Terrorist Attack Essays (Examples)

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Terrorist Organizations

Words: 6350 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80361872

Terrorist Organizations and the Media

Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.

Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at  http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ano.htm .[7 September 2003].

Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at http://www.teror.gen.tr/english/organisations/abunidal.html.[7 September 2003].

Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.

Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at  http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm .[7 September 2003].
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Terrorist Strategies

Words: 1325 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64748699

Terrorist Tactic:

Terrorism has emerged as one of the major security threats across the globe in the past several years. The severity of this global threat has been evident through the various terrorist attacks that have occurred in the past few decades, especially the 9/11 attacks. Actually, the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks was characterized with increased fears that terrorist groups like al-Qaeda will attempt to carry out other large attacks against the United States. One of the major reasons for the increase in terrorism is the use of various tactics by these individuals or groups. As the world continues to experience tremendous changes, terrorists and terror groups continue to develop new, sophisticated means and tactics of carry out their activities. While some of these activities may be carried out for similar reasons, they tactics employed in achieving these goals vary from time to time.

ecent Terrorists Tactics:

As previously…… [Read More]

References:

Carafano, J.J., Bucci, S. & Zuckerman, J. (2012, April 25). Fifty Terror Plots Foiled Since 9/11:

The Homegrown Threat and the Long War on Terrorism. Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation -- Leadership for America.

Moran, N. (2007, September 24). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from  http://www.rightsidenews.com/2007092429591/world/terrorism/the-evolution-of-improvised-explosive-devices.html 

Singer, P.W. (2012, February). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Retrieved
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Terrorist Groups Since September 11th

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88549947



Abu Nidal Organization:

The Abu Nidal Organization is also known by several other names, such as: Fatah evolutionary Council, Arab evolutionary Brigades, Black September, or evolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. It is an international terrorist organization that was founded by Sabri al-Banna, otherwise known as Abu Nidal. The organization split from PLO in 1974 and is made up of various functional committees. These include: political, military and financial committees. Founder Abu Nidal died in Baghdad in November 2002 and it is now unclear who the new leader of the organization is ("Abu Nidal," 2004).

The Abu Nidal Organization has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries and has killed or injured nearly 1,000 people in those attacks. Primary targets include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and a variety of Arab countries. They were responsible for the attacks on the ome and Vienna airports in…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization. (June 2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/abu.htm.

Al Qaeda. (10 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Qaeda .

Hizballah. (16 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hizballah .

Pike, J. (3 Nov. 2004). Al-Qa'ida (The Base). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at  http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm .
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Terrorist Tactics Understanding the Enemy Is an

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12117386

Terrorist Tactics

Understanding the enemy is an important aspect of defense. In fact, it is perhaps the most important aspect of being able to protect the people of your country. Since September 11th, 2001 the primary enemy of the United States has been terrorist organizations throughout the world, particularly in the Middle East. Terrorists have been a problem for Americans before that time as indicated by incidences throughout American history, up to and including the 1970s and 1980s. However, since the 2001 attacks, the enemy has been more blatant about their attitudes towards the United States and with regard to their intentions for citizens of the United States. Terrorism is defined by the American Department of Defense as "The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear: intended to coerce or to intimidate government or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Department of the Army. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Fort Leavenworth, KS:

TRADOC. 2007.

"Emerging Threats and Security Challenges."

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehVGgmKzBeY
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Terrorist Groups the Intentions Behind Religious Fundamentalist

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13019770

Terrorist Groups

The intentions behind religious fundamentalist terrorist activities are varied. It is noteworthy that terrorists are psychologically normal and are neither depressed, severely emotionally disturbed, nor crazed fanatics. In fact to ensure that their members are not clinically psychotic, emotionally unstable individuals are regularly screened out because they can be a security risk.

eligious fundamentalist terrorist groups are driven by a sense of giving power to the powerless. Some always want to seek revenge over religious grievances, while others seek to gain a sense of significance. They are driven by group interests as opposed to self serving actions hence their group, organizational, and social psychology. The responsibility of a leader of a terrorist organization like Al Qaeda is to interpret religious scriptures to justify their extreme acts of violence. He draws frustrated leaders into a coherent organization (Neumann, 2005).

Their unifying message to disparate followers is lined with religious,…… [Read More]

References List

Davis, P.K. & Jenkins, B.M. (2002). Deterrence and Influence in Counterterrorism. Santa Monica: RAND.

Neumann, P.R. (2005). Addressing the Causes of Terrorism: The Club de Madrid Series on Democracy and Terrorism. Retrieved from http://media.clubmadrid.org/docs/CdM-

Series-on-Terrorism-Vol-1.pdf
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Terrorist Groups Use of Cloud Technology

Words: 4606 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34264283

Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology

After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.

The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.

Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.

Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.

Furht, Borko; Escalante, Armando. Handbook of Cloud Computing.
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Terrorist Organizations and Its Threat

Words: 2902 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60360951

Osama announced that they have gathered based on the will of God Almighty. Nothing that the countries like America does can stop them from what Al-Qaeda does under the will of Allah (Gunaratna 2003). The countries can do nothing to be safe from the fury of the Muslims. Osama has added that the war was begun by America and now the consequences will be faced by America by losing the war with the permission of Allah. Implementation of divine will seems to be the main rationale of Al-Qaeda. Clearing the west of anti-Islamic ideologies is the main rationale of Jeemah Islamiyah based on which they believe in use of all kinds of terrorist activities to 'correct' the nations.

3.1.4. ecruitment

The recruitment policies of the group are based on the social, cultural and historical context of the new 'terrorist'. A young man who abandons his home has to be recruited…… [Read More]

References

Akbarzadeh, S and Yasmeen, S 2005, Islam and the West: reflections from Australia, UNSW Press, New South Wales.

Bobrow, BD 2004,'Losing to Terrorism: An American Work in Progress', Metaphilosophy, vol. 35, no 3, p. 362-3.

Caldicott, DGE and Edwards, NA 2003 'Medical preparation for terrorism in Australia. Is luck running out for "The Lucky Country"?', Prehosp Disast Med vol. 18, pp. 57 -- 65.

Gunaratna, R 2003 'The Post-Madrid Face of Al Qaeda', The Washington Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 91 -- 100.
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Terrorist Phenomenon Has Changed the

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32361163

egardless, the image of the United States was shaken by the success of the Al Qaeda.

From a security point-of-view, the existence of Al Qaeda triggered more vigilance among the security environment in the sense that it attracted the attention on the phenomenon of terrorism as a global threat that needs to be treated at the global level through mechanisms that in 2001 were not set in place. Therefore, a reconsideration of homeland security strategies was necessary. This in turn however affected all levels of the society, from increased security at the level of the president to the increased airport controls throughout the country and abroad. These tightened rules of security attracted scrutiny at the level of the ordinary people and accusations of infringing privacy were even articulated. Even so, the fight against terrorism has become, after 9/11 one of the primordial subjects on the agenda of world leaders.

eference…… [Read More]

Reference list

Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub

Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of Al Qaeda. Online at  http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html 

Reuters. (2009). Analyst's view: Al Qaeda's strengths and weaknesses. Online at  http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/06/19/us-security-qaeda-strength-weakness-sb-idUSTRE55I22Z20090619
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Terrorist He Watches Using Exquisite

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7298371

" An underlying theme of "The Terrorist, He Watches" is the importance of timing in general. The people who happened to leave the bar before 1:20 have good timing. Those who happened to be inside were in the wrong place at the wrong time. "Some will have time to get in, / Some to get out." The terrorist cares little for the suffering he inflicts. He keeps time as if he were a robot.

Szymborska's poem is disturbing not because it describes a bloody scene during the aftermath of a terrorist attack or because it describes the mind of a killer. On the contrary, the poem is disturbing for what it omits: emotion. Suggesting that terrorists must emotionally detach themselves to carry out their mission, Szymborska deliberately leaves out any affective content in "The Terrorist, He Watches." As the title suggest, the terrorist merely watches. Even the act of setting…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Mind Terrorism Is an Issue That

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58756261

Terrorist Mind:

Terrorism is an issue that has existed throughout the history of mankind, but experienced significant changes in the nature and degree of threats in the past few decades due to globalization and technological advancements. The increase of the threat of terrorism has contributed to the need to develop effective measures to lessen the occurrence and impact of such threats. One of the major measures used to help deal with the threat of terrorism is analyzing the terrorist mind because terrorism is basically a psychological act involving the use of violence or threat of violence. The psychological act is fuel by various factors including ideological differences and motivational issues.

While analyzing the terrorist mind is an important part to help fight terrorism, it is very ambivalent, which results in concerns whether it's necessary to dedicate time and resources to profile and predict terrorist motivations. The dedication of time and…… [Read More]

References:

O'Connor, T. (2013, September 10). Terrorist Profiling. Retrieved September 17, 2013, from  http://www.drtomoconnor.com/4050/4050lect08.htm 

Victoroff, J. (2005, February). The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(1), 3-42. Retrieved from  http://www.surrey.ac.uk/politics/research/researchareasofstaff/isppsummeracademy/instructors%20/The%20Terrost%20mind.pdf
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Terrorist Threats Challenge the Current

Words: 3207 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50158734



Powell Assertion Number Two: In his Feb. 5, 2003 speech to the U.N., Powell said: "We have no indication that Saddam Hussein has ever abandoned his nuclear weapons program." But in October, 2002, in his memo to the White House, CIA Director George Tenet voiced "strong doubts about a claim President Bush" was about to make in the State of the Union address "that Iraq was trying to buy nuclear materials" from Africa. And on July 24, 2003, Spain's Foreign Minister, Ana Palacio, an ally of the U.S., said their was "no evidence" prior to the U.S. attack on Iraq of a nuclear bomb program by Saddam, according to the Hanley article in Editor & Publisher.

Powell Assertion Number Three: Powell told the U.N. he had proof that Saddam was deploying "Contamination Vehicles" associated with chemical weapons on at least two sites. Those alleged contamination vehicles turned out to be…… [Read More]

References

Barry, John; Hirsh, Michael & Isikoff, Michael. (2004). "The road to Abu Ghraib began after 9/11, when Washington wrote new rules to fight a new kind of war," Newsweek International.

CBSNEWS.com. (2004). "The Man Who Knew," 4 Feb. 2004. Available:

 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/10/14/60II/printable577975.shtml .

Dodds, Paisley. (2005). "Gitmo Soldier Details Sexual Tactics," Associated Press, Yahoo News, 27 January.
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Terrorist Mind-Set the 21st Century

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44892860

Basing on these stages, prior comprehension can boost the effort to dislodge the negative ideologies that the terror group could be trying to impart into people's mind-set. For instance, terrorist attacks targeting U.S. are based on the ideologies that U.S. is a general enemy to the Islam community. The objective of such propaganda is to unite the Islam community solidly behind their leaders in vilifying United States. However, the U.S. government's response to denounce the ideologies and insist that the war is against terrorists and not Muslim has been crucial in dismantling groupings such as Al Qaeda (White, 2002).

In my view, I totally agree with the statement that understanding the terrorist mind-set is essential in exploiting the weaknesses in the terrorist organizations. A fundamental mind-set that the terror organizations have developed is that attacking and killing an enemy of the people is the surest way of a better afterlife.…… [Read More]

References

Borum, R. (2003). Understanding a Terrorist Mind-Set. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. July 2003.

White, J. (2002). Terrorism: An Introduction, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing
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Terrorist Group Factors for Formation and Continued Operations

Words: 2787 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38291069

Hezbollah

The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism

The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…… [Read More]

References

Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.

Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.

Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.

Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
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Attacks of September 11 2001 Spawned a

Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96494096

attacks of September 11, 2001 spawned a number of dubious government actions, including the intensification of racial profiling to target Arabs and Muslims. This means that a certain section of American society is under immediate suspicion of terrorism simply for being of a particular race or religion. Tolerance and equality are two of the highest principles treasured by the United States and its inhabitants. The fear and suspicion cultivated by racial profiling, especially after September 11, represents an abomination of the rights guaranteed under the Constitution to all within American borders.

To suspect millions of law-abiding, innocent people of terrorism as a result of the actions of a handful, is like suspecting all white males of perversion as a result of a few perverted serial killers. It is illogical and causes more harm than good.

There are many actions that are helpful in preventing terrorism. Immigration laws for example can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ambrose, Thomas. "Profiling's place on Sept. 11." Insight on the News, Sept 16, 2002. News World Communications, Inc., 2002.

Derbyshire, John. "At First Glance - Racial profiling, burning hotter." National Review, Oct 15, 2001. National Review, Inc., 2001.

Elvin, John. "Antiterror tactics spark differences of opinion." Insight on the News, Feb 4, 2003. News World Communications, Inc., 2003

Harris, David. "Flying while Arab: lessons from the racial profiling controversy." Civil Rights Journal, Winter, 2002. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2002.
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How Real Terrorist Threat Commercial Sector Explain Justify Opinion

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62234118

Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector:

Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In the past few centuries, the nature and values of terrorism have slowly shifted and resulted in the emergence of different definitions or descriptions of terrorism. These different descriptions have not only been used by scholars but also by governments to broaden the phenomenon to political, judicial, psychosocial, and moral arenas. The differences in definitions of terrorism is attributed to the fact that these attacks are usually characterized by political motivations towards the use or threat of violence, intentional and pre-meditated actions, fear, psychological effects, and asymmetric warfare. The other aspects of these definitions include immorality, social coercion, and reactions. However, terrorist groups and activities continue to pose significant threats to every facet of the modern society including the commercial sector (aman,…… [Read More]

References:

A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 2007, Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors, Chapter 2, viewed 20 April 2013,

Brandt, B 2011, Terrorist Threats to Commercial Aviation: A Contemporary Assessment.

Combating Terrorism Center -- United States Military Academy, viewed 20 April 2013,

Catlin Group Limited 2012, A Business Approach to Terrorism, Catlin Group Limited Report,
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Technologies Used by ISIS The Terrorist Organizations

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92589876

Terrorist organizations and terrorists are exploiting social media and the internet resources for the purpose of committing terrorist activities and for the facilitation of wide-ranging terrorist activities including radicalization, incitement, training, recruitment, communications, information gathering, planning, financing, and preparation (United Nations, n.d). Technology has quickly become a fundamental component of the modern day society. Technology governs itself therefore making it possible for terrorists to utilize it for the purpose of advancing their terrorism. Modern terrorism has become unpredictable and instantaneous thanks to technology. Technology has made it possible for terrorists to target large audiences and bring terror right into the home (InfoSec, 2018). Cyberspace is a technological environment that has no boundaries hence making it a place where terrorists can locate resources, disseminate propaganda information and launch attacks in any corner of the world.
5 main technological types and/or tools Used by ISIS for Information Sharing and Intelligence Gathering
Social…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Groups Terrorism Is Basically Defined as

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29930244

Terrorist Groups:

Terrorism is basically defined as activities or violence that is carried out to coerce the government or civilian population to change its policies. Such activities are usually carried out due to divergent political, religious and ideological beliefs by individuals or members of an extremist group. However, the federal agencies definitions of terrorism vary depending on their operational roles and missions resulting in the lack of a universally accepted definition of terrorism in the United States. Consequently, there is either domestic or international terrorism depending on the origin of an extremist or terrorist group, where they launch their terrorist activities and who the victims of these attacks are ("Combating Terrorism," 2003). International terrorism is motivated by a range of interrelated factors and trends including technological advances and associations with international crime.

Al-Qaeda Network:

The Al-Qaeda Network is an international terrorist organization that was established in 1988 and is led…… [Read More]

References:

"Al-Qaeda." (n.d.). Oracle ThinkQuest: Education Foundation. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212088/teroraalqaeda.htm

"Al-Qaida / Al-Qaeda (the Base)." (2006, August 15). GlobalSecutiy.org. Retrieved April 30,

2011, from  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/al-qaida.htm 

"Combating Terrorism: Interagency Framework and Agency Programs to Address the Overseas
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Terrorist Group Leaders

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14526296

Terrorist Group Leaders

Tools and Techniques Used by Terrorist Group Leaders to Influence their Followers

In his article, War, Psychology, and Time, Friedman (2007) shows how Osama bin Laden employed a psychological strategy in an attempt to create a massive Islamic empire in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegration of the union provided an ideal opportunity for bin Laden to demonstrate to the world that America was actually weak and could be severely hurt. For bin Laden, the Muslim world "suffered from a psychology of defeat" following America's triumph over the Soviet Union and it was therefore important for Muslims to show their might and create terror (Friedman, 2007). The use of psychology to advance terrorist ideologies is not limited to bin Laden and al Qaeda. Indeed, leaders of terrorist groups capitalize on psychological techniques to recruit and influence their followers (Victoroff, 2005). This paper…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Organizations What Sort of Policies Could

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22720207

Terrorist Organizations

What sort of policies could the U.S. implement to prevent terrorist cells from forming in Africa? Do you believe that the U.S. should intervene, or should the problems of Africa be eliminated from within the individual countries? Why?

This is a thorny question, because U.S. intervention can often backfire, making other countries resent us for being "bullies" or for meddling in their affairs. However, we know that many of these African organizations receive at least some funding and support from groups like Al Qaeda, so we need to do something to monitor them or intervene if they become too dangerous. It would be nice to leave the intervention to the individual countries, but many of them are so corrupt or underfunded that they have little recourse on their own, and they need help from someone stronger and more powerful if they want to eliminate these groups from their…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Profiling The New Face

Words: 993 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14386352

A frustration of societal expectations, rather than outright poverty and rejection, were characteristic of these terrorists' profiles.

This shifting profile should not have come as much of a surprise as it did to experts. As early as 1999 some experts noted, regarding terrorists in general (as opposed to Islamic terrorists) that all "terrorist groups are recruiting members who possess a high degree of intellectualism and idealism, are highly educated, and are well trained in a legitimate profession...More than two-thirds of the terrorists surveyed came from middle-class or even upper-class backgrounds" (Hudson 1999: 46; 49)

In Britain, there remains a concern about Pakistani training camps, given the large population of Pakistanis in the region. One red flag, the parents of a terrorist noted, that they did not spot was when their rebellious son was sent away to relatives in Pakistan, and he came back sober and religious. They thought their effort…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hudson, Rex a. (1999). "The Sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why?" Federal Research Division. Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf 

McGrory, Daniel & Zahid Husain. (14 Jul 2005). New wave of British terrorists is taught at schools, not in the mountains." The Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at  http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article543782.ece 

Nicolson, Brendan. (14 Jul 2004). "Paper paints a terrorist profile." The Age. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at  http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/07/15/1089694488731.html 

Wilgoren, Jodi. (21 Sept 2001). "After the attacks: The hijackers. A terrorist profile emerges that confounds the experts." The New York Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at  http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE1D61F38F936A2575AC0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&st=cse&sq=terrorist+psychological+profile&scp=3
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2011 Norway Attacks Effectiveness of

Words: 3954 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90875954



Pineda (2012) noted that the tip was wasted entirely due to communication problems, the failure by the police to follow procedures as well as inadequate means-Factors that together bogged down the Norwegian Police's reaction as well as operation on the emergency following the incident.

The Gjorv eport also indicated that the nation's only helicopter in the city of Oslo was unusable since its crew was absent on vacation (Blair,2012). This is inefficiency by the Police since this is a clear sing of a lack of disaster/emergency preparedness. There was no emergency/replacement crew to fly the chopper. The availability of the chopper was also "limited." The understaffing of the police centers was also another problem.

Weaknesses in the police information sharing system

At the time of the Oslo and Utoya Island terrorist attacks, the Norwegian Police information-sharing infrastructure was subjected to a very formidable weakness. Further, the Police Security Services never…… [Read More]

References

Bjelopera, JP (2011). Terrorism Information Sharing and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Report Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service .Available online at  http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/166837.pdf 

British Broadcasting Corporation (2012a). Norway PM Jens Stoltenberg 'sorry' over Breivik response.Available online at  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19401598 

Blair, David (14 August 2012). "Breivik 'could have been stopped sooner' by police." The Daily Telegraph. The Irish Independent.  http://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/breivik-could-have-been-stopped-sooner-by-police-3200081.html . Retrieved 18th September 2012.

Cook, AH (2009).Emergency response to Domestic Terrorism-How Bureaucracies reacted to the 1995 Oklahoma Bombing.Continuum-New York
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Environmental and Agricultural Terrorist Targets

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26092703

On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).

The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.

Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.

RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
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Airport Screening for Terrorists

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24289568

Airport Screening for Terrorists

There are a variety of reasons why United States security does not profile terrorists, particularly at major national and international venues such as airports. The main reason why terrorists are not profiled in this setting is because it is virtually impossible to devise a neat, categorical description of what a quintessential terrorist is/looks like. It is true that virtually all of the terrorists involved in the destruction of the World Trade Center were Middle Eastern men from the ages of 20 and 40. Does this fact mean that a Middle Eastern man who is 41, for instance, could not be a terrorist? Or perhaps one that is 19? Although the terrorists who destroyed the World Trade Center all fit one neat category, others do not. For instance, the young man from Nigeria who attempted to detonate some sort of homemade explosive while above Detroit was not…… [Read More]

References

Faris, S. (2013). "Have the NSA leaks compromised big data's future?" DATAVERSITY. Retrieved from  http://www.dataversity.net/have-the-nsa-leaks-compromised-big-datas-future/ 

Huddy, L. Feldman, S. (2011). "Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath." American Psychologist. 66 (6): 455-467. Retrieved from  http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=6c5746c9-4b73-4b98-b07f-37a2c3b154f1%40sessionmgr13&hid=4 

Neria, Y., DiGrande, L, Adams, B.G. (2011). "Posttraumatic stress disorder following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks." American Psychologist. 66 (6): 429-446.  http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6c5746c9-4b73-4b98-b07f-37a2c3b154f1%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&hid=4
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Terrorism if a Significant Terrorist

Words: 3231 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52894549

Such a strategy, if fully developed, would successfully reduce the risk of a successful terrorist nuclear attack because the system itself would have nuclear-specific elements that could be coordinated with an assortment of other prevention and protection measures. More so, this system would work with the international community to develop similar multi-elemental, layered and cross-departmental approaches there and then coordinate the United States' measures with these international efforts, thus creating a global defense strategy capable of fully defending a way of life against the threat of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction.

This new approach to defense would focus on coordinating improved capabilities of monitoring and controlling both nuclear weapons and nuclear material, thus being able to better evaluate where the risk is and what kind of risk it is. Further, such an internationally coordinated monitoring system would dissuade those in the planning stages of a nuclear attack could defeat…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bolt, Paul J., Coletta, Damon V., and Collins G. Shackleford. American Defense Policy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.

De Becker, Gavin. Fear Less: Real Truth About Risk, Safety, and Security in a Time of Terrorism. New York: Little Brown & Co., 2005.

Burd, R. "Nuclear Detection to Prevent or Defeat Clandestine Nuclear Attack." Los Alamos Manuscript LA-UR-04-0629, submitted to IEEE Sensors Journal, Special Issue on Sensors for the Prevention of Terrorist Acts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.

Department of Defense. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Preventing and Defending Against Clandestine Nuclear Attack. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
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Individuals Become Terrorists As the Costly Global

Words: 3542 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13618868

Individuals Become Terrorists?

As the costly global battle against terrorism continues, the question is constantly begged, "Why do some individuals become terrorists while others do not?" Certainly, there are some generic attributes that distinguish many individuals who are considered terrorists in the eyes of the international community, including being young and male, but the generalities tend to stop there because women and even children have also been involved in terrorist attacks in the past. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the various motivational factors that have been shown to turn ordinary individuals into terrorists. Following a discussion of these issues, a summary of the research and important findings concerning why some individuals become terrorists are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

What is terrorism, anyway? Although a single, universally acceptable definition of terrorism is…… [Read More]

References

Abrahms, M 2008, 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-terrorism strategy,' International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, 78-105.

Acharya, A 2009, Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes,

New York: Routledge.

Atran, S 2008, 'Who becomes a terrorist today?,' Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.2, No. 5, 1-5.
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Recovery Plan Biological Attack in the U S

Words: 2773 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17134066

ecovery Plan: Biological Attack in the U.S. Congress

The havoc and deaths caused by the weaponized anthrax spores that were mailed to members of the U.S. Congress following the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the repeated attempted uses of botulinum toxin on U.S. Naval bases make it abundantly clear that governmental offices are vulnerable to biological pathogens. These agents have been and likely will be used by terrorists again to achieve their goals of bringing harm to the United States and it interests at home and abroad. The hypothetical comprehensive recovery plan developed in this project is in response to this type of food-borne pathogen attack and takes place in the cafeteria situated in the ayburn House Office Building in the U.S. Congressional complex in Washington, D.C. which serves members of Congress, staff members and visitors. The scenario begins with the telephonic notification to the Capital Police that all…… [Read More]

References

Botulinum toxin. (2011). State of Delaware Health and Social Services. Retrieved from http://

www.dhss.delaware.gov/dph/files/botulismems.pdf.

Dando, M. (2001). The new biological weapons: Threat, proliferation, and control. Boulder,

CO: Lynne Rienner.
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September 11 2001 Terrorists Staged an Attack

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4228386

September 11, 2001, terrorists staged an attack on the United States. There were several areas affected, but the Twin Towers in New York City were - and still remain - the most notable. They are what everyone thinks of, when 9/11 is mentioned. On that day many lives were lost. Among them were 37 officers and one K-9 officer from the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) (Damico & Quay, 2010). That department works jointly for New York and New Jersey, and was housed in the World Trade Center complex. The quick thinking of the PAPD, along with other law enforcement agencies, reduced the loss of life. While still tragic, the 9/11 events could have been significantly more devastating if it were not for the quick thinking of a number of police officers, firefighters, and other individuals. One of the reasons the PAPD performed so well on 9/11, however, likely came…… [Read More]

References

Bolton, M.K. (2006). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield

Caraley, D. (2002). September 11, terrorist attacks, and U.S. foreign policy. New York: Academy of Political Science

Chernick, H. (2005). Resilient city: the economic impact of 9/11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation

Damico, A.M., & Quay, S.E. (2010). September 11 in Popular Culture: A Guide. New York: Greenwood
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Radical How Could a Terrorist

Words: 5491 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43256805

Following from this is the assumption that ideological connections may be the precursor to more definite and practical interactions between these groups and organizations.

In other words, terrorist groups, whether representing different nationalistic and ideological persuasions, can also be linked by shared concerns, objectives and perceptions. The increase in the ease of communications and the Internet has also accelerated the possibly of these connections. This has highlighted the threat of domestic extremists and the possible connections between extremist groupings. There has also been a more directed contemporary focus on the underlying causative facets that motivate and precipitate terrorist actions, resulting in a growing realization that these underlying causative elements in extremist groups can be more important and possibly override national and regional differences.

Cyber-terrorism has become a particularly virulent and dangerous form of terrorism that is not restricted by any regional or international boundaries. Experts agree that this form of…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010). Martyrdom, Interrupted. The National Interest 10+. Retrieved from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5041434091" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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How September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of Americans and Muslims

Words: 1628 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86345978

September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of American Muslims

For a long time, American Muslims have been part and parcel of the American society. It is however important to note that after the September 11 terror attacks, the status of American Muslims in the wider American society seems to have undergone a major review. Unlike was the case a couple of years ago, most American non-Muslims seem to have developed negative stereotypes of American Muslims.

The September 11 Attacks

One of the darkest moments in American history, September 11, 2001 is a day that will remain engraved in the minds of most Americans for many years to come. This is the day that 19 Muslim men executed a plan that left thousands of Americans dead and others badly injured. In a well planned (and executed) undertaking, the terrorists involved in this atrocity chose to used several planes as deadly weapons…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Almasri, Nasir. "The Impact on American Muslims, 11 Years After 9/11." Council on American-Islamic Relations -- Chicago. CAIR -- Chicago, 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 May 2013.

Cohen, Jon and Kyle Dropp. "Most Americans Object to Planned Islamic Center Near Ground Zero, Poll Finds." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2010. Web. 3 May 2013.

Khan, Mussarat and Kathryn Ecklund. "Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11." Journal of Muslim Mental Health. 7.1 (2012): n. pag. Web. 1 May 2013.

Lean, Nathan. "Sept. 11: Eleven Years Later, American Muslims are Victims." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 May 2013.
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Identification and Recognition of Terrorists

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65004236

Target Selection

Criminal behavior has been examined closely by criminal investigators in order to combat crime and this is also true in the area of terrorism. Specifically, education on terrorism has been provided in the form of "short briefings" or through publications in magazines or televised broadcasts. However, there is a need for more specialized and focused training in order to prepare law enforcement in countering terrorist acts. The 'Intelligence-ased' approach to antiterrorism is reported to require knowledge including that which leans towards comprehension of who terrorists are and recognition of incidents that occur prior to the actual terrorist acts committed by these individuals. This includes the competency to "analyze intelligence information." (Nance, nd, p. 4) Secondly, the observation of the behaviors of individuals at the street-level is particularly important in identifying and countering terrorists. Third stated is the ability to closely observe behaviors while analyzing information provided by various…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2012 United States Government Terrorist Identification Chart (2012) Alex Jones. Retrieved from:  http://www.infowars.com/2012-united-states-government-terrorist-identification-chart/ 

Nance, M.W. (nd) Terrorist Recognition Handbook. 2nd Ed.

Seven Signs of Terrorist Activity (nd) Secure Command. Retrieved from:  http://www.scnus.org/page.aspx?id=101218
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Hizballah Terrorist Group Hizbollah Also

Words: 2401 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25858984

Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.

After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.

Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row

Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at  http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15 #documentsand" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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U S Security and the Terrorist

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72437741

However, just how one is supposed to recognize future threats is difficult to determine. After all, if one imagines that excessive support in intervention, arms supply, technology, and financial backing is a key factor, combined with a strong religious motivation of the recipient nation, group, or organization, Israel or at the very least the Israeli right wing may one day be as dangerous as any Islamic threat may pose today.

Although much thought can be devoted to the necessary international, political and military strategies employed by the United States as a world power, it remains clear that of foremost concern to American families is their safety at home. Of course, war is never easy, particularly for those deployed in battle, or for their families. However, when a nation is attacked on its own soil it not only faces a "real damage," but it also suffers greatly in morale (Schweitzer, 2003).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Camarota, Stephen. "The Open Door: How Militant Islamic Terrorists Entered and Remained in the United States, 1993-2001." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005
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Role of Media in Reporting Terrorism Terrorist

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73098098

ole of Media in eporting Terrorism:

Terrorist attacks have developed to become part of an indirect strategy to achieve political objectives through their impacts on an audience. In this process, the attention of the media has also served as an important channel that terrorists communicate with their audiences. Consequently, one of the major objectives of terrorist groups is to affect the degree and tone of media attention to their specific acts and attacks (Walsh, 2010). In the past decade, recent history has demonstrated numerous examples of the mutually beneficial relationship between terrorist groups and the media. Some of the recent terrorist attacks indicate that the perpetrators of terrorism use the media for various purposes such as propaganda schemes, operational efficiency, recruitment, collecting information, and fund raising. Moreover, this history also indicates that the media has had a positive impact in lessening the effectiveness of terrorists.

Media as a Force Multiplier…… [Read More]

References:

Bilgen, A. (2012, July 22). Terrorism and the Media: A Dangerous Symbiosis. Retrieved February 22, 2014, from  http://www.e-ir.info/2012/07/22/terrorism-and-the-media-a-dangerous-symbiosis/ 

Walsh, J.I. (2010, December). Media Attention to Terrorist Attacks: Causes and Consequences.

Retrieved from Duke University website:  http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/IHSS_Research-Brief_Walsh.pdf
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Media in Terrorist Actions in

Words: 1561 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7798582

As O'Sullivan noted, truth and courage are needed in the media today and in the future; however, there must be balance as well. An unfettered press is exactly what terrorists thrive on. Their attacks against humanity are nothing without the publicity they garner from the media. Therefore balance must be achieved.

And, with that balance comes the positive aspects the media brings to terrorist actions. Through the media, Americans have garnered important information, especially in the early hours of September 11th. The media allowed for the telling of personal stories that has brought communities closer together. and, the media refuses to let geographical distance be a source of apathy for viewers around the world.

eferences

Cohen, E., Ball-okeach, S., Jung, J., & Kim, Y. "Civic Actions after September 11: Exploring the ole of Multi-Level Storytelling." Prometheus 20(3) Sept 2002: pp. 221-228.

Nacos, B. "Terrorism, the Mass Media, and the Events…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, E., Ball-Rokeach, S., Jung, J., & Kim, Y. "Civic Actions after September 11: Exploring the Role of Multi-Level Storytelling." Prometheus 20(3) Sept 2002: pp. 221-228.

Nacos, B. "Terrorism, the Mass Media, and the Events of 9-11." Phi Kappa Phi Forum 82(2) Spring 2002: pp. 13-19.

O'Sullivan, J. "The Role of the Media at a Time of Global Crisis." International Journal on World Peace 21(4) Dec 2004: pp. 69-79.

Perl, R. Terrorism, the Media, and the Government: Perspectives, Trends and Options for Policymakers. 22 Oct 1997. Federation of American Scientists. October 22, 2006  http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/crs-terror.htm .
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How America Still Welcomes Terrorists Criminals and Other Foreign Menaces

Words: 1789 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97193510

America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces

The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001

Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004

Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.

Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
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Al QA'ida Trans-National Terrorist Network'

Words: 3610 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14718642

"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."

Jenkins 3)

This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.

Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.

There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005  http://www.questia.com/ .

AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005.  http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html 

AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005.  http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm 

Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
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Ultimate Terrorists

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77526804

Ultimate Terrorists by Jessica Stern

Since September 11, 2001, Stern's book The Ultimate Terrorists has taken on a deeper meaning. Written in 1999, when America held onto the idea that terrorist activity was something that took place on foreign shores, Stern's book details in advance many of the factors in play which created the 9-11 tragedy. Terrorists have shifted their perspective from activity which gains power for their political or religious party to choosing targets just for the purpose of 'making a statement.' Again, 9-11 was a vivid example of the meaninglessness of their fanatical approach. While buildings, lives, and economic power were lost, the resulting "War on Terror" has all but destroyed their ability to further their plans.

Nonetheless, The Ultimate Terrorists is a timely book on a vitally important subject. Jessica Stern, former National Security Council staffer, explains with chilling lucidity why it is becoming more likely that…… [Read More]

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Networked Terrorist Cell Jamaat Ul-Fuqra

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9224448



Although amaat Ul-Fuqra is based out of Pakistan, it operates primarily in the United States, Canada, and the Carribean. Its operations are scattered throughout the United States in rural communes supposedly meant to provide Muslims with a living environment free from destructive secular influences.

Some of these communes are believed to provide paramilitary or terrorist training to its members.

amaat Ul-Fuqra members have planned various small-scale acts of religion-directed violence, mainly against Hindu and ewish interests. Their most well-known, definitely proven attack was the bombing of the Hotel Rajneesh in Portland, OR in 1983. However, they have also attacked other Muslim organizations, such as the Ahmadiyya, whose leader Mozaffar Ahmad was allegedly killed by amaat Ul-Fuqra operatives in 1983.

Most importantly, the organization is suspected to be collaborating with or to be under the influence of Al-Qaeda as a sleeper cell or as a training program for Al-Qaeda sleepers.

Stopping…… [Read More]

Jessica Stern (July/August 2003). The Protean Enemy. Foreign Affairs, 82/4. Retrieved from  http://www.cfr.org/publication/6146/protean_enemy.html .

Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from  http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/jamaat-ul-fuqra.htm .

Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from
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Defeating the Logic of Terrorist

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48664839

For instance, acceptance of physical defeat will render the opponent victorious but with mild understanding of the ideological approaches taken. Moreover, the U.S. should capitalize on stating its ideology stand grounds so that any attack based on it will reserve retaliation. This will help the nation to be always upfront in cases of physical war (Wing, 2007).

Q2

The battle of ideas is more valuable than military and law enforcement aspects. The battle of ideas is a more critical aspect of war than any other battle. Differences in ideas have often been the reason behind any war, attacks, and plans for war in any nation all over the world. This means that ideological satisfaction among the raging groups will result in calm, and avoidance of any other war be it physical or of any other form. The war between the U.S. And Islamic terrorists culminated due to ideological differences in…… [Read More]

References

Satloff, R.B. (2004). The battle of ideas in the war on terror: Essays on U.S. public diplomacy in the Middle East. Washington: Wash Inst near East Policy

Wing K.C. (2007). Defeating the Logic of Islamist Terrorism. USAWC Strategy Research

Project
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Response to the 9-11 Attack

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78060067

911 Attack

Communication is among the highest critical success factors in the event of an emergency. Some forms of communication are more effective than others in certain scenarios. Furthermore, technology plays a vital role in the ability to communicate with stakeholders. Some technologies are adequate to serve as the framework for communication between individuals, agencies, and the public while others are not as functional. After the events of September 11th, 2001, there were significant communication challenges that hindered the effectiveness of the first responders.

As volume of different communications increased drastically with people trying to reach out to loved ones and acquire relevant news of the events. However, this acted to overwhelm the system and max out its capacity. There were even come response teams that had to send messengers to other in order to communicate between various groups. This paper will analyze some of the communication failures that were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AP. (2007, December 5). Communication Breakdown on 9/11. Retrieved from CBS News:  http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-224_162-618272.html 

Harwood, M. (2011, August 17). Former DHS Chief Calls Interoperable Communications Failure "a National Disgrace." Retrieved from Security Management:  http://www.securitymanagement.com/news/former-dhs-chief-calls-interoperable-communications-failure-a-national-disgrace-008904 

Margolin, J. (2011, March 7). Radio problems from 9/11 not fixed, could strike again. Retrieved from NY Post:  http://nypost.com/2011/03/07/radio-problems-from-911-not-fixed-could-strike-again/ 

Mittelsadt, M. (2004, May 19). Panel: Communication problems hampered 9/11 response. Retrieved from The Battalion: http://www.thebatt.com/2.8485/panel-communication-problems-hampered-9-11-response-1.1205160#.UkXELYZvPCk
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2007 Estonia Cyber Attacks

Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61795293

Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007

2007 Estonian Cyber-war

This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).

More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…… [Read More]

References

Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from  http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_  Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf

Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website:  http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf 

Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from  http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF 

Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from  http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss