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Terrorist Organizations and the Media
Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.
Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…
Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ano.htm .[7 September 2003].
Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at http://www.teror.gen.tr/english/organisations/abunidal.html.[7 September 2003].
Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.
Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm .[7 September 2003].
What sort of policies could the U.S. implement to prevent terrorist cells from forming in Africa? Do you believe that the U.S. should intervene, or should the problems of Africa be eliminated from within the individual countries? Why?
This is a thorny question, because U.S. intervention can often backfire, making other countries resent us for being "bullies" or for meddling in their affairs. However, we know that many of these African organizations receive at least some funding and support from groups like Al Qaeda, so we need to do something to monitor them or intervene if they become too dangerous. It would be nice to leave the intervention to the individual countries, but many of them are so corrupt or underfunded that they have little recourse on their own, and they need help from someone stronger and more powerful if they want to eliminate these groups from their…
Osama announced that they have gathered based on the will of God Almighty. Nothing that the countries like America does can stop them from what Al-Qaeda does under the will of Allah (Gunaratna 2003). The countries can do nothing to be safe from the fury of the Muslims. Osama has added that the war was begun by America and now the consequences will be faced by America by losing the war with the permission of Allah. Implementation of divine will seems to be the main rationale of Al-Qaeda. Clearing the west of anti-Islamic ideologies is the main rationale of Jeemah Islamiyah based on which they believe in use of all kinds of terrorist activities to 'correct' the nations.
The recruitment policies of the group are based on the social, cultural and historical context of the new 'terrorist'. A young man who abandons his home has to be recruited…
Akbarzadeh, S and Yasmeen, S 2005, Islam and the West: reflections from Australia, UNSW Press, New South Wales.
Bobrow, BD 2004,'Losing to Terrorism: An American Work in Progress', Metaphilosophy, vol. 35, no 3, p. 362-3.
Caldicott, DGE and Edwards, NA 2003 'Medical preparation for terrorism in Australia. Is luck running out for "The Lucky Country"?', Prehosp Disast Med vol. 18, pp. 57 -- 65.
Gunaratna, R 2003 'The Post-Madrid Face of Al Qaeda', The Washington Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 91 -- 100.
Alien Absconder Apprehension Initiative
The goal of the alien absconder apprehension initiative was basically to increase intelligence opportunity by interrogating middle easterners. The goal was partially attained as many Arab descent people in the U.S. were detained and deported as an implication of the Alien Absconder Apprehension initiative. Within a time span of one to two years, almost 1300 fugitives were detained and deported due to which the likelihood of crime occurrence became low. However, the concentration was on the Arabs only, while it should have been on other descents as well (Miller, 2012).
Although the Alien Absconder Apprehension Initiative is well appreciated by most of the people, it has its drawbacks as well. Many innocent visitors were deported based on doubts of them being potential terrorists within the country.
About Point of Failure (POF)
A point of failure can be identified by certain conditions such as a loop of…
Bolz, F.J., Dudonis, K.J., & Schulz, D.P. (2001). The Counter Terrorism Handbook. New York: CRC Press LLC .
Cohn, E.G., Farrington, D.P., & Wright, R.A. (1998). Evaluating Criminology and Criminal Justice. Westport: Greenwood Press.
FBI. (2012, September 5). USA Patriot Act Ammendments to Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Authorities. Retrieved from FBI - the Federal Bureau of Investication: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/usa-patriot-act-amendments-to-foreign-intelligence-surveillance-act-authorities
Miller, T.A. (2012, September 5). Blurring the boundaries between immigration and crime control after September 11. Retrieved from Boston College: http://www.bc.edu/dam/files/schools/law/lawreviews/journals/bctwj/25_1/04_TXT.htm
Terrorist organizations and terrorists are exploiting social media and the internet resources for the purpose of committing terrorist activities and for the facilitation of wide-ranging terrorist activities including radicalization, incitement, training, recruitment, communications, information gathering, planning, financing, and preparation (United Nations, n.d). Technology has quickly become a fundamental component of the modern day society. Technology governs itself therefore making it possible for terrorists to utilize it for the purpose of advancing their terrorism. Modern terrorism has become unpredictable and instantaneous thanks to technology. Technology has made it possible for terrorists to target large audiences and bring terror right into the home (InfoSec, 2018). Cyberspace is a technological environment that has no boundaries hence making it a place where terrorists can locate resources, disseminate propaganda information and launch attacks in any corner of the world.
5 main technological types and/or tools Used by ISIS for Information Sharing and Intelligence Gathering
The good guys also have a range of tools at their disposal and have several distinct advantages over their terrorist nemeses. For one, the good guys operate in the clear and in the white market: their weapons acquisitions are generally above board and so are their diplomatic ties. Also, the good guys have stronger and more reliable allies and similarly stronger and more reliable sources of information and finance. Terrorist networks are tenuous because their members are criminal in nature, and the possibility of defection or treachery is high. The good guys also have access to better technological tools than the terrorists. A bigger budget, access to the world's best scientists and engineers, and a solid, organized, cohesive military ensures that the good guys are always at an advantage even if the terrorists win small battles such as 9/11. Stopping the bad guys involves nonviolent technological tools too. Just as…
evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FAC) is the largest rebel group in Colombia and has been in constant battle with the government. For the longest time, there has been an unrelenting tug of war between the government and the leftist guerillas, with peace talks and cease fires coming into the picture in recent periods. One of the main themes perceived in three of the five articles is with regard to the goals, targets and tactics of the rebel group. Terrorist and rebel groups that have the capability to transform plans into considerable actions cultivate as part of the practice, resilient ideological practicalities, that offer guidance to the incentives and strategies of the organization. More so, at the end of the day, these ideologies largely influence the selection of targets by the terrorist groups, stirred in part by whom the organization's belief considers is culpable for its objections and complaints. In…
Brodzinsky, S. (2012). Colombia's FARC rebels say group will stop kidnapping. Christian Science Monitor;27/02/12. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2012/0227/Colombia-s-FARC-rebels-say-group-will-stop-kidnapping
Brodzinsky, S. (2012). Colombia's FARC proposes indefinite cease-fire -- with strings attached. Christian Science Monitor;27/02/12. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2014/1218/Colombia-s-FARC-proposes-indefinite-cease-fire-with-strings-attached-video
LaFranchi, H. (1996). Colombia calls its rebel armies the 'new cartels.' Christian Science Monitor; 10/21/96, Vol. 88 Issue 228, p6. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/1996/1021/102196.intl.intl.5.html
Dr. Jones' testimony in detail, providing examples of how the facts that he presents have had an impact on your own pre-conceived ideas and perceptions. How did Dr. Jones' testimony alter your opinions on exploiting weaknesses and what would you change about our efforts against international terror groups like al-Qaeda and al-Shabaab?
According to Dr. Jones, rather than solely focusing on how terrorist groups begin, there should be equal attention devoted in the literature to how they end. esearch indicates that the most common methods of termination are localized ways, either incorporating the group into the political process or using local intelligence agencies to kill critical members. Outside military force or, conversely, the group using force to achieve victory, is extremely rare (Jones 2008:1). Interestingly, while religious groups tend to be less likely to achieve victory, they are also amongst the most difficult to eliminate. Also, when terrorist groups become…
Jones, S. (2008). Defeating terrorist groups. RAND. Retrieved from:
evolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FAC), the largest rebel group in Colombia, proclaiming that it would abandon its practice of kidnapping. In addition, the rebel group also declared that it would release the held prisoners of war, some of whom have been held for more than fourteen years. The author deals with the problem by delving into the root cause of the problem, taking a look into the past problems and the future prospects as well. The author comes to the conclusion that this might be history repeating itself as in the past; in the 1980s the group asserted that it would put an end to the kidnappings, but never actually did. However, the author does mention that President Santos might use this move in a bid to attain a second term in office (Brodzinsky, 2012).
In this article, the author addresses the impact that peace talks between…
Brodzinsky, S. (2012). Colombia's FARC rebels say group will stop kidnapping. Christian Science Monitor;27/02/12. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2012/0227/Colombia-s-FARC-rebels-say-group-will-stop-kidnapping
Brodzinsky, S. (2012). Colombia's FARC proposes indefinite cease-fire -- with strings attached. Christian Science Monitor;27/02/12. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2014/1218/Colombia-s-FARC-proposes-indefinite-cease-fire-with-strings-attached-video
LaFranchi, H. (1996). Colombia calls its rebel armies the 'new cartels.' Christian Science Monitor; 10/21/96, Vol. 88 Issue 228, p6. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/1996/1021/102196.intl.intl.5.html
Llana, S. M. (2012). How will the FARC-Colombia peace talks impact Latin America? Christian Science Monitor;11/18/12. Retrieved 8 March 2016 from: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2012/1118/How-will-the-FARC-Colombia-peace-talks-impact-Latin-America
global stage, what distinguishes Jose Padilla from Timothy McVeigh? Be specific in your response.
The accused terrorist Jose Padilla, otherwise known as Abdullah al-Mujahir was a member of the organized terrorist group al-Qaeda. Like Timothy McVeigh, Padilla was an American. However, while McVeigh was subject to a conventional arrest for his murderous actions, Padilla was held as enemy combatant after being linked to terrorist activities. Both subscribed to radical ideologies. McVeigh was a white supremacist while "Padilla converted to Islam after a prison spell in Florida, and eventually made his way to Afghanistan or Pakistan to make common cause with al-Qaeda" (Karon 2002). Padilla's ties to al-Qaeda are somewhat sketchy, but his affiliations still distinguish him from McVeigh, who was a 'homegrown' terrorist not linked to a specific international group. McVeigh selected a government building as his chosen location to attack but his actions were not viewed as part of…
"Chapter 20: United States vs. Joseph F. Fernandez." [2 Sept 2012]
Karon, Tony. "Jose Padilla." Time. 14 Jun 2002. [2 Sept 2012]
Abu Nidal Organization:
The Abu Nidal Organization is also known by several other names, such as: Fatah evolutionary Council, Arab evolutionary Brigades, Black September, or evolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. It is an international terrorist organization that was founded by Sabri al-Banna, otherwise known as Abu Nidal. The organization split from PLO in 1974 and is made up of various functional committees. These include: political, military and financial committees. Founder Abu Nidal died in Baghdad in November 2002 and it is now unclear who the new leader of the organization is ("Abu Nidal," 2004).
The Abu Nidal Organization has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries and has killed or injured nearly 1,000 people in those attacks. Primary targets include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and a variety of Arab countries. They were responsible for the attacks on the ome and Vienna airports in…
Abu Nidal Organization. (June 2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/abu.htm.
Al Qaeda. (10 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Qaeda .
Hizballah. (16 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hizballah .
Pike, J. (3 Nov. 2004). Al-Qa'ida (The Base). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm .
Terrorism is basically defined as activities or violence that is carried out to coerce the government or civilian population to change its policies. Such activities are usually carried out due to divergent political, religious and ideological beliefs by individuals or members of an extremist group. However, the federal agencies definitions of terrorism vary depending on their operational roles and missions resulting in the lack of a universally accepted definition of terrorism in the United States. Consequently, there is either domestic or international terrorism depending on the origin of an extremist or terrorist group, where they launch their terrorist activities and who the victims of these attacks are ("Combating Terrorism," 2003). International terrorism is motivated by a range of interrelated factors and trends including technological advances and associations with international crime.
The Al-Qaeda Network is an international terrorist organization that was established in 1988 and is led…
"Al-Qaeda." (n.d.). Oracle ThinkQuest: Education Foundation. Retrieved April 30, 2011, from http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212088/teroraalqaeda.htm
"Al-Qaida / Al-Qaeda (the Base)." (2006, August 15). GlobalSecutiy.org. Retrieved April 30,
2011, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/al-qaida.htm
"Combating Terrorism: Interagency Framework and Agency Programs to Address the Overseas
The intentions behind religious fundamentalist terrorist activities are varied. It is noteworthy that terrorists are psychologically normal and are neither depressed, severely emotionally disturbed, nor crazed fanatics. In fact to ensure that their members are not clinically psychotic, emotionally unstable individuals are regularly screened out because they can be a security risk.
eligious fundamentalist terrorist groups are driven by a sense of giving power to the powerless. Some always want to seek revenge over religious grievances, while others seek to gain a sense of significance. They are driven by group interests as opposed to self serving actions hence their group, organizational, and social psychology. The responsibility of a leader of a terrorist organization like Al Qaeda is to interpret religious scriptures to justify their extreme acts of violence. He draws frustrated leaders into a coherent organization (Neumann, 2005).
Their unifying message to disparate followers is lined with religious,…
Davis, P.K. & Jenkins, B.M. (2002). Deterrence and Influence in Counterterrorism. Santa Monica: RAND.
Neumann, P.R. (2005). Addressing the Causes of Terrorism: The Club de Madrid Series on Democracy and Terrorism. Retrieved from http://media.clubmadrid.org/docs/CdM-
Understanding the enemy is an important aspect of defense. In fact, it is perhaps the most important aspect of being able to protect the people of your country. Since September 11th, 2001 the primary enemy of the United States has been terrorist organizations throughout the world, particularly in the Middle East. Terrorists have been a problem for Americans before that time as indicated by incidences throughout American history, up to and including the 1970s and 1980s. However, since the 2001 attacks, the enemy has been more blatant about their attitudes towards the United States and with regard to their intentions for citizens of the United States. Terrorism is defined by the American Department of Defense as "The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear: intended to coerce or to intimidate government or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political,…
Department of the Army. Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. Fort Leavenworth, KS:
"Emerging Threats and Security Challenges."
A frustration of societal expectations, rather than outright poverty and rejection, were characteristic of these terrorists' profiles.
This shifting profile should not have come as much of a surprise as it did to experts. As early as 1999 some experts noted, regarding terrorists in general (as opposed to Islamic terrorists) that all "terrorist groups are recruiting members who possess a high degree of intellectualism and idealism, are highly educated, and are well trained in a legitimate profession...More than two-thirds of the terrorists surveyed came from middle-class or even upper-class backgrounds" (Hudson 1999: 46; 49)
In Britain, there remains a concern about Pakistani training camps, given the large population of Pakistanis in the region. One red flag, the parents of a terrorist noted, that they did not spot was when their rebellious son was sent away to relatives in Pakistan, and he came back sober and religious. They thought their effort…
Hudson, Rex a. (1999). "The Sociology and psychology of terrorism: Who becomes a terrorist and why?" Federal Research Division. Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
McGrory, Daniel & Zahid Husain. (14 Jul 2005). New wave of British terrorists is taught at schools, not in the mountains." The Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article543782.ece
Nicolson, Brendan. (14 Jul 2004). "Paper paints a terrorist profile." The Age. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/07/15/1089694488731.html
Wilgoren, Jodi. (21 Sept 2001). "After the attacks: The hijackers. A terrorist profile emerges that confounds the experts." The New York Times. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE1D61F38F936A2575AC0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&st=cse&sq=terrorist+psychological+profile&scp=3
egardless, the image of the United States was shaken by the success of the Al Qaeda.
From a security point-of-view, the existence of Al Qaeda triggered more vigilance among the security environment in the sense that it attracted the attention on the phenomenon of terrorism as a global threat that needs to be treated at the global level through mechanisms that in 2001 were not set in place. Therefore, a reconsideration of homeland security strategies was necessary. This in turn however affected all levels of the society, from increased security at the level of the president to the increased airport controls throughout the country and abroad. These tightened rules of security attracted scrutiny at the level of the ordinary people and accusations of infringing privacy were even articulated. Even so, the fight against terrorism has become, after 9/11 one of the primordial subjects on the agenda of world leaders.
Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub
Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of Al Qaeda. Online at http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html
Reuters. (2009). Analyst's view: Al Qaeda's strengths and weaknesses. Online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/06/19/us-security-qaeda-strength-weakness-sb-idUSTRE55I22Z20090619
Most of them tend to be nationalist (Jones & Libicki, 2008).
Jones and Libicki (2008) presented credible information in the document, which could be applied towards exploiting weaknesses in terrorist organizations. A lot of information is learnt especially on the way terrorist groups can be defeated and the factors that make cease to exist. Indeed, Jones and Libicki (2008) findings on how terrorist groups end adds significant knowledge on the efforts to deal with increased threat of terrorism around the globe. Much can be inferred on how the existing terrorist groups may be brought to an end (Jones & Libicki, 2008).
The findings on the nature of group (religious or non-religious) are a critical aspect in exploitation of the weaknesses of the organization. In this regard, it evident that efforts put to end terrorist groups should be based on a succinct consideration of the nature of group. eligious terrorist…
Jones, S. & Libicki, M. (2008). How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering Al Qaida.
Basing on these stages, prior comprehension can boost the effort to dislodge the negative ideologies that the terror group could be trying to impart into people's mind-set. For instance, terrorist attacks targeting U.S. are based on the ideologies that U.S. is a general enemy to the Islam community. The objective of such propaganda is to unite the Islam community solidly behind their leaders in vilifying United States. However, the U.S. government's response to denounce the ideologies and insist that the war is against terrorists and not Muslim has been crucial in dismantling groupings such as Al Qaeda (White, 2002).
In my view, I totally agree with the statement that understanding the terrorist mind-set is essential in exploiting the weaknesses in the terrorist organizations. A fundamental mind-set that the terror organizations have developed is that attacking and killing an enemy of the people is the surest way of a better afterlife.…
Borum, R. (2003). Understanding a Terrorist Mind-Set. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. July 2003.
White, J. (2002). Terrorism: An Introduction, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing
The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism
The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…
Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.
Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.
Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.
Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
When determining the motives of terrorists, there are two issues to consider: the psychology of the individual, and the sociological impact of the group. While both of these are very important, they are not equal. The impact of the group is more significant when it comes to how a person feels about engaging in terrorist activity, and whether that person may have motives that are focused on and that allow that activity to be carried out. In other words, something as simple as what many people would call "peer pressure" is a serious factor when it comes to the motives of terrorists. One person may not make much difference, but when that one person joins a group that has shared beliefs and common goals, the motives of the entire group quickly become more focused on a particular idea or plan. That is one of the ways in which…
Terrorist Threat and the Commercial Sector:
Terrorist threat has emerged as one of the major global threats in the 21st Century that has significant impacts on global security. In the past few centuries, the nature and values of terrorism have slowly shifted and resulted in the emergence of different definitions or descriptions of terrorism. These different descriptions have not only been used by scholars but also by governments to broaden the phenomenon to political, judicial, psychosocial, and moral arenas. The differences in definitions of terrorism is attributed to the fact that these attacks are usually characterized by political motivations towards the use or threat of violence, intentional and pre-meditated actions, fear, psychological effects, and asymmetric warfare. The other aspects of these definitions include immorality, social coercion, and reactions. However, terrorist groups and activities continue to pose significant threats to every facet of the modern society including the commercial sector (aman,…
A Military Guide to Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century 2007, Terrorist Motivations and Behaviors, Chapter 2, viewed 20 April 2013,
Brandt, B 2011, Terrorist Threats to Commercial Aviation: A Contemporary Assessment.
Combating Terrorism Center -- United States Military Academy, viewed 20 April 2013,
Catlin Group Limited 2012, A Business Approach to Terrorism, Catlin Group Limited Report,
Terrorist Organization Comparison
Japanese Aum Shinrikyo and the Islamic State
The Japanese Aum Shinrikyo is a cult that is relatively low key when compared to the actions that have been take in recent years by groups such as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). In March 1995, the Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth), was responsible for killing 13 and injuring over five thousand by using sarin gas on a subway in Tokyo, Japan which was order by the group's leader Shoko Asahara (Nadeau & Adelstein, 2016). hile the group has been quiet since this time, until recently in which they have become the center of some attention in the media. Despite the group's long stretch of inactivity, it is also important to note that this has still been the only terrorist group to actually use a sophisticated chemical compound, such…
Cole, B. (2014, April 6). Why have 30,000 Russians joined Japanese doomsday cult Aum Shinrikyo? Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/why-have-30000-russians-joined-japanese-doomsday-cult-aum-shinrikyo-1553461
Nadeau, B., & Adelstein, J. (2016, April 1). Aum Shinrikyo: Japan's Death Cult Is Hiding In Europe. Retrieved from The Daily Beast: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/04/02/aum-shinrikyo-japan-s-death-cult-is-hiding-in-europe.html
The Atlantic. (2015, March). What ISIS Really Wants. Retrieved from The Atlantic: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/03/what-isis-really-wants/384980/
Tomlinson, L. (2016, February 4). Size of ISIS army 'remains the same' since last year, U.S. official says. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2016/02/04/size-isis-army-remains-same-since-last-year-us-official-says.html
Al-Shabab is an FTO designated on March 18, 2008. The name Al-Shabab translates into “The Youth” in Arabic. Its goal is to overthrow the Somali government and implement Shariah law. For that reason it is viewed as similar to ISIS (Center for International Security and Cooperation, 2019). It is a breakaway terrorist group from the Islamic Courts Union, from which it separated in 2006. It is an ally of Al-Qaeda and its battle with the Somali government is considered a mission of jihad. As it is considered a holy war by the group, it has conducted its activities in Kenya and likely would extend them even further if it had the resources to do so. The group originated in the Islamic Courts Union, as the military arm of the courts, led by Aden Hashi Ayro in 1997. Under Ayro, al-Shabab engaged in lethal exercises that were not authorized by…
Center for International Security and Cooperation. (2019). Al Shabaab. Retrieved from
Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…
Terrorism has emerged as one of the major security threats across the globe in the past several years. The severity of this global threat has been evident through the various terrorist attacks that have occurred in the past few decades, especially the 9/11 attacks. Actually, the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks was characterized with increased fears that terrorist groups like al-Qaeda will attempt to carry out other large attacks against the United States. One of the major reasons for the increase in terrorism is the use of various tactics by these individuals or groups. As the world continues to experience tremendous changes, terrorists and terror groups continue to develop new, sophisticated means and tactics of carry out their activities. While some of these activities may be carried out for similar reasons, they tactics employed in achieving these goals vary from time to time.
ecent Terrorists Tactics:
Carafano, J.J., Bucci, S. & Zuckerman, J. (2012, April 25). Fifty Terror Plots Foiled Since 9/11:
The Homegrown Threat and the Long War on Terrorism. Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation -- Leadership for America.
Moran, N. (2007, September 24). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from http://www.rightsidenews.com/2007092429591/world/terrorism/the-evolution-of-improvised-explosive-devices.html
Singer, P.W. (2012, February). The Evolution of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs). Retrieved
Terrorist Group Leaders
Tools and Techniques Used by Terrorist Group Leaders to Influence their Followers
In his article, War, Psychology, and Time, Friedman (2007) shows how Osama bin Laden employed a psychological strategy in an attempt to create a massive Islamic empire in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. The disintegration of the union provided an ideal opportunity for bin Laden to demonstrate to the world that America was actually weak and could be severely hurt. For bin Laden, the Muslim world "suffered from a psychology of defeat" following America's triumph over the Soviet Union and it was therefore important for Muslims to show their might and create terror (Friedman, 2007). The use of psychology to advance terrorist ideologies is not limited to bin Laden and al Qaeda. Indeed, leaders of terrorist groups capitalize on psychological techniques to recruit and influence their followers (Victoroff, 2005). This paper…
Terrorist Group's Use Of Cloud Technology
After the 1980s there have been changes on a global scale that included post cold war developments. The changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union coupled with the technological change on the nations of the East caused structural and perceptional changes that were needed to make them competitive in high technology; which included everything from military to the service sector. There was advance of science and technology in the context of world affairs, however lopsided development led to religious fundamentalism and also the terrorist ethos.
The world was for a long time in dread of nuclear weapons, but these too have taken a different dimension. Nations, even rogue nations with nuclear power are not the threat but a fanatic group that succeeds in hijacking a nuclear missile, for example, is. Though science and technology have been blamed for environmental disasters, the proliferation of…
Baker, John C, et al. Mapping the Risks: Assessing Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information. Rand: Santa Monica, CA, 2004.
Costigan, Sean S; Gold, David. Terrornomics.
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Furht, Borko; Escalante, Armando. Handbook of Cloud Computing.
Organizational Issues and Criminology
Introduction- When we think of the criminal justice system in the United States, we are referring to a broad collection of federal, state, and local agencies that are focused on crime prevention and upholding the law. In general, these agencies uphold the law at various levels, investigate crime, process the accused, compile evidence, work with the district attorney, and develop profiles and crime prevention techniques. The process of the criminal justice organization is designed to work in conjunction with the three branches of the U.S. government, and to uphold the Constitution. Organizationally, because there are so many agencies, personalities, interpretations and goals, there tends to be either a crime control model or a due process model. Many scholars see that this is one of the downfalls of the organization, because the tension and competition between the two viewpoints tends to cause negative issues within the system…
National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from ncs.gov: http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/nat_strat_hls.pdf
Aman, T. (2008). Decentralization: Pros and Cons. Fdle.state.fl.us. Retrieved from: http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/9da64f08-58b2-4d8c-96ac-e3b2a9ef8265/Aman-Tommy-paper-pdf.aspx
Autry, R.H., (1996). What is Organization Design? Innovus.com. Retrieved from: http://www.inovus.com/organiza.htm
Clark, D. (2008). Leadership and Organizational Behavior. Nwlink.com. Retrieved from: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Michael Collins- Terrorist or Freedom Fighter?
The name Michael Collins has very different meanings for different groups of people. For millions of people, he is considered not only a terrorist, but one of the first real terrorists. For millions of others, he is considered a great freedom fighter. The author was called upon to choose a position and support an argument about whether Collins was a terrorist or a freedom fighter. However, the reality is that Collins was both a terrorist and a freedom fighter, and the two roles are not mutually exclusive. Many people who support his position as a freedom fighter reject the terrorist label. Therefore, this paper will focus explaining why the author believes that Collins was a terrorist. There are several facts that support Collins being considered a terrorist. First, Collins developed modern guerrilla warfare, one of the preferred tactics of modern-day terrorists. Initially, he targeted…
Boot, M. (2011, May 17). The queen visits Michael Collin's Ireland. Retrieved January 9, 2012
from Commentary website: http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2011/05/17/queen-elizabeth-visit-reaffirms-anglo-irish-friendship/
The Delaware Criminal Justice Council Terrorism Research Page. (2007, March 22). The
history of terrorism: More than 200 years of development. Retrieved January 9, 2012 from The State of Delaware website: http://cjc.delaware.gov/terrorism/history.shtml
What is Terrorism?
Legacy in the 21st century
Based Terrorist Organizations
Ku Klux Klan
Counterterrorism and Prevention
Definitions and Structures
The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers in any town. Unless the materials are manufactured in the United States, though, the most likely targets are those that exist in coastal cities with larger port access (Smith, 2001).
Terrorists tend to target places that are media hyped, affect the lives of citizens, and are usually transportation, entertainment, or financially based in larger urban areas. Indeed, for greater efficacy, targets usually involve places where there are large non-combatant crowds,…
ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html
Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk
Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from: http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf
Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov
Individuals Become Terrorists?
As the costly global battle against terrorism continues, the question is constantly begged, "Why do some individuals become terrorists while others do not?" Certainly, there are some generic attributes that distinguish many individuals who are considered terrorists in the eyes of the international community, including being young and male, but the generalities tend to stop there because women and even children have also been involved in terrorist attacks in the past. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the various motivational factors that have been shown to turn ordinary individuals into terrorists. Following a discussion of these issues, a summary of the research and important findings concerning why some individuals become terrorists are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
What is terrorism, anyway? Although a single, universally acceptable definition of terrorism is…
Abrahms, M 2008, 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-terrorism strategy,' International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, 78-105.
Acharya, A 2009, Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes,
New York: Routledge.
Atran, S 2008, 'Who becomes a terrorist today?,' Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.2, No. 5, 1-5.
ole of Media in eporting Terrorism:
Terrorist attacks have developed to become part of an indirect strategy to achieve political objectives through their impacts on an audience. In this process, the attention of the media has also served as an important channel that terrorists communicate with their audiences. Consequently, one of the major objectives of terrorist groups is to affect the degree and tone of media attention to their specific acts and attacks (Walsh, 2010). In the past decade, recent history has demonstrated numerous examples of the mutually beneficial relationship between terrorist groups and the media. Some of the recent terrorist attacks indicate that the perpetrators of terrorism use the media for various purposes such as propaganda schemes, operational efficiency, recruitment, collecting information, and fund raising. Moreover, this history also indicates that the media has had a positive impact in lessening the effectiveness of terrorists.
Media as a Force Multiplier…
Bilgen, A. (2012, July 22). Terrorism and the Media: A Dangerous Symbiosis. Retrieved February 22, 2014, from http://www.e-ir.info/2012/07/22/terrorism-and-the-media-a-dangerous-symbiosis/
Walsh, J.I. (2010, December). Media Attention to Terrorist Attacks: Causes and Consequences.
Retrieved from Duke University website: http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/IHSS_Research-Brief_Walsh.pdf
Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.
After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…
Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.
Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row
Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15 #documentsand' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
For instance, acceptance of physical defeat will render the opponent victorious but with mild understanding of the ideological approaches taken. Moreover, the U.S. should capitalize on stating its ideology stand grounds so that any attack based on it will reserve retaliation. This will help the nation to be always upfront in cases of physical war (Wing, 2007).
The battle of ideas is more valuable than military and law enforcement aspects. The battle of ideas is a more critical aspect of war than any other battle. Differences in ideas have often been the reason behind any war, attacks, and plans for war in any nation all over the world. This means that ideological satisfaction among the raging groups will result in calm, and avoidance of any other war be it physical or of any other form. The war between the U.S. And Islamic terrorists culminated due to ideological differences in…
Satloff, R.B. (2004). The battle of ideas in the war on terror: Essays on U.S. public diplomacy in the Middle East. Washington: Wash Inst near East Policy
Wing K.C. (2007). Defeating the Logic of Islamist Terrorism. USAWC Strategy Research
The terrorist incident in New York on September 11, 2001 woke many individuals and organizations to the realities of vulnerabilities within the airline industry. The particular problems seemed to be that crucial training for individuals who wished to work as commercial airline pilots had very little monitoring. Of course, security on flights was the most critical oversight as people within the industry believed that inflight incidents would not happen. Other transportation industries also realized the immediacy of the need for change, and have been implementing new protocols also. It may seem that the most vulnerable are those that travel in international waters or skies, but dangers exist within the United States because of a reliance on rail transportation of people and goods also. The United States could face significant problems if a major rail transportation system was interrupted due to terrorist infiltration. The research into this system proves…
Brainard, l. A., & Derrick-Mills, T. (2011). Electronic commons, community policing, and communication: Online police-citizenship discussion groups in Washington, DC. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 33(3), 22-34.
Post, B. (2007). The great society subway: A History of the Washington, DC Metro. The Journal of Transport History, 28(2).
Although amaat Ul-Fuqra is based out of Pakistan, it operates primarily in the United States, Canada, and the Carribean. Its operations are scattered throughout the United States in rural communes supposedly meant to provide Muslims with a living environment free from destructive secular influences.
Some of these communes are believed to provide paramilitary or terrorist training to its members.
amaat Ul-Fuqra members have planned various small-scale acts of religion-directed violence, mainly against Hindu and ewish interests. Their most well-known, definitely proven attack was the bombing of the Hotel Rajneesh in Portland, OR in 1983. However, they have also attacked other Muslim organizations, such as the Ahmadiyya, whose leader Mozaffar Ahmad was allegedly killed by amaat Ul-Fuqra operatives in 1983.
Most importantly, the organization is suspected to be collaborating with or to be under the influence of Al-Qaeda as a sleeper cell or as a training program for Al-Qaeda sleepers.
Jessica Stern (July/August 2003). The Protean Enemy. Foreign Affairs, 82/4. Retrieved from http://www.cfr.org/publication/6146/protean_enemy.html .
Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/jamaat-ul-fuqra.htm .
Pakistan -- Terrorist Groups. South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved from
While both domestic and international terrorism pose a threat to America the threat of domestic groups is more serious.
The individuals in the domestic groups already live here and are able to mingle, plot, plan and carry out acts of violence with very little scrutiny until the act occurs.
International groups must deal with visa issues, customs and other things that make it more difficult to get into and attack the U.S.
There will never be a complete eradication of terrorism either on the domestic or the international level.
Each of them will live on and the nation is going to have to learn to live with the fact that they exist. Law enforcement and government will work together to minimize the threat of terrorist groups in America but they will never completely rid the nation of the threat because of the rights the U.S. constitution provides, the fact that…
Domestic terrorist groups (Accessed 4-18-07)
http://www.milnet.com/domestic/Dom-Terror.htm domestic terrorists and internet (Accessed 4-18-07) (http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:ScYT_)VYRcJ:ai.arizona.edu/research/terror/publications/DarkWeb-AMCIS2005_Zhou_Collection.pdf+%22domestic+terrorist+groups%22+internet&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
Such a strategy, if fully developed, would successfully reduce the risk of a successful terrorist nuclear attack because the system itself would have nuclear-specific elements that could be coordinated with an assortment of other prevention and protection measures. More so, this system would work with the international community to develop similar multi-elemental, layered and cross-departmental approaches there and then coordinate the United States' measures with these international efforts, thus creating a global defense strategy capable of fully defending a way of life against the threat of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction.
This new approach to defense would focus on coordinating improved capabilities of monitoring and controlling both nuclear weapons and nuclear material, thus being able to better evaluate where the risk is and what kind of risk it is. Further, such an internationally coordinated monitoring system would dissuade those in the planning stages of a nuclear attack could defeat…
Bolt, Paul J., Coletta, Damon V., and Collins G. Shackleford. American Defense Policy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
De Becker, Gavin. Fear Less: Real Truth About Risk, Safety, and Security in a Time of Terrorism. New York: Little Brown & Co., 2005.
Burd, R. "Nuclear Detection to Prevent or Defeat Clandestine Nuclear Attack." Los Alamos Manuscript LA-UR-04-0629, submitted to IEEE Sensors Journal, Special Issue on Sensors for the Prevention of Terrorist Acts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
Department of Defense. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Preventing and Defending Against Clandestine Nuclear Attack. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
As O'Sullivan noted, truth and courage are needed in the media today and in the future; however, there must be balance as well. An unfettered press is exactly what terrorists thrive on. Their attacks against humanity are nothing without the publicity they garner from the media. Therefore balance must be achieved.
And, with that balance comes the positive aspects the media brings to terrorist actions. Through the media, Americans have garnered important information, especially in the early hours of September 11th. The media allowed for the telling of personal stories that has brought communities closer together. and, the media refuses to let geographical distance be a source of apathy for viewers around the world.
Cohen, E., Ball-okeach, S., Jung, J., & Kim, Y. "Civic Actions after September 11: Exploring the ole of Multi-Level Storytelling." Prometheus 20(3) Sept 2002: pp. 221-228.
Nacos, B. "Terrorism, the Mass Media, and the Events…
Cohen, E., Ball-Rokeach, S., Jung, J., & Kim, Y. "Civic Actions after September 11: Exploring the Role of Multi-Level Storytelling." Prometheus 20(3) Sept 2002: pp. 221-228.
Nacos, B. "Terrorism, the Mass Media, and the Events of 9-11." Phi Kappa Phi Forum 82(2) Spring 2002: pp. 13-19.
O'Sullivan, J. "The Role of the Media at a Time of Global Crisis." International Journal on World Peace 21(4) Dec 2004: pp. 69-79.
Perl, R. Terrorism, the Media, and the Government: Perspectives, Trends and Options for Policymakers. 22 Oct 1997. Federation of American Scientists. October 22, 2006 http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/crs-terror.htm .
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…
Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001
Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004
Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.
Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
There is strength in numbers, and a larger, better funded organization can often accomplish more than a smaller, splinter organization ever could. It seems that there are so many terrorist factions in the world, they are too far divided to ever join forces, and perhaps that is the only thing that is helping keep much of the world relatively free from terrorist activity.
Thus, the partnership makes sense for both parties who are intent on attacking a country or people more effectively. They also make sense for small groups who may not have enough power or influence on their own. Terrorist alliances may become more common in the future, creating more danger for everyone on the planet.
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International eview 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
apoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New…
Gardner, Hall. "Aligning for the Future: Assertive Unilateralism or Concert of Powers?" Harvard International Review 24, no. 4 (2003): 56+.
Rapoport, David C., ed. Inside Terrorist Organizations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.
That same statute requires the Secretary of State to notify certain members of her Senate before making the designation, but she need not notify the groups in question. If complaint were to ensue, the designated groups can file a petition within 30 days, but the court can review only the administrative record that the Secretary has assembled, although the Government may also submit classified information that was used to make the judgment.
This particular case was based on the precedent of a previous one (Anti-Fascist refuge Committee v. McGrath (1951)), where the Attorney General designated certain organizations as Communist, and the appellants appealed on the grounds that the Fifth Amendment required the government to warn the organizations in question before publicly condemning them. Differences between that case and this included the fact that they were a domestic institution and not foreign. More so, examining the first two clauses, "foreign" and…
People's Moujahedin Organization of Iran v. United States Department of State
(182 F.3d 17) (D.C. Cir. 1999). Retrieved on 11/20/2011 from:
"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."
This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.
Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.
There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…
Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/ .
AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005. http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html
AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005. http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm
Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
American Terrorist Threat
Since the events of September 11. 2001. Americans have had an increased concern about the possibility of more terrorism within United States borders. Although our government has made monumental efforts to prevent future attacks. A terrorist only has to slip through once. whereas our vigilance has to be 100% successful at all times. ecause of that fact it seems inevitable that eventually. we will see more terrorist attacks within the United States.
ecause we were attacked by people from outside our borders. many Americans tend to think of terrorist threats as in terms of outsiders who come here to do harm. Thus we have increased supervision at border entries. We know that this can work; an alert border guard between Washington state and Canada stopped a car and probably foiled a terrorist attack planned for Los Angeles.
However, some terrorist experts believe that we already have terrorist…
Emerson, Steven. American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us. 2002. Free Press.
Government Accounting Office (GAO). 2002. "Key Elements to Unify Efforts are Underway but Uncertainty Remains." GAO-02-610. June 7.
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. 2000. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ledeen, Michael A. The War Against the Terror Masters: Why It Happened. Where We Are Now. How We'll Win. 2002. New York: St. Martin's Press.
corporations have been increasingly targeted for terrorist activities. Part of the reason for this, is because the traditional targets such as: military and government facilities have become difficult to conduct a successful attack against. As a result, terrorists have begun to focus more of their efforts on attacking various corporate interests. Where, the security is less and the odds are high of being able to inflict enough casualties as well as collateral damage, to create the same psychological impact. This is important, because it shows how terrorist organizations are increasingly changing their focus. Therefore, corporate interests need to be able to adjust to these changes, to avoid the negative impact that this kind of incident could have.
In the case of Host Marriot, they are wrestling with a number of unique challenges. As they are known for being a popular hotel for: tourists, business people and government dignitaries. At the…
Deadly Bomb Blast Targets Marriot Hotel. (2008). CNN. Retrieved from: http://articles.cnn.com/2008-09-20/world/pakistan.islamabad.marriott.blast_1_vehicle-bomb-explosion-bodies?_s=PM:WORLD
Incident Response Plan. (n.d.). Comptech Doc. Retrieved from: http://www.comptechdoc.org/independent/security/policies/incident-response-example.html
Mumbai Terrorist Attacks. (2010). Mahalo. Retrieved from: http://www.mahalo.com/mumbai-terrorist-attacks/
Times Square Bomb Scare. (2010). CNN. Retrieved from:
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm
McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.
Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html
Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
A benchmark is defined as an agreed upon or standard reference point that is utilized to measure quality or value. In the business environment, the benchmarking process is a process through which a company agrees upon standards to measure its progress. The benchmarking process can be used both externally and internally. There are two fundamental parts of a benchmarking process, namely: performance assessment and continuous improvement. There are also three basic types of a benchmarking: the first is where comparison is done using internal data, the second is where the company assesses relative service performance and the last is where one evaluates supply chain performance of various organizations, even though the organizations may not necessarily be competing ones. The benchmarking process entails the use of other processes such as data analysis and reporting. When done properly, benchmarking can help bring about product innovation. Product innovation can…
Blanchard, D., & IndustryWeek, (2006). Protecting The Global Supply Chain. Retrieved February 8, 2016, from http://www.industryweek.com/regulations/protecting-global-supply-chain
Closs, D. J. (2008). A framework for protecting your supply chain. Logistics Management, 47(9). Retrieved from http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=872237
Dutton, G. (2009) Selling the supply chain upwards. World Trade, Troy, 22 (9): 34, 37
Frey, B. S. (2009). How can business cope with terrorism? Journal of Policy Modelling, 31(5), 779-787.
Intentions of the Group
Profiling terrorists can be helpful for counter-terrorism efforts. While there is no one terrorist profile, there are "risk factors for involvement," (Kershaw, 2010). One of the risks that has been most explored in scholarly research is the need for a collective, shared identity in the terrorist organization (Post, Ali, Henderson, Shanfield, Victoroff & Weine, 2009). This is true for the Aryan Nation, recognized as a top domestic terrorism threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The Aryan Nations Group dubs itself a "Premier Christian Identity Church Organization," with the word "identity" featuring firmly (Aryan Nations, 2013). Members of the Aryan Nation also emphasize the "nation" part of their identity, creating an artificial in group-out group status that enforces personal and collective identities.
Although Vaisman-Tzachor (2006) claims that race is not a necessary component in the profile of a terrorist, it certainly is with the…
Aryan Nations (2013). Website retrieved online: http://www.aryan-nation.org/
Aryan Nations. (2012). Terrorist Organization Profile, University of Maryland. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=29
Kershaw, S. (2010). The terrorist mind: An update. The New York Times. 9 Jan, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/10/weekinreview/10kershaw.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Post, J., Ali, F., Henderson, S., Shanfield, S., Victoroff, J., and Weine, S. (2009). The psychology of suicide terrorism. Psychiatry, 72(1), 13-31. Retrieved November 14, 2012, from ProQuest. (Document ID: 1683378291).
Hitting ISIS where it hurts
As horrific as the current situation in Iraq may be, according to political scientist Patrick B. Johnston's essay "Hitting ISIS where it hurts: Disrupt ISIS cash flow in Iraq" there is little appetite in the U.S. For a wide-scale ground war. Yet a more conservative combination of limited airstrikes and aid is also unlikely to prevent ISIS from thriving. Johnston believes that the defeat of ISIS can only come from within Iraq. Helping the Iraqi government and the ISIS resistance movement plan military options, specifically by targeting ISIS' financial sources of support is critical. ather than targeting the outside flow of financial revenue to ISIS, Johnston advocates active military operations against the oil business, cash, and bookkeeping of ISIS. Traditional methods of stemming the flow of cash will not work, give ISIS' lack of reliance on foreign patrons.
Johnston believes that Iraq squeezing ISIS economically…
Johnson, P. (2014).Hitting ISIS where it hurts: Disrupt ISIS cash flow in Iraq. RAND. Retrieved
There are numerous reasons as to why terrorists deliberately target those who are considered innocent people, such as civilians and non-combatants. One can argue that the very definition of a terrorist organization is one which challenges "the peace of mind of everyday people" (Augustus & Martin, 2010), which is done effectively by targeting them. In many instances, terrorist organizations lack the resources to scale a full-fledged military assault -- such as that which typifies wars -- due to a paucity of numbers, dearth of finances, and lack of requisite hardware (weapons). In these instances, one of the most viable options for these organizations and their objectives (which are almost always political) is to make figurative 'statements' in the form of targeting innocents. There are fewer ways of expressing one's political ambitions and extremism for such causes than by destroying the lives of innocents who happen to represent the…
Augustus, C, Martin, G. (2010). Essentials of Terrorism: Concepts and Controversies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Braithwaite, A., Foster, D.M., Sobek, D.A. (2010). Ballots, bargains and bombs: terrorist targeting of spoiler opportunities. International Interactions. 36(3), 294-305.
Habeck, M. (2006). Knowing the Enemy. Yale University Press. New Haven, Connecticut.
Jasper, W. F. (2009). Terrorist targeting of police. New American. 25(17), 17-20.
Terrorism has been a hot topic in the news for over a decade. It has impact people on an international level with countries like France, England, and the United States experiencing attacks. Currently Isis, a terrorist organization, has generated chaos in the Middle East. Government have been destabilized and peace and security jeopardized. Atrocious acts of violence have occurred from child beheadings to rapes and torture. Terrorism threatens the social and economic development of any place it affects.
Furthermore, terrorism directly affects human rights. People lose freedoms and face subjugation from regimes of terrorist organizations. All of which have negatively diminish ones enjoyment of life as well as their human rights. International, national, and regional political leaders make promises and claims that counterterrorism measures will not encroach on human rights. Former President George Bush for example, preached on preserving human rights amidst counter terrorism efforts. However, living up to these…
Ahmed, S. (2015). The 'emotionalization of the "war on terror": Counter-terrorism, fear, risk, insecurity and helplessness. Criminology And Criminal Justice,15(5), 545-560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1748895815572161
Enders, W., Sandler, T., & Gaibulloev, K. (2011). Domestic versus transnational terrorism: Data, decomposition, and dynamics. Journal of Peace Research, 48(3), 319-337. doi:10.1177/0022343311398926
Feinberg, M. (2015). International counterterrorism -- national security and human rights: conflicts of norms or checks and balances?. The International Journal Of Human Rights, 19(4), 388. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13642987.2015.1027053
Fenwick, H. (2015). Counter-terror strategies, human rights and the roles of technology. International Review Of Law, Computers & Technology, 25(3), 107. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13600869.2011.617430?journalCode=cirl20
Therefore the consequences of such restrictions and regulations have further complicated the case, the research activities have been either shunned or go unreported to avoid any confrontation with the investigation agencies, 'the climate of fear created by the Butler case is even threatening the ability of the United States government to detect bioterrorist activity, the labs in one state are no longer reporting routine incidents of animals poisoned with ICIN, a deadly toxin found in castor beans, for fear of federal investigation'. Stanley Falkow, a respected researcher at Stanford University in California, in his letter to the former attorney-general of the United States revealed that, 'Trying to meet the unwarranted burden of what the government considers 'bio-safety' is simply not coincident with the practice of sound, creative scientific research'. The government introduced a policy which highlighted the need for tight control over the biologists 'with access to dangerous pathogens', in…
Robyn L. Pangi, Arnold M. Howitt. Countering Terrorism: Dimensions of Preparedness. 2003. MIT Press. pp. 341
Anthony Kubaik. Stages of Terror: terrorism, Ideology, and Coercion as theatre History. 2000. Pp. 154.
Jamie Lewis Keith. Regulation of Biological Materials under Export Controls and Bioterrorism Laws. University of Florida Press. 2003.
Debora MacKenzie. U.S. crackdown on Bio-Terror is backfiring. New Scientist Publication. November 2003.
ECJ5 Action Officer's GRADE, NAME
APPROVED BY: ____ DATE
STRATEGIC ESTIMATE OF THE CAUCASUS REGION
Ahurastan has a population of 33 million, comprised of 80% Azeri, 9% Kurd, and 11% other, and is 89% Shi'a and 10% Sunni.
Ahurastan was founded in 2019 and the government is a military dictatorship.
The current Ahurastan president is Piruz Dilanchi and the prime minister is General Ali Kerimli.
The country is a terrorist sponsor that supports the South Azeri People's Army (SAPA) and places the country at odds with Azerbaijan. Ahurastan naval vessels have confronted Turkish and Azerbaijani oil exploration vessels in the Caspian Sea but trade with Armenia continues.
The country appears to be strengthening its relationship with Russia which sells arms to the Ahurastan military.
Ahurastan also has a number of nuclear facilities that Iran would like to reacquire.
Current U.S. programs include securing Caspian Sea routes through support of the…
The acketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (ICO) is a federal law that was passed in 1970. This law permits the trial and prosecution for actions that are performed as part of an ongoing criminal enterprise. Actions that include such criminal behavior has illegal gambling, bribery, murder and money laundering are all typical of ICO violations.
The ICO act was intended to bring down crime families and mafia organizations or other organized crime. Within these criminal families are systems that protect the long standing hierarchies that control and deliver the criminal behavior within these families. As a result, old laws could not reach these criminals and new prosecutorial powers were needed to ensure that justice was taking place.
The ICO Act originally was legislated to prosecute the Mafia and others involved in organized crime, but over time, the definition of what constitutes racketeering activity has expanded. Consequently, the application…
Cornell University Law School. 18 USC Chapter 96, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations. Legal Information Institute, Viewed 12 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/part-I/chapter-96
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
terrorists are rational actors. There rationality may not appear so to those who are not adherents of their particular cause (or in some cases, their particular faith). However, for those who share the conviction of terrorists, their actions are rational.
One of the most salient examples that demonstrates the rationality of the actions of terrorists is found within those who embrace the Islamic faith. There are a number of tenets of this religion that pertain to war, particularly when the antagonist is a so-called infidel or non-believer. One of these concepts is that of jihad, which is the Islamic word for holy war (Okon, 2013, p. 173). It is crucial to understanding the rationality of Muslim terrorists to note the fact that Islam states that those who willingly give their life for the cause of the religion or because of religious persecution will be richly rewarded in the afterlife. Thus,…
Linder, D.O. (2006). "The Oklahoma City Bombing & The Trial of Timothy McVeigh." www.law2umkc.edu. Retrieved from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/mcveighaccount.html
Okon, E.E. (2013). "Jihad: warfare and territorial expansion in Islam." Asian Social Science. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=243c74ec-8a90-4366-bc73-e9ccc689c9f3%40sessionmgr14&hid=6
Powell Assertion Number Two: In his Feb. 5, 2003 speech to the U.N., Powell said: "We have no indication that Saddam Hussein has ever abandoned his nuclear weapons program." But in October, 2002, in his memo to the White House, CIA Director George Tenet voiced "strong doubts about a claim President Bush" was about to make in the State of the Union address "that Iraq was trying to buy nuclear materials" from Africa. And on July 24, 2003, Spain's Foreign Minister, Ana Palacio, an ally of the U.S., said their was "no evidence" prior to the U.S. attack on Iraq of a nuclear bomb program by Saddam, according to the Hanley article in Editor & Publisher.
Powell Assertion Number Three: Powell told the U.N. he had proof that Saddam was deploying "Contamination Vehicles" associated with chemical weapons on at least two sites. Those alleged contamination vehicles turned out to be…
Barry, John; Hirsh, Michael & Isikoff, Michael. (2004). "The road to Abu Ghraib began after 9/11, when Washington wrote new rules to fight a new kind of war," Newsweek International.
CBSNEWS.com. (2004). "The Man Who Knew," 4 Feb. 2004. Available:
Dodds, Paisley. (2005). "Gitmo Soldier Details Sexual Tactics," Associated Press, Yahoo News, 27 January.
This told investigators who was involved and it provided them with critical leads that lead directly to the perpetrator. These events are illustrating possible gaps in the research. This is because the methods of the terrorists are becoming more sophisticated. One of the most notable is the use of the disgruntled lone wolf to conduct these attacks.
In the case of Faisal Shahzad, he was a lone wolf who was radicalized by the financial challenges he was experiencing. This pushed him to believe that the banking system was controlled by the Jews. They foreclosed on his home a year before the attack and destroyed his way of life. This is when he began to reach out to Al Qaeda via the Internet and focus on becoming a part of the jihad against America.
These issues are showing how the biggest gaps in the research are that the terrorists' tactics are…
"Inside the Mind of the Times Square Bomber," Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/sep/19/times-square-bomber (accessed February 13, 2013)
"Inside the Mind of the Times Square Bomber," Guardian,
ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.
In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…
On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).
Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.
The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further
causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of terrorist groups include Baader-Meinhof, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the alleged Iranian state-sponsored terrorism. Following my analysis of these groups, I have chosen as my theoretical framework, Margolin's argument that, 'much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives' (Joseph Margolin, 1977, 273-4).
My discussion will involve analysis of three terrorist groups across three categories i.e. ideological, nationalist, and religious terrorism. I will use Baader-Meinhof gang, the Liberation Tigers of…
Brynjar, L. & Katja, S. (2000). Why Terrorism Occurs -- A Survey of Theories and Hypotheses
on the Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from http://www.ffi.no/no/rapporter/00-02769.pdf
"Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview." (2013, May 30). Office of the Coordinator
for Counterterrorism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209985.htm