Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Management of Chronic and Terminal Illness
For people dealing with chronic or terminal illness, stress levels can be very high. While that is to be expected, high stress levels only make things worse. Accepting the inevitable is easier on a person's emotional well-being, but it may take some time to get to that point (Taylor, 2005). If a diagnosis is new, denial is often the first emotion the person faces. He or she does not want to believe the sickness or the severity of it. After denial, there are other stages that a person usually works through, including bargaining, anger, and depression, before acceptance finally sets in and the person is able to get on with life as much as possible. Chronic illnesses can include things like diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, COPD, and other health problems (CDC, 2010). Many of these diseases are preventable, but they are not curable…
Anderson, G. (2004). The growing burden of chronic disease in America. Public Health Reports, 119.
CDC (2010). Chronic diseases and health promotion. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview/index.htm
Taylor, S.E. (2005). Health psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
While the medical field agrees that prolonged suffering is not a desired product of medical care it has not yet reached the point of accepting that it is actually torture.
When we are at war we have soldiers how are standing trial for the torture and inhumane treatment of prisoners of war, however, we are not allowed to prevent that same level of torture from being thrust upon our loved ones who are ill / this makes no sense. Making someone endure the fevers, the pain, and the physical maladies that come with many of the life ending diseases today is actually a form of torture. It makes a person suffer against their will and at the hands of someone else, in this case the medical community.
More recently there have been strong arguments in courtrooms regarding Euthanasia and the right to choose to die now rather than later after…
____(2006) Jury to Rule Whether Woman Had Right to Die
South Florida Sun-Sentinel
Doerr, Ed. (1997)The Right to Die. The Humanist
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
Government Regulations and Hospice
Government Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Impact of rules on Hospice services
This paper focuses on how government regulations impact hospice. The paper starts off with an introduction to the hospice system that was revived by a nurse, Cecily Saunders, who then went on to become a physician, establishing one of the first modern hospices. The concept of total pain is explained in some detail. The body of the paper then includes the studies that have been conducted on patients and caregivers in hospice systems as well as on people who died after they were diagnosed with terminal illness resulting in death in six months following the prognosis. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that while in Japan there is a marked need for improving the Day hospice system, the American hospice industry…
American Medical Directors Association. (n.d.). White Paper on Palliative Care And Hospice In Long-Term Care. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from American Medical Directors Association: http://www.amda.com/governance/whitepapers/palliative_care.cfm
Carlson, M.D., Morrison, R.S., Holford, T.R., & Bradley, E.H. (2007). Hospice Care: What Services Do Patients and Their Families Receive? Health Services Research, 42(4), 1672-1690.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospice Conditions of Participation; Final Rule. Federal Register, 73(109), 32088-32220.
Christakis, N.A., & Escarce, J. j. (1996). Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment In hospice programs . The New England Journal of Medicine, 172-179.
Evidence, Evaluating Evidence, Making ecommendations
Life is a precious aspect of the human nature; the person has only one life to live. Therefore, it is essential for people to protect and guard the life of the individuals jealously. The nurses and other medical personnel do this work. The duty of the nurses is to care for all types of patients. However, the is a group of patients that require extra form of attention; this is the people that suffer from Terminal illnesses (Katz & Johnson 2006). Such people live with the reality of death in their faces. Dealing with such patients is quite difficult, and poses challenge to the nurses and the family of the individual who strive to facilitate the life of that patient. The nurses have difficulties in addressing the stressful nature of such people, as most of such patients lose interest in life. Additionally, the stress is…
Galbraithn .D. & Brownk .E. (2011) Assessing intervention effectiveness for reducing stress in student nurses: quantitative systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(4), 709 -- 721. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05549.x
Katz, R.S., & Johnson, T.A. (2006). When professionals weep: Emotional and countertransference responses in end-of-life care. New York: Routledge.
Herdman, T.H., & North American Nursing Diagnosis Association. (2008). NANDA-I nursing diagnoses: Definitions & classification, 2009-2011. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell
Campbell, L.A., & ProQuest Information and Learning Company. (2009). Effectiveness of interventions in changing ICU nurses' attitudes and beliefs towards open/flexible visitation.
Indeed, dental issues are a big problem, but in fact they are just the top of the iceberg which is the American medical system. Even if there have been serious attempts to reform the system and introduce a universal means of publicly financing medical care for all people, "Americans have fewer doctors per capita than most Western countries. We go to the doctor less than people in other Western countries. We get admitted to the hospital less frequently than people in other Western countries. We are less satisfied with our health care than our counterparts in other countries. American life expectancy is lower than the Western average. Childhood-immunization rates in the United States are lower than average." (Gladwell, 2005) Indeed, given the fact that the U.S. is considered to be the most advanced country in the world it is rather peculiar the lack of a reasonable medical care system, one…
Ellis, J, and Celia Hartley. (2004). Nursing in today's world: challenges, issues and trends. New York: Lippicott Williams&Wilkins.
Gladwell, M. (2005) The moral hazard myth. The bad idea behind our failed health-care system. In The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 January 2007, at http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/articles/050829fa_fact
Jarvis, W. (2001). Infection Control and Changing Health-Care Delivery Systems, in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol 7, No 2. Retrieved 15 January 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol7no2/jarvis.htm
Kikuchi, J, and Helen Simmons. (1994). Developing a philosophy of nursing. New York: Sage Publications.
There are certainly different approaches to the theory of anticipatory mourning. Clearly, one of the major issues within the literature surrounds the communication between the dying person and the caregiver, and both caregiver and patient and those who will be most affected or will mourn their loss. Conventional theory finds that preparing for loss involves experiencing most of the features of grief prior to the demise of the patient; numbness, anger or blame, fear, desperation, and even despair. However, an important difference is that the period of mourning begins before death occurs, and while contact and communication with the dying person is still a viable option. Because of this, there are additional emotions involved; hope, nostalgia, kindness, tenderness, and opportunity for closure (Fulton, 2003). It is this sense of hope, this feeling that there may still be something that can be done for the patient that is the focus of…
Caregiving Statistics. (2010, February). Retrieved from National Family Caregivers Association: http://www.thefamilycaregiver.org/who_are_family_caregivers/care_giving_statstics.cfm
Aliiance, F.C. (2010, September). Selected Caregiver Statistics. Retrieved from:Circlecenterads.info: http://www.circlecenterads.info/documents/FCAPrint_SelectedCaregiv...pdf
Boerner, Schulz and Horowitz. (2004). Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Adaptation to Bereavement. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 668-75.
Davidson, F. (2002). The Caregiver's Sourcebook. New York: McGraw Hill.
Linda Wertheimer and Robert Siegel extensively interviewed Helen Payne, an 81-year-old woman dying of leukemia, and family members, regarding the process of coping with terminal illness in a loved one. hey included observations from Payne's oncologist and hospice nurse as well. heir interview shows a wide range of logical and emotional responses exhibited by family members as Payne's illness progressed, and demonstrated just how complex our reaction to such illness can be.
Wertheimer and Siegel are presumably competent radio reporters. heir article was organized around open-ended questions they put to Helen Payne, one of her granddaughters, and medical experts. he result is a compelling narrative reflecting how families handle the complex emotions that occur when a loved one faces death. Family members demonstrated both logical and emotional responses to Payne's situation, although Payne herself accepted the doctor's diagnosis with poise and dignity. Since this article was not research, including…
That anecdote in particular was moving to me because my grandmother did something similar when she was dying. I spent hours sitting by her bedside. One time she drifted off to sleep. When she awoke, she told me that she was ready to die. She had dreamed of heaven, and in the dream, when she got there, was told of her beloved cousin who had died many years before. She was told this cousin was anxiously waiting to see her again. This belief that death would rejoin her with loved ones gave her great comfort.
In doing more formal research on this topic, it would be interesting to see if it is typical for those in say, the eightieth or ninetieth decades of life to accept the prospect of impending death more easily than their family members can.
Wertheimer, Linda, and Siegel, Robert. "All Things Considered." National Public Radio, 1997.
Anticipatory Guidance Project
Mammogram screenings guidelines
The suitability of screening mammography has been a contentious issue because of a number of reasons. For instance, the lack of consistency of screening guidelines reveals the complexities in coming up with definitive conclusions on the suitability of the procedure. Another issue with mammographic screening is the degree to which a mammography helps to reduce mortality among women. There have been arguments from some quarters that there is no evidence that mammography reduces mortality. In addition, sometimes screening can provide false-positive results resulting in needless additional testing, which may include the probability of invasive surgical processes. These controversies have elicited intense debates from various components of the society.
Background information about the guidelines
The American Cancer Society gives a number of guidelines on mammogram screenings (The American Cancer Society, 2013). First, it recommends that women who are 40 years and older of age should…
American Cancer Society (2013). American Cancer Society recommendations for early breast cancer detection in women without breast symptoms. Breast Cancer: Early Detection. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/breastcancerearlydetection/breast-cancer-early-detection-acs-recs
Brant, W.E., & Helms, C.A. (2012). Fundamentals of diagnostic radiology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.
Kwabi-Addo, B., & Lindstrom, T.L. (2011). Cancer causes and controversies: Understanding risk reduction and prevention. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Nundy, S. (2010). Stay healthy at every age: What your doctor wants you to know. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Physician Assisted Suicide in Patients With Unbearable Suffering or the Terminally Ill
One of the most hotly debated issues today is physician-assisted suicide. ecently, California became the fifth state to legalize physician-assisted suicide, and there is an increasing likelihood that other states will follow suit in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study is to determine if the factors chosen have any bearing on those who choose to end their life with physician assisted suicide. In support of this purpose, the objectives of this study were as follows: (a) to research scholarly articles regarding physician-assisted suicide and gather pertinent information into a comprehensive profile; (b) to research whether unbearable suffering is the dominant motive to request physician-assisted suicide; (c) to research whether the race and level of education of the patient are contributing factors when physician-assisted suicide is requested; and, (d) to research whether the type of terminal illness…
Bauer-Maglin, N. & Perry, D. (2010). Final acts: Death, dying, and the choices we make. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Biller-Adorno, N. (2013, April 11). Physician-assisted suicide should be permitted. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368(15), 1451.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Boudreau, J. D. & Somerville, M. A. (2013,April 11). Physician-assisted suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 385, 15.
Nursing & Humanities, Alice Munro
SLIDES FOR A PRESENTATION OF HUMANTIES AND NURSING: CHRONIC AND TERMINAL CARE ISSUES PRESENTED IN ALICE MUNRO'S "THE DAY OF THE BUTTERFLY," BELLE & SEBASTIAN'S "IT COULD HAVE BEEN A BRILLIANT CAREER," AND TONY KUSHNER'S "ANGELS IN AMERICA"
"The Day of the Butterfly" by Alice Munro is a quiet portrayal of elementary schoolgirls in 1950s Canada learning one of their classmates has a terminal illness.
"It Could Have Been A Brilliant Career" performed by Belle and Sebastian is a song about a young stroke victim and his caregiver.
"Angels in America" is a television-film adaptation of the Pulitzer-Prize-winning play by Tony Kushner, and depicts the AIDS epidemic in 1986 before any cure or medication had been discovered.
From the standpoint of a professional Nurse, these artistic depictions of terminal and end-of-life illness teach us emotional lessons about the experience of survivors -- they ask…
The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.
Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:
Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.
Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…
works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.
The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.
Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at http://www.nursing.gr/index1.html , retrieved 7 October 2009.
Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
The first point addressed by Clark's review determines that a fundamental change in medical perspective had begun to transpire with the assumption of varying clinical research investigations on the subject.
This would contribute to what Clark identifies as a major shift in the way that physicians had begun to perceive and treat terminal illness. As opposed to a cut and dry preparation of the patient for the certainty of death, Clark points to a juncture in the mid to late 20th century at which medical professionals had begun to adopt "an active rather than a passive approach to the care of dying people was promoted in which the fatalistic resignation of the doctor ('there is nothing more we can do') was supplanted by a determination to find new and imaginative ways to continue caring up to the end of life." (Clark, 2002) In addition to serving as a fundamental motivation…
Clark, D. (2002). Between hope and acceptance: the medicalisation of dying. The British Medical Journal, 324, p. 905-907.
Eckholm, E. (1991). The price of hope: Medicine's Disputed Frontier. The New York
Times. Retrieved April 8th, 2008 from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6D6173AF93AA2575AC
The word euthanasia originates from the Greek, its root words meaning "good" and "death." This understanding lies at the heart of the concept, which in the modern sense is defined as a person choosing to end their own life. This is not normally taken in the same context as suicide, but rather as a physician-assisted death, so that the person chooses how and when they will die, and that they may do so in a peaceful and painless manner. The term is not usually understood to encompass things like 'do not resuscitate" orders, where a physician is ordered not to save a person, but rather is specifically applied to situations where the person is actively killed, usually through the administration of drugs.
Euthanasia has become a hot button topic of late in the medical community, in particular in the field of medical ethics. In most societies, there are taboos…
Gorsuch, Neil M.. Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia. Princeton, NJ, USA: Princeton University Press, 2006. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 15 March 2016.
Hippocratic Oath. Retrieved April 6, 2016 from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/greek/greek_oath.html
Nielsen, T. (1998). Guidelines for legalized euthanasia in Canada: A proposal. Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada, Vol. 31 (7) 314-318.
Sanson, Ann, Elizabeth Dickens, Beatrice Melita, Mary Nixon, Justin Rowe, Anne Tudor, and Michael Tyrrell. "Psychological Perspectives on Euthanasia and the Terminally Ill: An Australian Psychological Society Discussion Paper." Australian Psychologist 33.1 (1998): 1-11. Web.
It is related that "This patterns of delayed referral does more than deprive individuals of palliative care-it jeopardizes hospice programs themselves. To be financially viable, hospice programs, which receive per diem reimbursements, must be able to balance out the high initial costs of services to new patients with the lower costs of maintaining stabilized patients." (Open Society Institute - Project on Death in America, 2007) Finally, it is related that "high quality end-of-life care depends upon an integrated network of in-hospital, out-patient, home and nursing home services." (Open Society Institute - Project on Death in America, 2007) Issues requiring research which present barriers to the provision of comprehensive quality palliative care include the issues as follows: (1) How does the six-month eligibility requirement affect patient access to end-of-life care?; (2) What is the impact of delayed referrals on hospice services?; (3) Are there cost incentives within HMOs to rush patients…
Thomas, Keri Dr. (2003) Caring for the Dying at Home: Companions on the Journey. Chapter Five Excerpts. Online available at http://www.goldstandardsframework.nhs.uk/content/guides_and_presentations/Evidence_base.doc
Cramer, LD et al. (2003) Nurse's Attitudes and Practice Related to Hospice Care. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2003;35:249-255
Wright, K. (2002) Caring for the Terminally Ill: The District Nurse's Perspective. Br J. Nurs. 2002;11:1180-1185
Palliative Care (2007) Nursing Matters - Fact Sheet. Online available at http://www.icn.ch/matters_palliative.htm
Euthanasia is an emotionally charged topic of debate, and it is easy to lose sight of the facts when people talk about wanting to kill themselves for whatever reason. Most of the people that seek physician-assisted suicide are suffering from terminal illnesses that cause them a great deal of pain that cannot be properly controlled with medications. For these individuals, the relief of death is preferred to their continuing suffering. The ethical debate over euthanasia, though, is colored by millennia of human thinking concerning the value of life and biblical proscriptions against suicide in any form. This paper examines the arguments in support of euthanasia as well as arguments against the practice to determine the facts and to provide rationale in support of legalizing euthanasia.
Humans can be said to really own one thing outright: their lives. There are laws in most countries, though, that prevent people from…
Keown, J. (2002). Euthanasia, ethics, and public policy: An argument against legalization.
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Marcoux, I. & Mishara, B.L. (2007, May/June). Confusion between euthanasia and other end-
of-life decisions. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 235.
LTC choices for UPSA members
LTC (Long Term Care) is an attempt at assisting people of any age with their daily activities and/or medical needs for an extended duration of time (WebMD, 2019). This type of care may be offered in various care facilities, inside a community, and at home. This is an educational brochure focusing on LTC choices for UMUC Premier Student Association (UPSA). When seeking for long term care it is necessary to bear in mind that quality is likely to vary based on the caregiver and/or place where the LTC is provided. It is fundamental to critically think and assess the alternatives available prior to making a decision. Arriving at an LTC decision may be quite difficult even when sufficient planning has been done.
One of the quick ways to assess the quality of care is to verify that the LTC service is established and/or accredited…
Also, when this option is not used, the number and nature of other types of pain management methods will be investigated. The sample size will be in the range of 100 patients in addition to their primary care-giving family members, which might range between 100 and 200.
A power analysis will be done to determine the divergence of choices from the ones that are expected. In cases where pain management in hospitals have been relatively effective, it is expected that fewer patients and families would opt for sedation, for example, whereas those who remained with their families for as long as possible before the end stage, as well as those for whom pain medication has stopped functioning adequately, are expected to more readily choose this form of pain management.
End-of-life care is a very emotional stage in the lives of both sufferers and their families. Ethical research will be ensured…
Claessens, P., & Broeckaert, B. (2011). Palliative Sedation, Not Slow Euthanasia: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Sedation in Flemish Palliative Care Units. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 41, No. 1, 14-24.
Given, B.A. (2001). Family Support in Advanced Cancer, Vol. 54, No. 4. CA - A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 213-31.
Kahn, D.L., & Steeves, R.H. (1996). An Understanding of Suffering Grounded in Clinical Practice and Research. In B.R. Ferrell, Suffering (pp. 3-28). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Euthanasia Should e Illegal
Euthanasia is the act of putting to death painlessly or allowing death, as by withholding extreme medical measures, a person or animal suffering from an incurable, often painful, disease or condition (Euthanasia, Infoplease.com). Today, medical advances have made it possible to prolong life in patients with no hope of recovery, and the term negative euthanasia has arisen to classify the practice of withholding or withdrawing extraordinary means (e.g., intravenous feeding, respirators, and artificial kidney machines) to preserve life. Positive euthanasia, on the other hand, has come to refer to actions that actively cause death such as administering a lethal drug.
Much debate has arisen in the United States among physicians, religious leaders, lawyers, and the general public over euthanasia (Euthanasia, Infoplease.com). Pro-euthanasia societies were founded in 1935 in England and 1938 in the United States. The Hemlock Society is one group that has pressed for right-to-die…
Active Euthenasia - A Kantian Perspective." PlanetPapers. 07 Dec. 2003. http://www.*****/Assets/1710.php.
Bopp, James, and Coleson, Richard. "The Constitutional Case Against Permitting Physician-Assisted Suicide for Competent Adults with "Terminal Conditions." Oregon Right to Life. 07 Dec. 2003. http://www.ortl.org/suicide/constitutional_case_2.html.
Burke, J. Balch and O'Steen, David N.. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide." National Right to Life Committee. 08 Dec. 2003. http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid4.html.
Chastain, Jane. (2003, Sept. 4). "Another 9-11 Date With Death." WorldNetDaily.com. 08 Dec. 2003. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=34416 .
Assignment 1: Is physician-assisted suicide morally acceptable when a person is suffering from a painful, incurable, terminal condition?
Premise 1: Physician-assisted suicide is not morally acceptable under any circumstances.
According to the American Medical Association (2018), “permitting physicians to engage in assisted suicide would ultimately cause more harm than good,” (p. 1). The reasoning behind the AMA’s position is threefold. First, the AMA (2018) claims that physician-assisted suicide is “incompatible with the physician’s role as healer,” (p. 1). Second, the AMA points out that there are too many ways the process can be abused. As alternatives to physician-assisted suicide, the AMA recommends improving access to pain relief and emotional support to patients with terminal illnesses.
Another reason for opposing physician-assisted suicide is the rapid pace at which medicine advances. If a person has been diagnosed with a terminal illness, there is still a possibility—however slim—that either a cure or an…
Detriments of Euthanasia
In recent years there have been increased calls for the acceptance of euthanasia. The practice has been legalized in some European states, such as Switzerland, Holland and Belgium as well as some U.S. states, including Oregon, Montana and Washington (Steck et al., 2013). The increasing acceptance appears to indicate that the benefits of the practice outweigh the costs, but any consideration of euthanasia should also consider the potentially severe detriments. Three hypotheses will be considered in this paper; that euthanasia may lead to the devaluation of life, that euthanasia may increase social divisions, and euthanasia may reduce the attention and commitment to developing effective palliative care.
Euthanasia may result in a devaluation of life
One of the main detriments is the way that the availability of euthanasia may devalue life; it can be easily forfeited when it is perceived as being of a lesser quality, the…
An area of significant concern may be the way in which social divisions may impact on the practice of euthanasia. In Oregon, where euthanasia is legal, Kaldjian (2001) found that of those requesting euthanasia, 60% indicated that one of the influences was a desire not to be a burden. Invariably, those who are most likely to feel there are a burden will come from backgrounds where they will require a higher level of social support, often families of a lower social or economic status, which may also be aligned with ethnic minorities and lower education (Ward, 1980). The disparities which may lead to the desire to avoid being a burden are known to more prevalent with in ethnic minorities, and disadvantaged social groups, were ironically, there is likely to be a higher level of terminal illnesses at younger ages due to the health disparities (Geiger et al., 2007). Interestingly, it is noted that ethnic minorities tend to have a lower level of trust in authorities with regard to decisions made euthanasia and the overall practice (Ward, 1980).
Euthanasia may reduce the attention and commitment to developing effective palliative care.
If increasing numbers of people request euthanasia, rather than live
death: suicide, euthanasia and the death penalty. Looking at certain aspects of each and discussing the issues concerning society. Also providing a sociological out look and economic basis for the arguments.
Death: Three Chances
Suicide is not a new phenomenon it has been around as long as mankind. The causes of suicide have been discussed on many occasions, and different theories have merged regarding the reason for which someone would commit suicide. There have been many studies undertaken in order to understand the phenomena in greater detail. Certain social factors were identified as being causal or contributing to this phenomenon, and suicides was broken down into different types, with different causes.
Henslin just as Durkheim before has looked at suicide, which Durkheim defined as any action which, leads subsequently to the death of the individual, either through positive action, such as hanging oneself or shooting oneself, or by way of…
Conwell Yeates, MD; Caine Eric D., MD 'Rational Suicide and the Right to Die: Reality and Myth' (1991 Oct 10); The New England Journal of Medicine, pp 1100-1103
Callahan J 'The ethics of assisted suicide' (1994 November);Health and Social Work, Vol. 19, PP. 234-244.
Donchin, Anne Autonomy, interdependence, and assisted suicide: Respecting boundaries/crossing lines. Bioethics. 2000 Jul; Vol 14(3): 187-204.
Haralambos and Holborn, (2000), Sociology; Themes and Perspectives, London, Collins.
A major factor underlying whether active or passive euthanasia is legal is whether the doctor intends to kill the patient or not (Lewis, 2009, p. 126). Rachels hits on the intent piece in one of his constructed examples, "Rather, the other factors - the murderer's motive of personal gain, for example, contrasted with the doctor's humanitarian motivation -account for different reactions to the different cases." The Colombian Constitutional Court actually ruled doctors are negligent if they ignore a terminally ill, competent patient's request for active euthanasia, a position which actually moves closer to Rachels' side of the debate (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The Canadian Medical Association's inquiry into Belgian euthanasia included asking about the doctors' "explicit intention of hastening the end of life or of enabling the patient to end his or her own life" (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 896). This intent underlies the principle of "double effect,"…
Nor do professional associations provide a clear consensus to anyone outside their membership, because they often contradict each other. Many of them disagree with the AMA position Rachels frames his argument in terms of. The American Geriatrics Society (AGS) asserts "Most would choose to live if they had full confidence that the care system would serve them well," and so justifies continued prohibition of voluntary assisted suicide and monetary compensation for the practice thereof, using most of the criteria discussed in my research. On the other hand, the American Psychological Association's assertion that the cognition behind the terminally ill patient's decision to die differs from the logic employed by the clinically depressed in deciding to commit suicide is echoed by the American Public Health Association, the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and the American College of Legal Medicine, who justify their recommendation against the negative associations between suicide and what they describe as "the principles of personal autonomy and free will" on grounds of material difference long recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court (Tucker & Steele, 2007, p. 325).
A fourth commonality that runs through the discussion but with much less prominence is a qualification that a patient's decision can be overridden if euthanasia has significant effects on people other than the patient, although those effects are even more rarely, if ever, defined. The Columbian courts qualified their acceptance of personal autonomy as sovereign under the constitution with the competency requirement but also where the exercise of that autonomy carried only " private nonpublic effects" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 192). The petitioner who brought the Columbian complaint claimed in part that non-voluntary euthanasia ("mercy-killing" to the 1973 AMA) left the doctor free to "end the lives of those who are regarded as an obstacle, a nuisance, or whose health raises high costs" (Michlowski, 2009, p. 186), but the court took it upon itself to generalize this even farther. This 'externality' effect rarely appears in such abstract terms, but runs throughout the research and opinion on the ethics of euthanasia in various guises.
The newer AMA policy statement claims euthanasia "would pose serious societal risks," without elaborating specifically what those may be (1996). Numerous patients have included consideration of their family's emotional pain caused by prolonged terminal illness as a factor leading them to choose euthanasia (Chambaere et al., 2010, p. 897); but fewer overtly discuss the callous topic of monetary expense as a factor in that decision. Tucker and Steele mention that voluntary euthanasia consumers may consider the cost to their estate, but only in passing (2007, p. 322). Campbell (2005, p. 45) claims family concern is justified under some Buddhist and Hindu perspectives if the choice to take life is made out of compassion for
euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide on ReligiousTolerance.org, most people in North America die "a bad death," one characterized by pain, being unable to participate in their medical treatment program, or after spending over ten days in intensive care. A prevailing belief that any sign of life is preferable to death fuels arguments against the practice of voluntary euthanasia, distinguished from involuntary euthanasia in that the suicide is requested directly by the person in question. Euthanasia is one of the most controversial subjects in medial ethics today. On one side of the argument, organizations like the Hemlock Society have pushed for legislation that permits physician-assisted suicide (PAS). These efforts have met with a degree of success in the United States; in 1994 Oregon passed the Death with Dignity Act allowing PAS. However, there is even a distinction between voluntary euthanasia and PAS: with PAS, the physician simply provides the means with which…
Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Introduction." Religious Tolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/euth1.htm .
Gula, Richard. "Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide: Killing or Caring?" Christian Century. 5 May 1999. Online at Find Articles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1058/14_116/54588537/p1/article.jhtml?term=euthanasia .
Leutwyler, Kristen. "In Cases of Euthanasia, Men Most Often Kill Women." Scientific American. 24 Sept 2001. Online at http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B5030-819D-1C61-B882809EC588ED9F&catID=1 .
In addition to racism, political and philosophical ideologies, and abortion, euthanasia is one of the foremost issues that divide people in the United States and the rest of the world. Some deem euthanasia as mercy killing. Others simply call it, killing. It is the taking of one's own life when a medical condition or illness becomes unbearable in terms of physical or emotional manifestations. Euthanasia is also called Physician's Assisted Suicide. The political mongering and the role of the religions cloud the whole issue of euthanasia. The Hippocratic Oath also becomes a football that is tossed around with abandon. How literally can, "(Physicians) First, Do No Harm" be taken. (Miles, 2004) In fact, does prolonging pain serve the Oath to its original intent? This essay will discuss these manifestly arguable issues.
Dr Kevorkian is known as Dr. Death. (Vonnegut, 1999) This benevolent, unassuming medic made it his lifelong ambition…
Betterhhumans.org. (2003). No Good Arguments against Euthanasia: Report. Betterhumans.org. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.betterhumans.com/Errors/index.aspx?aspxerrorpath=/searchEngineLink.article.2003-02-21-3.aspx
Biblegateway.com. (2003). Bible. Biblegateway.com. Retrieved August 20, 2003, from the World Wide Web: http://www.biblegateway.com/cgi-bin/bible
Griffiths, J., Bood, A., & Weyers, H. (1998). Euthanasia and law in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Hare, R. (1971). Personality and Science: an interdisciplinary discussion. Edinburgh: CIBA Foundation.
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
controversy persists concerning the use of medicinal marijuana for patients with debilitating and/or terminal diseases such as HIV / AIDS, cancer, Crohn's, etc. According to the Associated ress, states such as California, Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington (state) are all in favor of medicinal marijuana, although the federal government retains ultimate power to enforce federal laws concerning marijuana, its growth, and the use thereof. Many state political authorities argue that the federal government should not have the power to "bust" marijuana users who grow the drug, if the user(s) is/are prescribed the drug by his/her doctor. As only one-fifth of the states of the United States have voiced an opinion on the issue, the states that have, offer many seemingly legitimate reasons why the issue should be left in the hands of each individual state, while the federal government argues that it should maintain control.…
Possibly the most controversial topic on the issue is the issue's structure or form; should marijuana be "grown" and smoked by patients or should it be provided by doctors in "pill" form to be ingested by those with debilitating and/or terminal illnesses? States like California say that the growing of "pot" in or around a patient's home, in small to moderate amounts, by the patient prescribed, should be allowed, while the federal government says that in order to control the drug, medicinal marijuana, if legalized, should be "manufactured" by pharmaceutical companies, in pill or capsule form, throughout the United States, and distributed only by drug stores and pharmacies. The "structure" on how the drug should be made and distributed is most certainly the prime topic at hand concerning the issue of medicinal marijuana for possible relief of symptomatic debilitating and terminal illnesses and diseases.
Another issue of conflict concerning medicinal marijuana is: should each individual state in the United States hold the power to write, regulate, enforce laws, etc., concerning the use of the drug for medicinal purposes, or should the federal government ultimately hold the power to write, regulate, enforce laws, etc., concerning medicinal marijuana, just as it retains the right to penalize those who grow, use, distribute, etc., marijuana illegally? According to the Associated Press, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor says that legal power concerning the use of medicinal marijuana should be left in the hands of individual states. "The states' core police powers have always included authority to define criminal law and to protect the health, safety, and welfare of their citizens," said O'Connor. However, according to the Coalition for Medical Marijuana-New Jersey, federal authorities argue that currently, "marijuana has no accepted medical uses in the U.S." At least, that was the response when Attorney General Paula Dow asked federal officials in April 2011, "their plans to punish New Jersey's Medicinal Marijuana Program participants." According to many patients with debilitating, terminal diseases, the use of marijuana aids in pain relief, appetite stimulation, etc., and therefore, should be legalized by the federal government. According to the Associated Press, an Oakland, California woman, suffering with scoliosis, says she was partially paralyzed until she was prescribed and began using marijuana for medicinal purposes.
In conclusion, as the United States slowly makes the transition to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes, controversy concerning the structure of the drug -- if it should be grown or manufactured and distributed, in order to control its use, will be among the issues that must be worked out between the "powers that be": the states, individually, and the federal government. The states and the federal government must also come to a conclusion on which will retain ultimate power to manufacture, distribute and ultimately control marijuana once it is legalized nationwide for medicinal purposes.
In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…
ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html
Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/
Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.
UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
The final two arguments aim at establishing whether suicide can even be considered as the rational solution. The avoidance of harm refers to the commonly accepted view that hurting oneself is irrational because life is the most precious possession we own. Nonetheless, this argument seems to weaken if we consider the fact that in case of terminal illnesses, suicide can become harm-avoiding since it ends the pain and humiliation which prevent the patient from truly enjoying any aspect of life. From this perspective, we must identify the "greater evil" between death and suffering, thus establishing whether or not suicide is rational (Werth 19). The accordance with fundamental interests means that one's decisions must be in accordance with one's fundamental values (Williams, 1976, in Werth 19). This argument makes suicide seem like the irrational solution in any given case because it brings about the end of life which in turn, precludes…
James L. Werth. Contemporary Perspectives on Rational Suicide. Psychology Press, 1998
Brock, Dan W. "A Critique of Three Objections to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Ethics 109. 3 (1999): 519-547.
Foot, Philippa. "Euthanasia." Philosophy and Public Affairs 6.2 (1977): 85-112.
Velleman, J. David. "A Right of Self-Termination?" Ethics 109.3 (1999): 606-628.
Spiritual Needs Assessment of a Patient
For the recovery of any patient, especially those with terminal illnesses, there is a need to have a wholesome recovery which does not only dwell on the medicinal administration but also of the soul through spiritual nourishment. This will ensure they get out of the hospital with renewed strength and faith and hope for a better life in the future. This can only be achieved through having a thorough spiritual assessment of the patient and knowing exactly what to prepare to touch on spiritually about the patient. The following questionnaire is instrumental in ensuring this.
Please answer the following questions with voluntary information, as comprehensively as possible.
What is the pillar of your faith that helps you have meaning in life?
How significant is your faith in the above to your life in general?
Do you belong to some religious or spiritual group? Which…
Lancashire Teaching Hospitals, (2012). Assessing Spiritual Needs: The H.O.P.E. Assessment Tool. Retrieved June 29, 2012 from http://www.centrallancashire.nhs.uk/Library/Documents/clinician-zone/Palliative_care/Assessing%20Spiritual%20Needs%20-%20HOPE.pdf
But there will also be situations where clinicians are asked to discuss with a patient whether they want to or should have resuscitation if they have had a cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmia. The potential likelihood for clinical benefit in accordance with the patient's preferences for intervention and its likely outcome, involves careful consideration, as with many other medical decisions, in deciding whether or not to resuscitate a patient who suffers a cardiopulmonary arrest. Therefore, decisions to forego cardiac resuscitation are often difficult.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CP) is a set of specific medical procedures designed to establish circulation and breathing in a patient who's suffered an arrest of both. CP is a supportive therapy, designed to maintain perfusion to vital organs while attempts are made to restore spontaneous breathing and cardiac rhythm (Braddock 2).
The standard of care is to perform CP in the absence of a valid physician's order to…
Braddock, C.H. (1998) Termination of life-sustaining treatment. University of Washington School of Medicine. Seattle: Department of Medical History and Ethics. Retrieved 3/12/07 at http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/topics/termlife.html .
Frequently asked questions. (2007). The World Federation of Right to Die Societies. Retrieved at http://www.worldrtd.net/faqs/qna/?id=8 .
Guru, V., Verbeek, P.R. And Morrison, L.J. (1999). Response of paramedics to terminally ill patients with cardiac arrest: an ethical dilemma. CMAJ. 61 Nov; 161(10).
Hilz, L.M. (1999). Psychology Terms: Transference and countertransference. Kathy's Mental Health Review. Riverside, CA: Mental Health. Retrieved at http://www.toddlertime.com/mh/terms/countertransference-transference-3.htm .
As palliative care specialist Dr. Gilbert puts it, "Despite this close involvement with the very patients for whom euthanasia is advocated we do not encounter any persistent rational demand" [Southern Cross ioethics Institute]. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions.
So it is cleanly obvious that in palliative care settings it is not uncommon for patients to succumb to momentary pain and wish for euthanasia but very rarely such requests are persistent. Instead of legalizing euthanasia, efforts must therefore be concentrated on improving the palliative care. This could take the form of improving pain control measures and providing loving and caring service to patients.
Legalizing Euthanasia (Implications)
Very few nations in the world have legalized euthanasia. Holland was the first country to do so and…
Eric Gargett, "Changing the Law in South Australia," World Right-to-Die
Newsletter, May 2001, p. 3. (a World Federation of Right to Die Societies
Richard a. Epstein, "Voluntary Euthanasia," Accessed on November 29th 2004, http://www.lse.ac.uk/clubs/hayek/Ama - gi/Volume1/number1/voluntary_euthanasia.htm
He or she is also entitled to proper medication to deal with the disease.
It's not just the responsibility of medics to offer health care but the family members of the sick too play a very important role in caring about health. y accompanying the sick person to hospital and administering the prescribed medicine at home. As well, family members offer support by praying and giving the sick member company. Did you know that even loneliness is a health hazard.
Quality health care is individual responsibility. Every individual is supposed to make sure they have the best health always. Contagious diseases should be avoided at all costs, however, should we contact them then we should care for ourselves. A sick person should maintain bodily cleanliness and eat the right foods. Ones health should not also cause harm to neighbors at home and in public. Global concerns are also rising quickly…
Baum F (1998).The new public health: an Australian perspective, Oxford University Press,
Mannion R, Konteh F, Davies H (2008) Measuring culture for quality and safety improvement: a national survey of tools and tool use, Quality and Safety in Health Care (in press).
Mannion R, Davies H, Marshall M (2005) Cultural attributes of 'high' and 'low' performing hospitals. Journal of Health Organization and Management 19(6):431-9.
decision to end one's own life is one that affects not only the individual, but also a vast array of others involved in that person's existence. For close family members, distant relatives, friends, social acquaintances, and others, the death of a loved one is always difficult, particularly in the case of a purposeful, intended death. Thus, while there are certainly circumstances in which an individual may believe he or she has the right to take his or her own life, this decision often removes the rights of others and is therefore morally, religiously, legally, and spiritually unjustified.
Before contemplating which circumstances abdicate taking one's own life, it is important to first recognize that a person's "right" is subjective. A right, in a religious sense, applies to that which merits approval from a religious entity. In a legal sense, a right is a privilege bestowed on individuals by the government. Morally,…
Certainly in nature, one who was too ill to move would not last long. They would certainly not be placed on a feeding tube, having a machine breathing for them, mechanical devices doing all but forcing their heart to beat. Does having the power to extend life mean that physicians then have a duty to do so? According to Lachs, "Medicine does not surrender its vocation in serving the desires of individuals: since health and continued life are among our primary wishes, its career consists in just this service." If the primary duty of a physician is to honor their patient's wishes for health, then if a patient desires death as an end to suffering, that physician does not have a duty to prolong that patient's life. Rather, prolonging life against the wishes of the patient breaches the duty of the profession.
hy, then, do physicians continue to take incredible…
"Ethics." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 19 March 2011.
The Hippocratic Oath; Modern Version. PBS.com. 19 March 2011.
Lach, John. "When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok." (please insert the book information, as it was not on the pages sent)
Singer, Peter. "Voluntary Euthanasia: A Utilitarian Perspective." (see note, above)
The ways Mark and Anna react to the events that impact their lives illustrate how children are sometimes more morally mature than their parents are. Anna is her sister's keeper, and she devotes much of her life to caring for Kate. Anna's decision to take her mother to court was not based on selfishness but on moral righteousness. She knew that her mother was making the wrong decision to infringe on her personal liberties, and to view Anna as a tool to keep Kate alive. Anna might have very well opted to donate her kidney to Kate had she not died anyway. The lawsuit was fought on principle more than on the basis of Anna's willingness to help her sister.
Mark also has a clear right to challenge his parent's unfailing faith. His questioning religion does not mean Mark disrespects his father. Instead, it means Mark wants religion to become…
Picoult, Jodi. My Sister's Keeper: A Novel. New York: Atria, 2004.
Tolan, Stephanie S. Ordinary Miracles. New York: HarperCollins, 1999.
Japanese: Cultural Interview and Nursing Assessment
Presentation of client and scenario
This interview was conducted with a Ms. X, a Japanese national visiting friends in another country. She was, over the course of the interview, asked about a number of personal and culturally sensitive factors about her native culture that might affect a nursing intervention.
It is important for a nursing practitioner to keep this in mind as, in the 2000 census, 796,700 residents of the U.S. identified their "race" as Japanese,
Thus it is useful for all nursing practitioners, particularly those residing on the est Coast to keep abreast of Japanese cultural traditions. (Tanabo, 2001) Also, even when residing in Japan, Japanese first-generation immigrants have traditionally seemed less eager than other immigrant groups to assimilate into the hegemonic culture. One measure of this is that compared to other Americans of Asian background, a lower percentage of Japanese elders speak…
Tanabo, Marianne. (2001) "Health and Health Care: Japanese." Stanford Ethnography e-Books. Retrieved 10 Mar 2005 at http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/ebooks/japanese_american.pdf
Individuals suffering from terminal illnesses, those who are homebound, and seniors over the age of 60 all qualify for Project Open Hand services. Services center on nutritious meals. The recipients of Project Open Hand services vary considerably. Many volunteers like me expect that the recipients of the service will be down-and-out but in fact many were well-educated and had at one time held white collar positions. Illness takes its toll not just on the body but also on the bank account. Some of the recipients had lost support from friends and family and therefore depended on Project Open Hand and other organizations for the charitable contributions. I was particularly impressed by the diversity of age, ethnicity, and socio-economic class background that comprised the number of Project Open Hand care recipients I met.
The organization depends on volunteers as well as on charitable contributions from private enterprise. Project Open Hand is…
"Founder." Project Open Hand. Retrieved May 9, 2010 from http://www.openhand.org/pages/about/who/founder.html
A person should always have the opportunity to die with dignity and perhaps even "discover the meaning of one's life" as pointed out by Pythia Peay.
At the very least, those that hold contrasting opinions on euthanasia should be able to come to an agreement that medical treatment must never be superseded by moral treatment. Even though the science of medicine is often highly specialized, it must never go against the moral ideals of the terminally-ill patient. Undoubtedly, there are many risks associated with euthanasia, but in the end, it should be the patient who decides. But in cases where the patient cannot respond nor make decisions, a living will appears to be the best solution, for this document clearly states the wants and desires of the person in case their lives turn for the worse and if they end up connected to a machine in order to stay alive,…
Athanaselis, Sotiris. (2002). "Asphyxial Death by Ether Inhalation and Plastic Bag Suffocation Instructed by the Press and the Internet." Internet. Vol. 4. Issue 3. Article e18. Journal of Medical Internet Research. Accessed May 1, 2005. http://www.jmir.org/
Brock, Dan W. (2002). "Physician-Assisted Suicide is Sometimes Morally Justified." Physician-Assisted Suicide. Ed. Gail N. Hawkins. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Euthanasia.com -- Definitions." (2005). Internet. Euthanasia.com. Accessed May 1, 2005. http://www.euthanasia.com/definitions.html .
right to die. The writer uses analytical skills to dissect and argue several right to die cases that have been presented in court in America. The writer discusses the ethics of the practice as well as presents ideas about the future "right to die" arguments and cases. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
Through the advances of medical science people are living longer than ever before. Those who are chronically ill are being helped in the quest to alleviate symptoms and those who might have become ill in the past are being cured. The medical science advances have also allowed those who would have died in the past from head injuries, car crashes, gun shots wounds and other accidents to live. All of the advances that have been made have worked in favor for millions of people who otherwise would have died. The advances are also providing…
Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal Slippery Slope (accessed 1-19-2003) from Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Cases in history (accessed 1-19-2003)
Physician-assisted suicide, or physician-assisted death, refers to “the process that allows terminally ill adults to request from their physician, receive from their pharmacist, and take a lethal dose of medication to end their life,” (Death with Dignity, n.d.). Although seemingly similar to euthanasia, physician-assisted death is different in that it tends to refer to situations where the patient does not act with autonomy. Physician-assisted death is still controversial and is illegal in most states. However, Oregon, Washington, Vermont, California, and Colorado have legalized physician-assisted death, and several other states have pending legislation to do so as of 2018 (Quill & Sussman, 2018). The medical community itself is divided on the practice of physician-assisted death. Arguments for physician-assisted death include the rights of patients to self-determination. Arguments against physician-assisted death include the obligation of the physician to heal, not kill, the potential for ambiguous situations where there is some risk…
Analytical and Interpretative Preciseness
The small number of participants and open-endedness of the focus groups also led to a degree of imprecision in the analysis and interpretation of the study's results, but this was expected and even sought to a degree by the researchers (Johansson et al. 2006). One of the primary findings of the study was "that the patients used individual strategies to relive pain by emotional and physical distractions," and this is only a base indicator of the individualism expressed by the five participants (Johansson et al. 2006). On the other hand, there was enough agreement among the participants for the researchers to determine five distinct themes around which the discussion in the focus groups revolved, providing perhaps more prescision in the results than hoped for.
Philosophical and Theoretical Connectedness
Throughout this research article, the theoretical and philosophical connections of the study to the larger practice of medicine…
According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14).
The role that patient's families, doctors, health aides, pastors, chaplains and administrators, health educators and others play is crucial. Few people have executed an advanced directive, much less appointed a healthcare power of attorney by the time they enter a hospital with a debilitating condition. An informed consent form only marks the fact that a conversation has taken place in a health facility. The process that needs to or ought to take place concerning a patient's wishes and ensure one's wishes are empowered are part of the process involved as one fills out the advanced directive for themselves. In California the state has consolidated statutes for advanced directives and added some rights and included the best features of past laws. A…
REFERENCES WHICH I DID NOT USE (JUST for YOUR INFO, NOT to BE INCLUDED in THIS PAPER)
American Nurses Association. (1985). American Nurses
Association Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, Section 1.1. Washington, DC:ANA.
Docker, C. (1995). Deciding How We Die. The use Limits of Advance Directives. [Online]. Available: http://www.finalexit.org/wfn27.3.html .
Fishback, R. (1996). Harvard Medical School Division of Medical Ethics. Care Near the End of Life. [Online]. Available: www.logicnet.com/archives/file2001.php.
He speculates about a "great king' who carried poison that he intended to take in case of capture so that he could not be coerced into acts that would harm his country," but fails to make a final judgment on such a hypothetical situation (Timmons, 283). This is a significant example because we should assume that this king would be facing certain death regardless of his actions, and that his reason for killing himself would not be to minimize personal pain, but to maximize overall happiness. This is a hazy situation for Kant because although the king would be using himself as a means to overall happiness, knowledge of his imminent death would almost demand that he take the poison so that others might not use him as a means to overall depravity.
A second objection to Kant's stance on suicide is even more powerful; it debases the very foundation…
Timmons, Mark. Kant's Metaphysics of Morals. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Steinbock, Bonnie. "Kantian Ethics." Introduction / Moral Reasoning in the Medical Context. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
One play therapy technique that I would use is to have Ben play with toy figurines of family members, so that he can act out events between family members. I would observe the types of events that are simulated and whether the behavior exhibited by the characters is conducive to a healthy familial relationship. After he has enacted a sequence, I would engage Ben in a dialogue surrounding the consequences of the actions portrayed in the sequence. This exercise would allow Ben to intellectually understand the consequences for the behavior that he exhibits, which will cause him to act with greater foresight and understand his conflicted emotional state. Helping Ben to understand the consequences of his actions borrows from the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and my hope is that the play therapy will result in him using his cognitive faculties to regulate his emotional turmoil. I would also have…
Bratton, S. et al. (2005). The Efficacy of play therapy with children: A meta-analytic review of treatment outcomes. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36(4), 376-390.
philosophical issue ethics, epistemology, religion. You find a topic a debate, order present sides debate. Here, position, relative issue;, , final version paper.
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of assisted suicide, as while some people believe that it is a perfectly ethical thing, others consider that it is immoral and should be illegalized. In contrast to euthanasia, assisted suicide deals with the individual taking his own life consequent to receiving the tools necessary for him or her to do so. Some people perceive this technique as an act through which doctors and patients are provided with the opportunity to cooperate in order to end the patient's suffering. However, when considering matters from a religious point-of-view, suicide is considered to be one of the worst sins. Many people are inclined to understand assisted suicide wrongly and it is essential for the masses to have a complex…
Balch, Burke J. Obannon, Randal K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide," Retrieved February 5, 2012, from the national right to life Website: http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid3.html
Gorsuch, Neil M. The Future of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006)
"Yes, go ahead," Retrieved February 5, 2012, from the Economist Website: http://www.economist.com/node/105238
consent embodies the idea that as a matter of ethics and law patients are entitled to be exposed to all of the relevant information that would influence and guide their decision making concerning what treatment that they should follow. However, should clinicians provide medical information to terminally ill patients when they suspect that such information could potentially be used to facilitate their suicide? The issues surrounding full disclosure, beneficence, and therapeutic privilege as they relate to patients and their families are discussed and recommendations regarding how such cases should be conceptualized are discussed.
Should clinicians provide medical information to terminally ill patients when they know or suspect that such information will be used to facilitate their suicide? This dilemma affects patients, their families, physicians, other medical professionals. The notion of "informed consent" as a guiding principle in medicine is at the center of modern professional medical ethics. Informed consent embodies…
Monagle, J.F. (1998). Health care ethics: Critical issues for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publications.
Paterick, T.J., Carson, G.V., Allen, M.C., & Paterick, T.E. (2008). Medical informed consent: General considerations for physicians. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83(3), 313-319.
Russell, B.J. & Ward, A.M. (2011). Deciding what information is necessary: Do patients with advanced cancer want to know all the details? Cancer Management and Research, 23, 191-199
Shatz, D. (1986). Autonomy, beneficence and informed consent: Rethinking the connections. I. Cancer Investigation, 4, 257-269.
Popular Entertainment Venues
Family obligations are often at the heart of individual drive and guilt. They can drive a person to succeed and they can drive a person to do things that go against their very nature. In the film Alice Adams, the play Buried Child and the television series Everybody Loves Raymond the concepts of family obligation are the underlying motive to plot and action. The thing that is the same about these three programs on the thought of family obligation is that all of the characters do things for each other in the name of family obligation that they really don't believe to be the best thing for the individual they are trying to help.
In Alice Adams, Alice's not so glamorous family must make attempts to put on a show for her when she tries to improve her social status, not because they think there is a…
Death has always been shrouded in mystery, the constant litanies of myth, science, curiosity, magic, fear, and of course, religion. Just as myths have always wound down to the pragmatic, the real, and core accurate factual reporting - summarily losing the romantic, whimsical, and magical elements - so has the inevitability of human death.
Death is the central theme to life, vitality, order of society, and even powers - through the use of fossil fuels - our industry! When one, therefore, examines death objectively, he or she finds that death is a catalytic contract propelling the core beliefs and motivations of a group of people.
This evaluation seeks to isolate one aspect of death - euthanasia and a person's right to choose the time, place, and circumstance of their death without interference from legal, moral, religious, family, or other groups of social or punitive nature - and defend…
1974 The Euthanasia Society in New York renamed the Society for the Right to Die. The first hospice American hospice opens in New Haven, Conn.
1975 Deeply religious Van Dusens commit suicide. Henry P. Van Dusen, 77, and his wife, Elizabeth, 80, leaders of the Christian ecumenical movement, choose to die rather than suffer from disabling conditions. Their note reads, "We still feel this is the best way and the right way to go."
1975 Dutch Voluntary Euthanasia Society (NVVE) launches its Members' Aid Service to give advice
illiam Dalrymple's Nine Lives: In Search Of The Sacred In Modern India
illiam Dalrymple's book Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India (2011) is a unique collection of authentic stories. hile they all provide valuable information and insight when it comes to how people keep sacredness alive in the face of modernization in India, there is not space to discuss or address all of them here. Instead, there will be two specific stories analyzed -- the nun's tale and the monk's tale -- both of which help explain part of what takes place in India in the less common religions. Many of these smaller religions are dying out, with fewer adherents every year. Even those who hold to the old ways and the smaller religions are changing, and they are not always as committed to following their religions the way they would have in the past.
Cort, John E. (1995), "The Jain Knowledge Warehouses: Traditional Libraries in India." Journal of the American Oriental Society, 115(1): 77. 1995. Print.
Dalrymple, William. Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India. NY: Vintage. 2011. Print.
Wallace, B.Alan. Tibetan Buddhism From the Ground Up: A Practical Approach for Modern Life. NY: Wisdom Publications. 1993. Print.
The Singer debate 'are there some lives not worth living:'
The sanctity of life and utilitarianism
Professor Peter Singer is a well-known utilitarian who advocates the right of parents to commit infanticide based upon utilitarian premises: he argues that the resources expended by keeping such children alive are too great and it would make more sense to allow families to adopt instead healthy children with a greater chance at happiness. Disability activist Harriet McBryde Johnson, who says that she would not be alive if this type of calculus had been employed notes: "But like the protagonist in a classical drama, Singer has his flaw. It is his unexamined assumption that disabled people are inherently 'worse off,' that we 'suffer,' that we have lesser 'prospects of a happy life'" (Johnson 2003: 12). However, Johnson also argues against assisted suicide entirely, even with the consent of the person who feels…
Doerflinger, J. (1989). Assisted suicide: Pro-choice or anti-life?
Johnson, H. (2003). Unspeakable conversations. The New York Times.
Rachels, J. (1986). The morality of euthanasia.
Cae Planning Analysis
In eality, sound healthcae-elated advanced planning is a continuous convesation, involving pioities, values, QOL (quality of life) and what one's life means. Tool kits, in this context, compise vaious self-help esouces, woksheets, and ecommendations. They aid individuals in pefoming the moe complex tasks of identifying, confiming, and shaing impotant facts with an individual faced with a seious ailment (Ameican Ba Association, 2005). Iespective of whethe the individual is teminally ill o suffeing fom an acute ailment o chonic, long-tem ailment, advanced cae planning (ACP) is capable of facilitating the alleviation of unnecessay suffeing, impoving QOL and offeing a bette gasp of decision-elated challenges faced by the ailing individual, his/he family, and othe caegives. Advanced cae plans may be implemented at any junctue in the patient's life and must be updated when changes occu in patient cicumstances. A peson who contacts a pogessive disease that leaves him/he disabled…
references? A Study of the U.S. Medicare Population. Medical care, 45(5), 386.
Centers for Disease Control. (2013). Advance care planning: ensuring your wishes are known and honored if you are unable to speak for yourself. Retrieved 16 February 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/aging/pdf/advanced-care-planning-critical-issue-brief.pdf
Wehri, K. (2011). Living well at the end of life: a national conversation. Caring: National Association for Home Care magazine, 30(9), 38.
person has the right to live their lives with dignity and freedom, a person also has the right to die with the same dignity and freedom. A person who has been diagnosed with a terminal illness, for which there is no cure and which causes certain pain, should not be forced to suffer. Likewise, a person should be allowed to choose whether or not to keep their body on life support indefinitely, even if they are in a persistent vegetative state from which no meaningful recovery. The collective issues known loosely as "right to die" comprise various types of physician-assisted suicide, in which a medical doctor can help a terminally ill patient to end their suffering. ight to die legislation, like that recently passed in the state of California, helps not only the patients but also their families ensure all Americans have access to the quality of life they deserve.…
Brown, Jennifer. "Right-to-Die Initiative Headed for Colorado's November Ballot." The Denver Post. July 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.denverpost.com/2016/07/05/right-to-die-colorado-ballot/
Parker, Kathleen. "Is 'right to die' Becoming a Form of Health Care?" The Denver Post, 13 June 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.denverpost.com/2016/06/13/is-right-to-die-becoming-a-form-of-health-care/
"Right to Die," (n.d.). Justia. Retrieved online: http://law.justia.com/constitution/us/amendment-14/35-right-to-die.html
Waimberg, Joshua. "Does the Constitution Protect a Right to Die?" Constitution Daily. 2 Oct, 2015. Retrieved online: http://blog.constitutioncenter.org/2015/10/does-the-constitution-protect-a-right-to-die/
Euthanasia comes from the Greek phrase meaning "good death," ("Euthanasia" 112). The various practices that fall under the general rubric of providing a person with the means for a "good death" include physician-assisted death, also referred to as physician-assisted suicide. Until recently, all forms of euthanasia were illegal in the United States and in most other developed countries but within the past generation, these laws have been liberalized so that citizens in democratic societies increasingly have access to a "good death." Physician-assisted suicide occurs under the guidance of an experienced and qualified physician, who is not legally obliged to agree to the practice. Therefore, no coercion takes place. The doctor is not permitted legally or ethically to coerce a patient into dying prematurely and the patient is likewise not ethically or legally allowed to persuade their doctor to intervene on their behalf. hat physician-assisted death laws do allow is for…
"Euthanasia." Chapter 10.
Lee, Richard. "Kant's Four Illustrations." Retrieved online: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/rlee/iethsu06/oh/k-4egs.html
"State-by-State Guide to Physician-Assisted Suicide." Retrieved online:
Large size is a primary expressing symptom of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The authors also used imaging analysis hardware and software, as well as using the patented CpGenome DNA modification kit for further testing.
Explain how the article relates to genetics topics addressed in lecture.
The article relates to a wide range of genetics topics including chromosomal abnormalities, alleles, the use of fluorescence in chromosomal analysis testing, cytogenetic abnormalities, genotypes, phenotypes, karyotypes, and the process of chromosomal rearrangement or deletion de novo.
Explain the significance of the species chosen for use in the study.
The species chosen for use in the study was human; significance does not need to be explained. The authors did need to receive consent from the parents for all diagnostic procedures, which were performed within the ethical guidelines of the Institutional Review Board of the Hannover Medical School.
Explain the most significant conclusions presented in the article.
lucidly stated to orbit around Leventhal's self-regulation theory which suggests that the actions which can help better explain behavioral changes are founded in the patient's unique view of their illness, and how they in turn regulate their behavior and the extent to which they engage in risk management. According to Burns and Grove (2009), this is a substantive theory.
The framework is presented in a somewhat lose manner, largely proposing that emotional and cognitive process help one in solidifying their perceptions of their illnesses and thus, impact the mode of action during a health crisis and the way in which the individual behave. As no strict framework is presented, concepts such as the identification of the illness, the presumed causes, the prospective consequences, the length of time of the disease, and the presumed control over the disease are all factors which can impact and influence the ability or perceived ability…
Nih.gov. (2014). Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment. Retrieved from nih.gov: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg25-27.html
S., C., Frasure-Smith, N., Dupuis, J., Juneau, M., & Guertin, M. (2012). Randomized controlled trial of tailored nursing interventions to improve cardiac rehabilitation enrollment. Nursing Research, 61(2):111-20.
Topic: Is physician assisted suicide morally acceptable when a person is suffering from a painful, incurable, terminal condition?
Physician-assisted dying has become a contentious issue that pits the rights of the patient for autonomy and self-determination against the principles surrounding the practice of medical care. Seven states have passed laws that allow physicians to help terminally ill patients by offering medications that hasten death (Whitcomb, 2018). However, the American Medical Association and other organizations disapprove of physician-assisted dying. This paper will outline the arguments on both sides, focusing on two online articles.
The first article is an opinion piece published by the American Medical Association. While this article is not scholarly and does not even provide a binding or governing tenet for the medical profession, it is nevertheless authored by a credible source. The authors argue that the goal of medical care is to preserve or extend life,…
Mortality and Life eview
For most of us, a sense of impending mortality prompts a need to find closure, conduct a full life review and reconciliation (Clarke, 2007). The reality that death is a natural process -- leading towards an inescapable final destination -- seems implausible at first glance. For a variety of reasons, death has become a taboo subject that no longer represents an accepted progression of life, but something unnatural to be wrestled against. Coming to terms with impending mortality is challenging and calls forth a range of deep emotions that need to be expressed. Expressing these intense feelings and reviewing one's life is essential to finding peace and allowing true healing on an emotional and spiritual level (Sand et al., 2009).
The definition of the life review process is described as a "naturally occurring, universal mental process" (Butler, 1963). In other words, it is a normal developmental…
Breitbart, W., Gibson, C., Poppito, S., & Berg, A. (2004). Psychotherapeutic Interventions at the end of life: A focus on meaning and spirituality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(6), 336-372.
Butler, R.N. (1963). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26, 65-75.
Carlander, I., Ternestedt, B., Sahlberg-Blom, E., Hellstrom, I., & Sandberg, J. (2011). Being Me and Being Us in a Family Living Close to Death at Home. Qualitative Health Research, 21(5), 683-695. doi:10.1177/1049732310396102.
Clarke, D. (2007). Growing old and getting sick: Maintaining a positive spirit at the end of life. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 15, 148-154.
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
The healing of Hezekiah in 2 Kings 20:1-11 explains that God can provide proper treatment for terminal illnesses and add years to life, but the necessity is to heal your inner self, your soul, which is in your hand. ("The biblical basis of healing in Old Testament," n. d.)
The idea is considered to be very true. Anxiety, distress and tension because of bad habits, irrational ways of living and improper routine practices often brings up the illnesses in a healthy body. By healing one's inner self and practicing meditation and patience, one can improve their inner health that provides strength to improve the physical health. This strength works as perfect aid for the outside healing process assisted by doctors and physicians.
Siegel, Bernie. (1990) "Love, Medicine and Miracles: Lessons Learned about Self-
Healing from a Surgeon' Experience with Exceptional Patients," Harper Paperbacks.
John ev. (2009) "The Currency of…
Siegel, Bernie. (1990) "Love, Medicine and Miracles: Lessons Learned about Self-
Healing from a Surgeon' Experience with Exceptional Patients," Harper Paperbacks.
John Rev. (2009) "The Currency of Healing: Old Testament' & 'The Currency of Healing: New Testament" Retrieved 21 July 2010 from http://www.mountainsideunited.ca/node/311
N.A. (n. d.) "The biblical basis of healing in Old Testament" Retrieved 21 July 2010