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Terrorism refers to threats, violence, bombings, etc. Terrorism is known to have a long history, but even today, the reason behind this terror by the super powers and the government remains explicit. The acts of terror are very common these days and could be found in current political and social environment. A part of terror is still confused when it is applied in the actual present world (obb, 2007).
Where the word terrorism comes from and its definitions
According to the department of USA that deals with terrorism, defense, violence etc., terrorism could be defined as "something that creates illegal violence, fear, chaos among the population. Common basis of terror are politics, religion or even ideology. They threat the society to achieve their goals." The main features are fear, threats and aggression that lead to terror in the victims. Another similar definition by the FBI states that terrorism involves illegal…
Allen, C, (2006), God's Terrorists: The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad, Cambridge, MA, Da Capo Press.
Bascio, P, (2007), Defeating Islamic Terrorism: An Alternative Strategy, Wellesley, MA, Branden Books.
Nacos, B.L, (2006), Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Understanding Threats and Responses in the Post-9/11 World, New York, Pearson/Longman.
Robb, J. (2007), Brave New War: The Next Stage of Terrorism and the End of Globalization, Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons.
The term "terrorism" is profoundly political, as can be seen by the numerous definitions of terrorism and the lack of a globally-agreed description. The myriad definitions show nations struggling to define "terrorism" in self-serving ways. Efforts to clarify and unify those definitions vary from legalistic to nearly bombastic. After listing many definitions from different nations and from within the United States, itself, this paper examines a legalistic attempt to lay the groundwork for a universal definition, then a more cutting attempt to dispel the self-serving political "fog" surrounding these definitions. The common thread in both approaches is the appeal to diplomatically weigh competing national interests in order to form a workable worldwide definition of "terrorism
Definitions of Terrorism
a. UN General Assembly Resolution 54/109 (1999)
"Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political…
Arab Convention on Terrorism. (2009, June 18). Document: Arab Convention on Terrorism, 1998. Retrieved from Al-Bab Web site: http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/league/terrorism98.htm
Department of Justice Canada. (2008, April 1). The Anti-Terrorism Act. Retrieved from Department of Justice Canada Web site: http://www.justice.gc.ca/antiter/sheetfiche/terrordefp1-terreurdefp1-eng.asp#tfpotdota
Office of the Law Revision Counsel, U.S. House of Representatives. (2011, January 7). U.S. Code. Retrieved from U.S.Code.House.gov Web site: http://uscode.house.gov/uscode-cgi/fastweb.exe-getdoc+uscview+t17t20+1097+8++%28terrorism%29%20%20AND%20%28%2818%29%20ADJ%20USC%29%3ACITE%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20
The Council of the European Union. (2002, June 13). Official Journal of the European Communities | (Acts adopted pursuant to Title VI of the Treaty on European Union) | Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on Combating Terrorism | (2002/475/JHA). Retrieved from Eur-lex.europa.eu Web site: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2002:164:0003:0003:EN:PDF
Terrorism has no specific definition and its definition largely depends upon the viewpoint of an individual for example Samuel Adams (a well-known revolutionary fireband) or Thomas Gefferson would have been terrorist from ritish perspective but they have been Great heroes from American perspective. Take the case of George Washington who was previously fighting with ritish army against French and was loyalist of ritish crown but later on he sought American independence from ritish rule and became terrorist in the eyes of ritish (Kreamer).
ut there is an accepted definition of terrorism as UN has reached on no consensus but generally crimes against humanity, war crimes, cleansing of ethnicity and genocide are included in definition of terrorism. Recent trial of osnian Serb army Chief Ratko Mladic on the charges of genocide has been included in the concept of terrorism by various circles. Similarly, act of genocide by Hitler has…
Fine, J. (2008). contrastin secular and religious terrorism. Retrieved from Middle east forun: http://www.meforum.org/1826/contrasting-secular-and-religious-terrorism
Kahn, P.F. (2004). Protection against weapons of mass destruction.
Kreamer, T.A. (n.d.). Archiving early America. Retrieved from Sons of Liberty:Patriots or Terrorist: http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/fall96/sons.html
Kurgel, L. (2011, August). e-International Relations. Retrieved from Terrorism and Global economy: http://www.e-ir.info/2011/08/31/what-is-the-impact-of-terrorism-on-the-ipe/
Global Jihad, a Myth or Reality
The Jihad is often associated with a certain Muslim fight against the unfaithful, one that has been going on for decades now and which is unlikely to stop in coming years. However, despite this sustainable development of the notion and everything it entangles, it cannot be stated without a doubt that this is an obvious reality. This assumption is made based on the fact that the Jihad, as a means of war, is an artificial creation rather than one that is dictated by religion or supported by it.
This perspective largely depends on the point-of-view that is applied when looking at the global jihad. Therefore, from the point-of-view of the extremist Muslims the Jihad is an inevitable took with which pressure is applied on the "unfaithful." It represents a legitimate expression of the will of the Muslim and is justified in particular by the…
Kaplan, Eben. Targets for Terrorists: Post-9/11 Aviation Security. Council of Foreign Relations. 2006. Available at http://www.cfr.org/publication/11397/targets_for_terrorists.html#3
Townshend, Charles. "Terrorism: in search of the definite article." Open Democracy. 2007, available at http://www.opendemocracy.net/conflicts/democracy_terror/what_is_terrorism
Wilkinson, Paul. "The Strategic Implications of Terrorism." Terrorism & Political Violence. A Sourcebook. Indian Council of Social Science Research. Haranand Publications. India, 2000.
Terrorism is at this point one of the main threats that decision makers in the field of national security have to deal with especially in the United States. The issue has been raised mainly after the events from 9/11 2001, but have been a constant concern for the law enforcement agencies since the beginning of the 90s and even before. The United States have a particular way in which it deals with homeland security issues given the nature of its administrative and political organization. The national, regional, and local law enforcement agencies and subdivisions are the ones that provide the legal and operational framework and background for actions to be taken at all the levels that could be affected by a terrorist threat or by any time of threat posed at the homeland security.
The present paper researches the role national security agencies have, with due regard for the shared…
Department of Homeland Security. (2013) "About" Official website of the Department of Homeland Security. Available at http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
New York State Police. (2013)Specialized Services. Available at http://www.troopers.ny.gov/Specialized_Services/
New York State Police. (2013)Vision, Values and Mission. Available at http://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/
Suffolk County Police Department. (2013) Specialized Units. Available at http://apps.suffolkcountyny.gov/police/specialunits.htm
TEOISM & NATIONAL POLICY
Terrorism and National Policy
The main concern of the U.S. National Security Council relates to the existing terrorist movements that pose risks to Americans citizens and its territory. The U.S. has historically been one of the main targets of the Islamist terrorist groups alongside other countries such as Israel. The U.S. has undertaken various national policies to combat terrorism within and beyond its borders. However, the September 11 attacks on U.S. led the U.S. through Bush Administration to take up critical measures to deal with terrorism and its threats. This saw the U.S. attacking the backyard of renowned terrorists Iraq and Afghanistan being key targets. This led to the top leaders being killed and ushered in the leaderless Jihad terrorist movements existent today. These new movements demand new approaches to combat them. New ideologies and measures must be designed to ensure that the leaderless Jihad terrorist…
Cameron, Fraser. U.S. Foreign Policy after The Cold War. (London: Routledge, 2005), 64-98
Johnston, Douglas. Religion, Terror, and Error. (New York: ABC-CLIO, 2011), 55-94
Lebovic, James. Deterring International Terrorism And Rogue States: U.S. National Security
Policy After 9/11, (New York: Taylor & Francis, 2007), 99-154
The efforts to outdo terrorists are seemingly falling off, leaving with it underprivileged notion of the prospective for a proper psychological involvement to terrorist perception only. However, the bulk research within this circumference have brought about hopeful as well as exhilarating beginning for an intangible progress in coming to terms to psychological procedure transversely to all ranks of terrorist activities. An argument has come up for much considerable detachment with a clearer task for psychological study to inform as well as improve realistic counterterrorism activities. This paper demonstrates knowledge and assimilation of terrorism perspectives, counter- and anti-terrorism, and aspects relating to prediction, prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and post-response (recovery) activities and analyze it in terms of how it would be dealt with it in terms of a counterterrorism plan that includes orientation (diplomatic, military, law enforcement, etc.) and specific strategies and tactics you would develop relating to prediction, prevention,…
Whittaker, D.J. (2012). The terrorism reader (4th ed.). New York: Routledge. (ISBN: 978-0-415-68732-4)
Terrorism Annotated Bibliography
Gardner, K.L. (2007). Fighting terrorism the FATF way. Global Governance: a Review of Multilateralism and nternational Organizations. (13:3). 325-45. FATF, or Financial Task Force, is considered a successful organization in terms of investigating how global terrorism is funded. Without financial backing, the complexities required that go into terrorism attacks would not be possible. Kathryn Gardner argues that other aspects of investigation into potential terrorist organization could benefit from duplicating the FATF model. The three factors Gardner identifies that are most pertinent to these investigations are: coordination, flexibility, and commitment by the government.
dentification of terrorist threats and fighting global terror must be a joint effort. Only through coordinated efforts on the part of law enforcement agencies can terrorism be properly tracked and the threats evaluated. Although differing scholars have not decided upon a universal protocol for conduct, what they do all concur with is the idea that…
In order to find ways to combat terrorism in the future, there should be increased focus on research into currently functioning organizations, how they communicate, and how they can access dangerous technologies. In this day and age, the world is changing rapidly and while we can learn about our own country's mistakes from past terrorist attacks, there is little else that can be gained in terms of combating terrorism or in predicting future attacks. By taking Ranstorp's suggestions seriously, emphasis can be placed on identification and proper research methodologies, thereby performing efficient work into prevention.
Sinclair, S.J. & LoCicero, A. (2007). Fearing future terrorism: development, validation, and psychometric testing of the terrorism catastrophizing scale (TCS). Traumatology. Sage. (13: 4). 75-90. Samuel Sinclair and Alice LoCicero, in this study, have devised a scale by which potential psychological damage to terrorism can be measured. This is an important aspect of terror management theory (TMT). Terrorism, by the very definition of the word, are acts which are designed to inflict terror and therefore their psychological results are important components of their success. The scale measures these threats based upon three criteria, rumination, magnification, and helplessness.
Although the test is designed to test the individual and how they respond to terrorism, it can be applied to a national scale. The more likely that a group is to psychologically break down in the threat of terrorist action, the more important it is to prevent action because the group will be more likely to be attacked. If a terrorist organization knows one country's population will be psychologically decimated, then it makes sense that they will devote their resources to harming that group instead of going after a more resilient population.
Terrorism in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland has been traditionally associated with pleasant concepts standing as a reference to its beautiful landscape, its benevolent people, and the general atmosphere in the country. However, things have changed significantly in recent decades as terrorism has pervaded the nation and as terrorists there have become more determined and more powerful. hile the Irish Republican Army's choice to employ non-violent strategies in dealing with the government influenced many in thinking that Northern Ireland should no longer be considered a terrorism hotspot, the Real IRA's recent actions prove otherwise, taking into account that the group's members are resolute about having the whole world accept their thinking regardless of the fact that they have to kill innocent individuals in order to get what they want.
Ireland has had a long history of political and social problems as a result of English intervention on the island. The…
Whittaker, David J., "TERRORISM READER," (Routledge, 12.12.2012)
Terrorism in Western Europe
That terrorism, be it transnational or domestic, impacts negatively on the overall well-being of economies is a well-known fact. With that in mind, governments have overtime embraced numerous counterterrorism measures in an attempt to mitigate the adverse effects of terrorist activities. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism in Western Europe. In so doing, I will limit my discussion to two countries in Western Europe where I will explore the history of terrorism and the various counterterrorism efforts being undertaken by law enforcement.
Terrorism in Western Europe: An Overview
To a keen analyst, Western Europe remains one of the most developed regions in the world today in terms of democracy and freedom. Further, most of the countries in this region are relatively wealthy and provide their citizens with significant rights and privileges (Engene, 2004). However, though Western European countries have relatively responsible governments in comparison…
Antonello, P. & O'Leary, A. (2009). Imagining Terrorism: The Rhetoric and Representation of Political Violence in Italy 1969-2009. MHRA.
Engene, J.O. (2004). Terrorism in Western Europe: Explaining the Trends since 1950. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Kearns, T.C. & Weber, J.L. (2010). Terrorism. Infobase Publishing.
Memo to the Department of Homeland Security: There are federal statutes on the books that can help address the way that terrorists finance their draconian operations. This document delves into the specifics of how financing can be cut off or at least addressed to some extent, enough to bottle up terrorist movements which of course require money.
hat is terrorist financing?
Jeff Breinholt coordinated the Department of Justice Terrorist Financing Task Force in 2003, and he published an article explaining what the law is in the United States vis-a-vis terrorist financing. "Terrorist financing enforcement has emerged as a powerful means of disrupting…" those terrorist supporters in the U.S., and also "…those who use our financial system and generosity against us" (Breinholt, 2003, p. 1).
Breinholt explains that terrorist financing entails "…the act of knowingly providing something of value to persons and groups engaged in terrorist activity," this crime has…
Breinholt, Jeff. (2003). Terrorist Financing. United States Attorney's Bulletin. 51(4).
Retrieved November 13, 2012, from U.S. Department of Justice.
Elsea, Jennifer K. And Murphy, Maureen M. (2006). Treasury's Terrorist Finance Program's
Access to Information Held by the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial
Terrorism is an act that requires will, determination, conviction, and intelligence to number merely a few attributes. Whereas the first three regard purely motivational attitudes, the latter implies the skillfulness to act according to what drives the act. Today, technology facilitates terrorist activities and thus national security is more so endangered and with it, people's lives and the well being of societies are put at risk. Modern technological means of communication and information technology allow for prospective terrorist individuals to connect with each other at unlimited level, whereas no previous time boundaries and distances restrict them. Director of National Intelligence ames Clapper admitted to the ever-growing concern for an increase in number of advanced cyber attacks within the following years. If, in 2011, the issue was among the last addressed, cyber threats moved ahead of the list a year later when it was acknowledged that ?we currently face a cyber…
James R. Clapper, op. cit., p. 6.
James R. Clapper, ibid., p. 18.
Idem,, "Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat Assessment on the U.S. Intelligence Community for the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence" (Assessment of threats presented to the House Permanent Select Committee, February 10, 2011), p. 32.
Rational choices are limited in this setting, and may merely consist of making the best of the worst available alternatives. The American public is becoming increasingly frustrated with national policymakers who seem to be firing global broadsides but are not able to hit anything. In fact, utler even questions whether the war on terrorism is a struggle against Osama bin Laden, his Al Qaeda network, and a few similarly minded groups, or, "is it also an effort to undermine the paradigm that anything goes in the name of a cause and the idea that even the slaughter of civilians is an acceptable political act?
3. Predict the most important trends in terrorism.
Clearly, things are going to get worse before they get better. Today militant Islam is gaining power and influence around the world. The relentless increase in the destructive capacity of small groups and individuals has been fueled in…
Butler, Paul. (2002). Foreword: Terrorism and Utilitarianism Lessons from, and for, Criminal Law. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 93, Issue 1, p. 1.
Cetron, Marvin J. & Owen Davies. (March/April 2003). Trends Shaping the Future. Futurist, Vol. 37, Issue 2, p. 30.
Chalk, Peter. (1998). The Response to Terrorism as a Threat to Liberal Democracy. The Australian Journal of Politics and History. Vol. 44, Issue 3, p. 373.
Elnur, Ibrahim. (2003). 11 September and the Widening North-South Gap: Root Causes of Terrorism in the Global Order. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 25, Issue 1-2, p. 57.
As any crime, an act of terrorism can happen at any time and anywhere without anyone suspecting it. In spite of being unable to stop all terrorist acts from happening, the fight against terrorism has surely contributed to diminishing it.
After the 9/11 attack in the U.S., terrorism has been taken to a whole new level, as, the whole world has been traumatized. Most people regard terrorism as one of the greatest problems that humanity has to face in the present. However, as it has been proved, terrorism, when compared to other threats that the world has to face, causes very little damage. Furthermore, the chances of one becoming involved in a terrorist act are more than insignificant. As years passed, consequent to the events from 2001, the fear of an impending terrorist act did not pass, and Americans feel just as scared as they were right after the events.…
1. Crenshaw, Martha. (1981). The Causes of Terrorism. Comparative Politics, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Jul., 1981), pp. 379-399.
2. Mueller, John. (2007). REACTING TO TERRORISM: PROBABILITIES, CONSEQUENCES, AND THE PERSISTENCE OF FEAR. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from The Ohio State University Web site: http://polisci.osu.edu/faculty/jmueller/ISA2007T.PDF
3. Victoroff, Jeff. (2005). The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches. The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 49, No. 1 (Feb., 2005), pp. 3-42.
4. Whittaker David J. Terrorists and Terrorism in the Contemporary World. Routledge, 2004.
Although they created considerable turmoil in Germany for over a decade, it is questionable what they actually accomplished. The Gang gradually disappeared from the scene and has not been heard from for a number of years. Their activities, however, did cause a major change in how Germany, as a nation, addressed terrorism within its borders. Because of the Gang's activities, Germany enacted some of the broadest enforcement laws available for combating terrorism.
The activities of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam are much broader-based than those of the Baader-Meinhof Gang. The LTTE membership numbered in the thousands and had clearly defined mission: the establishment of homeland for the Tamils. This terrorist group has maintained itself for an extended period of time and, despite being no closer to accomplishing its goals now than it was thirty years ago still maintains its activities. The LTTE marked a new era in terrorism by…
Alex, P.S. (2010). Frameworks for Conceptualizing Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 197-221.
Aust, S. (1987). The Baader-Meinhoff Group: The inside story of a phenomenon. London: Bodley Head.
Combs, C. (1997). Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Manoj, J. (1996). On the Razor's Edge: The liberation tigers of Tamil Eelam. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 19-42.
They are assured to acquire attention of the media, provided right ascription of the support of the occurrence. Further, a good protection against these dangers is very hard and costly; it will continue to be as such. A lot of the know-how linked with the buildup of the CRN weapons-particularly chemical and biological agents possess genuine use in civilians and are categorized as twofold use. The widespread reach of this know-how, together with the comparative effortlessness of manufacturing several chemical or biological agents, renders them alluring to terrorist gangs aiming to unleash fear or causing huge number of fatalities. Terrorists have observed the strong psychological effect brought about by the current anthrax incidents in our nation of late that produces their importance to go up. Jessica Stern reasons that vengeance, spell of fear, revenge, motivational alterations, increase and accessibility, and superior indulgence of the manner in which to build up…
Anderson, Kerby. Terrorism in North America. Retrieved at http://www.powertochange.com/peace/articles/terrorism.html . Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Carafano, James Jay. The Case for Intelligence Reform: A Primer on Strategic Intelligence and Terrorism from the 1970s to Today. Heritage Lecture #845. July 21, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl845.cfm . Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Materials and Effects.
Homeland Security Information Bulletin. May 28, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.iwar.org.uk/homesec/resources/dhs-bulletin/cbrn.htm . Accessed on 8 December, 2004
Terrorism, during its long violent history, has been used as a means of intimidation and aggression. In its narrow definition only violent acts (or threats of violent acts) committed by nongovernmental groups or individuals are considered to be terrorism, but in the broader context governments have been known to commit terrorism as well
Terrorism may include political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings. hen such acts are perpetrated within a country's borders, it is known as domestic terrorism, while global or international terrorism knows no such boundaries. The causes of terrorism are varied and have been committed in the past due to historical, cultural, political, social, psychological, economic, or religious reasons (or a combination of these reasons).
The purpose of my current research is to explore the causes behind the spate of global terrorism, specifically Islamic terrorism that has swept many regions of the world during the past…
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Little, Allan. "Analysis: Who is a Terrorist?" BBC News online. December 6, 2001. February 20, 2005.
Townshend, Charles. Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002
The exportation of Saudi-born terrorist could backfire when these jihadists return from places like Iraq and turn their attention towards the royal family, whom many of them already hate. Essentially, Saudi is promoting the idea that terrorism is a viable path to political change, and that won't necessarily sit well when the chickens eventually come home to roost.
Hezbollah can now be seen as a partner to Iran rather than a proxy for its national government due to the simple fact that the Iranian government has little or no direct control over the day-to-day activities of Hezbollah, leaving the organization largely independent and focused far more on domestic Lebanese concerns rather than on issue more important to Iran.
Byman suggests that rather than simply labeling states with a "rogue state" status, true regime and political change is necessary in countries that pose this threat. He also asserts…
If Huntington is correct, as long as there are radical Islamic groups hating Americans, the U.S. can snuff out a few here and there but they will never stop organizing, never stop blowing themselves up in jihads. Huntington believed that it was and always will be a clash of Muslim vs. estern culture, and Muslim vs. Judaism.
Barnett notes in his blog (2004) that yes, 3,000 people were killed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, but "we lost over 200 times that many to heart disease" and "over 150 times that amount to cancer." He is not minimizing the horror of terrorism, but he believes "police" (covert operatives) not "soldiers" are the answer to combating terrorism. Bush failed in his presidency and failed the American people because he seemed only able to "express our anger, not our hopes," Barnett asserted. Barnett is correct when he says Americans are…
Abidor, Mitch. Ravachol. Retrieved Feb. 10, 2010, from http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/ravachol/biography.htm . 2005.
A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Terrorist Organizational Models.
Retrieved Feb. 10, 2010 from www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/guidterr/ch03.pdf.
Barnett, Thomas P.M. Terrorism in Perspective: It Really is a Nuisance if We Continue
That said, Even if those countries do not actually build nuclear bombs, they could still decide to develop latent nuclear weapon capabilities as a type of insurance policy. This is not a new realization. For instance, the Baruch Plan, which was brought before the United Nations in 1946, attempted to place controls on fissile material and dual-use nuclear technologies. While that plan was stillborn, recent years have seen renewed efforts to control the spread of these technologies. In his February 2004 National Defense University speech, for example, President Bush proposed for the world to "create a safe, orderly system to field civilian nuclear plants without adding to the danger of weapons proliferation. The world's leading nuclear exporters should ensure that states have reliable access at reasonable cost to fuel for civilian reactors, so long as those states renounce enrichment and reprocessing." This proposal has faced resistance by Iran, which states…
Allison, G. (2005). Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe.
Bunn, M. (2006). "The Threat." NTI Research Library. Cited in:
Terrorism Suppression and Freedom
The aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks was characterized with the establishment of various measures and initiatives towards war on terrorism. As the government has constantly enhanced its war on terrorism efforts, it has emerged that these initiatives have evolved into reshaping the country's national security policies and challenged the value placed on individual freedom. The attempts towards preventing terrorism and enhancing homeland security in the United States have entailed the enactment of various anti-terrorism laws such as the Patriot Act. While these attempts may not have been developed to limit the civil liberties of American citizens, they have contributed to a significant diminution of freedoms for Americans (Whitehead and Aden, 2002).
Anti-terrorism law has been characterized by unintended consequences that threaten the essential constitutional rights of individuals who have completely no involvement with or link to terrorism. The war on terrorism has unexpectedly provided ways…
Mitrano, T. (2003, January 1). Civil Privacy and National Security Legislation: A Three-
Dimensional View. EDUCAUSE Review, 38(6). Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/civil-privacy-and-national-security-legislation-three-dimensional-view
Whitehead, J.W. & Aden, S.H. (2002). Forfeiting 'Enduring Freedom' for 'Homeland Security':
A Constitutional Analysis of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act and the Justice Department's Anti-Terrorism Initiatives. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/CAofUSAPA.html
In sum, Mousseau believes that a market economy can help reverse the alarming trends taking place in Afghanistan today and create a democratic nation that embraces different values and beliefs. "Those on the lowest rung of the economic ladder," Mousseau points out, "are the most vulnerable to the negative consequences associated with globalization" (2002-2003, p. 19).
espective international theoretical approaches
Both authors make the point that the United States has consistently failed to understand the situation in Afghanistan, a failure that has led to repeated setbacks despite the enormous amounts of resources that have been devoted to the country and the more than thousand American lives it has cost. On the one hand, ubin applies an "ugly American"-type of analysis to the situation in Afghanistan to justify his claims that significantly more military and foreign aid resources are required as well as a long-term commitment to prosecute the war on…
Impact of Lone Wolf Terrorists
The recent terrorist episodes in the US have all been incidents of Lone Wolf terrorism. From the bombing of the Oklahoma City Building in 1995 by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols to the Charlottesville attack in 2017 by neo-Nazi James Fields, Lone Wolf terrorists exist in this country and their presence is the most important current domestic security concern. This paper will explain why Lone Wolf terrorism is a most important security concern for the US and how Internet recruitment is playing a part in the spreading of violent actions by extremists.
Defining Lone Wolf Terrorism
Lone Wolf terrorism is hard to define because of the complicated nature of what makes one a lone wofle. The theory of lone wolf terrorism is that lone wolves are terrorists who act alone without any support group, network and assistance from a terror cell or organization. Lone…
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Beydoun, K. A. (2017). Lone wolf terrorism: types, stripes, and double standards. Nw. UL Rev., 112, 1213.
Breed, A. & Plushnick-Masti, R. (2013). Terror act or workplace violence? Hasan trial raises sensitive issue. Retrieved from https://tucson.com/news/national/terror-act-or-workplace-violence-hasan-trial-raises-sensitive-issue/article_be513c51-a35d-5b4f-b3a0-13654f019ea6.html
Chatfield, A. T., Reddick, C. G., & Brajawidagda, U. (2015, May). Tweeting propaganda, radicalization and recruitment: Islamic state supporters multi-sided twitter networks. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (pp. 239-249).
Costello, M., & Hawdon, J. (2018). Who are the online extremists among us? Sociodemographic characteristics, social networking, and online experiences of those who produce online hate materials. Violence and gender, 5(1), 55-60.
DeCook, J. R. (2018). Memes and symbolic violence:# proudboys and the use of memes for propaganda and the construction of collective identity. Learning, Media and Technology, 43(4), 485-504.
Doornbos, C. (2016). Transcripts of 911 calls reveal Pulse shooter's terrorist motives. Retrieved from https://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/pulse-orlando-nightclub-shooting/os-911-calls-released-orlando-shooting-20170922-story.html
Elmasry, M. H., & el-Nawawy, M. (2019). Can a non-Muslim Mass Shooter be a “Terrorist”?: A Comparative Content Analysis of the Las Vegas and Orlando Shootings. Journalism Practice, 1-17.
Terrorism, Insider Threats and Homeland Security
Although terrorism, insider threats and homeland security are not new concepts, they have all assumed new important and relevance in an increasingly hostile and dangerous world. In response, the U.S. government has implemented a number of strategies that are designed to provide protections against threats to the national security. To determine the facts about these initiatives, this paper reviews the literature to describe the functions of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan and its implications for critical infrastructure security. In addition, a discussion concerning the reasons private sector enterprises need to understand and create protocols for insider threats is followed by an assessment of the potential of terrorism and the measure the U.S. can take in the event domestic or international threats are identified. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Catrantzos, N. (2010, May). No dark corners: A different answer to insider threats. Contributors: Homeland Security Affairs, 6(2), 3-5.
Hart, S. & Ramsay, J. D. (2011, January 1). A guide for homeland security instructors preparing physical critical infrastructure protection courses. Homeland Security Affairs, 7(1), 37-41.
National Infrastructure Protection Plan. (2018). U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/national-infrastructure-protection-plan.
Prevent terrorism and enhance security. (2018). Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/prevent-terrorism-and-enhance-security.
Will the current travel ban by the U.S president help avert the threat of terrorism in USA?
Section I: Introduction (1 page)
a) Explain the intelligence issue
The US president, On January 27th 2017, issued an executive order banning the admission of refugees into the US. He further put a temporary ban on people travelling to the US from seven countries of a Muslim majority1. The move was received with mixed reactions even having some people challenge the order in court. The order was temporarily halted when a judge from Seattle suspended its implementation nationwide. The move allowed banned visitors to get admission into the US pending an appeal hearing. Trump did this as an honor to a campaign pledge he had issued1.
The order suspended refugee admission for a period of 120 days. Refugees from Syria were also banned indefinitely. People arriving from these seven countries with…
1. BBC News, “Trump\\\\'s executive order: Who does travel ban affect?” ,2017, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-38781302 (Accessed December 31, 2017)
2. Singman, Brooke, “Timeline of recent terror attacks against the West” Fox News, 2017, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/11/01/timeline-recent-terror-attacks-against-west.html (Accessed December 31, 2017)
3. Stemler, Steve. An Introduction to Content Analysis. College Park, MD: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, 2001. http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS26359 (Accessed December 31, 2017)
4. James. W. Drisko, and T. Maschi, Content Analysis (Oxford University Press), 2015; http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190215491.001.0001/acprof-9780190215491-chapter-2), pp. 21–56 (Accessed December 31, 2017)
5. Walcott-Hackshaw, Elizabeth. 2013. \\\\"Comparative Analysis\\\\". Methods in Caribbean Research: Literature, Discourse, Culture. 162-172.
6. P. Lor, Methodology in comparative studies. International and Comparative Librarianship, 1–21 (2011). https://pjlor.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/chapter-4-draft-2011-04-20.pdf (Accessed December 31, 2017)
7. Shapiro, Ian. Rational choice theory. 2016. http://methods.sagepub.com/video/ian-shapiro-defines-rational-choice-theory (Accessed December 31, 2017)
8. Sato, Yoshimichi. “Rational Choice Theory.” Sociopedia.Isa, 2013.
Thoughts on the Chesser Report
My thoughts on the Chesser Report are that I wonder how much of this story is actually true and whether Zachary Chesser isn’t rather an asset for the intelligence community. After all, his father was a US government contractor, and Chesser virtually grew up in the backyard of the intelligence community in Virginia. He attended George Mason for a semester and George Mason is heavily involved with the intelligence community. I find it hard to believe that a kid with this background would become radicalized by a teammate on a soccer club. Why would he even be on a club organized by an Islamic political activist if not for the purpose of infiltration? I find that scenario much more plausible than the one presented in the report. The intelligence community regularly engages in infiltration exercises and develops false narratives for purposes related to covert operations.…
Proud Boys vs Antifa War of Words
Introduction and Research Question
When it comes to domestic extremism, there are groups on both the Right and the Left of the socio-political spectrum in America. And while they may differ ideologically, they can also have a great deal of similarities. This paper looks at two extremist groups in particular—Antifa on the Left and Proud Boys on the Right. The questions this paper poses are: What is the nature of Antifa and how does Proud Boys mirror the group from the opposite spectrum? How can these extremist groups best be countered? The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to compare and contrast the two groups while showing that they both represent deep sub-cultural trends among the American populace that are emerging into popular culture and have the potential of disrupting and subverting mainstream cultural norms. To accomplish this objective, this paper first reviews…
Right and Left Wing Terror Groups in America
Extremism in the U.S. is on the rise, based on the rise in polarization throughout the country as the Left and the Right become more and more opposed to one another ideologically, politically, socially, and emotionally. There is a strong rift between the two and little sense of common ground. Much of this rise has come on the heels of the rise in social media use, which allows individuals to promote their views to the rest of the world in a way that was literally unheard of prior to the digital revolution (Freberg, Graham, McGaughey & Freberg, 2011). As social media use has essentially risen exponentially since its inception in the 2000s, the level of ideologically-driven Influencers in the space is a reflection and facilitator of the level of extremism in the United States.
As both the popularity of groups like…
Terrorist Groups: Discussion and Insights
1. Should separatist/nationalist terrorist groups be dealt with differently than religious or political terrorists? What strategies might be most appropriate?
The approaches adopted in dealing with nationalist terrorist groups ought to differ from those used to repress religious or political terrorists. In essence, nationalist terrorism, according to Sanchez-Cuenca (2007) seeks enhanced autonomy or independence for a specified territory. For this reason, “the combination of territorial claims and armed struggle gives rise to a very definite strategy, violence intended to coerce the State” (Sanchez-Cuenca, 2007). On the other hand, religious terrorism and political terrorism are often based on objectives that have religious or political connotations respectively. Given their diverse motivations, the various kinds of terrorism utilize distinctive strategies and approaches to attain their objectives. Nationalist terrorist groups, for instance, seek to break the will of the State by killing repeatedly (Sanchez-Cuenca, 2007). Religious terrorism mostly consists…
Bagchi, A. & Paul, J.A. (2018). Youth Unemployment and Terrorism in the MENAP (Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan) Region. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 64, 9-20.
Campbell, J. (2016). What Makes Boko Haram Run? Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/expert-brief/what-makes-boko-haram-run
Council of Foreign Relations – CFR (2006). Terrorist Groups and Political Legitimacy. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/terrorist-groups-and-political-legitimacy
Gregg, H.S. (2014). Defining and Distinguishing Secular and Religious Terrorism. Perspectives on Terrorism, 8(2), 36-51.
Levitt, M. (2015). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon\\\\'s Party of God. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Nielsen, L.B. (2017). The Boko Haram Insurgency: Evolution, Defeat, and Future Challenges. Retrieved from https://www.krigsvidenskab.dk/the-boko-haram-insurgency-evolution-defeat-and-future-challenges
Primoratz, I. (2006). Terrorism in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Case Study in Applied Ethics. The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly, 55, 27-48.
Sanchez-Cuenca, I. (2007). The Dynamics of Nationalist Terrorism: ETA and the IRA. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(3), 289-309.
1) What are the differences between enterprise risk management and enterprise security risk management?
A study into exactly what a common Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) functionality or division does to handle an ERM system, one discovers that many ERM features derive from monetary dangers and consider all potential risks that may affect the goals of the business. Security risks might be stated or perhaps reported within an ERM division, however, there is a distinction among ESRM and ERM (McCreight And Coppoolse, n.d).
An ERM system concentrates on risks confronting the business from a number of factors, such as ecological, functional, and economic. The majority of ERM applications possess a powerful concentration on the monetary elements of risk confronting the enterprise. ESRM, however, positions exclusively with security risks confronting the business - these risks approaching People, Property and data that assist enterprise objectives and goals. The ERM division or system might…
Richard. (2014, November 14). Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Security Cameras. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://www.a1securitycameras.com/blog/advantages-disadvantages-using-security-cameras/
Nye, J. S. (2011). Nuclear lessons for cyber security? Strategic Studies Quarterly
McCreight, T., & Coppoolse, M. (n.d.). But, we\\\\'re already doing this... Retrieved April 24, 2018, from http://allsecurityevents.com/but-were-already-doing-this/
Security Risk Governance Group. (2017, December 06). ESRM and ERM...Clarifying the Differences. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from http://esrm.info/esrm-erm-clarifying-differences/
Elbeheri, A. (2015, December 16). ENTERPRISE SECURITY RISK MANAGEMENT: A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO SECURITY. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/enterprise-security-risk-management-holistic-approach-alaa
Masters, D., & Hoen, P. (2012). State Legitimacy and Terrorism. Democracy and Security, 8(4), 337-357.
Chaliand, G., & Blin, A. (Eds.). (2007). The history of terrorism: from antiquity to al Qaeda. Univ of California Press.
Sheehy, C. (2017, March 7). Innovation in CCTV and its impact on Loss Prevention. Retrieved April 24, 2018, from http://datecheckpro.com/2017/03/07/innovation-in-cctv-and-its-impact-on-loss-prevention/
Intersection of Faith Nationalism and Environment in Ireland
While terrorist groups are rarely defended by non-members, there is often the sense among objective observers that not all members of a religion that may be said to have “spawned” terrorism are terrorists or sympathetic to terrorism themselves. For instance, not every Muslim supports ISIS or al-Qaeda, and not every Irish Catholic supports the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Most Muslims and Catholics view their religions as religions of peace. On the other hand, critics of religion tend to hold the opinion that all religions lead to extremism when taken seriously and that people from these groups who become “extremists” and take to terrorism are really simply adhering body, mind and soul to the ideology of their religion. But how true is this criticism? Is it possible that in every Muslim or Catholic there exists a potential jihadist or a potential Crusader?…
Suicide Terrorism: Driven to Death
Who are the terrorists engaging in suicide bombings? What motivates them to act? These are some of the questions Merari (2010) tackles in Driven to Death. They are not entirely new questions, as other researchers have asked them as well—but Merari (2010) does provide new insight into the phenomenon of suicide bombing by conducting field work and independent research to uncover more information on this particular subject. This paper explores some of the findings of Merari (2010) and compares them with what other researchers have had to say, particularly on the subject of what motivates terrorists to act.
While many scholars argue that there is no demographic profile of the suicide bomber, Merari (2010) disagrees and presents his own demographic profile based on his own research. The argument of general scholarship is that anyone can be a suicide bomber, young or old, rich…
Somali terrorist group al-Shabaab has been wreaking havoc in the region since 2015. Al-Shabaab seriously undermines stability and security in the region, necessitating an intelligent and coordinated application of the instruments of power (IOPs). Recently, there has been some dissention among al-Shabaab leaders over their strategic alliances with al-Qaeda on the one hand, and their interest in helping Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), on the other (U.S. Department of State, 2015). In spite of factions within al-Shabaab, the group remains relatively strong and has been able to successfully establish safe havens throughout Somalia. Their safe havens have allowed the group to wage successful attacks both within Somalia and further abroad, raising red flags and encouraging intervention. For example, al-Shabaab is responsible for attacks on major public infrastructure targets like the Mogadishu International Airport, government agencies, and key hotels as well as the 2015 attack on a university in…
Chun, C.K.S. (2009). Economics: A key element of national power. Retrieved online: http://marshallcenterciss.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16378coll5/id/486
Marcella, G. (n.d.). National security and the interagency process. Retrieved online: http://www.bard.edu/civicengagement/usfp/docs/marcella.pdf
Murphy, D.M. (2008). Strategic communication: Wielding the information instrument of power. Retrieved online: http://marshallcenterciss.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p16378coll5/id/337
Smith, A.K. (2007). Turning on the dime: Diplomacy’s role in national security. Strategic Studies Institute (SSI). Retrieved online: https://ssi.armywarcollege.edu/pdffiles/PUB801.pdf
Troxell, J.F. (2004). Military power and the use of force. Retrieved online: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army-usawc/strategy2004/14troxell.pdf
U.S. Department of State (2015). Country Reports: Africa overview. Retrieved online: https://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2015/257514.htm
Williams-Bridgers, J.L. (2011). Combatting terrorism. United States Government Accountability Office. Retrieved online: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11713t.pdf
Leadership Exercise: Boston Marathon Bombings Analysis
On April 15, 2013, Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev two Kyrgyz-American brothers, detonated two homemade bombs at the annual running of the Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring another estimated 264 attendees. Although this high-profile domestic terrorism attack claimed a number of casualties, most observers agree that the outcome could have been far more severe had it not been for the preparations and actions taken by law enforcement and first responders prior to and immediately after the incident. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature to Identify salient issues that relate to issues such as leadership, decision making, organizational culture, communication, politics and power, employee training, teams, and so forth to identify best practices and lessons learned from this horrific incident. Finally, a summary of the research and key findings concerning the security preparations for and responses to the…
After action report for the response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. (2014, December). Boston: Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency et al.
Lasky, S. (2014, April 21). Boston Marathon a case study in lessons learned following last year\\\\'s bombing tragedy. SecurityWatch. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/Boston_ bombing_lessons_learned.pdf.
They are bombarded with information concerning the crimes performed by a certain community and they come to believe that it is important for them to act the respective community regardless of the aftermath.
omen terrorists practically act against the generally accepted belief that women are non-violent. The reality is that many women become terrorists and governments need to take this concept into consideration in order to be able to effectively act against terrorist organizations worldwide.
CNN ire Staff, "Syrian president tells envoy that support of 'terrorists' must stop," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the CNN ebsite: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/21/world/meast/syria-brahimi-assad-meeting
Daly, Sara A., "omen As Terrorists: Mothers, Recruiters, and Martyrs," (ABC-CLIO, 2009)
Harriman, Jake, "Linking Extreme Poverty and Global Terrorism," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the NY Times ebsite: http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/linking-extreme-poverty-and-global-terrorism/
Khan, Muqtedar, "TERRORISM AND GLOBALIZATION," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the GlocalEye ebsite: http://www.glocaleye.org/terglo.htm
Malisow, Ben, "Terrorism," (Infobase Publishing, 2008)
CNN Wire Staff, "Syrian president tells envoy that support of 'terrorists' must stop," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the CNN Website: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/21/world/meast/syria-brahimi-assad-meeting
Daly, Sara A., "Women As Terrorists: Mothers, Recruiters, and Martyrs," (ABC-CLIO, 2009)
Harriman, Jake, "Linking Extreme Poverty and Global Terrorism," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/linking-extreme-poverty-and-global-terrorism/
Khan, Muqtedar, "TERRORISM AND GLOBALIZATION," Retrieved March 30, 2013, from the GlocalEye Website: http://www.glocaleye.org/terglo.htm
How have worries over WMD terror attacks distorted a balanced approach to policy on terrorism?
Intelligence failures led to the presumption that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (Jervis).[footnoteef:1] The presumption was rooted in a widespread policy playing upon mortal fears, rather than on reason. "Although administration officials exaggerated the danger that Saddam posed, they also revealed their true fears when they talked about the possibility that he could use WMD against the United States or its allies," (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:2] It also "made little difference" that Saddam was shown to have no WMDs (Jervis, p. 57).[footnoteef:3] Therefore, the approach to policy on terrorism has been overtly shaped by fear mongering rather than on intelligence. [1: Jervis, obert, 2005.] [2: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57] [3: Jervis, obert, 2005, p. 57]
At the same time, policy on terrorism is always going to entail some type of trade-off between preparing…
"Global Salafi Terrorist Networks." Unrestricted Warfare Symposium. March 1-415, 2006.
Jervis, Robert, 2005. American Foreign Policy in a New Era. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.
Pillar, Paul. R, 2001. Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Sageman, M., 2008. Leaderless Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
What is Terrorism?
Legacy in the 21st century
Based Terrorist Organizations
Ku Klux Klan
Counterterrorism and Prevention
Definitions and Structures
The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers in any town. Unless the materials are manufactured in the United States, though, the most likely targets are those that exist in coastal cities with larger port access (Smith, 2001).
Terrorists tend to target places that are media hyped, affect the lives of citizens, and are usually transportation, entertainment, or financially based in larger urban areas. Indeed, for greater efficacy, targets usually involve places where there are large non-combatant crowds,…
ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html
Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf
Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov
In modern terminology, and for foreign policy, political science and international law, crimes against humanity are any atrocious act committed on a large scale. They can be prosecuted in most any Federal Court ystem, depending on where they occurred and which population was part of the criminal activity. The implication for international law is that crimes against humanity are subject to universal jurisdiction, which means that tates can exercise their own jurisdiction regardless of where the crime was committed, and that all tates also have the obligation and duty to assist each other in the defense of these sorts of activities. It is also important to note that no human, regardless of affiliation, is immune from prosecution, even heads of state, and on person can plead a defense as obeying orders.
Part 3 -- Is it legally justified to invade/occupy another country in the name of arresting/hitting terrorists? International cooperation…
Dyson, W. (2012). Terrorism: An Investigator's Handbook. Waltham, MA: Anderson
McCormack, W. (2007). Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis.
Title of agency, not plagiarized
Intelligence, counterterrorism and protection, and subjects for investigation appear to be relevant, interesting and worthy of detailed examination. The research traditions allowed in mainstream educational systems provide different avenues of approach to examine these ideas. The purpose of this paper is to examine the ideas of terrorism through the lenses of the five research conditions: narrative, grounded theory, phenomenology, case study and ethnography. Additionally, I will propose three different topics for doctoral research and determine why each of these approaches warrant inquiry.
Before examining terrorism, it is a most important challenge to define the term. The defining of this word is perhaps the greatest source of confusion included in this type of research inquiry. How is terrorism related to intelligence and protection? While these are fashionable catchwords of the day, it seems important to link the phrases and terms with concrete and realistic symbols that can be understood by…
Thousands of individuals employed within the ussian nuclear complex - many of whom have knowledge and access to nuclear materials - receive salaries that are barely at subsistence level, raising the possibility that they might be susceptible to offers from anyone in the market to buy nuclear components" (Deutch, 1997).
5. Economic Consequences
It is generally a habit of the terrorist groups to target international powers in order to make their statement. But these international powers have extremely strong economies, and most importantly, extremely diverse. What this means, is that even if a terrorist attack would affect one economic sector, the large diversity of operations and revenues would be able to support the economic revival of the affected sector and support the country's economic growth (Sandler and Enders, 2005). However, one cannot rely on this premise as it is most applicable at a macroeconomic level. On a microeconomic level, the…
Balkin, K.F., 2004, Antiterrorist Policies Jeopardize Immigrant's Civil Rights, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Greenhaven Press
Bergesen, a.J., Han, Y., 2005, New Directions for Terrorism Research, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 46
Deutch, J.M., 1997, Terrorism, Foreign Policy, No. 108
Halwani, R., 2006, Terrorism: Definition, Justification and Applications, Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 32
Terrorism and Democracy
Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…
Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA
Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97
Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
Definitions of terrorism
Under the U.S. Government, terrorism has different definitions, not accounting also scholars' own definitions of this concept. In a study by Mark Burgess (2003) for the U.S. Center for Defense Information, he identified five (5) definitions of terrorism, three from the U.S. Government and two from academic scholars. The common factors in each definition, according to Burgess, are the terrorists' motives, identity, and methods.
The Department of Defense defines terrorism as "[t]he calculated use of unlawful violence to inculcate fear… to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious or ideological" (para. 4). The FBI has the same definition, albeit worded differently and includes not only people, but also property as an object of violence. The State Department, meanwhile, has a more specific definition, identifying terrorism as "premeditated" and primarily "politically motivated," and identified terrorists as "subnational groups or clandestine…
Burgess, M. (2003). "Terrorism: the problems of definition." Center for Defense Information. Accessed 23 April 2011. Available at: http://www.cdi.org/program/issue/document.cfm?DocumentID=1564&IssueID=138&StartRow=1&ListRows=10&appendURL=&Orderby=DateLastUpdated&ProgramID=39&issueID=138
Slater, J. (2006). "Tragic choices in the war on terrorism: should we try to regulate and control torture?" Political Science Quarterly, (121)2.
US Army Training and Doctrine Command. (2007). "Terrorist Organizational Models." In A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Available at: www.fas.org/irp/threat/terrorism/guide.pdf
There have been various definitions and views of terrorism that have beenfronted over the years. It has been described as a strategy and at other levels as a tactic, some have called it a crime and yet other refer to it as a holy/noble duty; some consider it an inexcusable abomination yet others consider it a systematic reaction to oppression. Obviously, a lot depends on whose point-of-view is being represented, be it theological, political or psychological. Also terrorism can be seen as willful destruction (killing) of people or destruction of property by people not acting on behalf of an established government to redress a real or imaginary injustice attributed to an established government. However it is important to note that not all cases of willful destruction of people or property are acts of terrorism (ed Cross Organization, 2007).
Some of the important definitive characteristics of terrorism include among others;…
Commonwealth of Kentucky, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011
Counter Terrorism, (2011). Community Preparedness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 from http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/comm/index.html
Homeland Security, (2011). Preparedness, Response & Recovery. Retrieved November 20, 2011
Terrorism shares features in common with irregular warfare, insurgency, and crime. Like crime, terrorism violates the law and infringes on the rights of others. Like insurgency, terrorism "appeals as a weapon of the weak," (Arquilla, onfelt & Zanini 1999, p. 134). Similarly, Arquilla et al. (1999) note that terrorism "has appealed as a way to assert identity and command attention," (p. 134). Like irregular warfare, terrorism is asynchronous and asymmetrical, not ascribing to the rules of war. However, terrorism is unique in that "today's enemy is not a state but a transnational, non-state actor" that uses warfare that is "not traditional…elusive…and…exploits…industrial and technological advantages," (Howard n.d.). As Howard (n.d.) points out, terrorism more resembles a virus than anything else (p. 123). Moreover, terrorism involves ideology and paradigms that underwrite its existence: in the case of al Qaeda a pseudo-religious doctrine. The goals of terrorism are farther-reaching and more global than…
Arquilla, J. Ronfeldt, D. & Zanini, M. (1999). Networks and Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism.
Howard, R.D. (n.d.). Preemptive Military Doctrine: No Other Choice.
Weimann, G. (2004). How modern terrorism uses the internet. United States Institute of Peace: Special Report.
289). Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that lack of a good definition makes it difficult, if not impossible, to address the moral implications of terrorism. Coady defines terrorism as "the organized use of violence to attack noncombatants ('innocents' in a special sense) or their property for political purposes" (p. 290). This definition focuses on the targets, innocent "noncombatants" and does not consider the goals the terrorists aim to achieve. It does specify for "political purposes" rather than criminal, and does not mention causing fear. There exists some disagreement on whether threats, for example, as opposed to real acts, constitute terrorism. If the goal of inducing fear is part of the definition, then threats would be included, but if terrorist goals are limited to "political purposes," then threats would not qualify as terrorist acts.
Coady (cited in Halwani, 2006) points out that some "acts of political violence may be…
Brock, B.L. (2002). The use and abuse of terrorism. The Michigan Citizen (December 1): http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/palmeri/commentary/brock1.htm
Halwani, R. (2006). Terrorism: Definition, justification, and applications. Social Theory and Practice, 32 (2), April, 289-308. Retrieved on February 8, 2007 from Academic OneFile database.
Saul, B. (2005). Definition of "terrorism" in the UN Security Council: 1985-2004. Chinese Journal of International Law, 4 (1), 141. Retrieved on Februray 8, 2007 from Academic OneFile database.
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has made a significant progress guiding against terrorist attacks using terrorism preparedness to forestall further terrorism attacks in the United States. Terrorism preparedness exercise is a broad range of response and preparedness program to support communities that might be affected by the terrorist attack. (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
Typically, the U.S. government has implemented a range of program for terrorism preparedness and one of the policies employed is the use of wide range of intelligence to investigate the imminent terrorism that might have occurred in the United States. Typically, the U.S. intelligence has collaborated with other intelligences globally to prevent act of terrorism in the United States. For example, the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has collaborated with Pakistan intelligence to locate the hideout of Ben Laden and killed him.
Moreover, the United States has implemented various military exercises for…
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). 9-11 Commission Report. USA.
Stenner, R.D. Kirk, J.L. Stanton, J.R. (2006).National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report. U.S. Department of Energy.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012).National Response Plan. USA.
The food supply is extremely vulnerable, and that makes all of us vulnerable, as well. The author also maintains that inspection at borders and inspection stations have kept most pathogens and problems from entering the country, but we have to wonder, how long will that last? This applies to this course because it is a true threat of terrorism that could occur here or anywhere around the world. It also applies because those who would harm American would have no regrets about using agro-terrorism to do the greatest harm to the most people. They would feel justified at the death toll and panic that ensued. The threat of global terrorism is very real, and in fact, is on the increase. This document shows why we should be afraid, and never give up being vigilant about all forms of terrorism, no matter how obscure they might seem.
Preslar, D.B. (2000).…
How does terrorism affect children?
Children are often the victims of terrorism, and sometimes die in terrorist attacks (Dyson, 2001). When children witness or survive a terrorist attack, psychological ramifications like post-traumatic stress disorder may result (Hall, 2003). In some cases, children lose their loved ones and their lives may be turned upside down by terrorist attacks as all that is familiar to them -- schools, family, homes, community -- are destroyed (FBI, 2007). The war on terrorism can also affect the lives of children, as the media perpetuates a culture of fear. Children may, for example, be raised to be suspicious of people of different races or ethnicities because their parents, teachers, and the media perpetuate stereotypes about who is and who is not a terrorist.
What makes "martyrdom" such an effective tool for terrorists? Discuss in terms of social construction.
Suicide bombings and other examples of terrorist…
Dyson, W.E. (2001). Terrorism: An investigator's handbook. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Retrieved March 25, 2007, from www.fbi.gov.
Gunaratna, R. (2002), Inside Al Qaeda: Global network of terror. New York: Berkley Books.
Hall, H.V. (2003). Introduction: Psychological study of terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment 2(3), 1-8.
Americans' views of terrorism were forever established on September 11, 2001, when terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Towers in New York, collapsing them both, and one plane into the Pentagon, causing severe damage. A fourth plane crashed into the countryside in Pennsylvania instead of hitting its target, probably in Washington, D.C., only because passengers challenged the hijackers and fought back. Over 3,000 people lost their lives that day.
Until that day, terrorism had been a somewhat distant concept to most Americans. We heard about terrorism in srael, and perhaps some of us had friends or family to worry about, and we heard about .R.A. attacks in Great Britain, but September 11 was the firsts time international terrorists had done major damage on U.S. soil. Virtually everyone in the United States became vocally opposed to terrorism on that day even if they hadn't given it much thought…
In fact, it is difficult to think anything positive about terrorism, especially in the era of smart bombs, when our military is able to bomb with such precision that civilians are rarely killed and injured, and only the target is taken out. The fact that our military is able to conduct war with a precision never before achieved is one reason why terrorism seems more shocking than ever before. There's a jarring difference between warfare and terrorism in 2004. When the United States wages war we go to great lengths to protect the civilian population as much as possible. The opposing forces have taken advantage of that fact in Iraq, storing weapons in mosques and allowing combatants to use them as a staging arena for their efforts.
The truth is that terrorism has changed since its beginnings. The United States was born out of terrorism and revolution. If the American Revolution were taking place today, the British would describe the Boston Tea Party as a terrorist act, and the guerilla-like tactics used by small bands of civilian men against British encampments during that time would be viewed as crimes. In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.
However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to express it.
These contexts include: simple contexts, in which there is a clear cause-and-effect structure at work that is self-evident; complicated contexts, in which there are many right answers, but it is hard to ascertain them; complex contexts, in which there are no visible solutions (a dynamic in which there are "unknown unknowns"); and chaotic contexts, in which a leader is simply tasked with reducing the severity of a situation.
Over time, national security is faced with each of these contexts, and intelligence requires employing officials who are equipped with the requisite expertise to successfully target a given predicament.
In light of the many different tasks faced by national security, it is essential to have a Grand Strategy (or Statement of Purpose) that accounts for every aspect of national defense and steers the different compartments toward a unified direction.
An example of a unified direction can be seen in the War on…
Chambers, Jay, "Combating Terrorism in a Globalized World," National War College, 2002.
"Combating Catastrophic Terror: A Security Strategy for the Nation." 2005
"Combating Catastrophic Terror: A Security Strategy for the Nation." 2005.
Crenshaw, Martha. "Terrorism, Strategies, and Grand Strategies." In Attacking Terrorism: Element of a Grand Strategy, ed. Audrey Kurth Cronin and James M. Ludes. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2004.
They play an enormous role in shaping our thought patterns about what terrorism is. And this is neither good nor bad. Rather it is just the way it is due to the large role the media plays in our lives in this modern day. Most Americans depend on it.
I believe the media to be a powerful influence on American society today. From what we buy, to what we eat, to the kinds of cars we buy, to its impact on violence in our society, media probably has more influence on us than anyone would like to admit. Its influence on my own ideas of terrorism has been significant. When I think about it, I wouldn't know terrorism existed if it weren't for the media. So, it logically follows that they greatly impact my thought process on a subject they defined -- and continue to define -- for me.
However genius terrorist organizations might seem, the United States and its allies has at its command an even more sophisticated and comprehensive body of technological tools that can be harnessed toward the counterterrorism effort. Counterterorrism has become, especially since September 11, one of the hallmarks of the American intelligence system. Learning how to stay one or several steps ahead of those who would attack the United States is one of the primary jobs of counterterrorism units. Using technology to their advantage, counterterrorism units in United States government agencies can thwart planned attacks and minimize damage from any that happen to take place at home or overseas.
The new terrorism is, however, characterized by its lack of clear centralized power. Combating a faceless, subversive, sneaky enemy means mobilizing as many resources as possible. Technology is only one part of the counterterrorism process, which relies on its human resources as much as…
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. 2004. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/index.htm
Terrorism." Section in Crime in the Modern World, Chapter 10: Crimes Against Persons.
esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism
Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).
Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215
Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737
As reported by the New York Times
How: A Pakistani man accused of aiding Al Qaeda who was imprisoned in his home country for three years, has been released by the government.
Brief Analysis: The connections of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to terrorism are debated, as the CIA alleges he has been involved in terrorist activity but Pakistani officials have said that information from Mr. Khan led them to a Tanzanian wanted in connection with the 1998 bombings of American embassies in East Africa, which killed more than 200 people. They say he is not a terrorist, but merely had knowledge of the event, and thus upon gaining this information, he was released. This highlights how the international nature of terrorist organizations and the conflicting policies of nations in dealing with terrorists make it even more difficult to combat this threat.
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say…
Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say Lessons from 9/11 Were Not Followed in Deutsche Bank Blaze." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/22/nyregion/22fire.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism
Pakistan Releases a Man Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda." (21 Aug 2007). The New York
Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/21/world/asia/21pakistan.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism
Rutenberg, J. (7 Aug 2007). "Bush Still Wields Fear of Terrorism." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/07/washington/07assess.html?ex=1187928000&en=0b077e645f7d8104&ei=5070
Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust. While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel.
The differences between fundamentalist and more moderate Islam comes down to the nature of Islamic belief. Islam does not make any real distinction between religion and government. In the Koran, religion and government are completely intertwined. So to fundamentalist Moslems, a non-fundamentalist Islamic country in…
Merey, Can. 2004. "Still no trace of Osama bin Laden."
Manila Bulletin, December 29.
Staff writer. 2005. "Irish Republicans in crisis over money laundering probe. Agence France Presse English, Feb. 19
Weisbach, Jessica. 2004. "The Psychology of the Terrorist Mind: Attempting to Understand as a Possible Means towards Prevention," in Peace, War and Human Nature. Accessed via the Internet 8/4/05. http://gseweb.harvard.edu/~t656_web/peace/Articles_Spring_2004/Weisbach_Jessica_terrorist_mind.htm
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and fear. They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful & terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.
War on Terror
War on Terror' is the phrase that has been used and abused since Americans were attacked on their soil on September 11 in New York's Twin Towers. Today America's foreign policy is defined by the term 'War on Terror'. The attack on twin towers made America vulnerable and they had…
The Washington Times. 2006. Defining Terrorism at the U.N. March 23.
The Washington Times. 2005. Defining Terrorism; Conferences Produce Meager Results. December 2,
Palti, L. December 2004. Combating Terrorism While Protecting Human Rights. UN Chronicle. 41 (4): 27+.
Leader, S. April 1997. The Rise of Terrorism. Security Management. 41(4).
No matter the actual cost of terrorism in terms of the economic damage, the perception that investment is going to incur higher risk will inevitably lead to the conclusion that it will also incur higher costs. Since higher costs are generally an anathema to transnational business, it stands that capital would move away from areas that have experienced terrorism. In fact, this is born out by the numbers. As already mentioned, FDI in the U.S. dropped by a factor of ten following the September 11th terrorist attacks. No one person, business, institution, or government had to organize this shift; rather it occurred organically as a function of the market itself. In the aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. suddenly seemed like a riskier place to do business and capital would have been shifted towards areas of the world that had the perception of being safer.
In fact, surveys conducted among…
Abadie, Alberto and Gardeazabal, Javier. "Terrorism and the World Economy." Aug. 2007. 29 Nov. 2007 http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~.aabadie.academic.ksg/twe.pdf .
Carafano, James Jay. "Global Terrorism and the Global Economy: Unpeaceful Coexistence." Chapter 2 in 2005 Index of Economic Freedom. 2005. 29 Nov. 2007 http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/chapters/pdfs/Index2005_Chap2.pdf .
Nanto, Dick K. "9/11 Terrorism: Global Economic Costs." CRS Report for Congress. 5 Oct. 2004. 29 Nov. 2007 http://digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs/permalink/meta-crs-7725:1 .
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling off in freight costs. The stability of freight rates, despite power fuel prices and underused shipping capacity would suggest that transportation costs may have increased as a result of the 9/11 attacks (Looney).
In 2005, Songster looked at the impact that terrorist acts have around the world on the hospitality industry, which has become a prime target in a number of threatening situations. Hotels, restaurants and bars around the globe have increasingly become scenes of terrorist atrocities not enjoyment and relaxation.…
Bruck, T.and Wickstrom, B. (2004) the economic consequences of terror:
guest editor's introduction, the European Journal of Political Economy 20,
Coleman, K. (July 7, 2004) Terrorism Risk Management for Finance and Insurance
Organizations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 17, 2007. http://www.directionsmag.com/printer.php?article_id=593
The left wing will considered the beggar to be at par with others on moral grounds, and will therefore demand the access of the beggar towards loans and welfare scheme. The right wing will condemn the free access of the beggar towards economic reforms, and will doubt that if access to these economic provisions will further involve the participation of the beggar into bad social habits. According to left wing the provided assistance to the beggar will make him contribute towards turning the world into better place for survival, where as the rightwing will consider such a measure as a threat to world peace.
Shane Harris. Domestic Counter-terrorism. 2007. National Journal ublications.
Kevin Jack Riley, Bruce Hoffman. Domestic Terrorism: A National Assessment of State and Local Law Enforcement reparedness. 1995. MIT ress.pp. 34
Jay . Farrington. Domestic Terrorism. 2001. HW Wilson. pp. 196
Robert a. Kilmarx, Yonah Alexander. olitical Terrorism…
Philip B. Heymann. Terrorism and America: A Commonsense Strategy for a Democratic Society. 1998. MIT Press. pp. 110
Col (Retd) Eas Bokhari. The Genesis of Terrorism. National Journal Publications
Philip B. Heymann. Terrorism and America: A Commonsense Strategy for a Democratic Society. 1998. MIT Press. pp. 274
S., have the potential to cause billions of dollars of damage to the U.S. economy" (Threat pp).
Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)
Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."
Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Crutsinger, Martin. "ECONOMISTS RANK TERRORISM GREATEST THREAT
TO ECONOMY; MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR Business ECONOMICS RANK IMMEDIATE THREATS." isconsin State Journal. August 18, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Definition of Terrorism. Retrieved August 14, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Definition_of_terrorism
High oil prices risky for U.S. economy: top Bush adviser.
Agence France Presse English. August 09, 2005. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Raum, Tom. "Approval of Bush's Handling of Economy…
Airlines likely to become vocal over security costs - claim.(Brief Article)
Airline Industry Information. December 14, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Bartlett, Michael. "Only Terrorism Can Derail Continued Growth."
Credit Union Journal. October 03, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.