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Taking the nature of this weapon into account the general assumption is that the target of a bomb of this nature would possible be a large city, congested transport or residential area. However this is common assumption and possibly not the only targets that terrorists might consider.
From the point-of-view of the terrorist it may be more appropriate to choose a target which would be less secure and would maximize the damage that could be caused to the infrastructure of a country. This target could be an important energy or communications system that would affect large parts of the country. The choice of such a target would also have the effect of maximizing damage and striking a blow at the psychological morale of the country as a whole.
There are also other advantages to a choice of target that is not a city or large residential area. The first is…
Are You Ready? [essay online]; available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030207-10.html;Internet : accessed 11 June 2007.
American Militant Extremists: United States radicals. [essay online]; available from Council on Foreign Relations http://www.godiva.com:80/resources/history.html;Internet : accessed 17 June 2007.
Axtman K. The terror threat at home often overlooked [essay online]; available at http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/1229/p02s01-usju.html;Internet : accessed 17 June 2007.
Barnaby Frank, "A Terrorist Weapon Waiting to Be Made: At the Very Least You Get Mayhem, at Most Armageddon," New Statesman, 29 September 2003, xxx [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002034277;Internet' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
terrorist attacks of 9/11, the security of the United States of America has been transformed into the utmost priority of the presidential administration. Aside from the political rules however, more and more individuals place an increased emphasis on issues of security, especially the prevention of terrorist attacks.
And in this setting of increasing focus on terrorist attack prevention, the literature in the field has also expended. Numerous books have been written on the topic, such as Preventing surprise attacks: intelligence reform in the wake of 9/11by ichard Posner (2005), Human security, law and prevention of terrorism by Andrej Zwitter (2010) or Cybersecurity: preventing terrorist attacks and protecting privacy in cyberspace by the United States Congress, under the United States Government Printing Office (2010).
Alongside with the books, the number of articles on the topic of terrorist attack prevention has also increased. While the books require longer time periods to be…
Dahl, E.J. (2008). Preventing terrorist attacks: challenging the conventional wisdom. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/18249/preventing_terrorist_attacks.html accessed on November 12, 2012
Noor, R. (2007). The detection and prevention of preparatory terrorist acts. Police Link. http://policelink.monster.com/training/articles/42681-the-detection-and-prevention-of-preparatory-terrorist-acts accessed on November 12, 2012
Posner, R.A. (2005). Preventing surprise attacks: intelligence in the wake of 9/11. Rowman and Littlefield.
United States Congress. (2010). Cybersecurity: preventing terrorist attacks and protecting privacy in cyberspace. U.S. Government Printing Office.
Terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 [...] whether the government needs to do all it can in order to protect its citizens, even if that means they have to surrender some of their civil liberties. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 changed America forever. The people understood they were vulnerable for the first time in decades, and they understood that security measures would have to increase -- that was clearly understood. However, Americans have surrendered many of their civil liberties since the terrorist attacks, and that is simply not acceptable in our society. I am not willing to surrender some of the most important civil liberties for greater security, because I believe that many of the civil liberties we surrendered were not necessary, and the Patriot Act gave the government far more power than necessary.
In the aftermath of September 11, people were frightened. They wondered how it was…
Baker, Nancy V. "National Security vs. Civil Liberties." Presidential Studies Quarterly 33.3 (2003): 547+.
Cassel, Elaine. The War on Civil Liberties: How Bush and Ashcroft Have Dismantled the Bill of Rights. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2004.
Pena, Aisha. "American Muslims' Civil Liberties and the Challenge to Effectively Avert Xenophobia." The Muslim World 99.1 (2009): 202+.
Examples of Previous Attacks Using Toxic Industrial Chemicals
The earliest example of the use of chemical weapons occurred during orld ar I when both groups of adversaries in the conflict (the Central Powers and the Allies) used chlorine and phosgene-- two of the most commonly available toxic industrial chemicals these days -- against each other, resulting in almost 100,000 deaths.
The most famous example of the use of TICs was the 1995 sarin gas attack in Tokyo subways by "Aum Shinrikyo" -- a Japanese apocalyptic cult -- that resulted in the death of 12 people and the hospitalization of thousands. Sarin gas was produced by the terrorists with the help of commonly available toxic industrial chemicals such as dimethyl methylphosphonate, phosphorus trichloride, sodium fluoride and alcohol (Bloomfield). To avoid handling the highly toxic sarin, Aum Shinrikyo created its binary components, and mixed the two at the site of attack; thus…
Bloomfield, Neil. "WMD Terrorism: The Future." Military Medical Technology. N.d. November 12, 2007. http://www.military-medical-technology.com/article.cfm?DocID=656
Eadon, George. "Preparedness & Response: Chemical Reactions." Wadsworth Center:
New York State Department of Health. N.d. November 12, 2007. http://www.wadsworth.org/educate/workshops/chemical_reactions.html
Lehrman, Thomas. "Reducing Chemical Terrorism Risk: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships." U.S. Department of State. July 12, 2006. November 12, 2007. http://www.state.gov/t/isn/rls/rm/69690.htm . November 12, 2007.
terrorist attacks changed the world, and the way America looks at the world, but they also changed the way the world looks at us.
Causes of September 11
Earlier attacks, including Tokyo nerve gas, Iran barracks, Cole attack
Muslim hatred of United States and call to "jihad"
LAX security at airports and U.S. entry points
Lack of reliable security and intelligence information
Effects of September 11
Death toll and destruction
"War on terrorism"
World outlook and worldview of the U.S.
The Causes and Effects of September 11
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of the terrorist attacks of September 11. What were the causes leading up to the terrorist attacks of September 11, and what have been the effects of the attacks? One political expert writes, "There is no single September 11 effect, if by 'effect' we mean the…
Arthur, Paige. "The September 11 Effect." Ethics & International Affairs. Volume 16, No. 2, 2002. http://www.cceia.org/viewMedia.php/prmID/102
Jervis, Robert. "An Interim Assessment of September 11: What Has Changed and What Has Not?" Political Science Quarterly 117.1 (2002): 37+.
Lindberg, Tod. "September 11 & September 10." Policy Review (2001): 3.
Schoenfeld, Gabriel. "Could September 11 Have Been Averted?" Commentary Dec. 2001: 21+.
He was paraded at the front of the news media, knowing very well that he will not be able to say anything critical about his captors. When he was put to speak, he passed message by blinking his eyes in Morse code which spelled out T-O-R-T-U-R-E.
In computers, images are array of numbers representing light intensities at various pixels or points. Digital pictures have either 8 bit or 24 bit per pixel. Each bit represents an association of palette or color index. In color image of the 8-bit, every pixel that points out to only one of the 256 colors is represented by a single byte (sellars). 0's and 1s are bits whereby 8 bits create a byte. An example, of a byte is the 111 11110. The less significant bit is the position where zero is located. The least Significant bit (LS) way is the staganography technique that is…
B.W. Lampson, (1973), a note on the confinement problem, Communications of the ACM, vol.16, no. 10, pp. 613 -- 615.
Declan, McCullagh. (2001) Bin Laden: Steganography Master?
Dibbell, Julian. (2001) Pirate Utopia.
Anticipating Terrorist Acts
There are many ways to anticipate terrorist attacks, and quite a few people focus on how they can make themselves safer and more prepared if an attack does take place. What they do not see, though, is that they have to be able to tell if an attack is imminent. To do that, they generally rely on the media and the government to provide them with information they can use in deciding how safe they are, or if there is something else they should be doing in order to protect themselves better. Often, people of particular races, nationalities, and religions are stereotyped as being terrorists, even though they have not done anything that would make people think that about them. Terrorists are very specific types of people, and even though they may use something like religion to develop their cause, they really do not speak for the…
terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, because the attacks made us aware of how vulnerable we are as a country. They also helped bring the country together as one people, but this reaction has not lasted, and our country has gone back to "life as usual," with little respect for each other. The terrorist attacks were a terrible thing, but the people seem to have forgotten them.
The attacks were unbelievable, and they brought the nation together. People who had never owned a flag before flew them as a sign of unity and respect for the victims. People cared about the victims, and were ready to support the President, and the war on terrorism, because for the first time they really understood attacks could happen on our own soil.
The country rallied around patriotism, and everyone was eager to show their love of America, by flying flags, signing the National…
By examining existing occurrences of terrorist attacks, some of the unknown factor can be removed from the threat. Furthermore, the exact nature of terrorism can be quantified in terms of definitions and key terms. This also mitigates much of the uncertainty surrounding the issue. Terrorism can for example be understood by the definition of threat and/or violence in order to achieve an end. Terrorists generally want to force the hand of those they attack, or to avenge what they perceive as wrongdoing by the victim of their threat.
Specifically, there are several ways in which terrorist attacks can manifest themselves. These include kidnapping, hijacking, murder, mass murder, explosive devices, chemical warfare, biological attacks, riots, civil unrest, and the use of hostages. The risk of terrorism can be quantified to a certain degree by assessing the likelihood of each type of terrorism for the business in question. Contingency and emergency actions…
Fictional Terrorist Attack
Terrorist Attack on Edinburgh
The FEMA CONPLAN is a publically available document that details the nation's priorities and strategies for a terrorist attack. The document list the protocols, mitigation strategies, and also the acknowledged considerations of what is typically defined as a terrorist attack There are many notable differences in the assumptions made for a terrorist attack, including that the attack will be large scale and intended to take out large amounts of people. After studying the FEMA CONPLAN and the materials detailing the differences between the county's natural and manmade disaster protocols, there is only one clear idea that comes to mind for a fictitious terrorist attack on Edinburgh, Scotland.
The fictional attack would be each of the historical castles in and around Edinburgh. These sites would include, but not be limited to the royal palace and other castles. The attack would happen simultaneously so as…
Beltane (2006). BBC Religions. Accessed on 2 Oct 2012 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/paganism/holydays/beltane_1.shtml
Edinburgh Festivals Calendar. Edinburgh Days Out. Accessed on 2 Oct 2012 at http://www.edinburghdaysout.com/festivals/
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the erratic responses to the Hurricane Katrina disaster in 2005, critical incident management has become the focus of a growing body of research. In addition, there is an ongoing need for timely and effective responses to manmade and natural disasters, and improved approaches continue to be identified. To gain some fresh insights into current critical incident management, this paper reviews three studies concerning a coordinated multi-disciplinary response to a critical incident as well as the National Incident Management System. A review of a final article concerning response and management of a chemical, biological, radiological and explosive incident is followed by a summary of the research and a description concerning how the research contributes to knowledge in these areas.
eview and Analysis
Coordinated Multi-Disciplinary esponse to a Critical Incident.
In his study, "esponding to Bio-terrorism equires a Concerted Effort," Mughai…
Of course, not all of the counterterrorism methods will work, and there will certainly be changes, alterations, and even the disbanding of some of the things the government has done to help prevent further attacks.
Clearly, the nation has learned quite a bit from the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The people learned the country was vulnerable to attacks never before imagined. They learned that thousands of people could die in a few minutes at the hands of terrorists, and that the borders, the cities, and even the rural areas were susceptible to attack. They learned that weapons such as biochemical agents and other poisons could enter the water and food supplies and could kill thousands, or even millions. They learned that the country has to be increasingly vigilant to protect the citizens and their way of life. They also learned that Americans could stand together with pride in the face…
Chomsky, N. (2001). September 11. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Cordesman, A.H. (2002). Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Klinger, D.A., & Grossman, D. (2002). Who Should Deal with Foreign Terrorists on U.S. Soil? Socio-Legal Consequences of September 11 and the Ongoing Threat of Terrorist Attacks in America. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 815+.
Posner, Gerald. (2003). Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House.
Preventing Terrorist Attacks on the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector
Terrorism is nowadays an already established threat that is part of every security strategy of modern states. It is not only an un-conventional threat at the address of national security but also it drove the re-definition of the term of security as it was understood and worked with some twenty years ago. Currently, there is talk about economic, political, social security as part of the areas that the state must take into account when drafting and enabling a national security strategy. At the same time though, especially after the events from September 2001, the security of the infrastructure and that of natural resources has become an increasingly important aspect to consider.
Currently in the United States, the country considered to be the most targeted by terrorist threats, an important part of the security strategy is related to the economic sectors…
Copeland, C. 2005. "Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities: Impacts, Needs, and Response" CRS Report for Congress. Available at http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=463973
Copeland, C. 2010. "Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector" Congressional Research Center Available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/terror/RL32189.pdf
Dept. Of Homeland Security. 2013. Water and Wastewater Systems Sector. Available online at http://www.dhs.gov/water-and-wastewater-systems-sector
Leuven, L. 2011. "Water/Wastewater Infrastructure Security: Threats and Vulnerabilities" in R.M. Clark et al. (eds.), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Systems Protection, 27 Protecting Critical Infrastructure, available online.
When the risk is significant, this should be quantified against the risk of not entering the specific country in terms of expansion. When the risk is acceptable, stringent measures, including organizational arrangements, engineering control, and research and development, need to be taken. Research and development are particularly important, as mitigation measures can then be implemented that are particularly targeted towards the measure of possible terrorist attack for the country involved. Reducing the likelihood of terrorist attack can in certain cases be a better response to terrorist threat than avoidance, as it mitigates many of the additional risks involved in the latter.
Thirdly, reducing the consequences of terrorist attacks is a retrospective approach. This is done by measures such as contingency planning, recovery plans, design features, surveillance, and the like. uch measures are best implemented by learning from the past experiences of terrorist attacks on the company involved, or indeed from…
Campion, Kevin. 2002, Nov. 15. Integrating Terrorism Risk Management with the Federal Terrorism Program. Benfield Blanch, Inc. http://www.benfieldgroup.com/NR/rdonlyres/2319B84C-7C18-4280-B057-839E6F0243D5/0/11_02BB.pdf
Gould, Nathan C. 2004, July. Managing Terrorism Risk. ABS Consulting. http://www.irmi.com/Expert/Articles/2004/Gould07.aspx
Parachini, John. 2000, Jul. 26. Combating Terrorism: Assessing Threats, Risk Management, and Establishing Priorities. Center for Nonproliferation Studies. http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/reports/paraterr.htm
They have also provided intelligent analysis to state, federal and local law enforcers promoting competency and improved support missions in and out of the United States. Navy and marine corps have participated in multi- service working groups to ensure to update and produce multi- service CRNE defense.
CRNE is also incorporated into air command, where the training is incorporated into courses; the instruction in the course includes instructions addressing the use of airlift and aerial re-fuelling assets in CRNE contaminated environments. General accounting has also responded to CRNE readiness and training assessment; where the secretary for defense recommended that current CRNE medical services should be reviewed. The review will promote tri- service CRNE training program which shall meet the standards of CRNE. Tri- service standards of procedure includes; recognition, detection, decontamination, forces protection and incident response.
Homeland department focuses on deterring and defeating direct attacks in the U.S., supporting civil…
Department of Defense Chemical Biological Defense Program Annual Report. Atlanta: DIANE, 2005.
Punaro, a. Commission on the National Guard Reserves. Atlanta: DIANE, 2008.
The Need for a Policy Framework to Develop Disaster Resilient Regions. Journal of Homeland Security Emergency Management 2005.
Department of Defense Chemical Biological Defense Program Annual Report (Atlanta: DIANE, 2005).
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm
McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.
Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html
Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
The September 11 terrorist attacks had a tremendous impact on foreign and domestic policy. One of the industries most directly affected by the terrorist attacks was the aviation industry. Shocked by the methods used in the terrorist attacks and forced to immediately address core managerial weaknesses, the aeronautical industry has risen to the occasion admirably. eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women who Kept America Flying is about people -- the people that comprise the American aeronautical industry who understood how to cope with extreme crisis. The anecdotes in Tom Murphy's compilation highlight key areas in which the aeronautical industry succeeded by meeting the challenges it faced after the terrorist attacks. Focusing on the positive aspects of how the various levels of management and employees dealt with the crisis provides a framework for the future of the industry.
eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and…
Blake, A. & Sinclair, M.T. (2003). Tourism crisis management: U.S. response to Septmeber 11. Annals of Tourism Research 30(4): 813-832.
Campbell, R.D., & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human performance and limitations in aviation. Blackwell. Retrieved online: http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/105044474.pdf
Jensen, R.S. (1997). The Boundaries of Aviation Psychology, Human Factors, Aeronautical Decision Making, Situation Awareness, and Crew Resource Management. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 7(4): 259-267.
Murphy, T. (2006). Reclaiming the Sky. AMACOM.
There are numerous reasons as to why terrorists deliberately target those who are considered innocent people, such as civilians and non-combatants. One can argue that the very definition of a terrorist organization is one which challenges "the peace of mind of everyday people" (Augustus & Martin, 2010), which is done effectively by targeting them. In many instances, terrorist organizations lack the resources to scale a full-fledged military assault -- such as that which typifies wars -- due to a paucity of numbers, dearth of finances, and lack of requisite hardware (weapons). In these instances, one of the most viable options for these organizations and their objectives (which are almost always political) is to make figurative 'statements' in the form of targeting innocents. There are fewer ways of expressing one's political ambitions and extremism for such causes than by destroying the lives of innocents who happen to represent the…
Augustus, C, Martin, G. (2010). Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Braithwaite, A., Foster, D.M., Sobek, D.A. (2010). Ballots, bargains and bombs: terrorist targeting of spoiler opportunities. International Interactions. 36(3), 294-305.
Habeck, M. (2006). Knowing the Enemy. Yale University Press. New Haven, Connecticut.
Jasper, W. F. (2009). Terrorist targeting of police. New American. 25(17), 17-20.
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
Terrorism has emerged as one of the major security threats across the globe in the past several years. The severity of this global threat has been evident through the various terrorist attacks that have occurred in the past few decades, especially the 9/11 attacks. Actually, the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks was characterized with increased fears that terrorist groups like al-Qaeda will attempt to carry out other large attacks against the United States. One of the major reasons for the increase in terrorism is the use of various tactics by these individuals or groups. As the world continues to experience tremendous changes, terrorists and terror groups continue to develop new, sophisticated means and tactics of carry out their activities. While some of these activities may be carried out for similar reasons, they tactics employed in achieving these goals vary from time to time.
ecent Terrorists Tactics:
Carafano, J.J., Bucci, S. & Zuckerman, J. (2012, April 25). Fifty Terror Plots Foiled Since 9/11:
The Homegrown Threat and the Long War on Terrorism. Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation -- Leadership for America.
Moran, N. (2007, September 24). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.rightsidenews.com/2007092429591/world/terrorism/the-evolution-of-improvised-explosive-devices.html
Singer, P.W. (2012, February). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Retrieved
Abu Nidal Organization:
The Abu Nidal Organization is also known by several other names, such as: Fatah evolutionary Council, Arab evolutionary Brigades, Black September, or evolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. It is an international terrorist organization that was founded by Sabri al-Banna, otherwise known as Abu Nidal. The organization split from PLO in 1974 and is made up of various functional committees. These include: political, military and financial committees. Founder Abu Nidal died in Baghdad in November 2002 and it is now unclear who the new leader of the organization is ("Abu Nidal," 2004).
The Abu Nidal Organization has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries and has killed or injured nearly 1,000 people in those attacks. Primary targets include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and a variety of Arab countries. They were responsible for the attacks on the ome and Vienna airports in…
Abu Nidal Organization. (June 2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/abu.htm.
Al Qaeda. (10 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Qaeda .
Hizballah. (16 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hizballah .
Pike, J. (3 Nov. 2004). Al-Qa'ida (The Base). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm .
Understanding the enemy is an important aspect of defense. In fact, it is perhaps the most important aspect of being able to protect the people of your country. Since September 11th, 2001 the primary enemy of the United States has been terrorist organizations throughout the world, particularly in the Middle East. Terrorists have been a problem for Americans before that time as indicated by incidences throughout American history, up to and including the 1970s and 1980s. However, since the 2001 attacks, the enemy has been more blatant about their attitudes towards the United States and with regard to their intentions for citizens of the United States. Terrorism is defined by the American Department of Defense as "The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear: intended to coerce or to intimidate government or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political,…
Department of the Army. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Fort Leavenworth, KS:
"Emerging Threats and Security Challenges."
The intentions behind religious fundamentalist terrorist activities are varied. It is noteworthy that terrorists are psychologically normal and are neither depressed, severely emotionally disturbed, nor crazed fanatics. In fact to ensure that their members are not clinically psychotic, emotionally unstable individuals are regularly screened out because they can be a security risk.
eligious fundamentalist terrorist groups are driven by a sense of giving power to the powerless. Some always want to seek revenge over religious grievances, while others seek to gain a sense of significance. They are driven by group interests as opposed to self serving actions hence their group, organizational, and social psychology. The responsibility of a leader of a terrorist organization like Al Qaeda is to interpret religious scriptures to justify their extreme acts of violence. He draws frustrated leaders into a coherent organization (Neumann, 2005).
Their unifying message to disparate followers is lined with religious,…
Davis, P.K. & Jenkins, B.M. (2002). Deterrence and Influence in Counterterrorism. Santa Monica: RAND.
Neumann, P.R. (2005). Addressing the Causes of Terrorism: The Club de Madrid Series on Democracy and Terrorism. Retrieved from http://media.clubmadrid.org/docs/CdM-
Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology
After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.
The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of…
Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.
Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Furht, Borko; Escalante, Armando. Handbook of Cloud Computing.
egardless, the image of the United States was shaken by the success of the Al Qaeda.
From a security point-of-view, the existence of Al Qaeda triggered more vigilance among the security environment in the sense that it attracted the attention on the phenomenon of terrorism as a global threat that needs to be treated at the global level through mechanisms that in 2001 were not set in place. Therefore, a reconsideration of homeland security strategies was necessary. This in turn however affected all levels of the society, from increased security at the level of the president to the increased airport controls throughout the country and abroad. These tightened rules of security attracted scrutiny at the level of the ordinary people and accusations of infringing privacy were even articulated. Even so, the fight against terrorism has become, after 9/11 one of the primordial subjects on the agenda of world leaders.
Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub
Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of Al Qaeda. Online at http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html
Reuters. (2009). Analyst's view: Al Qaeda's strengths and weaknesses. Online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/06/19/us-security-qaeda-strength-weakness-sb-idUSTRE55I22Z20090619
" An underlying theme of "The Terrorist, He Watches" is the importance of timing in general. The people who happened to leave the bar before 1:20 have good timing. Those who happened to be inside were in the wrong place at the wrong time. "Some will have time to get in, / Some to get out." The terrorist cares little for the suffering he inflicts. He keeps time as if he were a robot.
Szymborska's poem is disturbing not because it describes a bloody scene during the aftermath of a terrorist attack or because it describes the mind of a killer. On the contrary, the poem is disturbing for what it omits: emotion. Suggesting that terrorists must emotionally detach themselves to carry out their mission, Szymborska deliberately leaves out any affective content in "The Terrorist, He Watches." As the title suggest, the terrorist merely watches. Even the act of setting…
Terrorism is an issue that has existed throughout the history of mankind, but experienced significant changes in the nature and degree of threats in the past few decades due to globalization and technological advancements. The increase of the threat of terrorism has contributed to the need to develop effective measures to lessen the occurrence and impact of such threats. One of the major measures used to help deal with the threat of terrorism is analyzing the terrorist mind because terrorism is basically a psychological act involving the use of violence or threat of violence. The psychological act is fuel by various factors including ideological differences and motivational issues.
While analyzing the terrorist mind is an important part to help fight terrorism, it is very ambivalent, which results in concerns whether it's necessary to dedicate time and resources to profile and predict terrorist motivations. The dedication of time and…
O'Connor, T. (2013, September 10). Terrorist Profiling. Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.drtomoconnor.com/4050/4050lect08.htm
Victoroff, J. (2005, February). The Mind of the Terrorist: A Review and Critique of Psychological Approaches. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(1), 3-42. Retrieved from http://www.surrey.ac.uk/politics/research/researchareasofstaff/isppsummeracademy/instructors%20/The%20Terrost%20mind.pdf
Powell Assertion Number Two: In his Feb. 5, 2003 speech to the U.N., Powell said: "We have no indication that Saddam Hussein has ever abandoned his nuclear weapons program." But in October, 2002, in his memo to the White House, CIA Director George Tenet voiced "strong doubts about a claim President Bush" was about to make in the State of the Union address "that Iraq was trying to buy nuclear materials" from Africa. And on July 24, 2003, Spain's Foreign Minister, Ana Palacio, an ally of the U.S., said their was "no evidence" prior to the U.S. attack on Iraq of a nuclear bomb program by Saddam, according to the Hanley article in Editor & Publisher.
Powell Assertion Number Three: Powell told the U.N. he had proof that Saddam was deploying "Contamination Vehicles" associated with chemical weapons on at least two sites. Those alleged contamination vehicles turned out to be…
Barry, John; Hirsh, Michael & Isikoff, Michael. (2004). "The road to Abu Ghraib began after 9/11, when Washington wrote new rules to fight a new kind of war," Newsweek International.
CBSNEWS.com. (2004). "The Man Who Knew," 4 Feb. 2004. Available:
Dodds, Paisley. (2005). "Gitmo Soldier Details Sexual Tactics," Associated Press, Yahoo News, 27 January.
Basing on these stages, prior comprehension can boost the effort to dislodge the negative ideologies that the terror group could be trying to impart into people's mind-set. For instance, terrorist attacks targeting U.S. are based on the ideologies that U.S. is a general enemy to the Islam community. The objective of such propaganda is to unite the Islam community solidly behind their leaders in vilifying United States. However, the U.S. government's response to denounce the ideologies and insist that the war is against terrorists and not Muslim has been crucial in dismantling groupings such as Al Qaeda (White, 2002).
In my view, I totally agree with the statement that understanding the terrorist mind-set is essential in exploiting the weaknesses in the terrorist organizations. A fundamental mind-set that the terror organizations have developed is that attacking and killing an enemy of the people is the surest way of a better afterlife.…
Borum, R. (2003). Understanding a Terrorist Mind-Set. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. July 2003.
White, J. (2002). Terrorism: An Introduction, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing
The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism
The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…
Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.
Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.
Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.
Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
attacks of September 11, 2001 spawned a number of dubious government actions, including the intensification of racial profiling to target Arabs and Muslims. This means that a certain section of American society is under immediate suspicion of terrorism simply for being of a particular race or religion. Tolerance and equality are two of the highest principles treasured by the United States and its inhabitants. The fear and suspicion cultivated by racial profiling, especially after September 11, represents an abomination of the rights guaranteed under the Constitution to all within American borders.
To suspect millions of law-abiding, innocent people of terrorism as a result of the actions of a handful, is like suspecting all white males of perversion as a result of a few perverted serial killers. It is illogical and causes more harm than good.
There are many actions that are helpful in preventing terrorism. Immigration laws for example can…
Ambrose, Thomas. "Profiling's place on Sept. 11." Insight on the News, Sept 16, 2002. News World Communications, Inc., 2002.
Derbyshire, John. "At First Glance - Racial profiling, burning hotter." National Review, Oct 15, 2001. National Review, Inc., 2001.
Elvin, John. "Antiterror tactics spark differences of opinion." Insight on the News, Feb 4, 2003. News World Communications, Inc., 2003
Harris, David. "Flying while Arab: lessons from the racial profiling controversy." Civil Rights Journal, Winter, 2002. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 2002.
Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector:
Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In the past few centuries, the nature and values of terrorism have slowly shifted and resulted in the emergence of different definitions or descriptions of terrorism. These different descriptions have not only been used by scholars but also by governments to broaden the phenomenon to political, judicial, psychosocial, and moral arenas. The differences in definitions of terrorism is attributed to the fact that these attacks are usually characterized by political motivations towards the use or threat of violence, intentional and pre-meditated actions, fear, psychological effects, and asymmetric warfare. The other aspects of these definitions include immorality, social coercion, and reactions. However, terrorist groups and activities continue to pose significant threats to every facet of the modern society including the commercial sector (aman,…
A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 2007, Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors, Chapter 2, viewed 20 April 2013,
Brandt, B 2011, Terrorist Threats to Commercial Aviation: A Contemporary Assessment.
Combating Terrorism Center -- United States Military Academy, viewed 20 April 2013,
Catlin Group Limited 2012, A Business Approach to Terrorism, Catlin Group Limited Report,
Terrorism is basically defined as activities or violence that is carried out to coerce the government or civilian population to change its policies. Such activities are usually carried out due to divergent political, religious and ideological beliefs by individuals or members of an extremist group. However, the federal agencies definitions of terrorism vary depending on their operational roles and missions resulting in the lack of a universally accepted definition of terrorism in the United States. Consequently, there is either domestic or international terrorism depending on the origin of an extremist or terrorist group, where they launch their terrorist activities and who the victims of these attacks are ("Combating Terrorism," 2003). International terrorism is motivated by a range of interrelated factors and trends including technological advances and associations with international crime.
The Al-Qaeda Network is an international terrorist organization that was established in 1988 and is led…
"Al-Qaeda." (n.d.). Oracle ThinkQuest: Education Foundation. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212088/teroraalqaeda.htm
"Al-Qaida / Al-Qaeda (the Base)." (2006, August 15). GlobalSecutiy.org. Retrieved April 30,
2011, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/al-qaida.htm
"Combating Terrorism: Interagency Framework and Agency Programs to Address the Overseas
Terrorist Group Leaders
Tools and Techniques Used by Terrorist Group Leaders to Influence their Followers
In his article, War, Psychology, and Time, Friedman (2007) shows how Osama bin Laden employed a psychological strategy in an attempt to create a massive Islamic empire in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegration of the union provided an ideal opportunity for bin Laden to demonstrate to the world that America was actually weak and could be severely hurt. For bin Laden, the Muslim world "suffered from a psychology of defeat" following America's triumph over the Soviet Union and it was therefore important for Muslims to show their might and create terror (Friedman, 2007). The use of psychology to advance terrorist ideologies is not limited to bin Laden and al Qaeda. Indeed, leaders of terrorist groups capitalize on psychological techniques to recruit and influence their followers (Victoroff, 2005). This paper…
A frustration of societal expectations, rather than outright poverty and rejection, were characteristic of these terrorists' profiles.
This shifting profile should not have come as much of a surprise as it did to experts. As early as 1999 some experts noted, regarding terrorists in general (as opposed to Islamic terrorists) that all "terrorist groups are recruiting members who possess a high degree of intellectualism and idealism, are highly educated, and are well trained in a legitimate profession...More than two-thirds of the terrorists surveyed came from middle-class or even upper-class backgrounds" (Hudson 1999: 46; 49)
In Britain, there remains a concern about Pakistani training camps, given the large population of Pakistanis in the region. One red flag, the parents of a terrorist noted, that they did not spot was when their rebellious son was sent away to relatives in Pakistan, and he came back sober and religious. They thought their effort…
Hudson, Rex a. (1999). "The Sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why?" Federal Research Division. Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
McGrory, Daniel & Zahid Husain. (14 Jul 2005). New wave of British terrorists is taught at schools, not in the mountains." The Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article543782.ece
Nicolson, Brendan. (14 Jul 2004). "Paper paints a terrorist profile." The Age. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/07/15/1089694488731.html
Wilgoren, Jodi. (21 Sept 2001). "After the attacks: The hijackers. A terrorist profile emerges that confounds the experts." The New York Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE1D61F38F936A2575AC0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&st=cse&sq=terrorist+psychological+profile&scp=3
Pineda (2012) noted that the tip was wasted entirely due to communication problems, the failure by the police to follow procedures as well as inadequate means-Factors that together bogged down the Norwegian Police's reaction as well as operation on the emergency following the incident.
The Gjorv eport also indicated that the nation's only helicopter in the city of Oslo was unusable since its crew was absent on vacation (Blair,2012). This is inefficiency by the Police since this is a clear sing of a lack of disaster/emergency preparedness. There was no emergency/replacement crew to fly the chopper. The availability of the chopper was also "limited." The understaffing of the police centers was also another problem.
Weaknesses in the police information sharing system
At the time of the Oslo and Utoya Island terrorist attacks, the Norwegian Police information-sharing infrastructure was subjected to a very formidable weakness. Further, the Police Security Services never…
Bjelopera, JP (2011). Terrorism Information Sharing and the Nationwide Suspicious Activity Report Initiative: Background and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service .Available online at http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/166837.pdf
British Broadcasting Corporation (2012a). Norway PM Jens Stoltenberg 'sorry' over Breivik response.Available online at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-19401598
Blair, David (14 August 2012). "Breivik 'could have been stopped sooner' by police." The Daily Telegraph. The Irish Independent. http://www.independent.ie/world-news/europe/breivik-could-have-been-stopped-sooner-by-police-3200081.html . Retrieved 18th September 2012.
Cook, AH (2009).Emergency response to Domestic Terrorism-How Bureaucracies reacted to the 1995 Oklahoma Bombing.Continuum-New York
On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).
The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…
Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.
Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.
RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
Airport Screening for Terrorists
There are a variety of reasons why United States security does not profile terrorists, particularly at major national and international venues such as airports. The main reason why terrorists are not profiled in this setting is because it is virtually impossible to devise a neat, categorical description of what a quintessential terrorist is/looks like. It is true that virtually all of the terrorists involved in the destruction of the World Trade Center were Middle Eastern men from the ages of 20 and 40. Does this fact mean that a Middle Eastern man who is 41, for instance, could not be a terrorist? Or perhaps one that is 19? Although the terrorists who destroyed the World Trade Center all fit one neat category, others do not. For instance, the young man from Nigeria who attempted to detonate some sort of homemade explosive while above Detroit was not…
Faris, S. (2013). "Have the NSA leaks compromised big data's future?" DATAVERSITY. Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/have-the-nsa-leaks-compromised-big-datas-future/
Huddy, L. Feldman, S. (2011). "Americans respond politically to 9/11: Understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath." American Psychologist. 66 (6): 455-467. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=6c5746c9-4b73-4b98-b07f-37a2c3b154f1%40sessionmgr13&hid=4
Neria, Y., DiGrande, L, Adams, B.G. (2011). "Posttraumatic stress disorder following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks." American Psychologist. 66 (6): 429-446. http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6c5746c9-4b73-4b98-b07f-37a2c3b154f1%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&hid=4
Such a strategy, if fully developed, would successfully reduce the risk of a successful terrorist nuclear attack because the system itself would have nuclear-specific elements that could be coordinated with an assortment of other prevention and protection measures. More so, this system would work with the international community to develop similar multi-elemental, layered and cross-departmental approaches there and then coordinate the United States' measures with these international efforts, thus creating a global defense strategy capable of fully defending a way of life against the threat of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction.
This new approach to defense would focus on coordinating improved capabilities of monitoring and controlling both nuclear weapons and nuclear material, thus being able to better evaluate where the risk is and what kind of risk it is. Further, such an internationally coordinated monitoring system would dissuade those in the planning stages of a nuclear attack could defeat…
Bolt, Paul J., Coletta, Damon V., and Collins G. Shackleford. American Defense Policy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
De Becker, Gavin. Fear Less: Real Truth About Risk, Safety, and Security in a Time of Terrorism. New York: Little Brown & Co., 2005.
Burd, R. "Nuclear Detection to Prevent or Defeat Clandestine Nuclear Attack." Los Alamos Manuscript LA-UR-04-0629, submitted to IEEE Sensors Journal, Special Issue on Sensors for the Prevention of Terrorist Acts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
Department of Defense. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Preventing and Defending Against Clandestine Nuclear Attack. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
Individuals Become Terrorists?
As the costly global battle against terrorism continues, the question is constantly begged, "Why do some individuals become terrorists while others do not?" Certainly, there are some generic attributes that distinguish many individuals who are considered terrorists in the eyes of the international community, including being young and male, but the generalities tend to stop there because women and even children have also been involved in terrorist attacks in the past. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the various motivational factors that have been shown to turn ordinary individuals into terrorists. Following a discussion of these issues, a summary of the research and important findings concerning why some individuals become terrorists are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
What is terrorism, anyway? Although a single, universally acceptable definition of terrorism is…
Abrahms, M 2008, 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-terrorism strategy,' International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, 78-105.
Acharya, A 2009, Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes,
New York: Routledge.
Atran, S 2008, 'Who becomes a terrorist today?,' Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.2, No. 5, 1-5.
ecovery Plan: Biological Attack in the U.S. Congress
The havoc and deaths caused by the weaponized anthrax spores that were mailed to members of the U.S. Congress following the attacks of September 11, 2001 and the repeated attempted uses of botulinum toxin on U.S. Naval bases make it abundantly clear that governmental offices are vulnerable to biological pathogens. These agents have been and likely will be used by terrorists again to achieve their goals of bringing harm to the United States and it interests at home and abroad. The hypothetical comprehensive recovery plan developed in this project is in response to this type of food-borne pathogen attack and takes place in the cafeteria situated in the ayburn House Office Building in the U.S. Congressional complex in Washington, D.C. which serves members of Congress, staff members and visitors. The scenario begins with the telephonic notification to the Capital Police that all…
Botulinum toxin. (2011). State of Delaware Health and Social Services. Retrieved from http://
Dando, M. (2001). The new biological weapons: Threat, proliferation, and control. Boulder,
CO: Lynne Rienner.
September 11, 2001, terrorists staged an attack on the United States. There were several areas affected, but the Twin Towers in New York City were - and still remain - the most notable. They are what everyone thinks of, when 9/11 is mentioned. On that day many lives were lost. Among them were 37 officers and one K-9 officer from the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) (Damico & Quay, 2010). That department works jointly for New York and New Jersey, and was housed in the World Trade Center complex. The quick thinking of the PAPD, along with other law enforcement agencies, reduced the loss of life. While still tragic, the 9/11 events could have been significantly more devastating if it were not for the quick thinking of a number of police officers, firefighters, and other individuals. One of the reasons the PAPD performed so well on 9/11, however, likely came…
Bolton, M.K. (2006). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield
Caraley, D. (2002). September 11, terrorist attacks, and U.S. foreign policy. New York: Academy of Political Science
Chernick, H. (2005). Resilient city: the economic impact of 9/11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation
Damico, A.M., & Quay, S.E. (2010). September 11 in Popular Culture: A Guide. New York: Greenwood
Following from this is the assumption that ideological connections may be the precursor to more definite and practical interactions between these groups and organizations.
In other words, terrorist groups, whether representing different nationalistic and ideological persuasions, can also be linked by shared concerns, objectives and perceptions. The increase in the ease of communications and the Internet has also accelerated the possibly of these connections. This has highlighted the threat of domestic extremists and the possible connections between extremist groupings. There has also been a more directed contemporary focus on the underlying causative facets that motivate and precipitate terrorist actions, resulting in a growing realization that these underlying causative elements in extremist groups can be more important and possibly override national and regional differences.
Cyber-terrorism has become a particularly virulent and dangerous form of terrorism that is not restricted by any regional or international boundaries. Experts agree that this form of…
Alexander, M. (2010). Martyrdom, Interrupted. The National Interest 10+. Retrieved from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5041434091' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of American Muslims
For a long time, American Muslims have been part and parcel of the American society. It is however important to note that after the September 11 terror attacks, the status of American Muslims in the wider American society seems to have undergone a major review. Unlike was the case a couple of years ago, most American non-Muslims seem to have developed negative stereotypes of American Muslims.
The September 11 Attacks
One of the darkest moments in American history, September 11, 2001 is a day that will remain engraved in the minds of most Americans for many years to come. This is the day that 19 Muslim men executed a plan that left thousands of Americans dead and others badly injured. In a well planned (and executed) undertaking, the terrorists involved in this atrocity chose to used several planes as deadly weapons…
Almasri, Nasir. "The Impact on American Muslims, 11 Years After 9/11." Council on American-Islamic Relations -- Chicago. CAIR -- Chicago, 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 May 2013.
Cohen, Jon and Kyle Dropp. "Most Americans Object to Planned Islamic Center Near Ground Zero, Poll Finds." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2010. Web. 3 May 2013.
Khan, Mussarat and Kathryn Ecklund. "Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11." Journal of Muslim Mental Health. 7.1 (2012): n. pag. Web. 1 May 2013.
Lean, Nathan. "Sept. 11: Eleven Years Later, American Muslims are Victims." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 May 2013.
Criminal behavior has been examined closely by criminal investigators in order to combat crime and this is also true in the area of terrorism. Specifically, education on terrorism has been provided in the form of "short briefings" or through publications in magazines or televised broadcasts. However, there is a need for more specialized and focused training in order to prepare law enforcement in countering terrorist acts. The 'Intelligence-ased' approach to antiterrorism is reported to require knowledge including that which leans towards comprehension of who terrorists are and recognition of incidents that occur prior to the actual terrorist acts committed by these individuals. This includes the competency to "analyze intelligence information." (Nance, nd, p. 4) Secondly, the observation of the behaviors of individuals at the street-level is particularly important in identifying and countering terrorists. Third stated is the ability to closely observe behaviors while analyzing information provided by various…
2012 United States Government Terrorist Identification Chart (2012) Alex Jones. Retrieved from: http://www.infowars.com/2012-united-states-government-terrorist-identification-chart/
Nance, M.W. (nd) Terrorist Recognition Handbook. 2nd Ed.
Seven Signs of Terrorist Activity (nd) Secure Command. Retrieved from: http://www.scnus.org/page.aspx?id=101218
Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.
After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…
Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.
Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row
Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15#documentsand accessed 10/29/05.
Kramer, M., 1990."The Moral Logic of Hizballah." In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, ed. W. Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 131-57.
However, just how one is supposed to recognize future threats is difficult to determine. After all, if one imagines that excessive support in intervention, arms supply, technology, and financial backing is a key factor, combined with a strong religious motivation of the recipient nation, group, or organization, Israel or at the very least the Israeli right wing may one day be as dangerous as any Islamic threat may pose today.
Although much thought can be devoted to the necessary international, political and military strategies employed by the United States as a world power, it remains clear that of foremost concern to American families is their safety at home. Of course, war is never easy, particularly for those deployed in battle, or for their families. However, when a nation is attacked on its own soil it not only faces a "real damage," but it also suffers greatly in morale (Schweitzer, 2003).…
Camarota, Stephen. "The Open Door: How Militant Islamic Terrorists Entered and Remained in the United States, 1993-2001." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005
ole of Media in eporting Terrorism:
Terrorist attacks have developed to become part of an indirect strategy to achieve political objectives through their impacts on an audience. In this process, the attention of the media has also served as an important channel that terrorists communicate with their audiences. Consequently, one of the major objectives of terrorist groups is to affect the degree and tone of media attention to their specific acts and attacks (Walsh, 2010). In the past decade, recent history has demonstrated numerous examples of the mutually beneficial relationship between terrorist groups and the media. Some of the recent terrorist attacks indicate that the perpetrators of terrorism use the media for various purposes such as propaganda schemes, operational efficiency, recruitment, collecting information, and fund raising. Moreover, this history also indicates that the media has had a positive impact in lessening the effectiveness of terrorists.
Media as a Force Multiplier…
Bilgen, A. (2012, July 22). Terrorism and the Media: A Dangerous Symbiosis. Retrieved February 22, 2014, from http://www.e-ir.info/2012/07/22/terrorism-and-the-media-a-dangerous-symbiosis/
Walsh, J.I. (2010, December). Media Attention to Terrorist Attacks: Causes and Consequences.
Retrieved from Duke University website: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/IHSS_Research-Brief_Walsh.pdf
As O'Sullivan noted, truth and courage are needed in the media today and in the future; however, there must be balance as well. An unfettered press is exactly what terrorists thrive on. Their attacks against humanity are nothing without the publicity they garner from the media. Therefore balance must be achieved.
And, with that balance comes the positive aspects the media brings to terrorist actions. Through the media, Americans have garnered important information, especially in the early hours of September 11th. The media allowed for the telling of personal stories that has brought communities closer together. and, the media refuses to let geographical distance be a source of apathy for viewers around the world.
Cohen, E., Ball-okeach, S., Jung, J., & Kim, Y. "Civic Actions after September 11: Exploring the ole of Multi-Level Storytelling." Prometheus 20(3) Sept 2002: pp. 221-228.
Nacos, B. "Terrorism, the Mass Media, and the Events…
Cohen, E., Ball-Rokeach, S., Jung, J., & Kim, Y. "Civic Actions after September 11: Exploring the Role of Multi-Level Storytelling." Prometheus 20(3) Sept 2002: pp. 221-228.
Nacos, B. "Terrorism, the Mass Media, and the Events of 9-11." Phi Kappa Phi Forum 82(2) Spring 2002: pp. 13-19.
O'Sullivan, J. "The Role of the Media at a Time of Global Crisis." International Journal on World Peace 21(4) Dec 2004: pp. 69-79.
Perl, R. Terrorism, the Media, and the Government: Perspectives, Trends and Options for Policymakers. 22 Oct 1997. Federation of American Scientists. October 22, 2006 http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/crs-terror.htm .
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…
Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001
Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004
Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.
Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."
This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.
Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.
There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…
Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005. http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html
AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005. http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm
Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
Ultimate Terrorists by Jessica Stern
Since September 11, 2001, Stern's book The Ultimate Terrorists has taken on a deeper meaning. Written in 1999, when America held onto the idea that terrorist activity was something that took place on foreign shores, Stern's book details in advance many of the factors in play which created the 9-11 tragedy. Terrorists have shifted their perspective from activity which gains power for their political or religious party to choosing targets just for the purpose of 'making a statement.' Again, 9-11 was a vivid example of the meaninglessness of their fanatical approach. While buildings, lives, and economic power were lost, the resulting "War on Terror" has all but destroyed their ability to further their plans.
Nonetheless, The Ultimate Terrorists is a timely book on a vitally important subject. Jessica Stern, former National Security Council staffer, explains with chilling lucidity why it is becoming more likely that…
Although amaat Ul-Fuqra is based out of Pakistan, it operates primarily in the United States, Canada, and the Carribean. Its operations are scattered throughout the United States in rural communes supposedly meant to provide Muslims with a living environment free from destructive secular influences.
Some of these communes are believed to provide paramilitary or terrorist training to its members.
amaat Ul-Fuqra members have planned various small-scale acts of religion-directed violence, mainly against Hindu and ewish interests. Their most well-known, definitely proven attack was the bombing of the Hotel Rajneesh in Portland, OR in 1983. However, they have also attacked other Muslim organizations, such as the Ahmadiyya, whose leader Mozaffar Ahmad was allegedly killed by amaat Ul-Fuqra operatives in 1983.
Most importantly, the organization is suspected to be collaborating with or to be under the influence of Al-Qaeda as a sleeper cell or as a training program for Al-Qaeda sleepers.
Jessica Stern (July/August 2003). The Protean Enemy. Foreign Affairs, 82/4. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/publication/6146/protean_enemy.html .
Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/jamaat-ul-fuqra.htm .
Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from
For instance, acceptance of physical defeat will render the opponent victorious but with mild understanding of the ideological approaches taken. Moreover, the U.S. should capitalize on stating its ideology stand grounds so that any attack based on it will reserve retaliation. This will help the nation to be always upfront in cases of physical war (Wing, 2007).
The battle of ideas is more valuable than military and law enforcement aspects. The battle of ideas is a more critical aspect of war than any other battle. Differences in ideas have often been the reason behind any war, attacks, and plans for war in any nation all over the world. This means that ideological satisfaction among the raging groups will result in calm, and avoidance of any other war be it physical or of any other form. The war between the U.S. And Islamic terrorists culminated due to ideological differences in…
Satloff, R.B. (2004). The battle of ideas in the war on terror: Essays on U.S. public diplomacy in the Middle East. Washington: Wash Inst near East Policy
Wing K.C. (2007). Defeating the Logic of Islamist Terrorism. USAWC Strategy Research
Communication is among the highest critical success factors in the event of an emergency. Some forms of communication are more effective than others in certain scenarios. Furthermore, technology plays a vital role in the ability to communicate with stakeholders. Some technologies are adequate to serve as the framework for communication between individuals, agencies, and the public while others are not as functional. After the events of September 11th, 2001, there were significant communication challenges that hindered the effectiveness of the first responders.
As volume of different communications increased drastically with people trying to reach out to loved ones and acquire relevant news of the events. However, this acted to overwhelm the system and max out its capacity. There were even come response teams that had to send messengers to other in order to communicate between various groups. This paper will analyze some of the communication failures that were…
AP. (2007, December 5). Communication Breakdown on 9/11. Retrieved from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-224_162-618272.html
Harwood, M. (2011, August 17). Former DHS Chief Calls Interoperable Communications Failure "a National Disgrace." Retrieved from Security Management: http://www.securitymanagement.com/news/former-dhs-chief-calls-interoperable-communications-failure-a-national-disgrace-008904
Margolin, J. (2011, March 7). Radio problems from 9/11 not fixed, could strike again. Retrieved from NY Post: http://nypost.com/2011/03/07/radio-problems-from-911-not-fixed-could-strike-again/
Mittelsadt, M. (2004, May 19). Panel: Communication problems hampered 9/11 response. Retrieved from The Battalion: http://www.thebatt.com/2.8485/panel-communication-problems-hampered-9-11-response-1.1205160#.UkXELYZvPCk
Estonia Cyber Attacks 2007
2007 Estonian Cyber-war
This is the information age. In this age, the Internet has smoothened the progress of spectacular increases in global interconnectivity and communication. This form of globalization also yielded benefits for Estonia by improving the standard of living of its people. However, other than benefits, it has also ascended the availability of new weapons of confrontation for groups who have been seeking and opposing certain Estonian political measures and ideologies. The digital activists from the ussian land did the same to Estonia in May 2007 (Herzog, 2011).
More than 340,000 ethnic ussians reside in Estonia which means that the ussians comprise about 25% of the country's populace. Estonia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then, the small country has been experiencing an unsteady and shaky relationship with Moscow (Lake, 2011, p. A11). Thus, Estonia and ussia share an extensive history of…
Ashmore, W.C. (2009). Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks. Baltic Security & Defence Review, 11, 4-40. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.bdcol.ee/files/files/documents/Research/BSDR2009/1_ Ashmore - Impact of Alleged Russian Cyber Attacks .pdf
Authority of the House of Lords, European Union Committee. (2010). Protecting Europe against Large-Scale Cyber-Attacks. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from the Stationery Office Limited website: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeucom/68/68.pdf
Czosseck, C., Ottis, R., & Taliharm, A. (n.d.). Estonia after the 2007 Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Organisational Changes in Cyber Security. Retrieved June 8, 2012 from http://www.ccdcoe.org/articles/2011/Czosseck_Ottis_Taliharm_Estonia_After_the_2007_Cyber_Attacks.PDF
Herzog, S. (2011). Revisiting the Estonian Cyber Attacks: Digital Threats and Multinational Responses. Journal of Strategic Security, IV (2), 49-60. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1105&context=jss
saying that one country's terrorist is another country's freedom fighter. If you were to use the definition of terrorism provided by Hall (2003) above, what other techniques would factor into counter-terrorism operations besides military tactics and investigation?
Hall says that whatever the reason, killing an innocent other is always 'terrorism'. This is so regardless of whether the act was for political, religious, sociological, or other reasons. The only case when terrorism may be excuse is if the act of murder was committed in self-defense; only when the perpetrator is in immediate danger of being harmed and he is trying to evade violence from the other.
Given that one country's terrorist is another country's freedom fighter, issues of terrorism may become quite complex since denouncement of terrorism by one factor may be refuted by another as heroism. The only way to make the distinction -- and this is too following Hall's…
EAL DO YOU THINK THE TEOIST THEAT IS TO THE COMMECIAL SECTO?
With the current wave of terrorist's activities and attacks, terrorists' threat is incredibly real to the commercial sector. Since 2008, terrorists target commercial organizations such as hotel that accommodate huge numbers of people. For instance, in 2009, terrorists bombed the JW Marriott and itz-Carlton hotels in Jakarta, Indonesia leaving 9 people dead and 42 injured. While terrorism has been around in geographical isolation, for scores of years, 20% of terrorists' acts affect the business community (Levene 2007, p.7). The contemporary history is full of horrific incidences carried out by extremists for divergent reasons. Indeed, terrorism is the plague of a contemporary and civilized society, and it is real and detrimental to the commercial sector.
Numerous countries across the globe experience terrorism triggered by different reasons; ideological, social, religious among other causes. The effects of terrorists' attack and threat…
Business Executives for National Security Metro Atlanta Region 2003. Company primer on preparedness and response planning for terrorist and bioterrorists attacks. Washington: BENS.
Gill, M 2006. The handbook o security. London: Palgrave Macmillan
Homeland Security 2011. The evolving terrorist threat: Enhancing vigilance for commercial facilities. New York: Policy Agenda.
Jackson, R 2011. Terrorism: A critical introduction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
C. Sunni/Shia Split
D. Relationship between AL Qaeda and Isis
E. ISIS attacks on the United States
X. Works Cited
In this essay about ISIS attacks in America, we examine attacks by the terrorist organization ISIS, which have occurred on U.S. soil. Because of the structure of ISIS/ISIL, which operate in cells, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a terrorist attack carried out by someone claiming to be working on behalf of ISIS was actually directed by ISIS. Therefore, for the purposes of this essay, we are working on the assumption that attacks by people who appear to be radicalized Muslims and claim a personal affiliation with ISIS are, indeed, ISIS attacks. This essay will give some…
American Terrorist Threat
Since the events of September 11. 2001. Americans have had an increased concern about the possibility of more terrorism within United States borders. Although our government has made monumental efforts to prevent future attacks. A terrorist only has to slip through once. whereas our vigilance has to be 100% successful at all times. ecause of that fact it seems inevitable that eventually. we will see more terrorist attacks within the United States.
ecause we were attacked by people from outside our borders. many Americans tend to think of terrorist threats as in terms of outsiders who come here to do harm. Thus we have increased supervision at border entries. We know that this can work; an alert border guard between Washington state and Canada stopped a car and probably foiled a terrorist attack planned for Los Angeles.
However, some terrorist experts believe that we already have terrorist…
Emerson, Steven. American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us. 2002. Free Press.
Government Accounting Office (GAO). 2002. "Key Elements to Unify Efforts are Underway but Uncertainty Remains." GAO-02-610. June 7.
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. 2000. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ledeen, Michael A. The War Against the Terror Masters: Why It Happened. Where We Are Now. How We'll Win. 2002. New York: St. Martin's Press.