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Theoretical framework: Human trafficking
It is estimated that the majority of individuals who are illegally trafficked are females. This includes not simply workers in the sex industry, but employees in many other areas of employment in which trafficking commonly occurs, including domestic service and recruitment for sweatshop labor. Although the extent to which human trafficking occurs is difficult to estimate, conservatively most studies indicate that up to 80% of all persons who are trafficked are female (Loring 2007:1).
The predominately female population of the victims of human trafficking has caused many analysts to adopt a theoretical framework of feminism to analyze the phenomenon. A recent report on human trafficking advanced by the American Psychological Association from a feminist paradigm pointed out that given that "economic and social inequalities are among the leading contributing factors to human trafficking," women are often the most vulnerable groups to being exploited by…
Dovydaitis, Tiffany. (2011). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 55 (5): 462-467. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017
Loring Jones, David W. Engstrom, Tricia Hilliard, Mariel Diaz. (2007). Globalization and human trafficking. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare. Retrieved from FindArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_2_34/ai_n27265537/
Report on trafficking of women and girls. (2011). American Psychological Association.
wealth of information for a researcher, but only if the researcher has a clear idea of what he or she wants to study and how the past work of others can be used in order to provide ideas for the future based on the work done in the present. There should be a logical progression from what was done in the past, through what the researcher is doing currently, and on to what can be done in the future. Without a proper framework based on theory that relates to the context of the study, the researcher will have nothing on which to build and on which to base his or her analysis. If a researcher failed to have a framework for the focus of his or her research, the results could be devastating when it comes to providing clear analysis and conclusions.
In Langer's (2002) study there were two key…
Balmer, J.M. (2008). Nonformal pastoral ministry training in the majority world: four case studies. Unpublished dissertation.
Brawer, P.A., Anthony, N., Roberts, R., Wajda-Johnston., Valerie A., Fabricatore. & Handal, P.J. (2002). Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 33(2).
Howitt, Q.J. (n.d.) The determination of learning outcomes of modules at a B.Th level for training and educating pastors and members of South African local churches, and the relationship of these learning outcomes to the study of systematic theology. Unpublished dissertation.
Langer, A.M. (2002). Reflecting on practice: Using learning journals in higher and continuing education. Teaching in Higher Education, 7(3).
Stiglitz (2009, p. 282) points out that the global economic crisis began first in the developed countries. The fact that developing countries were not sufficiently "rich" to engage in unviable economic practices somewhat cushioned the impact of the crisis on them. Nevertheless, it remains a fact that the crisis has spread to global proportions as a result of both developing and developed countries interacting on a global business scale. Technology today has made it possible for all countries to participate in the economy, which means that a crisis in one country, and especially one as powerful and important as the United States, will inevitably affect the economies of other countries at some point, even if it takes some time for this to occur.
What this means for the study is that countries such as the United States and Kenya need to be aware, at all times of their own economic…
Chang, H-J. (2010). Institutions and economic development: theory, policy and history. Journal of Institutional Economics 7(4). Retrieved from: http://hajoonchang.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/JOIE-institutions-and-development-published.pdf
De Haas, H. (2007). Migration and Development. Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development. 29. Retrieved from: http://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=2318325&fileOId=2319937
Lin, J.Y. (2011, Jul. 8). New Structural Economics: A Framework for Rethinking Development. The World Bank Research Observer 26(2). Oxford University Press. Retrieved from: http://www.relooney.info/0_NS4053_1995.pdf
Stiglitz, J.E. (2009). The Current Economic Crisis and Lessons for Economic Theory. Eastern Economic Journal 35. Retrieved from: academiccommons.columbia.edu
Since this study focuses on determining the most suitable intervention based on the perceptions and opinions of newly diagnosed hypertension male patients aged 30 years and above, the theoretical framework that will guide the research is the Health Belief Model (HBM). This theoretical framework suggests that a patient's belief in the threat of a disease/illness as well as his/her belief regarding the effectiveness of the recommended intervention affects his/her adoption of the intervention (Hayden, 2013). For this study, the theoretical framework will be suitable in understanding the perceptions or opinions of these patients regarding recommended behavior changes or interventions in addressing hypertension. The suitability of this theoretical framework for the study is attributable to the fact that some of the interventions for hypertension for this population are basically health behaviors that should be adopted to enhance the wellbeing and health of individuals.
As one of the first theories of…
Current Nursing. (2012, January 31). Health Belief Model. Retrieved May 14, 2017, from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/health_belief_model.html
Hayden, J.A. (2013). Health Benefit Model. In Introduction to health behavior theory (2nd ed., chap. 4, pp.31-44). Retrieved from http://www.jblearning.com/samples/0763743836/chapter%204.pdf
Jones et al. (2014, July 10). The Health Belief Model as an Explanatory Framework in Communication Research: Exploring Parallel, Serial, and Moderated Mediation. Health Communication, 30(6), 566-576.
water infrastructure management in the Caribbean. One possible approach to understand this topic is that of systems theory, which would focuses on how changes in 'systems' delivery could be used to improve services but also to target how and why critical failures might occur in this arena. "A system is a collection of part unified to accomplish an overall goal. If one part of the system is removed, the nature of the system is changed as well" (McNamara 2001). Changes in political and economic systems can have a profound impact on the ability of a population to receive sanitary and regular access to water. Systems theory is based upon the concept that the whole is bigger than the sum of its parts. Even if people may want and need access to water and logically politicians should respond to public pressures, there may be critical aspects of the supply chain which…
Change theory. (2011). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:
McNamara, C. (2001). Management theories. Management Help. Retrieved from:
Outsourcing & Offshoring
Ethics try to govern on the rightfulness of the dos and the don'ts in any activity. In business, some activities are practically inseparable regarding their rightfulness, acceptance, and goodness and badness to the receiving ends. An ethical dilemma arises in the case that businesses fail to be in one tune of a song, trying to venture into different pathways, both or all of which have the two perceptions containing the dos and the don'ts. The acceptance of one set of business activities, or any activity or act might be a wrong on the other side of the congregation, hence necessitating for the presence of a unifying factor that will guarantee a way of balancing the equation given the many variables attached to the act (Brown & Wilson, 2005).
This piece of research attempts to explore the ethical dilemma of offshoring and outsourcing, a business practice that has…
Ambika. Z, Andrew, C; Amrik S; & Greg, W. (2012). Consideration of selflessness and self-interest in outsourcing decisions. European Business Review, IS Volume 24, Issue 3, pp. 287-303
Betts, S; Healy, W; Raza M., & Vicari, V. (2015). The Impact Of Offshoring On Organizational Commitment: Recruiting, Training, Retention And Ethical Concerns. Journal of International Business Research, Volume 14, Issue 2, p. 15-32
Bregman, R., Peng, DX. & Chin, W. (2015). The Effect of Controversial Global Sourcing Practices on the Ethical Judgments and Intentions of U.S. Consumers. - Journal of Operations Management, Vol 36: 229-243
Brown, D. & Wilson, S. (2005). The Black Book of Outsourcing: How to Manage the Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities. John Wiley & Sons
Theoretical framework: Nursing research study
According to the article by eed (2013) entitled "Childhood obesity policy: Implications for African-American girls and a nursing ecological model" from Nursing Science Quarterly, while obesity has been on the rise for all socio-economic and racial groups in the U.S., amongst African-American adolescent girls the condition has become particularly rampant. eed uses an ecological model to analyze obesity. She focuses on how exterior circumstances and larger social forces may impact the obesity rate amongst girls, versus focusing on individual health problems or personal choices. The author suggests that cultural and economic factors in the African-American community regarding weight and health are having a negative impact upon young women's health. "The seemingly cultural acceptance of poor nutrition and physical inactivity are leading to an epidemic of obesity in America that is affecting African-American children at disproportionate rates. Public health policies aimed at decreasing the…
Reed, M. (2013). Childhood obesity policy: Implications for African-American girls and a nursing ecological model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26(1), 86-95.
Theory is a concept that communicates relationships and phenomenon, and with reference to nursing profession, nursing theory assists nurses to prescribe, describe and predict nursing care. In a contemporary healthcare environment, nursing theory is very critical to nursing profession. In essence, a conceptual nursing model is a starting point of nursing profession, and nurses are required to apply a conceptual model for nursing care and practice. The middle range theory is an example of a nursing theory that focuses on human experience, reality and number of concepts. Typically, nursing theory provides an autonomy that reinforces nursing education, practice as well as nursing research.
Peplau's theory is one of the major nursing theoretical framework guiding nursing practice, decision and care. Peplau develops theory of interpersonal relations to guide the practice of health profession revealing that effective communication is an integral part of the interpersonal relations that produces positive outcomes…
Fawcett, J. (2010). Contemporary nursing knowledge: Analysis and evaluation of nursing models and theories (2nd ed.). Philadelphia F.A. Davis.
Joanne, F.S. (2013). Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations: Application in Emergency and Rural Nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26,(1): 31 -- 35.
Reed, P.G & Shearer, N.B.C. (2011). Peplau's Theoretical Model. Encyclopedia of Nursing Research.
Washington, G.T. (2013). The Interpersonal Relations Theory, Application to the New Graduate -Preceptor Relationship. Journal for Nurses in Professional Development. 29 (1): 24 -- 29.
Description of Importance of Nursing Theory
Theories are composed of definitions, concepts, propositions, and models based on assumption. A theory serves as a group of related concepts guiding a professional practice.
Nursing theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, as well as statements explanatory proposing to understand nursing phenomena, assisting in predicting and explaining the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is also a body of knowledge used to support a nursing practice. In other word, nursing theories deliver the framework linking nursing practice, nursing knowledge and nursing research. (Alligood & Tomey, 2002).
Theories are based on two principal methods: Deductive reasoning, and Inductive reasoning, and nursing theories are based on both deductive and inductive reasoning. Nursing top-down logic uses the deductive reasoning to make a critical decision on patient care. Similarly, nurses can use the bottom-up approach to apply a nursing care.
Nurses play a critical role in…
Alligood M.R, Tomey, A.M. (2002). Nursing Theory: Utilization & Application .(3rd ed). Missouri: Elsevier Mosby Publications.
Jaarsma, T. Riegel, B. & Stromberg, A. (2012). A Middle-Range Theory of Self-Care of Chronic Illness. Advances in Nursing Science, 35 (3): 194 -- 204.
McCormack, D.(2003). Ideas in LeadershipM An Examination of the Self-Care Concept Uncovers a New Direction for Healthcare Reform. Nursing Leadership, 16(4): 48-65.
Renpenning, K.M. & Taylor, S.G. (2003). Self- Care Theory in Nursing: Selected Papers of Dorothea Orem. UK. Springer Publishing Company.
Durkheim and the Times
Vindu Goel and Nick Wingfield of The New York Times (2015) report that Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook, has promised to donate 99% of his shares in the company to charity over the course of his lifetime. What prompted this idea was the birth of his new child. He and his wife wrote a letter to the child in which they asserted that they "have a moral responsibility to all children in the next generation" (Zuckerberg, 2015). The letter goes on to mention that Zuckerberg with his billions hopes to focus on "two ideas: advancing human potential and promoting equality" (this after pointing out how technology and the advancement of medicine will help save lives). Zuckerberg's Facebook post went viral in the media, and the report by Goel and Wingfield discusses the practical arrangements of the new organization, which they note will be an…
Allan, K. (2013). Explorations in Classical Sociological Theory. LA: Sage.
Durkheim, E. (1997). The Division of Labor in Society. NY: The Free Press.
Goel, V., Wingfield, N. (2015). Mark Zuckerberg Vows to Donate 99% of His
Facebook Shares for Charity. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/02/technology/mark-zuckerberg-facebook-charity.html?mabReward=A6&moduleDetail=recommendations-1&action=click&contentCollection=Middle%20East®ion=Footer&module=WhatsNext&version=WhatsNext&contentID=WhatsNext&src=recg&pgtype=article
The purpose of theory is to supply at the outset of the research a general idea or framework regarding a specific phenomenon and why or how it occurs/behaves: it is a "way of making sense" of phenomena (Kaplan, 1964). A theory is simply an attempt to explain something that is being researched: it acts as a lens through which the researcher views the study and interprets the findings; or it is similar to a camera which aims at the world and captures a reflection of light within four borders -- this is the frame. Theory does more than simply "catch" facts, however; it allows one to develop generalized statements regarding the cause and/or the effect of that which is "caught" or being studied. Thus, the purpose of theory in the PhD dissertation is to set guideposts by which the study can proceed. It is important for the dissertation…
Bharadwaj, A., El Sawy, O. A., Pavlou, P. A., Venkatraman, N. (2013). Digital business in strategy: toward a next generation of insights. MIS Quarterly, 37(2): 471-482.
Hawes, L.C. (1975). Pragmatics of analoguing: Theory and model construction in communication. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Kaplan, A. (1964). The Conduct of Inquiry. UK: Transaction Publishers.
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
(Clark, 1) This is an approach which is given foundation by such theories as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which dictates that personnel will perform according to the manner in which certain ranked needs are met by leadership.
The Political Framework which is offered "suggests some characteristics linked to the concept of political leadership: (1) an interactive process, (2) the emphasis on individual political behavior, (3) the collective purpose, and (4) the non-routine influence over the political process." (Peral, 68) These are instructive in promoting such theoretical characteristics as coalition building which garners real support and dedication from members of the organization at every level and which balances the use of persuasion, negotiation and coercion as various instrumental ways to achieve intended organizational outcomes. (Clark, 1)
The fourth leadership framework is the Symbolic Framework, which relies upon the leader as a symbol through whom certain organizational characteristics and cultural conceits are…
Clark, D. (1998). Bolman and Deal's Four Framework Approach. NWLink. Online at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/framwork.html
Meyer, K. (2006). The Structural Framework. University of Memphis. Online at https://umdrive.memphis.edu/kmeyer/.../Structural%20Frame.ppt
Peral, N. (1998). Political Leadership: A Tentative Framework. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 4(3), 68-83.
Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.
One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…
Bacevich, a.J., and Eliot a. Cohen. 2001. War over Kosovo. Columbia University Press.
Morgenthau, Hans J. 1978. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 5th ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
Sell, Louis. 2003. Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press, September 1.
Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring): 391-425.
One example of this flaw is found in the third force in Sergiovanni's model, the educational force, which is associated with gathering and analyzing specialized knowledge applicable to education (Victoria Department of Education 2007). At the private senior school where I am employed, certain school leaders have certainly mastered the educational force and have amassed a wide range of specialized educational knowledge, but their inability to interact effectively with their colleagues in the school has rendered this knowledge largely useless. In fact, the interpersonal difficulties that these leaders have in dealing with others have led to a certain level of resentment regarding such information as it has become attached to hostile personalities.
Yet despite this apparent flaw of Sergiovanni's hierarchy, the actual identification and separation of the forces in his Model of ransformational Leadership still holds up to examination. hese first three forces taken separately paint a nearly complete picture…
The symbolic force in Sergiovanni's leadership framework is the aspect of leadership that involves providing an example to other members of the learning institution in regards to making this type of differentiation (Victoria DOE 2007). Particular behaviors that exhibit this force include clearly reflecting goals and priorities through action -- basically "leading by example" -- and making "explicit reference to school goals when decisions are being made about changes within the school" (Victoria DOE 2007). Sergiovanni's separation of this aspect of leadership makes total sense; the symbolic elements of a leadership role do not involve any direct practical action that is immediately relevant to educational situations, but instead helps both the leader and those under her or his leadership to prioritize their practical decisions.
The fifth and final leadership force that Sergiovanni identifies, and the one that appears at the pinnacle of his pyramid, is the aspect of cultural leadership which makes a sort of "high priest" out of the leader (Sergiovanni 1984). This is where the hierarchy defined by Sergiovanni truly makes sense; just as the symbolic level of leadership is meant to differentiate and prioritize the other leadership aspects according to the various goals of the school/learning institution, the higher level of cultural leadership's aim is "leading the school community by defining, strengthening, and articulating values and beliefs that give the school identity over time" (Victoria DOE 2007). That is, the effective cultural leader will consistently define goals (i.e. The aims of the symbolic aspect of leadership) that in turn reflect the aims of each of the lower three leadership forces. My particular place of employment has been decidedly lacking in cultural leadership, but this in no way subtracts from the validity of Sergiovanni's Model of Transformational Leadership. Rather, the noticeable absence of effective long-term and consistent leadership in my school can be seen as the direct result of failings in the symbolic and cultural leadership forces at work (or not at work) in the private senior school.
Part of the problem with the differentiation of leadership roles in theoretical frameworks is the subsequent attempt to fragment leadership in practical situations by placing certain leaders in charge of different aspects of the school. Though this can be effective and even necessary to a degree in many situations, my experience has shown that Sergiovanni's insistence that the separability of these leadership aspects is theoretical only, and cannot be effective in real world situations.
Part 1: Understanding by Design - Stage 1
What content standards and program or mission-related goals will this unit address?
The mission related-goal to be addressed in this unit is to enhance students’ ability to make sense of problems and work towards solving them. In this regard, the relevant ISTE Standard to be addressed in this unit is Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation. Additionally, the unit will address Pennsylvania’s Common Core State Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2 for Mathematics.
What standards, competencies, and outcomes will this unit address?
Based on PA’s Standard CC.2.3.2.A.2, the competency to be addressed in this unit is the use of understanding of fractions to partition shapes into halves, quarters, and thirds (Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014). Students are expected to be creative and innovative in partitioning shapes in different sizes based on insights they have obtained from fractions. Through this process, the unit is expected to…
With the current national divorce rate stubbornly at 50%, the phenomenon of single parenthood, notably single mothers, definitely isn't going anywhere. The single parents which are at the greatest disadvantage are those who are of a lower socioeconomic class, as they're unable to offer the best education, healthcare, basic provisions and other items to their children. They often work two jobs and don't get to spend enough times with their children, as current and past research reflects.
The ultimate focus of the research that this dissertation is centered around seeks to identify the most compelling and effective interventions which can minimize the likelihood of negative outcomes for high-risk children, such as those born to low-income single parents. For this reason, I have created an annotated bibliography that addresses this body of research. An example of a title for the literature review would be: Modulators of Child Development Outcomes…
Perlmutter, D. & . (2013). Thinking Beyond the Dissertation. Retrieved from wmich.edu: http://wmich.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/u224/2013/psci-phd-beyond-dissertation_0.pdf
Stavrovra, O., & Fetchenhauer, D. (2014). Single Parents, Unhappy Parents? Parenthood, Partnership, and the Cultural Normative Context. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology.
Zaslow, M., & Emig, C. (1997). When Low-Income Mothers Go to Work. The Future of Children, 110-115.
ill Gates is perhaps a good example in this sense: Microsoft during the early 70s was but a mixture of their programmers, but they selected ill Gates to coordinate and organize their efforts because they saw him as the best prepared among them. This is also what named him chief software architect at Microsoft (besides the fact that he owned the company at that point) and he retained the respective function even after he was no longer CEO.
There are other particularities of leadership in the software development industry as well.
ecause the work activity is based on the existence of development teams that generally incorporate developers, testers and writers and which are led by a team leader or project manager, there is a distinctive importance attributed to the project manager or team leader. His or her job is many folded, which means that he probably needs to have all…
1. Spencer, Emily. Leadership Models and Theories: A Brief Overview. On the Internet at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/cfli/engraph/research/pdf/12.pdf.Last retrieved on August 10, 2008
2. Models and Theories. On the Internet at http://www.stewart-associates.co.uk/leadership-models.aspx.Last retrieved on August 10, 2008
3. P.G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 1997
4. G. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, 4th Edition, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1998
diverse population nurses must attend to, the concept of 'transcultural' nursing is important to understand. Instead of viewing health as a universal concept, transcultural nursing attempts to understand the conceptual building blocks of the nursing profession as cultural products that are socially-constructed. It strives to understand the similarities and differences between different health attitudes and practices (Leininger 1991). First developed by Madeline Leininger, transcultural nursing is founded upon the idea that the "health care providers need to be flexible in the design of programs, policies, and services to meet the needs and concerns of the culturally diverse population, groups that are likely to be encountered" (Transcultural nursing, 2012, Current Nursing).
Nurses must be culturally astute and adapt their practices to patient's cultural needs as well as to physical needs. This concept has been somewhat controversial within the nursing profession given that Western medicine's emphasis on preserving life and optimizing treatment…
Adult obesity facts. (2013).CDC. Retrieved: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Dorothea Orem's self-care deficit theory. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Milligan, F. (2008) Child obesity 2: recommended strategies and interventions. Nursing Times;
662). In other words, individuals coalesce around environments repetitively to form the collective. The collective structure stays even when the individual is alone. This is close to the collective representations of Durkheim, but it is based on innate or genetic structures that connect during the repetition of social encounters (which in Allport are not religious). The social bonding function is similar: "The collective-structure event-format (so called 'reality of the group') is thus preserved, though the particular contacts of individuals may vary in space, time, and number" (Allport, 1955, p. 662).
This interweaving with the collective has lasting effects on the individual structure. He says, "It is also worth noting that the collective structure itself is often represented, usually in a schematic or abridged format, in the meaning-cycles of the individuals involved, on the basis of their contacts with other individuals in the regular and repetitive course of the structure's operation"…
Allport, F.H. (1955). Theories of perception and the concept of structure: a review and critical analysis with an introduction to a dynamic-structural theory of behavior. New York: John Wiley.
Durkheim, E. (1984). The Division of labor in society W.D. Halls, Trans. New York: Free Press.
____. (1915). The Elementary forms of religious life J.W. Swain, Trans. New York: Free Press.
____. (1938). The Rules of sociological method S.A. Solovay & J.H Mueller, Trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Still, this trait is mostly applicable within the growing services industry, whereas the industry and manufacturing fields still rely tenability on their machines and equipments to lead to the attainment of the pre-established objectives.
In such a setting then, the problems with the plant's machineries and equipments constitute a pivotal factor in the generation of delivery delays. The more stringent situation in this sense is represented in the case of lean times, which subsequently exacerbate the delays in using the respective machine; lead times can take any time from a few weeks to several months. In this context, the single solution is for the manufacturing managers to ensure adequate planning solutions (the Eagle Technology Group, 2011).
Another example is represented by the malfunction in plant production equipments which would also slow down -- or even temporarily cease -- the manufacturing operations. Aside from the actual delays, these forces also generate…
Sociology research review and critique: "oyz to Men"
Anoop Nayak's 2003 sociological study "oyz to Men: masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de- industrial times" examines the adaptation (or lack thereof) of a representational group working-class ritish young men to a changing labor economy. Life in ritain has been profoundly altered due to shifts in the class structure. There is a dearth of stable factory jobs and a shift to "service sector economies, part-time work, fixed-term contracts and more 'flexible' patterns of labour" (Nayak 2003: 148). The study focuses specifically on the Northeast of England and details a specifically 'male' experience inside and outside of school. The perspective adopted is thus one of social constructivism, which seeks to understand how the subjects understand their own experiences in a social context and contextualizes those experiences within a wider cultural framework of interpretation which has many 'layers.'
The Northeast region was historically…
Nayak, Anoop. 2003. 'Boyz to Men': masculinities, schooling and labour transitions in de-
industrial times. Educational Review, 55(2): 147-158.
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Societies and social beliefs change from tribe to tribe, and from nation to nation. The constructed nature of social beliefs mandate that from one society to another, the social beliefs change because each tribe has experienced a different growth curve, has experienced a different history, has identified different seminal events. As a result, each tribe has a unique set of socially constructed beliefs.
For most of the last century, the primary understanding of social values has been based on a constructed and evolutionary model. Darwin's and his cousin Galton's theories of constructed identities have influenced the field of sociology. What was once believed to be passed down as 'truth' on the authority of a society's religious beliefs has now been redefined as 'myth construction.' We believe that man's feelings of weakness, or powerlessness over aspects of his environment has led individual societies to build myths which look…
Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education
Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale
The journal article, "Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen's Breast Health Education" by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an "intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education" and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve "cultural congruency" in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women's culture -- specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…
Haozous, E., V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale. (2010). "Use of Talking Circle for Comanche Women's Breast Health Education." Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Vol. 21, No. 377.
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…
Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.
Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.
Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.
Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
HM Organizational Behavior, Theories, Frameworks and the Links Between Individual and Organizational Performance
This work in writing conducts a critical evaluation of HM Organizational Behavior Theories Frameworks that link performance.
Defining and measuring the effectiveness and performance of workers is a specific part of the HM manager's work. The question presenting is one that asks how the skills, behaviors and attitudes that are needed by workers to successfully and effectively perform their roles is defined. One way of measuring this is linking the performance of individuals to the organizational goals. This is generally accomplished through use of competencies which are described as "the integrated knowledge, skills, judgment, and attributes that people need to perform a job effectively. By having a defined set of competencies for each role in the business, it shows workers the kinds of behaviors the organizational values…" (MindTools, 2011) Lawrence (1998) reports that people are "multifaceted and…
Alderfer, C.P. (1972). Existence, relatedness, and growth. New York: Free Press.
Argyris, C. & Schon, DA (1996) Organizational Learning II Theory, Method, and Practice. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Beer, M. (1980) Organization Change and Development: A Systems View. Santa Monica, CA, Goodyear.
Castellano, William G. (nd) A New Framework of Employee Engagement. Center for Human Resource Strategy Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Applying Just Practice Framework
Social Justice Framework
There is a reason that jigsaw puzzles are so often used to represent complex processes and enduring problems, the solutions to which are not immediately evident to the puzzler. It is a curiosity how, at some point, each piece in a puzzle reveals where it fits in the frame. Most people have their favorite strategies for solving puzzles, and they generally do contribute to a more expedient solution -- or at least, they give that illusion. Oddly, spending time not puzzling over the fit of the pieces seems to bring about a solution, and the ease with which understanding comes after such a break never ceases to astonish. Why is it that -- when we can't find a fit -- we don't gain greater clarity through a forced, hyper-focus on finding the missing piece. Indeed, our use of theory, as explained in Chapter…
Finn, J.L. And Jacobson, M. (2003, Winter). Just practice: Steps toward a new social work paradigm. Journal of Social Work Education, 39(1), 57-58.
Finn, J.L. And Jacobson, M. (2007). Just practice: A social justice approach to social work (2nd ed.). Eddie Bowers Publishing Company.
The abnormal activities observed can point out at many different issues such as anxiety or heart failure.
The interview of the patient is a very vital and essential assessment tool in the hands of the nurse. The nurse can conduct a thorough interview to have the complete and big picture of patient (the nurse can assess the patient both physically and mentally much more efficiently by just asking what is wrong and where are the problems).
The observation is also a very important tool, nurses can make avail of the interactions they made with patients by observing their responses to different kinds of stimuli. This practice assists the nurses in recognizing the overall pain, any sort of emotional disturbances and the patient's reaction towards the treatment applied.
This observation factor is very important especially for those patients who have any sort of difficulty in communicating with the nurses or medical…
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. In many ways, too, modern technology has advanced further than societal wisdom, especially when confronting the issue of death. The modern nurse's role is to create a nurse-patient culture that encourages the individual to take responsibility for their healthcare and, in partnership with the nurse, to be involved in their recovery. The modern complexities of…
Basford, L. And O. Slevin. (2003). Theory and Practice of Nursing: An Integrated Approach to Caring Practice. New York: Nelson Thomas.
Beckstead, J. And Beckstead, L. (2004). A multidimensional analysis of the epistemic origins of nursing theories, models and frameworks. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 43
Cohen, J. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists - Leininger
Strategic Framework in BP-Deepwater horizon accident
One of the most eminent names in the oil and gas industry is British Petroleum, considered as the largest provider of oil and gas to its customers for transportation, energy for heating and light and retail services for petrochemical products globally. The financial and operational picture of the company's performance is illustrated in table1 below.
Performance at a glance for 2010
Facts and figures
Sales and other operating revenues
eplacement cost profit
Number of employees
efineries (wholly or partly owned)
$297,107 million (year 2010)
($4,519) million (year 2010)
79,700 (at 31 Dec 2010)
18,071 million barrels of oil equivalent
Active in 29 countries
2,426 thousand barrels per day (year 2010)
(BP's Corporate website, 2010)
On 20th April 2010 the company faced a serious challenge when one of its oil rigs started leaking and simply couldn't…
BP's Corporate website, 2010. Annual Report 2010. Retrieved through http://www.bp.com/sectionbodycopy.do?categoryId=9035798&contentId=7066618 on 12th August 2010
Corner, P. Kinicki, A. And Keats, B. (1994) Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice, Organizational Science, vol. 3.
Drucker, P. (1954) The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York, 1954.
Gellerman, S. (1989) Managing Ethics from the Top to Down, Sloan Management Review;
Zachman Framework is "a descriptive framework" for information systems architecture, and was developed drawing on other disciplines as a source of inspiration (Zachman, 1987). The Framework comprises the following elements: identification, definition, representation, specification, configuration and instantiation (Zachman, 2008). This paper will seek to cut through the gobbledygook on the Zachman webpage and develop an understanding of what the framework is and how it was developed.
Zachman developed the framework while working for IBM during the 1980s. He saw the problem as being that information systems were increasing in their size and complexity during this period, and believed that a response was to have a framework by which the architecture of such systems could be understood. This framework uses analogies from outside of information systems to explain IS architecture, allowing for better managerial understanding of information systems. He rightly recognized that the pace of IS complexity was increasing, and that…
Frankel, D. (2003). The Zachman Framework and the OMG's model driven architecture. Business Process Trends. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://petros.omg.org/mda/mda_files/09-03-WP_Mapping_MDA_to_Zachman_Framework1.pdf
Ostadzadeh, S., Aliee, F. & Ostadzadeh, S. (2007). A method for consistent modeling of Zachman Framework cells. Advances and Innovations in Systems. Vol. 2007, pp. 375-380.
Pereira, C. & Sousa, P. (2004). A method to define an enterprise architecture using the Zachman framework. SAC '04.
Ross, J. (2004). Generating strategic benefits from enterprise architecture. Center for Information Systems Research. In possession of the author.
Nursing Concepts and Theory
Conceptual-Theoretical Structure paper
Personal belief about nursing theory and knowledge development process for nursing practice
All nursing theories play an important role in defining nursing and giving the roles that nurses need to play. Originally, the role of nurses was simply to carry out activities as instructed by doctors, however, over the years, this role has been changed to include more responsibilities as the nursing world has evolved. Nursing theories describe, predict and explain the various phenomena in nursing practice and thus create foundations for nursing practice. They also help to generate knowledge in the field of nursing and to point the direction which the field should develop in future. This view is supported by Carper (1978)
who states that nursing theories elaborate nursing practice and create professional boundaries for the profession. Nursing knowledge comes from research that has been conducted on nursing which forms scientific…
Anderson, A.M. (2005). Nursing Leadership, Management, and Professional Practice for the LPN/LVN (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Carper, B. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1), 13-23.
Clark, M.J. (2003). Community health nursing: Caring for populations (Fourth ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dayer-Berenson, L. (2010). Cultural Competencies for Nurses: Impact on Health and Illness. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
In regard to organizational strategy, the companies can work towards a similar strategy of delivering high quality products to their clients. This would be the same for their shared values. The efforts towards integrating the structures, systems and strategy should however be given most attention. The strategy of partnerships, strategic alliance and acquisitions must be upheld.
Using this framework, we can see the need for new leadership so as to ensure that the new acquisition does not suffer from the past bad decisions.
Congruence Model for Organization Analysis
The congruence model of organizational analysis specifies the inputs, outputs and the throughputs in manner which is more consistent with the open systems theory as noted by Katz and Kahn (1978).In this regard the inputs, outputs and the throughputs of both Skype and Microsoft must be analyzed with a view of transforming them into a clear and concise organizational model.According to this…
Bryce, DJ (2011). Microsoft's Skype Deal: How to Make it Work.Available online at http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/05/microsofts_skype_deal_how.html
Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (1993). Organization development and change. Fifth Edition. New York, NY: West Publishing.
Gable, R.K. & Wolf, M.B. (1993). Instrument development in the affective domain: Measuring attitudes and values in corporate and school settings. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
French, W.L. & Bell, C.H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Modern healthcare is so complex, so rife with new technologies, new procedures, and new expectations from stakeholders, that the contemporary nurse and physician need all the tools possible to pull for varied situations. Milo's framework is a set of propositions that help frame strategies to improve health inducing behaviors by enhancing personal choice-making while still in the context of societal and cultural expectations. Milo posits that the health status of populations at any given time is essentially the result of individual choice. However, the choices that individuals have tend to be limited by what the individual perceives to be options, depending on their personal and cultural/societal background, not necessarily the choices that are really available. In fact, Milo says, "Most people, most of the time will make the easiest choices, i.e., will do the things, develop the patterns or life-styles, which seem to cost them less and/or from…
Cody, M., ed. (2012). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Milo, N. (1976). A framework for prevention: changing health-damaging to health-generating life patterns. American Journal of Public Health. 66 (5): 439-9. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1653306/
Citation, not plagiarized.
Sustained Competitive Advantage Using Human esources
Theoretical Critique essay format. Within a challenging economic environment role strategic human resource management insignificant. Do approaches strategic
There has been tremendous growth in the strategic management field, and this has made it more popular amongst the practitioners and academics in the previous twenty years. For research structuring, industrial organization strategist rely on the SWOT framework. This has been the case since strategy became a recognized area in the management field Oliver, 1997.
ecently there has been other contributions made to the literature strategy, and this has emphasized the external part of the SWOT framework. The external part focuses mostly on the environmental impacts of the firm's performance. Models that focus on the environmental impacts of the firm's performance have little use to the practitioners though they are well received. These models communicate little regarding the manager's influence.
In strategic management, there has been…
Cockburn, I.M., Henderson, R.M., & Stern, S. (2000). Untangling the Origins of Competitive Advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 21(10/11), 1123-1145.
Ferligoj, A., Prasnikar, J., & Jordan, V. (1997). Competitive Advantage and Human Resource Management in SMEs in a Transitional Economy. Small Business Economics, 9(6), 503-514.
Narasimha, S. (2000). Organizational Knowledge, Human Resource Management, and Sustained Competitive Advantage: Toward a Framework. [Article]. Competitiveness Review, 10(1), 123.
Newbert, S.L. (2008). Value, Rareness, Competitive Advantage, and Performance: A Conceptual-Level Empirical Investigation of the Resource-Based View of the Firm. Strategic Management Journal, 29(7), 745-768.
The conceptual framework is a very serious document about the philosophy of nursing espoused at this particular University and the Helene Fuld School of Nursing in particular. It incorporates HFSON's mission statement and core values, and provides the philosophy for this learning institution. That philosophy is greatly influenced by the crux of the conceptual framework, which itself is influenced by the model provided by Myra Levine (HFSON, p. 3). However, the philosophy of the school and the conceptual framework are similar in that both of them emphasize a synthesized approach to nursing. The former largely pertains to a synthesis between theoretical work and practical application. As such, it greatly pertains to blending scientific research, technological improvements and adaptations, and an interactive process between the nurse, the environment, as well as sociological factors such as the different units of society. Those units of society help to provide part of the…
HFSON. (date). HFSON Conceptual Framework.
This drives a value system that makes our work preventative by one intent. ith a clear understanding that some intervention will require a removal of the child from his or her parents' care, the value of family togetherness will direct the strategy of community involvement on the part of the agency.
The practice framework is guided by specialized knowledge on the patterns and trends dominating the landscape of abuse cases. The breakdown of major abuse categories reported by Bromfield & Horsfall finds that 39% of abuse cases are of the emotional abuse category, 29% in the category of neglect, 22% in the category of physical abuse and 10% in the category of sexual abuse. (p. 3)
Moreover, a major thrust of the report by Bromfield & Horsfall is that reports of all types of cases are on the rise, but also attributes this to certain realities including the…
BBC News. (20009). Australia 'Sorry' for Child Abuse. Bbc.co.uk.
Bromfield, L. & Horsfall, B. (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics. National Child Protection Clearinghouse.
Department for Child Protection (DCP). (2010). Homepage. Government of Western Australia. Online at http://www.community.wa.gov.au/DCP/
Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2006). Statistics Show Child Abuse in Australia is Getting Worse. Early Childhoodaustralia.org.
Analysing Organisation: Using relevant theoretical perspectives frameworks, critically analyse organisation choice.
Analyzing organization is the process of assessing the organizations systems, functionality and capacity so as to increase the organizations performance, efficiency and overall output. This is done by using various theories and models whose aim is to understand the structure of the organization, technology and behavioral relationships Bate, Khan, & Pye, 2000.
This should be a periodic and detailed activity that assists the organizations management to identify any inefficiency or problems that may have risen and have not been dealt with the management will then come up with strategies to deal with them.
Compulyzed Telecommunications is a telecommunications company dealing with telephone, cabling, and internet provision services for both home and corporate clients. Compulyzed Telecommunications had an increase of 1.7% operating profit in the fiscal year 2011 as compared to the previous year this was…
Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for Competitive Advantage. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005), 9(4), 49-61.
Bate, P., Khan, R., & Pye, A. (2000). Towards a Culturally Sensitive Approach to Organization Structuring: Where Organization Design Meets Organization Development. Organization Science, 11(2), 197-211.
Becker, I., & Flaxer, E. (2008). Analysing the Hierarchical Organization of Text by Using Biologically-Inspired Statistical Methods. [Article]. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 15(4), 318-339. doi: 10.1080/09296170802326657
Bloodgood, J.M., & Bauerschmidt, A. (2002). Competitive Analysis: Do Managers Accurately Compare Their Firms To Competitors? Journal of Managerial Issues, 14(4), 418-434.
Definition of an Ethical Framework
An ethical framework that would be useful to me is one which I can use it to assess how to go about behaving in a given circumstance. The framework should be based on the virtue-ethics perspective. As Lutz (1996) points out, “Piaget and Kohlberg belong to the cognitive-developmental tradition of developmental psychology” in which the moral development of a child is decided through social interaction and comes about naturally rather than through formal education (p. 1). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development is that there are six stages of moral development. First, there is the stage in which the child does what is right to avoid being punished. Second comes the stage in which the child does what is right because he perceives it serves his own interests. Third comes the stage in which the child desires to see himself as a good person and for…
Business Model Framework to Analyse the Impact of eBusiness on an Existing Business by Susan Lambert. This was published at the Collecter Conference 2007, held December 9-11th in Australia. The article attempts to "demonstrate that a business model framework that affords primacy of concept to the value proposition and that follows the rules of the object-oriented paradigm can be useful in evaluating e-business initiatives." The wording of this objective obfuscates the nature of the study, which appears to be that the use of models can help to understand why e-business initiatives succeed or failure in established companies. The author wastes considerable space on superfluous information, such as three pages defining "primacy of concept," and this further obfuscates the findings of the work. The author's conceptual background is then applied not to a study but to a singular anecdote.
The author's base question revolves around finding ways to determine the success…
Lambert, S. (2007). A Business Model Framework to Analyse the Impact of eBusiness on an Existing Business. Collecter Conference 9-11 December 2007, Australia.
Kimery, K. & Amirkhalkhali, S. (2008). Cultural Differences in the Adoption of Electronic Commerce: A Comparison of Japan and the United States. EABR & TLC Conference Proceedings, Rothenburg, Germany, 2008.
For example, I am very self-motivated, and hate to see a job poorly done. But I have realized that some employees are more motivated by external rather than internal rewards, and thrive on a sense of competition with others, otherwise they will slacken in their duties. These external rewards must also be varied as employees bring different experiences and needs to their work. Showing sensitivity to an individuals' desire to balance career and family by offering flexible work hours vs. A promotion might be better suited to that employee. Using the prospect of promotion might be more motivational for a younger and more driven employee. Some employees work for a paycheck while some are easily bored and seek challenges and the ability to create. Others are cynical and try to cheat the system, while the more idealistic employees at a company might be offended by close oversight and feel as…
No conceptual or theoretical framework was clearly identified. However, the authors do focus on patient-centered care within an evidence-based practice framework.
The research design is described as being descriptive and is therefore phenomenological. The authors use a focus group model, and operationalize the definition of the term focus group. A focus group for the purposes of this study is defined as a small group and has as its objective the "acquisition of information based on perceptions, beliefs, traditions, and values of its participants," (Heinrich & Karner, n.d., p. 31). Focus groups are one of the most commonly used study designs in qualitative research in health care (Gill, Stewart, Treasure & Chadwick, 2008). Furthermore, the focus group was selected for this qualitative research design because it permitted 'interaction and discussion" among the participants, leading to "rich data related to the learning needs of older adults living in…
Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. & Chadwick, B. (2008). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. BDJ 204: 291-295.
Heinrich, C. & Karner, K. (n.d.). Ways to optimize understanding health related information. Geriatric Nursing 32(1).
However, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions will demand some procedural decisions to be made that will surely entice unpredictable results.
From the viewpoint of an outside management consultant who has been called in to advise top management on what to do, the first task will be the thorough investigation of the international framework seeking to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, all steps to be taken in an effort to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change solely on the basis of multilateral arrangements without infringing upon the rights of the self-governed must be itemized and better distinguished. This will lead us to a resolution on ways to diminish, lessen, and ultimately relieve the production of greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity.
I would like to suggest that this is not possible without significant buy-in at the local levels; that citizens of developed countries must recognize the effort as non-zero-sum…
Carson, V. (2012). St. George Bank staff's cash windfall. The Telegraph. 3 April 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/business/st-george-bank-staffs-cash-windfall/story-fn7ki9fd-1226317134801
In 2008, the St. George Bank merged with Westpac. In order to retain the core of seven senior executives, who were already being wooed by rivals for their expertise in currency trading and money market management, the then-CEO Paul Fegan offered retention incentives to the tune of up to $50,000. After the merger, however, the numbers changed. Over a hundred employees who had been eligible for bonuses did not receive them and, as Carson (2012) points out, a group of staff sued the bank over the bonus and redundancy payouts. The lawsuits were settled in court, and the St. George Bank was forced to pay not just the bonuses but interest on them: a total of $3 million. According to Carson (2012), the lawsuits present a major public relations gaffe for St. George…
"Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site." The Telegraph. Mar 30, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/business/unions-vote-for-ban-on-asbestos-site/story-fn7ki9fd-1226314210935
Australian law protects workers against conditions that are unsafe or unsound. The "Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site" story is one example in which Fair Work and Best Practice Guidelines have practical application. Unions in several different sectors have voted to "ban work" at the former James Hardie factory site in Sydney," ("Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site"). The site is "said to be riddled with asbestos," ("Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site"). The strike is related to workplace health and safety concerns, as well as broader social and environmental justice issues. A German firm Remondis has proposed the construction of a waste treatment plant on the site, and the construction would require extensive excavation and unearthing of the potentially dangerous asbestos. The site has been called "contaminated," and the workers are invoking their rights to protest a job based on clear health and safety concerns ("Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site").
This article shows the importance of managing employee relations based on current law and ethical sensibility. The law protects employees against working in conditions that are unsafe or unsound. Moreover, companies that wish to retain their employees and cultivate a workplace environment conducive to business growth and development need to rethink their approaches to management. Employment relations in the industrial sector are changing, as are the theoretical frameworks that guide them. A pluralist perspective still prevails, in which antagonism between management and unions is expected. A Marxist or radical perspective pulls in the opposite direction but is equally as relevant in the modern business and legal climate. The sound middle ground is offered by the unitarist perspective on employment relations: in which the company understands the value of its human resources and a healthy organizational culture.
Introduction and Theoretical Framework
Fox News claims to be "America's 1 Cable News Network." Its tagline reads, "Fair and balanced." But is Fox News truly "fair" and truly "balanced"? Content analysis is the best method to analyze Fox News. Used frequently in media and communications studies, content analysis can be a quantitative and/or a qualitative approach. A quantitative approach is helpful when counting instances of specific words or images and using that numerical data for classification, tracking, or comparisons with other texts. A qualitative approach is broader in scope, potentially multidisciplinary, and rich with potential for discourse.
External validity is the goal of content analysis (Downe-Wamboldt, 2009). This is because content analysis enables the social sciences to have real-world meaning and application (Colin, n.d.). Content analysis of major media sources like Fox News are meaningful in the real world, because of the huge impact television viewing has on human…
Colin, R. (n.d.) Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers. Retrieved online: http://media.matthewsbooks.com.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/tocwork/063/9780631213055.pdf
Comstock, G. (1978). Television and Human Behavior. New York: Columbia University Press.
Downe-Wamboldt, B. (2009). Content analysis: method, application, and issues. Health Care for Women International 13(3).
Fox News.com. Retrieved online: http://www.foxnews.com/
Typical experimental research methods relied upon in the cognitive approach to psychology include measuring patterns of neural activity in response to specific stimuli and of the effect on external behavior of other internal processes such as hormonal activity.
I my opinion, the cognitive approach to understanding psychology is more comprehensive than the strict behavioral approach. Because the behavioral approach limits the analysis to a relatively narrow focus on behavior that is externally observable, it seems to ignore significant causal explanations for those behaviors. Conversely, the cognitive approach does not necessarily discount the value of externally observable behavior within the overall framework of understanding the many contributing influences on human behavior.
Cognitive psychology also seems to have more unexplored potential for future development of the field by virtue of the relatively recent evolution of various new technological applications of medical imaging processes. Specifically, whereas the methods and materials relied…
Evaluating theoretical framework also assists in determining whether the structure directs the research study. This process entails identification of constructs or concepts, assessment of definitions, relationships, variables, hypothesis, methodology and findings.
Discussion Question Two: Will there always be a theoretical framework that aligns with your chosen topic of study? Why or why not?
Theoretical framework entails the collection of combined concepts that are not essentially well established (Aparasu, 2011). Theoretical framework determines the things a researcher measures and the statistical link to look for. Through theoretical framework, researchers engage preconceived ideas. For instance, some people deem that human beings are untrustworthy and lazy. Such basic beliefs regarding human temperament influences how a researcher views things when conducting a research. In this regard, not understanding the actual framework is an enormous concern. Theoretical framework directs the researcher to what he/she views in his/her environment, and what he/she does not notice in…
Aparasu, R. (2011). Research methods for pharmaceutical practice and policy. New York:
Beck, C., & Faan, C. (2013). Routledge international handbook of qualitative nursing research.
New York: Routledge
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…
Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.
The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm
The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm
Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
Establishing an NP Led Wellness and Recovery Center for Deinstitutionalized Individuals
Historically, nursing, and medicine professions have been loath to utilize tools commonly linked with mercenary aspects of business, such as market research and decision analysis. In the contemporary health care setting, however, consumers hold numerous options for care providers. The division of the market or market segmentation into different subgroups allows the determination of target markets and the buildup of marketing policies specific to the needs and interests of the selected subgroups. Market analysis allows the identification of policies for nurse practitioners to enhance their practice in a way that centers on the interests and needs of the selected market. While scores of the nurse practitioner's dream of operating their own businesses, those that have set up their own practice understand that it requires a compelling passion for owning a business, and for the profession.
A nurse practitioner is…
civilians think of the nursing department in any well-run hospital, they often don't consider all the structure, organization and guidance which is required to make this department run as smoothly as it needs to be and to achieve the highest level of patient-centered goals. One position at the top of the pyramid of the nursing department is the position of Chief Nursing Officer or CNO. The Chief Nursing Officer is the person who is responsible for overseeing the crux of the entire nursing operation, ensuring that the entire team runs like a well-oiled machine and that all members are responsible for pulling their weight, following policy and engaging in the most proactive and balanced measures for patient centered goals (Dickson, 2008). This is without a doubt an extremely demanding job and absolutely requires a person who truly enjoys working with patients and other nurses, and thrives on the challenge of…
Alsop, C. (2012). Compassion Fatigue in Nurses Within Their First Year of Employment. New York: Routledge.
Austin, A. (2010). Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing for Canadian Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
Bern-Klug, M. (2013). Transforming Palliative Care in Nursing Homes: The Social Work Role. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bolden, R. (2003, June). A Review of Leadership Theory and Comeptencies. Retrieved from http://business-school.exeter.ac.uk/ :
Positivist Theory of Crime, Lombroso
Criminal ehavior Treatment Program and Positivist Theory
The objective of this study is to examine the positivist theory of crime posited by Lombroso and to develop a crime prevention or treatment program.
Cesare Lombroso is held to be the founder of modern criminology and to have introduced the positivist movement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, which has made a more scientific approach to criminology available. Empirical scientific research in understanding criminality was first introduced by the positivist approach. According to Farr (nd) positivism is based in logic and is "the philosophy that combined epistemological phenomenalism with 'scientism' that is, with the belief in the desirability of scientific and technological progress." (Farr, nd, p.2)
Three Types of Positivism
Positivism as it relates to criminology can be divided into three types including: (1) biological; (2) psychological; and (3) Social. (Farr, nd, p.2) Positivist methods…
Deviance and Social Control (nd) McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070918082/83003/Chapter7.pdf
Gowan, T. Whetstone, S. Making the criminal addict: Subjectivity and social control in a strong-arm rehab. Punishment and Society. January 2012. Vol 14 No 1. Retrieved from: http://pun.sagepub.com/content/14/1/69.abstract
Farr, Z. (nd) Critically assess the impact of positivist approaches to understanding crime. Retrieved from: http://www.essex.ac.uk/sociology/documents/pdf/ug_journal/vol8/2012sc242_Zoefarr.pdf
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…
VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)
MY ROUGH IDEA:
1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
The Role of Interactive Social Media in Corporate Social Responsibility Communications
One of the most significant new marketing platforms to emerge in recent years has been social media in general and more recently, interactive social media. According to the definition provided by Chao and Parker (2014), social media in general are “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, which allows the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (p. 323). By extension, interactive social media are defined as those platforms that feature ways for consumers to directly respond to Web-based content in the form of feedback, comments, testimonials, reviews or other online exchanges (Chao & Parker, 2014). The overarching focus of the proposed study concerns the role of interactive social media in corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications. This specific focus has assumed new importance and relevance as growing numbers of…
Application of Schools of Criminal Thought
Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.
Theoretical Criminology Frameworks
Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…
Over time, from one second to the next, human behavior constantly changes, contributing to the fact that human behavior, consequently human cognition, constitutes a dynamic process. (Thelen and Smith, 1994). Communication, also a continuous interactive process, serves as the overtime interaction between the human motivated information processing system and the communication message. (Geiger and Reeves, 1993; Lang, 2000; Rafaeli, 1988)
Media multitasking indicates a user will simultaneously experience exposure to content from various media. As an individual possesses only a limited number of cognitive resources, he/she will not be able to process information at the same level of efficiency as media single use. As a result, the continuing, shifting attention results in less effective retrieval of information, as well as, experiencing challenges retrieving, encoding and storing information.
Statement of Problem
Despite contradictory indications from communication and cognitive psychology, younger adults' fill their lives with multitasking around media, as well…
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
(d) Primary method of data collection includes experimental observation.
3. Narushima, M. (200). A gaggle of raging grannies: The empowerment of older Canadian women through social activism. International Journal of lifelong learning, 23 (1): 23-2.
A a) the research paradigm is constructivist. (b) the theoretical framework is interdisciplinary and includes components of developmental psychology, gerontology, and women's studies. -. The research design is action-practitioner. (d) the methods of data collection used include observation, document analysis, and interviews.
. Quigley, B. Allan. Retaining Adult Learners in the First Three Critical Weeks: A Quasi-Experimental Model for USE in Abe Programs. Adult Basic Education, Summer 2000, Vol. 10, Issue 2 a) the research paradigm is both positivist and constructionist, as the researcher assumes objective means of retaining adult learners in education programs but also acknowledges the inherent subjectivity of the research design. (b). The theoretical framework of the research suggests that structural, environmental,…
4. Quigley, B. Allan. Retaining Adult Learners in the First Three Critical Weeks: A Quasi-Experimental Model for USE in Abe Programs. Adult Basic Education, Summer 2000, Vol. 10, Issue 2 a) the research paradigm is both positivist and constructionist, as the researcher assumes objective means of retaining adult learners in education programs but also acknowledges the inherent subjectivity of the research design. (b). The theoretical framework of the research suggests that structural, environmental, and pedagogical concerns are of greater value to ABE programs than broader social commentary. - the research design combined multiple methods in a quasi-experimental design. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. (d) the methods of data collection include interviews as well as experimental observation and tabulation of program completion rates.
5. York, L. (2005). Adult learning and the generation of new knowledge and meaning: Creating liberating spaces for fostering adult learning through practitioner-based collaborative action inquiry. Teachers College record, 107 (6): 1217-1244.
A a) Research paradigm is wholly constructionist, avowing the role of the researcher as a participant and practitioner. (b) the theoretical framework of the research combines pragmatism with collaborative action inquiry and constructivist knowledge creation. - the research design is action-practitioner; the researcher interacts directly with participants. (d) the methods of data collection include observation as well as interviews.
Among the negative effects of living in a violent relationship include increased depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress (Bogat, et. al, 2004). There is some evidence that suggests that social support may influence a woman's reactions to domestic violence, and may in fact influence whether or not a woman decides to stay or leave a relationship (Bogat, et. al, 2004). When support exists it is related to a positive outcome more often than not for women (Bogat, et. al, 2004). There are some studies that find that women who are in violent relationships often lack positive support role models and even when they do they are reluctant to ask for help (Bogat, et. al, 2004).
There is adequate empirical evidence which suggests that most battered women tend to be socially isolated and thus do not have a readily available network of people they can rely on for support and encouragement when…
Bachman, R., Coker, a.L. (1995). "Police involvement in domestic violence: The interactive effects of victim injury, offender's history of violence and race." Violence and Victims, 10:91-106
Bogat, a., Davidson, W.S., Levendosky, a.A., Theran, S.A., Trotter, J.S. & Von Eye, a.
2004). "The social networks of women experiencing domestic violence" American Journal of Community Psychology, 34(1-2): 95
Davis, R.L. (1998). Domestic violence: Facts and fallacies. Westport: Praeger.
Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.
etter trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."
More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all…
Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Bad Attitudes & Complaints: Handling Workplace Negativity." Business Management (2012). Web. http://www.businessmanagementdaily.com/19426/bad-attitudes-complaints-handling-workplace-negativity
Attaran, Moshen. "Exploring the Relationship between Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering." Information & Management 41 (2004), 585-596.
Bartel, Ann P. "Measuring the Employer's Return on Investments in Training: Evidence from the Literature." Industrial Relations 39, no. 3 (2000), 502-525.
Batt, Rosemary, Colvin, Alexander, & Keefe, Jeffrey. "Employee Voice, Human Resource Practices, and Quit Rates: Evidence from the Telecommunications Industry." Industrial and Labor Relations Reviews 55, no. 4 (2002), 573-595.