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Ethical and Legal Issues
Considering the responsibilities and rights of test takers and test users, discuss why it is important to have ethical and legal standards for testing. hat knowledge, skills, and abilities are necessary for competent test use? hat are the standards regarding confidentiality and privacy of test taker information, test scores, and test interpretation? hat do you feel is the most important responsibility of a test user and why? Please be sure to support your discussion with information from the AERA (2000) book, APA (2010, 2011) websites, and the Turner, DeMers, Fox, & Reed (2001) article.
The American Psychological Association (APA) set up a task force on test users qualifications (TFTUQ) in October 1996 to develop guidelines that inform test users and the general public about the qualifications that this body feels that are important for the competent and responsible use of the psychological tests that they…
Hsu, K., & Iwamoto, D. (2013). ting for Measurement Invariance in the Conformity to Masculine Norms-46 Across White and Asian-American College Men: Development and Validity of the CMNI-29. American Psychological Association, 1-11.
Turner, S., DeMers, S., Fox, H., & Reed, G. (2001). APA's Guidelines for Test User Qualifications. American Psychologist, 1099-1113.
The employee's imperative is bound by the employee's desire to maintain employment. To the business, however, there is a competing imperative in that it must increase profits. For the cost of a test, the business can prevent a certain degree of losses. Thus, from the businesses perspective its imperative, if applied evenly and universally, would compel it to reject testing of its executives just as much as it would compel it to promote testing of employment candidates.
Q1. ilson acted wrongly in terms of his contractual duty to the company. In such situations, the moral imperative derives from the employment contract, including the terms of the housing allowance. ilson defends himself on the basis on consequential arguments -- he is doing more right than wrong in his actions. eighed on a consequential basis, ilson is correct in that his wrong actions towards his employer have resulted in greater good for…
Friedman, Milton. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved October 3, 2009 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Level 2: Beginning: Children can make use of simple phrases. Level 3: Developing: Children exhibit hesitant use of written and spoken academic and social English. Level 4: Expanding: Children show comfort with social English, while have difficulty with academic English. Level 5: Bridging: Children are capable of understanding both academic and social English with competency, although with some difficulty (Law & Eckes 2007, p.47).
The question of whether an incoming student can read at all -- or can read, just not in English -- is a critical question that must be addressed during an initial student assessment. A home language survey can be an important introduction to the child's cultural setting and educational background, although the information obtained from such visits is always incomplete, as the language and full scope of the child's formal schooling can be difficult to discern from such a visit (Law & Eckes 2007, p.48). Talking…
Law, Barbara & Mary Eckes (2007). Assessment and ESL: An alternative approach.
Portage & Main Press.
The first step to testing a research topic is conducting a literature review to determine what has been researched, any gaps, or any inefficiencies in the research studies. The literature review aids in determining appropriate hypothesis, variables that need to be studied, and appropriate research study methods and designs. Depending on the research methodology and designs as well as the goals of the researcher, appropriate confidence intervals can be determined to evaluate the level of confidence in the research findings.
Depending on previous research studies, if an old timer stated, "Why, in my day, kids were much more respectful and didn't cause as much trouble as they do nowadays!," an appropriate alternative hypothesis could be "Children growing up in the 1940's were more respectful and caused less trouble than children in the 2000's." From the alternative hypothesis a null hypothesis of "Children growing up in the 2000's were…
Describe one ethical issue surrounding the Uniform Care equirement, which requires that all participants of clinical research across the world should receive the same treatment that they would in a Developed country.
The Uniform Care equirement has been proposed as a "minimum ethical standard" but profit-driven researchers claim it may conflict with other ethical standards in making HIV / AIDS medications available to more people in the developing world (Killen, Grady, Folkers & Fauci, 2002, p. 201). According to the Uniform Care equirement, all participants should receive equal treatment regardless of their geographic location. Opposing the Uniform Care equirement seems appalingly unethical. For one, there is no ethical reason why studies conducted in the developing world should not conform to the same ethical standards they must follow in the United States. Killen, Grady, Folkers & Fauci (2002) claim that the Uniform Care equirement decreases the likelihood that all studies…
Dreaper, J. (2012). Concern at outsourced clinical trials in developing world. BBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.com/news/health-20468396
FDA (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/SpecialTopics/RunningClinicalTrials/
Killen, J., Grady, C., Folkers, G.K. & Fauci, A.S. (2002). Ethics of clinical research in the developing world. Nature Reviews 2.
This type of research suggests that there is a correlation between general intelligence (g) and physiological factors such as development stability and general physical fitness. One might develop the research question further by investigating whether intelligence can be manipulated by means of increasing actual physical fitness levels by means of exercise, for example. Since it has long been an accepted fact that the body and mind function as a mutually influencing unit within the human organism, it follows that manipulating the human body would also manipulate the mind, and by association the g-factor.
A comparison can also be made between existing, natural fitness, without any manipulation efforts by the individual, and the degree of g manifest in the individual. By making such a comparison, a conclusion can be drawn regarding the degree of correlation between g and natural body symmetry. This can then be used as a springboard for further…
Colom, R., Jung, R.E. And Haier, R.J. (2006). Distributed brain sites for the g-factor of intelligence. NeuroImage No. 31. Retrieved from: http://www.mrn.org/pubs/Colom%20Distributed%20Brain%20Sites.pdf
Prokosch, M.D., Yeo, R.A. And Miller, G.F. (2005). Intelligence tests with higher g-loadings show higher correlations with body symmetry: Evidence for a general fitness factor mediated by developmental stability. Intelligence, No. 33. Retrieved from: http://www.unm.edu/~psych/faculty/articles/yeo/9.pdf
Testing the Effects of Disaster
Frequency on Moth's Genotypes
Cover page requires -- name, complete address, email address full course title, section number and date; centered on the page.
Testing the Effects of Disaster Frequency on Moth's Genotypes
eather alters life. Modern day man has been both purposely and accidentally altering the basic weather patterns and physiology of our planet by producing pollution, killing or altering natural resources, deforestation, and of course global warming. For example, industrial smog has been discovered everywhere over the oceans which may be creating distorted weather patterns that some climatologists have called 'climate death.' e do not yet fully understand if clearing forests will cause tornadoes or more rainy seasons somewhere on the planet. But, I do know that if the weather was to have an increase in events such as increased rainy or stormy cycles with increases in the tornado occurrences, natural life would…
Albert, Michael. The Real World Is Messy -- Chaos Theory. Zmag. Retrived on 22 Mar. 2005, from .
Additionally, administrators need to be trained to recognize appropriate and inappropriate test preparation strategies. Teachers also need to be trained on developing authentic assessments with the same rigor as the state assessments. Popham (2001) suggests the use of multiple measures including writing, open-ended response questions, and performance-based tasks. The use of these types of assessment may provide a more accurate picture of student learning. Additionally, the public must become more critical consumers of educational data. A significant increase in test scores might be the result of better teaching practices, but it might also be the result of teaching to the test.
Finally as suggested by both Popham (2001) and Volante (2004) teachers need to have an understanding of, teach, and assess the entire curriculum. Belfiore et al. (2005) argue that this is especially true for schools in areas of high poverty, stating that this begins with "(a) teachers believing all…
Belfiore, P.J., Auld, R., & Lee, D.L. (2005). The disconnect of poor-urban education: Equal access and a pedagogy of risk taking. Psychology in the schools, 42(8), 855-863. doi:10.1002/pits.20116
Popham, W.J., (2001). Teaching to the test. Educational leadership, 58(6), 16-20.
Volante, L., (2004). Teaching to the test: What every educator and policy-maker should know. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 35. Retrieved from: http://www.umanitoba.ca/publications/cjeap/articles/volante.html .
Wilhelm, J. (2003). Assessment: The alpha and omega of achievement National Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213932421?accountid=27965
In criteria-related validity, the performance of the study is graded against a criterion that exists outside of the study construct. An example of this might be: "if we want to assess the concurrent validity of a new measure of empowerment, we might give the measure to both migrant farm workers and to the farm owners, theorizing that our measure should show that the farm owners are higher in empowerment" (Trochim, 2006, Measurement validity types).
The preexisting research on which the criterion is drawn from must be valid -- for example, the research on empowerment used to create the above example study of the farm workers and migrants must be valid and not simply be based upon biases and assumptions of researchers of the past.
Application: hen used and when inappropriate
Construct validity refers to the question of whether the conclusion of the study accurately reflects its…
Trochim, William M.K. (2006). Measurement validity types. Social Research Methods.
Retrieved December 29, 2008 http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/measval.php
Trochim, William M.K. (2006). Types of reliability. Social Research Methods. Retrieved December 28, 2008 at http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/reltypes.php
Tests of reliability and validity
This chapter is primarily concerning with the stages of development of literacy among students and notes the four stages including: (1) readiness for reading or pre-reading ages birth to six years of age; (2) the initial stage of reading or ages six to seven years of age; (3) the fluent stage of reading or ages seven to eight years of age; and (4) the reading to learn stage or ages nine to thirteen years of age. This chapter additionally relates the literacy experiences that a students gains in their home including their access to books and other print publications, the demonstrations of adult literacy behavior in the home, and adults who support student literacy through reading to the student or encouraging the student to read aloud. This chapter highlights the students experiences with reading in the environment other than the home to support literacy learning.
Emergent Literacy Strategies…
Furthermore, it is related that the study of Valencia, Valenquela, Sloan and Foley (2001) suggest that "inferior schools are the cause of historically minority student failure, and in promoting accountability, proponents are treating the symptom of school failure rather than the cause." (Flores and Clark, 2003) it is additionally stated in the work of Flores and Clark (2003) that "current literature abounds with evidence that the Texas' state-mandated test is driving the curriculum."
Flores and Clark state that accusations exist which claim high-stakes testing misuse has occurred and Haney (2000) as well as Kellow and Wilson (2001) have discussed "by pointing to the paucity of the TAAS' psychometric soundness and the apparent inattentiveness to measurement error, which have resulted in a great misuse of the test results for high-stakes decisions, such as awarding of high school diplomas." (Flores and Clark, 2003) it is noted that the analysis of…
Amrein, Audrey and Berliner, David C. (2002) the Impact of High-Stakes Tests on Student Academic Performance: An Analysis of NAEP Results in States with High-Stakes Tests and ACT, SAT and AP Test Results in States with High School Graduation Exams. Arizona State University. 2002.
Flores, B.B., & Clark, E.R. (2003, March 3). Texas voices speak out about high-stakes testing: Preservice teachers, teachers, and students. Current Issues in Education [Online], 6(3). Available:
Peterson, Bob and Monty Neill (1999) Alternatives to Standardized Tests. Vol. 13. No. 3 Spring 1999. Pros and Cons of No Child Left Behind: What the Research Says. Educational Newsletter 2007. Online available at http://www.ernweb.com/public/892.cfm
The fourth step is to perform the relevant statistical test and acquire a test statistic along with its p or probability value (Iyanaga & Kawada, 1980). The fifth and final step involves making a decision to reject or not reject the null hypothesis based on the test statistic. If the p value is less than the pre-determined level of significance, you would reject the null hypothesis (Voelz 2006).
The role of confidence intervals in hypothesis testing is such that if the confidence interval (which is an interval within which the researcher has a specific degree of confidence that the population parameter of concern exists) does not contain the mean of the null hypothesis distribution then the result is significant (Aron, Coups & Aron 2011 p. 191). The confidence interval then provides limits within which one expects to find the mean or statistical value that is related to the null hypothesis.…
Aron Arthur, Coups Elliot J. & Aron Elaine N. Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences:
A brief course. New York NY Prentice Hall: 2011.
Iyanaga, S. And Kawada, Y. (Eds.). "Statistical Estimation and Statistical Hypothesis Testing."
Appendix a, Table 23 in Encyclopedic Dictionary of Mathematics. Cambridge, MA:
Testing of the rong Kind: Too Little of the Right Kind...," author Paul E. Barton looks at the "testing enterprise" which has assumed greater prominence in K-12 education during the last 20 years. However, Barton believes that the bulk of this testing is of "the wrong kind," meaning tests are seen as a means of reform. hen students seem to be failing in basic areas such as mathematics, spelling or geography, the gut reaction is often to institute more rigorous testing. Such tests are designed to assess student performance and to weed out the students who do not make the grade.
Barton makes the distinction between the "right kind" and the "wrong kind" of testing. In these "wrong kinds" of tests, Barton argues that the tests themselves have become tools of reform, rather than measures to assess whether reforms are working. Furthermore, Barton states that most standardized tests do not…
Barton, Paul E. 1999. Too Much Testing of the Wrong Kind: Too Little of the Right Kind in K-12 Education. Retrieved from www.ets.org/research/pic/204928tmt.pdf
testing a hypothesis is to establish one. There should be a null hypothesis that the data can be used to test. Data acquisition is therefore the next step in testing the hypothesis. The data needs to relate directly to the hypothesis with a clear relationship that can be subjected to quantitative analysis. Quantitative analysis will then measure the relationship between the variables to determine whether or not the data fits with the null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is then either accepted or rejected on the basis of the analysis (Investopedia, 2013). Further, the null hypothesis should identify the dependent and independent variables. The dependent variables are those that will be measured in relation to change in the independent variables. Thus, it is the independent variable(s) that will be changed to measure the effect that change has on the dependent variable(s). There may also be an alternative hypothesis, which may simply…
Investopedia. (2013). Definition of quantitative analysis. Investopedia. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/q/quantitativeanalysis.asp
Laerd Statistics. (2013). One-way ANOVA in SPSS. Laerd Statistics. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from https://statistics.laerd.com/spss-tutorials/one-way-anova-using-spss-statistics-2.php
No author. (2013). Introduction to hypothesis testing. San Jose State University. Retrieved November 12, 2013 from http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/gerstman/StatPrimer/hyp-test.pdf
Widespread failure on the part of students thus indicates failure on the part of the school system. But what is the source of that failure -- is it a failure to conform to the test's definition of intelligence, a poor match between the test structure and the curriculum of the school, a failure on the part of the school to educate the child, or the child's inability to learn based upon wider social forces such as poverty and a lack of enrichment opportunities that the school cannot control? The results of these tests cannot provide answers to these questions.
Standardized tests only give a rough portrait of the child's current state of learning, and they do not provide full portrait of the individual and his or her unique learning style. On so-called aptitude tests like the SAT, there is no distinction between students who are bright and well-prepared and those…
Matthews, Jay. (2003, November). The bias question. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved November 13, 2009 at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200311/Matthews
Tests also are a means by which to ensure that I am doing my job properly as a teacher. Students need to learn and understand certain material, and tests ensure that students will study the material and then prove that they do know the material. Tests are a way to show school administrators and parents what material has been covered and how much of that has been learned by each student.
Unfortunately, there are cons to test-giving. One such problem is that a short test which does not take too much time to complete will only have a few questions, and each question will weigh heavily on the total grade. On a 10-question test, only 2 wrong answers will drop the student's grade to a 80%, which may not be an accurate measurement of how well he knows the material. Longer tests, however, that could more fairly sample the student's…
Neill, M. (1990) Let's Cut Back on Standardized Testing. Mothering, Winter. Retrieved November 11, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n54/ai_8283181
Schmitz, S. (1991) Achievement Testing - Critique of Standardized Achievement Tests. Mothering, Fall. Retrieved November 11, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_n61/ai_11360579
Wetzel, B. (2002, November-December) No more tests! Challenging standardized education - Ways of learning. Mothering. Retrieved November 11, 2004, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0838/is_2002_Nov-Dec/ai_100807177
Activity #2: Identify the major characteristics that distinguish a norm-referenced test, criterion-referenced test, and an alternative assessment instrument like a portfolio or an observation record. Discuss instructional settings and situations that require each of the three types of assessment instruments. (2-page)
animals for testing [...] why we should use animals for testing. It will include arguments on why using animals for testing is a widespread and scientifically sound practice. The use of animals in testing has been going on for thousands of years, and has led to some of the most significant and live saving medical breakthroughs on the planet. Medical testing using animals should certainly be humane, but should continue, as it saves lives and helps researchers discover life-saving technologies before testing on humans.
USING ANIMALS FOR TESTING
Using animals for scientific research is a highly controversial practice. Many highly visible animals rights groups, such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), have sprung up over the years that decry the use of animals for testing under any circumstances. In the case of PETA, their animal rights activities often spill over into the questionable, as their recent ad…
Baldwin, Elizabeth. "The Case for Animal Research in Psychology." Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Science, Technology, and Society, Fifth Edition, Thomas A. Easton, ed. New York: McGraw Hill/Duskin. 2002, pp. 270-277.
Editors. "Holocaust on Your Plate." MassKilling.com. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.masskilling.com/exhibit.html
Editors. "Proud Achievements of Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003. http://www.fbresearch.org/
Quick Facts About Animal Research." Foundation for Biomedical Research. 2003. 21 April 2003.
The interest that has been generated in functional assessment is not something that is new in psychological circles. However, the interest in it was intensified greatly around 1997 because of amendments that were made to the Individuals with Disabilities Act. These particular amendments mandated that personnel at schools conduct functional assessments on any students that had behavioral problems which resulted in being expelled or dismissed, and that these assessments then be used to look for likely interventions that could help these students and others like them. Schools are also required to deal with in-service training of all of their personnel in ways that have a direct relationship to these functional assessment techniques.
There are many different ways to carry out a functional assessment, however, and the ideas that were created by researchers into the issue are subject to interpretation by the person carrying out the assessment. It is also important…
Bijou, S.W., Peterson, R.F., & Ault, M.H. (1968). A method to integrate descriptive and experimental field studies at the level of data and empirical concepts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 175-191.
Blakeslee, T., Sugai, G., & Gruba, J. (1994). A review of functional assessment use in data-based intervention studies. Journal of Behavioral Education, 4, 397-413.
Carr, E.G., & Durand, V.M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111-126.
Cone, J.D. (1997). Invited essay: Issues in functional analysis in behavioral assessment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 259-275.
It is all well and good in one sense for the school district to launch a pay-for-performance system in order to get the most out of the teachers -- who in turn are motivated to get the most out of the students -- but how are the executives in a district going to determine the amount of value that a teacher adds to the school?
If the teacher simply "teaches to the test" -- an all-to-common approach in some schools -- it will be basically cheating a pay-for-performance system. A teacher "teaches to the test" by knowing ahead of time the specifics of the questions, issues and subjects to be covered in the end-of-school-year examination. ith that information at hand, the teacher in this particular school pounds the answers to those questions into the student's heads so they do well on the test. Doing this will do damage to the…
Carnevale, Anthony P., and Rose, Stephen J. (2004). Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity,
And Selective College Admissions. America's Untapped Resource. Retrieved February
20, 2010, from http://clc.pages.clc.illinois.edu/home/res213/carnrose.pdf.
McClelland, David C. (1973). Testing for Competence Rather Than for "Intelligence."
Testing) Materials -- Sensitive in Nature
"Do Not Copy, Print, Transmit, or Save Unless Specifically Authorized"
C400T Tactics and Sustainment Exam
Instructions: This is a take-home, open book exam, worth 40% of your overall C400T grade. All work must be your own. Do not discuss this examination or your answers with anyone other than your instructor. You will turn in all exam sheets and any additional supporting paperwork. In the interest of academic integrity and fairness, do not provide this test information to inbound students
This exam has four sections:
Section #1 is worth 20 points and is comprised of 20 separate multiple choice, true-false answers. Each question is worth one point.
Section #2 is worth 40 points and based on a brigade level situation & sketch. You will be asked to write a brigade mission statement a commander's intent and depict your battlefield visualization on a sketch .
The amount of heed to be given regarding the rights of animals has remained to be a heated argument these past few years due to the new, innovative ways of people and their treatment of animals in various situations. The most common concern of those worried about animals is the method of scientists to test products on animals to see how successful they are and whether the products may potentially cause harm to humans if they use them.
Animal testing has numerous categories. While a few scientists make use of animals for medicinal experiments, others may use it to test the safety of cosmetics and other products for human use. The key factor due to which this argument has still gone on is the constant questioning as to why one should care about animals and the danger to them when we test products on them. A common misconception…
Bekoff, M. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. Greenwood Press: 1998. Print.
Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Judson, K. Animal Testing. Marshall Cavendish Benchmark: 2006. Print.
Mironov, Vladimir . "The Future of Medicine: Are Custom-Printed Organs on the Horizon? Medical Researchers Are Creating Robots That Can Bioprint New Tissue and Organs Directly into Patients' Bodies While Performing Surgery-Without Assistance from Doctors." Futurist. 45 (2011): n. page. Print.
Special Needs Assessment: A Review of Recent Literature on Testing Students with Special Needs
One of the most difficult and controversial issues in education today is the question of identifying, testing and educating students with potential special needs and different learning styles. On one hand, individuals within the system of education wish to be inclusive in nature. They do not wish to label students permanently to the detriment of their educational advancement. However, ignoring the special challenges some students face can be just as detrimental as tracking students too early into a special education niche. Furthermore, the increased demand for testing students of all levels of innate ability to verify the competency of individual instructors and the performance of students within particular districts on the whole means that the issue of testing students with special needs is unlikely to go away soon. It is a problem that all educators must…
Airasian, Peter. Classroom Assessment: Concepts and Applications. (2001). Fourth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
College Board. (2004)
A de La Paz, Susan; Graham, Steve. (1997) "Screening for Special Diagnoses." ERIC Digest.
High stakes testing is a concept of using assessments to make major decisions about students and to hold schools accountable. In the U.S. high stakes testing is part of a standardization process that sees students being assessed to evaluate progress; the tests not only impact whether a student will advance but also whether the school will receive incentives from the government. Because incentives are tied to achievement and the high stakes tests are used to evaluate achievement, schools teach to the tests and spend much time ensuring that students do well on them. This raises questions about the type of education students are getting.
Critics of high stakes testing believe that the method results in teaching to the test and that this—rather than real learning improvement—is the reason for test score increases. The research indicates that critics are right: Au (2007) has shown that “the primary effect of high-stakes testing…
Amrein, A. L., & Berliner, D. C. (2002). High-stakes testing & student learning. Education policy analysis archives, 10, 18.
Au, W. (2007). High-stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative metasynthesis. Educational Researcher, 36(5), 258-267.
Jacob, B. A. (2005). Accountability, incentives and behavior: The impact of high-stakes testing in the Chicago Public Schools. Journal of Public Economics, 89(5), 761-796.
Testing Materials) -- Sensitive in Nature
Do Not Copy, Print, Transmit, or Save Unless Specifically Authorized
The desired End State of the Allies here is complete control of North Africa from the Atlantic (in the west) to the Red Sea (in the east).
The primary obstacle at present to achieving this End State is fairly easily described: the Axis has control of the Mediterranean Sea with small exceptions on the far east and west of the sea. (The British hold Alexandria and the Suez Canal on the eastern Mediterranean, and hold the island of Malta and the straits of Gibraltar in the western Mediterranean.) Due to Axis control of southern Europe -- including, crucially, the Italian peninsula and Sicily -- the Axis has reliable SLOC and ALOC into the central portion of North Africa, where their troops are presently stationed in the Western Desert. Nobody (neither Allies nor…
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
measurable assessment the determines a specific trait or attribute. For this example I have chosen the quality of "empathy" to be evaluated. The psychological test will be based on a Likert 5-point scale, where the testing subject will answer the question with a number 1-5 where 5 being the most likelihood to agree with the statement.
I feel that the world is mostly subjective experience.
I express emotions easily and readily.
I am in interested in philanthropy.
Others' feelings are important to me.
I think of others first.
I offer help when I think others may need it.
My feelings are often hurt at the things I see around me.
I enjoy being uplifted by the stories of others.
I feel a strong connection with others.
When people feel emotion I often feel it too.
Guidelines in Creating Psychological Tests
Psychological testing is the attempt to standardized and quantify certain…
Busch, M. (1993). Using Likert Scales in L2 Research A Researcher Comments…. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 733-736.
Davis, M.H. (1994). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Westview Press.
Spreng*, R.N., McKinnon*, M.C., Mar, R.A., & Levine, B. (2009). The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: scale development and initial validation of a factor-analytic solution to multiple empathy measures. Journal of personality assessment, 91(1), 62-71.
Philosophy natural science. Given natural science theories: 1. hat makes objects fall 2. The missed 2012 apocalypse First, describe theories world / forces operate . These theories, pass Karl Popper's theory demarcation
Natural Science Theories
The idea of the force that makes objects fall has haunted mankind for thousands of years before people actually came to understand how the force of gravity functions. Italian scientist Galileo Galilei is responsible for opening people's eyes regarding this theory, as he studied it intensively and discovered that an object falling to the ground has a rate of 9.8 meters per second, squared. This made it possible for society to gain a more complex understanding of how the force of gravitation works and diverse variables that can influence this process.
Considering that many individuals in the contemporary society have trouble determining whether some objects are likely to fall faster than others, it would seem…
Giancoli, D. "Physics - Principles with Applications." (Aubrey Durkin)
Restall, M. & Solari, A. "2012 and the End of the World: The Western Roots of the Maya Apocalypse." (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 16 Jan 2011
"Why the World Didn't End Yesterday," Retrieved February 22, 2015, from http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2012/14dec_yesterday/
colloquially individuals may think that some people are smarter than others, the more scientific term for the concept of being smart is intelligence. The notion of measuring a person's intelligence was first pursued in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet (Kamin, 1995). The French government was looking for a way in which to help predict which students would have the most difficulty in school (Kamin, 1995), so they hired Alfred Binet, who was a psychologist, to develop a test. Binet developed the first intelligence test, a version of which is still used today (Kamin, 1995). Intelligence testing really took off during World War I, when the U.S. army wanted a way to screen a high number of army recruits. This lead to the development of new forms of intelligence tests in order to determine which army recruits were of a higher intelligence and would be successfully in leadership roles (McGuire,…
Gupta, V. (1999). SPSS for Beginners. 1st Books Library.
Kamin, L.J. (1995). The pioneers of IQ testing. In Ressell Jacoby & Naomi Glauberman (Eds.), The Bell Curve Debate: History, Documents, Opinions. New York: Times Books.
McGuire, F. (1994). Army alpha and beta tests of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Intelligence. New York: Macmillan.
Neisser, U. (1997). Rising scores on intelligence tests. American Scientist, 85, 440-447.
Long-Term Memory Encoding
The card trick shown on page 265 in Coon and Mitterer (2013) provides a demonstration of how human memory works. An individual is first presented with six face cards from a deck of cards and told to focus on a single card of their choice, so that the person will be able to remember it later. The cards are removed from sight and the individual is presented with five face cards that do not include any of the face cards presented initially. If the individual remained focused on only one card in the first set of cards then he or she would be unaware that all of the cards were changed, resulting in the individual believing the trickster could read minds. This card trick reveals how attention is required for memory encoding. Coon and Mitterer (2013) call the failure of the individual to remember any…
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2013). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior with Concept Maps and Reviews (13th ed.). Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R. (1975). A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189-98.
Malloy, P.F., Cummings, J.L., Coffey, C.E., Duffy, J., Fink, M., Lauterbach, E.C. et al. (1997). Cognitive screening instruments in neuropsychiatry: A report of the Committee on Research of the American Neuropsychiatric Association. Journal of Neuropsychiatry, 9(2), 189-97.
Steis, M.R. & Schrauf, R.W. (2009). A review of translations and adaptations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in languages other than English and Spanish. Research in Gerontological Nursing, 2(3), 214-24.
Ethical and legal use of psychological testing has a significant impact on the standards and practices of psychological testing to demonstrate intervention for those being tested. The purpose of the ethical boundaries of psychological testing is to ensure that clinicians are utilizing the best test possible and then applying the results ethically to demonstrate assistance with diagnosis and intervention modes in a way that best meets the needs of the subject. This work will discuss the ethical application and utilization of psychological testing instruments to demonstrate the best possible outcomes and interventions for subjects in a way that recognizes tests strengths and limitations and ultimately leads to the appropriate and essential answers needed to aid people with diagnosis and treatment objectives. There are a significant number of psychological tests at the disposal of clinicians and they are in a constant state of revision by the entities that develop…
Emanuel, E.J., & Menikoff, J. (2011). Reforming the regulations governing research with human subjects. The New England Journal Of Medicine, 365(12), 1145-1150. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1106942
Green, B., Li, L., Morris, J., Gluzman, R., Davis, J.L., Wang, M., & Katz, R.V. (2011). Detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who knows what? A framework for health promotion strategies. Health Education & Behavior, 38(6), 629-636. doi:10.1177/1090198110391529
Hogan, T.P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Nagy, T.F. (2011). Ethics in psychological assessment. In T.F. Nagy (Ed.), Essential ethics for psychologists: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues (pp. 171-183). Washington, DC U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12345-009
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…
Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html
Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/
Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
Psychological Testing and Assessment
There is a distinct relationship between psychological testing and assessment in conjunction with the DSM-IV. First, testing provides a systematic means of assessments that provide insight into the potential mental complications of a patient. Further, psychological testing provides a means of flexible evaluation which can better conform to the changing needs of the public. By providing flexibility in its approach to assessment, psychological testing can better adapt to changing and varying conditions within the mental health profession. Much like the internet, new health issues arise yearly with profound implications for the general public. Psychological testing and assessment attempts to abate or diminish the influence of these changing dynamics on the health profession and the community at large.
What is case history data?
The American Heritage Medical Dictionary defines case history data as, "A detailed account of the facts affecting the development or condition of a person…
1) "Clinical Interview (psychology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. .
2) "Psychological Report Format." Untitled 1. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. .
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
Thus, students faced with fear and stress, are overwhelmed, concentrating on the test rather than on the goals of learning. They cannot concentrate on school work, understanding the importance of learning and education, because of stress that forces some to focus only on the test and others to drop out.
III. High stakes testing disadvantages those with learning disabilities.
In addition to lowering the teaching capacity of some teachers and students' focus on the value of education, many scholars argue that high stakes testing can be harmful to those with learning disabilities. First, many argue that students with learning disabilities receive different curriculum than students without learning disabilities, making it impossible for students with learning disabilities to do well on the same tests given to their peers. Furthermore, many students do not receive the aid that they need when taking tests, such as hearing aids or visual aids, and some…
Amrein, a.L. & Berliner, D.C. (2002, March 28). High-stakes testing, uncertainty, and student learning Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(18). Retrieved February 22, 2009, at http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v10n18
Appropriate Use of High-Stakes Testing in Our Nation's Schools" (2001, May).
Retrieved February 22, 2009, from the American Psychological Association. Web Site: http://www.apa.org/pubinfo/testing.html
Cortiella, C. (2004, June). Implications of High-Stakes Testing for Students with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved February 22, 2009, from Great Schools. Web Site: http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/showarticle/2846
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.
Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.
This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…
Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.
Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.
Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)
The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,
Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…
Casse, D. (1998, August). IQ since "The Bell Curve." Commentary, 106, 33.
Intelligence. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Daly, W.C. (1997). Some Mentally Retarded Children Can Benefit from Placement with Peers. Education, 117(4), 553.
Figueroa, R.A. (1989). Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations. Exceptional Children, 56(2), 145.
asically, systems and applications are being developed to facilitate the traditional manual process. It is essential, therefore, that they must conform in the designed functionalities and specifications to effectively serve their purpose. Code testing is a critical element to this procedure to ensure that systems function well and that they meet user-requirements.
Manual code testing involves evaluation and assessment of program codes through manual process, whether the functionalities match those listed in the detailed design. In this test process, a series of codes are designed, developed, and embedded within the actual software or system codes to test the program's vulnerability. Normally, iterations are done to extensively test and validate code units. Following are some components of a manual code test process that can be expected in this section of a procedural manual.
A test-code design input design execution design
Manual code test process can also…
Test Hardness Generator FAQ.
TCP Sistemas e Ingenieria. 20 Oct 2003.
Embedded Software Module Testing.
2002. Vector Software. 20 Oct 2003. http://www.vectors.com/whitepapers.htm
articles on high-stakes testing. Specifically, it will review the three articles, and include how the articles changed my personal views on high-stakes testing. Clearly, testing is a necessity in the educational environment, and yet, many forms of testing seem to be more a form of control and labeling rather than a way to accurately measure the student's expected and actual learning outcomes. High-stakes testing may help reinforce the school district's learning standards and outcomes, but it may not be the method most effective in measuring the child's development and learning potential.
What is the purpose of educational testing? Ostensibly, it exists to measure a student's progress throughout the school year, but it can also be a measure of the educator and district's success in passing on information from educator to learner. Most parents and professionals want some measure of proof that their children are receiving a quality education that can…
McMillan, James H. "Fundamental Assessment Principles for Teachers and School Administrators."
Popham, W. James. "The Seductive Allure of Data."
Steeves, Kathleen Anderson, Hodgson, Jessica, and Peterson, Patricia. "Are We Measuring Student Success with High-Stakes Testing?"
Often, psychological testing is used to determine a candidate's approach to conflict resolution, identify the candidate's stress factors and coping mechanisms, or to possibly identify potential management skills and preferences. These and other insights are very important to potential employers, especially when it pertains to the higher-level professions and when the company has a large amount of money and a large commitment on the line.
The article concludes that psychological testing in the workplace is a good thing and that it serves a very necessary function. The disconnect between the employers' understanding of these tests and the employees' understanding is emphasized in the article as it tries to debunk the common negative myths surrounding the practice. The author's perspective is unique in that she works in the testing and test administration industry herself and is likely used to having to answer questions regarding psychological testing in the workplace on a…
Botero, Ingrid Murro. (1996). "Psychological Testing Need Not Be Feared." Phoenix Business Journal, July 19, 1996.
Available online at: http://www.bizjournals.com/phoenix/stories/1996/07/22/smallb3.html
Although "one would expect higher quality assessment instruments that produce better information to make education decisions given NCLB-imposed penalties for districts associated with poor performance on the test...many states struggle with budget deficits and funding restrictions. They cannot allocate the funds necessary to improve the testing programs. States are forced to rely on large-scale assessments with too few questions and a narrow focus on skills and knowledge that are easily measured....representatives from the NJDOE [New Jersey Department of Education] have admitted publicly that finances, not technical integrity, drive the state's assessment program... [Their] current philosophy is 'do the best with what we have'" and is based upon the assumption that some testing, of whatever kind, is better than not testing at all (Tienken & ilson, 2007, p.16)
The irony is palpable -- the high-stakes nature of testing requires teachers, operating under finite limitations of time and money, to focus…
Lee, Jaekyung. (2008). Is test-driven external accountability effective? Synthesizing the evidence from cross-state causal-comparative and correlational studies. Review of Educational Research. 78(3). 608-644. Retrieved February 24, 2009, from Research
Library database. (Document ID: 1580752961).
Marchant, Gregory J. (2004, April). What is at stake with high stakes testing? A discussion of issues and research. The Ohio Journal of Science. Retrieved from FindArticles.com. February 24, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0HQW/is_2_104/ai_n25092071
Tienken, Christopher H. & Michael J. Wilson. (2007, December 17). Technical characteristics of state assessments of skills and knowledge. Report retrieved February 24, 2009, from Fair
"Schools will not be able to attract high-quality teachers to a system that stifles richness and creativity and emphasizes a narrow band of knowledge and a very restricted set of tests to measure it." Consequently, struggling schools will get worse as teachers move to more affluent public or private schools to teach. The students will suffer the consequences of inadequate instruction the most.
In the end, High Stakes Testing does not appear to be benefiting anyone except those who like to study data. The tests generate information from and about students and schools. However, that information is probably not very accurate due to the way the information is manipulated and the limitations of the tests themselves. The reality is that a better system of promoting student achievement and evaluating schools needs to be found. That system may include testing as one of its elements, but due to the negative impact…
Amrein, A.L. & Berliner, D.C. (2002, December). An Analysis of Some
Unintended and Negative Consequences of High-Stakes Testing. Great Lakes Center - Michigan Live. Retrieved July 13, 2006 at http://greatlakescenter.org/pdf/H-S%20Analysis%20final.pdf
Battaglieri, T. (2006, April). MEAP's March Madness debunks value of high stakes testing. Great Lakes Center - Michigan Live. Retrieved July 13, 2006, at http://www.greatlakescenter.org/Center_Funded_Research_2005.php
Goldberg, M. (2005, March). Losing Students to High-Stakes Testing. Education Digest, 70 (7), 10-19. Retrieved July 13, 2006 from EBSCOhost online database.
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.
De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,
from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm
Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-
oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
The Impact and Importance of Psychological Testing
Defining Psychological Testing
A test is defined as a method or procedure for critical evaluation or as a means of establishing the quality, truth, or presence of something. (Webster's Dictionary, 2011). According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA) (1999), psychological test or psychological testing is a discipline most frequently characterized by the use of behavior samples in order to assess various psychological constructs such as the emotional and cognitive functioning of individuals. The psychological test itself is an instrument most often designed to measure constructs that are not observed, and often involve a series of problems or tasks that the participant or respondent must solve. These tests can resemble questionnaires; however, what makes psychological tests different is that they require the respondents' maximum cognitive performance (AERA,…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and Psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Cohen, r., & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw-Hill.
Meeker, W., & Escobar, L. (1998). Statistical methods for reliability data. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
Projective Testing on Children - Advantages of Different Techniques
So many different factors are involved in prediction of how a child might grow up, what his or her proclivities will be, and whether that child will be predisposed to violence. Often, cultural and socio-economic conditions will play a huge role. For instance, a child who has been beaten by a father is more likely to beat his own children or his spouse. Or, a child growing up in a dangerous, crime-infested inner-city neighborhood is likely to follow in the footsteps of the wrong role models.
But over the years, several tests grounded in various hard and social sciences like psychology, psychiatry, biology, economics, sociology and political economy have emerged to offer credible projective testing for children.
Lawrence Frank set the stage for projective testing in 1939: "When people try to understand vague or ambiguous unstructured stimuli, the interpretation they produce…
Q1. List ten real-world common property resources with which you are familiar. Describe an example of one of these common property resources that is not (tragically) overexploited (use the term “institution/s” in your discussion).
The so-called tragedy of the commons is defined as the fact that people tend to exploit common resources to the maximum degree possible for their own benefit, thus indirectly harming other or future people who could benefit from the resource (“Tragedy of the Commons,” 2018). Examples of common property include public parks, fish in the ocean, public monuments, highways, clean water, clean air, public bathrooms, trees, schools, and public playing fields. Although some of these resources are, indeed, exploited, this is not the case with all of them.
For example, public monuments are usually relatively respected by individuals (although there is a risk of them being defaced). But one of the reasons for this may be…
Psychological Testing: Establishing Diversity
Psychological testing is the backbone of how psychologists are able to gain a higher level of understanding regarding human beings and how/why they act as they do. Good psychological exams can help tremendously in the task of problem-solving and in getting a better snapshot of a person's psychological or mental health issues while identifying strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, a precise psychological exam helps to exam an individual's precise point in time in a mode which examines their present-functioning in terms of test data. There are a range of psychological tests which are available, many of which are the results of decades and decades of research and procedures. The four main types of psychological tests are as follows: clinical interviews, assessment of intellectual functioning, personality assessment, and then behavioral assessments.
However, since psychological tests emerged within the field, the issue of diversity in psychological testing was an…
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is the Rorschach Inkblot Test? Retrieved from About.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/rindex/g/rorschach-ink.htm
Reynolds, C., & Suzuki, L. (2003). Bias in Psychological Assessment. Retrieved from wileypub.com: http://lp.wileypub.com/HandbookPsychology/SampleChapters/Volume10.pdf
Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (n.d.). The application of images in child abuse investigations.
Retrieved from http://www.tc.umn.edu/~under006/Library/Images.html
Developing and Testing Data Collection Tools
In research and planning, data collections tools are essential because they are the media that bridges the researcher to the target respondents or groups of the study. These tools serve as "building-blocks" that enables the researcher to visualize the outcome of his/her study: how the tool aligns with the study's objectives and how it generates data and information that will be used for analysis later. It is critical, then, to establish how faithful and appropriate the tools are to the objectives of the research at hand. To achieve this goal, it is therefore imperative for a researcher to develop and test data collection tools that will be used in the study.
While developing a data collection tool, the goal is to maintain fidelity of the research objectives. Questions that will be asked should answer the objectives, but they must be also organized coherently…
"Poverty assessment tools." 2014. Poverty Tools Website. Accessed from: http://www.povertytools.org/index.html
Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.
No high-achieving nation tests every child, every year, in the way we're currently doing. They have much more intellectually ambitious assessments [or measuring not just memory but what students can do with knowledge].
-- Ed Finkel, 2010
As the epigraph above emphasizes, during an era when critical thinking skills have assumed new importance, young people's academic and professional careers are still being controlled by high-stakes standardized testing regimes and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for student performance. As a result, it is little wonder that there has been a growing tendency on the part of many educators to "teach to the test." Indeed, and as also underscored by the epigraph above, the classroom testing process itself can be viewed as being counterproductive to the extent that it detracts from long-term learning and the development of the critical thinking skills young people need today to be competitive in the workplace.…
When one hears the phrase "psychological testing" one might be inclined to think of a test to determine one's mental health, a test that could tell someone whether she or he was crazy or not. But psychological testing is hardly so clear-cut, nor does it deal with the highly subjective subject of sanity. Psychological tests instead measure a range of qualities and potentials, including one's aptitude for various kinds of jobs, one's IQ, one's cognitive functioning, one's ideal occupation, and one's personality type. There are also specific psychological tests for certain mental illnesses, such as depression. In this paper I will briefly describe the different types of psychological tests before addressing the concepts of validity and reliability.
All psychological tests share the basic criteria of any type of test. Tests are sets of either exercises or questions (or some combination of the two) that are used in a…
Janda, L. (2009). Psychological testing: Theory and application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Maruish, M. (2001). Psychological testing in the age of managed behavioral healthcare. NJ:
The worrisome aspect however is the percentage of young people affected by the virus. In this sense, more than 16% of people aged 20-29 are reported to have the HIV virus. However, by comparison to almost 60% of the people with HIV that are over 30, the figures are rather frightening (Alachua County Health Department, 2007).
According to the officials in the County who try to convince the population of the need to get tested for HIV before actually being too late to intervene in slowing down any negative process, the "Get tested, get control" is a campaign aimed at both identifying any possible disease as well as becoming more aware of the implications of unprotected sexual relations. At the same time though it is important that people become more informed on the way in which they can deal with any type of situation concerning the infection with the HIV…
Alachua County Health Department. Area 3 AIDS Quarterly Report (DOC Excluded) thru December 31, 2007. Accessed 26 June 2008, at http://www.doh.state.fl.us/chdalachua/hiv/docs/2007/Area03Dec07aids-noDOC.pdf
Alachua County. National HIV Testing Day. 2008. Accessed 26 June 2008, at http://www.co.alachua.fl.us/government/depts/comm/pressreleases.aspx?pr_id=6605
Keep it forward. National HIV Testing Day, June 27th. 2008. Accessed 26 June 2008, at http://shincakes.blogspot.com/2008/06/national-hiv-testing-day-june-27th.html
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Take control of your health and your life. 2007. Accessed 26 June 2008, at http://www.hhs.gov/aidsawarenessdays/factsheets/docs/americans_and_hiv_factsheet.pdf
Multimedia learning: Testing & Assessment
According to the authors Richard E. Mayer and Roxana Moreno, the advantage of multimedia learning is that the learner is engages in three mutually reinforcing cognitive processes when learning something new. The first cognitive process is selecting, which "must be applied to incoming verbal information to yield a text base and then be applied to incoming visual information to yield an image base." In other words, the teacher matches the word with the image. (Mayer & Moreno, 2000, p.1) The second cognitive process, "organizing," must apply the image to the word base to "create a verbally-based model of the system." (Mayer & Moreno, 2000, p.1) In other words, the student matches the word to the image. Then, "finally, integrating occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding parts of verbal and visual." (Mayer & Moreno, 2000, p.1) The student is finally able to apply the…
Burton, Brad. (2005)"Tester Tips." Retrieved on 17 Mar 2005 at http://www.ravenware.com/factand/nofic/BetaTTips.html
Mayer, Richard E. And Roxana Moreno. (20000 "A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles." Retrieved on 17 Mar 2005 at http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf
"Teaching Ideas for PK and Kindergarten Classes." (2001). Tulso Primary School Website. Retrieved on 17 Mar 2005 at http://www.irvingisd.net/alphasmart/pre_K_and_Kinder_ideas.pdf
psychological testing and its uses in practical situations. This essay will examine the intelligence test, as means to help illuminate how these assessments can be used for in a given situation. Specifically, this essay will examine how these intelligence tests can be used in the workplace for human resources purpose such as hiring and promotion.
The role of psychological testing is to provide a tool to further evaluate the mental frame work of an individual. While there are several types of these assessments such as screening, personality and achievement, this essay will examine how intelligence testing can be utilized in the workplace. Intelligence testing attempts to measure the ability of a person's ability to understand the world around them in their environment. These tests use questions that measures the intellectual potential of the person being evaluated and does not reflect a total or comprehensive model of one's totally…
Flynn, J.R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological bulletin, 101(2), 171.
Framingham, J. (2011). Types of Psychological Testing. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 26, 2014, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/types-of-psychological-testing/0005924
Richardson, K. (2002). What IQ tests test. Theory & Psychology, 12(3), 283-314. Retrieved from http://www.swisswuff.ch/files/richardson2002whatiqteststest.pdf
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…
references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.
These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
In that regard, illicit drug use, even during non-working hours, undermines our corporate interests of minimizing mistakes and maximizing output volume. Apart from any other reason, implementation of a drug testing policy is essential to maintaining the highest quality performance and output of all TI employees, particularly in the prevailing economic climate.
Personal privacy principles in the workplace are substantially less than elsewhere as a matter of law. Employers have a legitimate concern with prohibiting any illegal employee conduct, especially any that is associated with declining quality or productivity. Recreational use of illicit drugs conflicts directly with TI corporate commitments to provide the highest quality work and to maintain optimal efficiency and work output. Therefore, it is respectfully requested that the issue of employee drug testing be reconsidered in view of all the issues relevant to that concern.
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York:…
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, L. (2005). A History of American Law 3rd Edition. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies
Schmalleger, F. (2001). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Abortion After Prenatal Testing
Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis
There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.
The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…
Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.
Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
Bridging the Gap between Testing and Technology in Schools," authors Michael Russell and alter Haney look at the potential effects of technology in schools on testing and assessment. The authors begin by stating that while many schools are emphasizing technological proficiency, state assessment methods often still make students take tests on paper. The writers argue that these written tests skew the results by undermining the performance of students who are used to digital technology. For the authors, taking a test on paper is like forcing modern accountants to take an accounting test using only an abacus.
The authors cite examples from several states and schools to support their argument. In Ohio, for example, students need to pass the Ohio Proficiency Test as a requirement for high school graduation. These Ohio students are just a small percentage students made to take such "high-stakes" tests across the country every year. Researchers worry…
Russell, Michael and Haney, Walt. 2000. "Bridging the gap between testing and technology in schools." Available online from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n19.html
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.
Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).
Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.
Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
Are schools that received bad test scores really bad schools? Many of the schools that get bad scores are still having students selected to go to elite colleges. It seems as if the ultimate thing that needs to be looked at is if these states tests are valid and reliable. Are the tests a good measure of school performance or are they simply just another social stigma that society needs to deal with on a daily basis.
For Questions 1 through 5, underline or bold "Rel" if the statement affects the reliability of a test. Underline or bold "Val" if the statement contributes to enhancing validity. (1.0 point each).
1. Rel Val Specify the content to be tested.
2. Rel Val Increase the number of items on a test.
3. Rel Val Have someone judge whether the item measures the intended target.
4. Rel Val Identify appropriate uses of…
Howell and ueda in their article Achievement Testing with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students question the veracity of the widely used Standardized Norm-eferenced Achievement Test (SNAT) in measuring systematic differences among group means. As they point out, SNAT characteristics, are: completely nonaligned with instruction; assume a uniform curriculum, schooling, language proficiency and sociocultural experience across student groups; and are designed for an outside purpose of formulating education policy. Given the limitations of SNATs, Howell and ueda explore the alternative Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and the Performance Assessment (PA) approaches to student achievement. Though more aligned to classroom curriculum and instruction, these alternatives too have their limitations. The CBM focus on task-analytic decomposition of complex domains, for example, is of concern for teachers of language minority students who commonly use more holistic or 'whole-language' approaches. Similarly, the reliance of PA on the use of complex and interactive tasks is more…
Howell, K.W. & Rueda, R. Achievement Testing with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Students. Handbook of Multicultural Assessment. p. 253-284
Weiler, J. (Apr. 1998). Recent Changes in School Desegregation. ERIC/CUE Digest. No. 133