susane. "Ethnic and Visible Minorities in Entertainment Media." Stereotyping. Media Awareness Network. 2004. http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/ethnics_and_minorities/minorities_entertainment.cfm
TV news channels and online media for breaking the latest and hottest news first and taking the credit of being more alert and efficient. This paper compares the news delivered by different news channel websites regarding an important incident of this year "Killing of Osama Bin Laden" which took place on 1st May 2011 in Pakistan. Following paragraphs will compare how different news channel websites portrayed this story:
CNN declared Osama's killing news by calling Osama the "most prominent face of terror in America" was killed as said by the U.S. officials and they confirm to have his dead body.
The later part of the new article explains bin Laden's story; from his birth in Saudi Arabia to his leading of Al-Qaeda, which is a terrorist network behind the September 11, 2001 attacks. The news also states the destruction that was caused by the four hijacked planes and…
Al-Jazeera Staff. (2011). Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan. Al- Jazeera News. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2011/05/2011522132275789.html . Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Baker, P., Cooer, H., Mazzetti, M. (2011). Bin Ladin Is Dead, Osama Says. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com /2011/05/02/world/asia/osama-bin-laden-is-killed.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
CNN Staff Wire. (2011). Osama bin Laden, the face of terror, killed in Pakistan, CNN World. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-05-01/world/bin.laden.obit_1_bin-terrorist-network-uss-cole?_s=PM:WORLD, Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Dawn Staff. (2011). Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan, says Obama. Dawn News. http://www.dawn.com/2011/05/02/osama-bin-laden-killed-in-pakistan-says-obama.html . Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Children Could Lose Their Attention on TV Advertisements
While watching TV, children could create their own imaginary world and totally engrossed in it for a period of time. Recent survey finds out that children watch their favorite program on TV for about four or more hours every day. It is assumed that television has brought hazardous effect on children's attitude, intelligence, and social acceptance this way. However, based on my recent observation, kids are not totally engrossed on the program. My subjects show that during the program they also insert several different tasks such as inviting friends (other people over). Why do some children lose interest in television programming during commercials and begin other task? Is it because they lack of concentration span as most children do? Are there any other factors from the commercial itself that prevent them from watching? The research will combine behavior observation and questionnaire method…
____. Survey Design. 2001. The Survey System's Tutorial. Creative Research System. http://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htm .(Apr5, 2002)
____. TV or No TV?. 2000. Your Child's Health. http://www.yourchildshealth.com/family/tv.html.(Apr5, 2002).
Commercials. 1997. Center for Media Education. http://www.cme.org/children/kids_tv/commercial.html.(Apr5, 2002)
DeGaetano, Gloria. 1998. Visual Media and Children's Attention Span. University of Oregon. http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/mlr/readings/articles/degaetano/visualmedia.html (Apr5, 2002)