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Nursing theory drew much attention in the last century, and it continues to drive professional expansion and growth in nursing today. This text covers some of the theorists in the field of nursing, and their works. The nurses of the past provided great healing service to patients; however, much of the knowledge they passed down was mainly functional and skills based (Alligood, n.d.). While several of the practices were quite effective, they weren't grounded on solid evidence or widely tested. Their usage was also not uniform across the board. The twentieth century saw leaders in the nursing industry seek to develop nursing theory and knowledge to guide nursing practice, improve the quality of patient care, and improve the stature of nursing as a profession.
A -- Mid-Range Theory -- Theory of Caring by Kristen Swanson
ackground of the Theorist
Kristen M. Swanson is a distinguished academician that has worked as…
Alligood, M.R. (n.d.). Introduction to Nursing Theory: Its History, Significance, and Analysis .
Anderson, G. (2008, June 27). Examining the extent to which Swanson's theory of caring and Carper's ways of knowing can be identified in midwife-led care. Retrieved from www.rcm.org.uk: https://www.rcm.org.uk/news-views-and-analysis/analysis/examining-the-extent-to-which-swanson%E2%80%99s-theory-of-caring-and-carper
Benner, P. & Wrubel, J. (1989). The primacy of caring stress and coping in health and illness. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.
Benton, K. (2013, November 12). Swanson's theory of Caring. Retrieved from www.prezi.com: https://prezi.com/7ry9-0iawrst/swansons-theory-of-caring/
In applying this article to the nursing field, it appears that combining therapies with surgery can enhance care to surgical patients. he article reaction is preoperative anxiety can be reduced with holistic nursing.
Rosenberg, S. (2006). Utilizing the Language of Jean Watson's Caring heory Within a Computerized Clinical Documentation System. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing.
his article describes and critiques a healthcare facility that was part of an eight-hospital organization that adopted Watson's theory of caring as part of their nursing philosophy. It provides an overview of the caring theory and its many meanings. Rosenberg critiques the caring theory, stating that during the implementation of the theory within the setting described, it was noted that there was no mechanism in the current documentation system for clinical nursing staff to document the patient experience using any language specific to the theory. As a result, the nurses at the healthcare facility decided to…
The study analyzed the perception of caring behaviors of hospitalized antepartum and short-stay postpartum patients. The study method used consisted of an exploratory, comparative survey design to describe and compare similarities and differences in perception of caring behaviors between forty-two patients. The patients completed a 63-item Caring Behavior Assessment instrument on a seven category scale based on Watson's theory of caring. The study results found no significant differences in age, education, gravida, or para between the two groups; no significant differences or correlations in the total Caring Behavior Assessment scores and the demographic variables; and no significant differences in total Caring Behavior Assessment scores were found between antepartum participants and postpartum participants. The researchers concluded that their findings corroborate the results of "caring" studies in other patient populations. The application and reaction to nursing is that satisfying basic needs is more important to patients than meeting higher order needs.
Swanson-Kauffman, K. (1986). Caring in the instance of early unexpected pregnancy loss. Topics in Clinical Nursing (July):37-47.
Swanson conducted a study of twenty women who experienced miscarriages prior to 16 weeks of gestation. The research method used were two personal interviews with each woman in which the conversations were tape recorded. After the taping, the interviews were analyzed to develop categories that captured the human experience of miscarriage and the caring needs of the women. The study applies to nursing in that it attempted to empirically' define and conceptualize caring and direct the attention of care providers to some of the common ways in which mothers who miscarried wished to be cared for. The study analyzed Watson's theory of caring in examining what constitutes caring in the instance of miscarriage. The study concluded that caring in this instance is conveyed by knowing, being with, doing for and enabling recovery. The reaction to this early article is that it provides a positive groundwork for future studies of women recovering from a traumatic event.
Jean atson's Theory Of Caring
Iconic nursing leader and theorist Jean atson established an innovative and much-needed component to the field of nursing which she refers to as a caring theory. This paper uses atson's theories and examples of what she called "a caring moment" in the context of fully discussing nursing from atson's point-of-view.
Major components and background of atson's theory
"atson (1988) defines caring as the moral ideal of nursing whereby the end is protection, enhancement, and preservation of human dignity… [caring] involves values, a will, and a commitment to care, knowledge, caring actions and consequences" (Cohen, 1991, p. 899).
In her 1999 book, Nursing: Human Science and Human Care: A Theory of Nursing, atson makes clear that "Nursing science" needs to move away from "homogeneity of thinking" and find breakthrough ideas that are workable and based on the science of nursing. That said, atson believes there have…
Cohen, Judith A. (1991). Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists, Leininger and Watson. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 16(8), 899-909.
Suliman, Wafika A., Welmann, Elizabeth, Omer, Tagwa, and Thomas, Laisamma. (2009).
Applying Watson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(4), 293-300.
Watson, Jean. (2009). Caring Science and Human Caring Theory: Transforming Personal and Professional Practices of Nursing and Health Care. Journal of Health & Human Services
Jean Watson's Theory Of Caring
A TOTAL HEALING EXPERIENCE
Jean Watson's Theory of Caring
Every person or patient has needs, which must be uniquely recognized, respected, and filled in the quest for healing and wholeness. Caring for the patient not only enhances recovery in any mysterious way. It can also be demonstrated and practiced by those who care for patients, especially nurses. Caring occurs in an environment, which accepts the patient as a distinct being with distinct and unique potentials (Al-Sharmi, 2010; Conway et al., 2011). Caring promotes health better than simply curing an illness. It promotes growth through the patient's potentials. Caring is also central to nursing (Al-Sharmi). These basic principles form the core of Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.
Watson conceived her Theory of Human Caring while she was teaching at the University of Colorado in 1975 to 1979 (Conway et al., 2011). It evolved from her…
Al-Shamri, K.F. (2010). The evolution of nursing theory. King Saud University.
Retrieved on February 5, 2011 from http://faculty/ksu.edu.sa/26606/Documents/nursing_theory.pdf
Cara, C. (1999). A pragmatic view of Jean Watson's Caring Theory. Faculty of Nursing:
University of Montreal. Retrieved on February 5, 2011 from http://www.humancaring.org/conted/Pragmatic%20View.doc
Theory Description and Incorporation
It is important for nurses to have both clinical and personal skills when practicing their profession. The importance of creating and maintaining a disciplined schedule of hourly nurse rounds can be very productive in reducing falls, pressure ulcers and diminish call light use which ultimately leads to a rise in patient satisfaction. There is much evidence to support this argument and the Theory of Human Caring introduced by Jean Watson provides a solid rationale to base this model upon to support this hypothesis.
This comprehensive theory provides a personal approach that describes why nurses' personal care approach can be practically effective. The theory is based upon the idea that kindness and a loving approach within the clinical setting can be extremely effective in improving patient care quality. The…
Watson, M.J. (1988). New dimensions of human caring theory. Nursing science quarterly, 1(4), 175-181.
Watson, J., & Foster, R. (2003). The Attending Nurse Caring Model®: integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring -- healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice. Journal of clinical nursing, 12(3), 360-365.
Discuss relationship systems theory healthcare deliver U.S. - What current concepts healthcare explained helped a system theory approach? - What system theory? - How researchers (Ludwig von Bertalanffy Everett M.
Systems theory and diffusion of innovation theory
Systems theory was not specifically designed to cope with the challenges of the U.S. healthcare system, although it has been frequently applied to some of its issues. Systems theory was originally coined by the scientist Ludwig von Bertalanffy to sum up his idea that the 'whole' of systems -- both biological and otherwise -- were larger than the sum of their parts. According to von Bertalanffy, "in the past, science tried to explain observable phenomena by reducing them to an interplay of elementary units investigable independently of each other, conceptions appear in contemporary science that are concerned with what is somewhat vaguely termed 'wholeness', i.e. problems of organization, phenomena…
Diffusion of innovation theory. (2013). University of Twente. Retrieved:
This website contains excerpts from E.M. Rogers' work on diffusion of innovation theory, along with a helpful graphical representation of how the information is disseminated.
Kaminski, J. (Spring 2011).Diffusion of innovation theory. Canadian Journal of Nursing.
When most people are asked 'what do nurses do," there is a strong likelihood that the word 'caring' will arise in the conversation. Many nurses, particularly new nurses, identify caring as one of the personal qualities that attracted them to the profession. However, caring can be a very nebulous concept, as even non-nurses give 'care' to others and non-nurses can be 'caring' people. Nursing, in an effort to create an empirical and academic basis for itself as a discipline has fought against the idea that nursing is just about caring. However, it cannot 'ignore' the idea of caring, given that one of the concepts that distinguishes nursing from other forms of medical care is its patient-centric and individualistic perspective.
I have chosen caring as the concept I will focus on in this paper, with a specific focus on Jean Watson's Theory of Caring, given that it is one of…
Cara, Chantal. (2011).A pragmatic view of Jean Watson's caring theory.
Universite de Montreal. Retrieved www.humancaring.org/conted/Pragmatic%20View.doc
Giguere, Barbara. (2002). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health science. Nursing Education Perspectives. Retrieved http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3317/is_6_23/ai_n28962844/
Gross, Terry. (2011). Grant Achatz: The chef who lost his sense of taste. Fresh Air. NPR.
Culture Care Universality and Diversity
Leininger conceptualized the theory of care was developed in the 1950s and provided a way to bridge a culture and nursing care. "Leininger theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality" (Garmon 2011 p 1) is derived from the understanding the fields of culture and anthropology and is credited for her contribution to the nursing theory by establishing the transcultural concept in the nursing care. Typically, culture care is a holistic method of understanding, interpreting, explaining, and predicting care for the nursing practice. According to Leininger, culturally congruent care had been missing in the nursing practice and knowledge. Thus, a creative process of reformulation and integration of cultural practice is very critical for the development of nursing practice and knowledge. Leininger holds that a cultural care provides the most important and broadest means to explain, study and predict the nursing care practice. To discover patterns, and…
Department of Commerce (2010). U.S. Census 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Fitzpatrick, J.J & Kazer, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of Nursing Research, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Garmon B. S. (2011). Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. In J. Fitzpatrick, Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Leininger, M. (1988). Leininger's Theory of Nursing: Cultural Care Diversity and Universality. Nurs Sci Q.1 (4): 152-160
Caring for ody and Soul
Critiquing Research Report
Modern nursing practice has focused more and more on treating the whole person, through four domains (Chan, 2009). These are physical, mental, social, and spiritual. Of the four, the spiritual domain is the most neglected. A retrospective study recently found that nurses with religious beliefs are more likely to extend spiritual care. The greater their spiritual perceptions, the more frequently they include a spiritual dimension to their care of patients (Chan). However, not many nurses are able to extend care in this domain.
Jean Watson's Theory of caring is applied as theoretical framework. Her concept sees caring as a process of transpersonal caring. It is something exceeding the self and recognizing the relationship as "mutual and reciprocal (Goliath, 2008)." It is in this environment that the nurse connects with the patient under his specific circumstances. Watson uses 10 carative factors in applying…
Chan, MF. (2009). Factors affecting nursing staff in practicing spiritual care. Vol 19
Journal of Clinical Nursing: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Deal, B. (2010). A pilot study of nurses' experience of giving spiritual care. Vol 15 # 4
The Qualitative Report: Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved on May 18, 2011
Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.
Background on Nursing Theory
Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Care work or social work akin with any other human endeavor has a host of different perspectives that are used either in unison or in combination to direct it.
Its dominant perspectives are the following:
This is the view that all systems interact and that when, for instance, one works with a patient one needs to involve the family and community too and take all of the patient "s life into consideration for each impacts the other. The whole works as a holistic whole and, for instance, the child's school can effect the child as much as the child can the teacher and so forth. ystems have interrelated parts, and tend towards equilibrium.
Care workers use this system in a practical way by forging networks between the different ecosystems (for instance between child's school, community, and family) and by drawing ecomaps and genograms for understanding the dynamics of…
OVERVIEW OF THEORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR & THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
This view drastically alters the understanding of the situation of the Ugandan abductees, as represented in the documentary Invisible Children. While there are definitely issues of justice at work in the scenario, there is also a fundamental failure within the communities to protect their children from the rebels, and a failure in the relationship with these rebels to help everyone work towards each other's mutual benefice. Though the rebel army is ostensibly attempting to overthrow the Ugandan government, it appears as though many if not most of the rebels' acts of violence are directed towards the poor and underdeveloped populations form which the rebels themselves came, many of them as abducted children themselves -- the majority of them still children, in fact, as few of them live into adulthood and new kidnapped conscripts regularly replenish the troops. An understanding of the true ills at work in the society that produce…
A relationship exists between theories, research, practical application, and education. The latter three, in fact, ought to be directed by the former. Further, research works inform education as well as practical application through offering evidences for nursing instruction- and care provision- related best practices. Education forms the context for learning. Educators need to base their teaching on scholarly evidences in the areas of learning/teaching, learning/teaching theories, and practice arena requirements. Practice contexts are where learners are taught, patients are provided evidence-based care, and nurses acquire experiences to aid them in formulating novel nursing theories and topics for future studies. Theory is the foundation for:
· How to learn and teach nursing concepts like nursing theories, brain-based education, neurocognitive studies, principles/frameworks, learning approaches, adult learning models, and educational models.
· How to frame researches and understand findings within professional settings, and how to develop the profession for ensuring most…
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
French, W. L., Bell, C. (1999). Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
"Studies of the relationship between managed care penetration in the health care market and expenditures for Medicare fee-for-service enrollees have demonstrated the existence of these types of spill over effects" (Bundorf et al., 2004).
Managed care organizations generate these types of spillover effects by increasing competition in the health care market, altering the arrangement of the health care delivery system, and altering physician practice patterns. Studies have found that higher levels of managed care infiltration are linked with lower rates of hospital cost inflation and lower physician fees are consistent with competitive effects. "Other studies demonstrate the impact of managed care on delivery system structure including hospital capacity, hospital admission patterns, the size and composition of the physician workforce and the adoption and use of medical equipment and technologies. More recent evidence has linked market-level managed care activity to the process, but not the outcomes of care" (Bundorf et al.,…
Altman, D.E. And L. Levin. (2005). The Sad History of Health Care Cost Containment as
Told by One Client. Health Affairs, 24(1).
Bodenheimer, T. (2005). High and rising health care costs. part 1: Seeking an explanation.
Annals of Internal Medicine, 142(10), 847-54.
For the past several decades, nursing theory has evolved with considerable considerations towards transcultural care. The concept of culture was derived from anthropology and the concept of care was derived from nursing. When one understands the derivative of nursing knowledge and the basis for cultural sensitivity, one may tailor and provide the best nursing care for diverse groups. Each group may have specific needs that may help or hinder healthcare delivery. Hence, if one fully understands the meanings, patterns, and processes, one can explain and predict health and well-being. Although many nursing theories exist, a closer evaluation will be given to Cultural Care Diversity & Universality and Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.
Cultural Competence & Influence
Cultural competence is deemed as essential component in providing healthcare today. Healthcare professionals in healthcare organizations are addressing multicultural diversity and ethnic disparities in health (Wilson, 2004). To better serve…
Kim-Godwin, Y.S., Clarke, P.N. And Barton, L. (2001), A model for the delivery of culturally competent community care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35: 918 -- 925. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01929.x
Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(1), 37-43.
Nelson, J. (2006). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory: The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. International Journal For Human Caring, 10(4), 50.
SNJourney. (2007). Purnell's model of cultural competence. Retrieved from http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/Select%20Topics/Transcultural/PurnellModel2.pdf
Applying atson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment" describes the validness and authentication of the nursing theory of care by Jean atson. She was of the view that the best which a nurse can give to the patient is care as humans are naturally gifted with it and it is irrespective of ethnical, racial, cultural or social basis. The article describes the implications of this theory in such environment where the nurses and their patients have ethnical and cultural difference and they do not even understand each other's language. It is a case study designed to explore Saudi patient's perceptions of important caring behaviors by staff nurses. It was concluded by the data obtained that the patients rated overall caring behaviors as most important irrespective of their cultural differences with the caregiver. Hence atson's theory was proved in a multicultural environment, but…
Nicely, Bruce. (2011). Virginia Henderson's principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in Transplantation, Vol 21, No. 1, March 2011.
Wakifa et.al. (2009). Applying Watson's Nursing Theory to Assess Patient Perceptions of Being Cared for in a Multicultural Environment. Joumal of Nursing Research, VOL 17, NO 4, DECEMBER 2009.
Walling, Allan. (2006). Therapeutic modulation of the psycho-neuroimmune system by medical acupuncture creates enhanced feelings of well being. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners; Apr 2006; 18, 4; ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source pg. 135
Range Nursing Theory
A clinical nurse is generally involved with specialized research; for example, a clinical nurse specializing in oncology would likely be heavily involved in the treatment of patients with cancer, according to Andrea Santiago. That clinical nurse specialist (CNS) working with cancer patients may also create helpful protocols or other strategies to improve the delivery of services in a hospital (Santiago, 2013). This paper delves into the reasons why the CNS can (and will) benefit from the use of the middle range theory.
hat are middle range theories?
Judy Davidson (RN, DNP, CNS) explains that middle range theories are designed to "guide practice" for nurses (including clinical nurse specialists) and are "more focused than grand theories" because they zero in on a "single aspect of practice" and are not as general as grand theories (Davidson, 2010, p. 28). Moreover, because grand theories only offer a framework in terms…
Andershed, Birgitta, and Olsson, Kristina. (2009). Review of research related to Kristin
Swanson's middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(3),
Davidson, Judy E. (2010). Facilitated Sensemaking: A Strategy and New Middle-Range Theory
The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).
It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).
All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.
Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:
Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…
Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.
"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3
Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
nursing is both a discipline and a profession
All of these affect fundamental nursing values such as emotional support for patients and the importance of touch.
Imogene King's conceptual model includes three types of dynamic, interacting systems: personal systems (represented by individuals), interpersonal systems (represented by such dyadic interactions as nurse-patient dialogue), and social systems (represented by larger institutions such as hospitals and families). (Imogene King, J.P. Riehl-Sisca, 1989) further example of theory developing into concept and ultimately into model and practice is Katharine Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort. Holistic comfort is defined as the immediate experience of being strengthened through having the needs for relief, ease, and transcendence met in four contexts of experience (physical, psycho spiritual, social, and environmental) (Kolcaba, 1994)
The Concept of Philosophy in Nursing
Despite over a century of philosophical thinking in nursing, philosophical inquiry has yet to be positioned as contributing substantially to the field…
Austgard, K. (2008). What characterises nursing care? A hermeneutical philosophical inquiry.
Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 314-319.
Barbara Pesut, Joy Johnson. (2008). Understanding Philosophical Inquiry in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 115-121.
Dr Sharon L. Van Sell, Ioannis a Kalofissudis. (2002). A Complexity Nursing Theory.
Remote Nursing Theory
Remote Nursing and Jean Watson's Theory of Caring
Despite the identification of a clear role and responsibility for nurses in the area of remote and rural medical care, providing primary medical assistance to individuals and communities in geographically isolated areas, there have been significant barriers demonstrated to the effective networking and planning of nursing efforts, resources, and personnel in this area (Coyle et al. 2010). Though this problem is largely one that is practical in nature and requires a fix found in policy and infrastructure, the problem can ultimately be seen as one that is rooted in theory and philosophy. Simply put, nurses attempting to provide care to remote individuals and communities are not equipped with the proper tools, training, or resources to provide effective care, and this has also affected the focus of nursing in this arena such that results of nursing attempts in this area…
An application of Jean Watson's Theory of Caring in Nursing could definitely help to provide a renewed focus on those aspects of rural and remote care that are most essential to patient needs, and that will lead to a greater level of satisfaction and involvement by nurses. Essentially, this theory of nursing insists that the carative rather than the curative aspects of nursing practice and patient outcomes be focused on, which also automatically means treating the whole patient and improving their quality of life rather than simply trying to address specific symptoms and/or diseases (Watson 199; Rafael 2000). Caring for the patient rather than trying to cure the patient leads to a very different perspective in nursing, and this perspective can be applied to whole communities as well as to individuals.
The usefulness of this theory in regards to rural and remote nursing care and practice is difficult to overstate. By approaching rural communities and individuals simply with the focus of providing the best possible care, rather than attempting to provide cures that seem more readily available in less remote settings, nurses would be able to achieve greater levels of self-defined efficacy while at the same time improving the quality of life and the quality of care for their patients (Watson 1999; Rafael 2000). An application of this theory would not immediately address the practical problems of policy and infrastructure that face rural and remote care, but it would provide a solid foundation for the improvement of care in this area -- improvement that research has shown must be brought about by nurses (Coyale et al. 2010). This foundation can then be used to encourage greater official attention to and coordination of the issue.
Incorporating this theory into this area of practice begins simply with changing the mental and emotional fous of care.
nursing -- caring, empathy and ethics. The author (Lachman, 2012) uses numerous examples, each of which show the positive impacts of caring. Along with examples of ethical decisions that must be made, and with theories on caring and empathy put forward by scholars, the paper examines morality, competence, and the "reciprocal" relationships between nurses and their patients. That is, caring for a patient is reciprocal because if the needs of the patient are met, there is reciprocity -- the giving of care and the receiving and acknowledgement of that care giving.
Summary of Key Points
On page 113 Lachman references several leading theorists and scholars that have provided important research and results on nursing ethics and the caring concepts alluded to in the Introduction. Dr. Jean atson has a caring theory (112) that has three main components: a) carative factors; b) the "transpersonal caring relationship"; and c) the "caring occasion/caring…
French, Peter. (1999). The development of evidence-based nursing. Journal of Advanced
Nursing, 29(1), 72-78.
Lachman, Vicki D. (2012). Applying the Ethics of Care to Your Nursing Practice. Ethics, Law,
and Policy, 21(2), 112-115.
1. Nursing Theorist Overview
Theory guides nursing practice and provides a framework for nurse leadership and healthcare management (McKenna, Pajnikar & Murphy, 2014). All prominent nursing theorists like the individuals covered in the multimedia presentation have influenced nursing practice in some way or another, and all do resonate with me on a personal and professional level. I will incorporate elements of all theorists into my practice in terms of interpersonal communications and attitudes towards health and healing. Of the theorists covered in the presentation, those of Florence Nightingale resonate the most because of her inclusion of environmental factors implicated in patient care. Environmental factors like lighting or ventilation can have a profound impact on perceptions of quality of care, too, which has a strong bearing on the efficacy of the healthcare institution (Sabza & Pirani, 2016). The environmental factors that Nightingale identified as being important to patient care also have…
Middle Range Theories
Middle range theories are among the most commonly used theories in research alongside grand theories. This capstone project seeks to examine whether the use of a multidisciplinary approach helps to decrease readmissions within 30 days of newly diagnosed patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). The middle range theory that will be applied on nursing research for this project is the Core, Care and Cure Theory, which was developed by Lydia Eloise Hall. This theory suggests that core, care, and cure are interconnected though they vary depending on the patient’s condition (Cosejo, 2018). This theory identified the core as the individual or patient receiving nursing care based on his/her own goals while the cure is the attention provided to patients by clinical professionals and care is the primary role of a professional nurse. Core, Care and Cure Theory suggests that these three components work together toward promoting the…
A person's health is an ever-changing state of being resulting from the interaction with the environment. Optimum health is the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential gained through rewarding relationships with others, obtaining goals and maintaining expert personal care. Adaptations can be made as required to maintain stability and structural integrity. A person's state of health can vary from wellness to illness, disease, or dysfunction. Professional nursing is founded on the need to promote wellness practices, the attentive treatment of persons who are acutely or chronically ill or dying, and restorative care of patients during convalescence and rehabilitation. It also includes the education and measurement of those who perform or are learning to perform nursing responsibilities, the support and communication of research to enhance knowledge and practice, and the management of nursing in healthcare delivery systems. Nursing practice centers on the application of a body of knowledge in…
Johnston, N., Rogers, M., Cross, N. And Sochan, a.(2007) Global and planetary health:
teaching as if the future matters. Nursing Education Perspectives 26(3), 152
Nyatanga, L. (2005) Nursing and the philosophy of science. Nurse Education Today 25(8), 670-675
Nursing: A Theory for ural Nursing in Mississippi
The provision of accessible, affordable, quality health care is greatly dependent upon existing structures in society, such as transportation, business, industry, and community location.
The objective of this work is to prepare a community assessment. The community will be described; the characteristics of the people who live in the community, health disparities and any strategies that are being implemented to address them, the major sources of income and ranges of average income will be described along with occupational safety and other health risks. The community's healthcare system will be described and finally discussed will be the concept of availability, accessibility, affordability, appropriateness and acceptability of health services.
Historical and Demographical Information:
Greenville, Mississippi is home to one of the "most significant sites of prehistoric Indian Culture" known as the "mound builders." The Mound Builders lived and traded on the Mississippi iver. In…
Greenville: Heart & Soul of the Delta (2005) Community Info - Community Facts: History available online at: http://www.greenville.ms.us/community/facts/history.html
National Immigration Law Center (2005) Online Immigrant and Public Benefit http://www.nilc.org/disaster_assistance/ .
Caring is important to human kind and in our daily experiences. Although caring is fundamental, knowledge about it and its application is not one of the serious academic concerns. Caring as a topic can raise various descriptions. In nursing as a discipline of concern, caring relates to the ability and desire to help someone grow or overcome a depressing situation. Caring is the moral ideal in nursing practice. It involves ones will to care, and mind about the situation of others. In nursing practice, Caring is a process that nurtures itself from a person's moral responsibility to meet a society's mandate. According to Watson (1985), nurses are the caretakers of care for other helping professions. Nursing is the epitome of care and a nurse has to guard and develop the concept. Caring is not only required in nursing but also in various disciplines. Caring can develop from different motivational factors.…
Caudill, M. (2009). Managing pain before it manages you. New York: Guilford Press.
Watson, J. (1985). Nursing science and human care: A theory of nursing. London: Jones & Bartlett publishers.
Srivastava, R. (2007). The healthcare professional's guide to clinical cultural competence.
Toronto: Mosby Elsevier.
Lee (2003) says that insecure attachments have been linked to psychiatric disorders to which the children are exposed to after the loss of the attachment figure. These children will form inability to form secure attachments, react with hostility and rejection to their environment according to Pickover, (2002). This is a phenomenon found among many immigrant children, especially who had the attachment figure back in their country of origin and yet they remained there. They tend to have a problem re-attaching themselves to any other person, hence may grow up to be violent and develop criminal trends Pickover, (2002).
Shortfalls of the attachment theory
The idea that the parents shape the personality and character is misplaced and instead it is the peers who influence character and behavior of the child. According to Harris (1998:Pp2) "parents do not shape their child's personality or character. A child's peers have more influence…
Chris Fraley, (2010). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Harris, J.R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press. In Lee J., (2003). The Attachment System Throughout the Life Course: Review and Criticisms of Attachment Theory. Pp.2 http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/lee.html
Klaus, M.H., Kennell, J.H., & Klaus, P.H. (1995). Bonding. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Pickover, S. (2002). Breaking the cycle: A clinical example of disrupting an insecure attachment system. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24, 358-367.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…
Locke, J. (1924). Of civil government: Two treatises. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.
Caring in Nursing
Over time, nursing and caring have largely been regarded synonymous. With that in mind, it is important to note that quite a number of caring theories have been developed based on caring as a central concept. Some of these theories include the Cultural Care theory by Leininger as well as the Human Caring theory by Jean Watson whose development took place in 1970's. In this text, I will concern myself with caring as a concept in nursing. In so doing, I shall come up with a detailed evaluation of the nature of the practice theory gap most particularly in Bahrain as far as nursing is concerned.
Caring in Nursing: A Definition
To begin with, it is important to note that caring behaviors in the context of nursing can be taken to be those approaches as well as practices that are evidenced by nurses as they seek to…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Jones and Bartlett Learning
Callara, L.E. (2008). Nursing Education Challenges in the 21st Century. Nova Publishers
Chitty, K.K. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges. Elsevier Health Sciences
Cody, W.K. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
One of the features of patient-centered care in which the patients are thought to be partners is when the patients are handed over with the help of their participation. It is very important for the nurses to understand the thinking and perspectives of their patients as this can help them in adjusting their bedside manner to suit the expectations and needs of the patients. This involvement can also enable the patients to get more involved in the decision-making process. There is very little detailed evaluation of the bedside manner present in the literature particularly from the perspective of nursing practice. There are particular provider behaviors that have been noticed to be taken as positive or negative on a continuous basis according to the concept analysis. Compassion, care, warmth and support are some of the positive behaviors while disrespect, arrogance and indifference are some of the negative behaviors. The…
Bedside manner (n.d.). The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bedside-manner
Finch, L. (2008). Bedside Manner: Concept Analysis and Impact on Advanced Nursing Practice. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice. 10(1).
Gilbert, P. (2010) The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life's Challenges. Constable. London.
McMurray, A., Chaboyer, W., Wallis. M., & Johnson. J. (2010). Patients' Perspectives of Bedside Nursing Handover. Retrieved from http://www98.griffith.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/10072/40081/68872_1.pdf;jsessionid=3089DAF1AC9C366501436C4A0ABA2C05?sequence=1
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)
Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…
Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1
Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.
Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.
Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
Both observation and experiment provided the underpinning for Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation. Maslow (1943) posits, “man is a perpetually wanting animal,” leading to the constant striving to fulfill goals (p. 370). If and when anything prevents the fulfillment of a goal—whether the obstacle is internal or external—discomfort or psychopathy can occur (Maslow, 1943). Although Maslow’s original research was conducted decades ago, recent research on motivation and human behavior continues to substantiate Maslow’s core claims. Researchers continue to operationalize Maslow’s definitions of needs and motivation, leading to a strengthening of the original theory and expanded applications in the social sciences. Maslow himself wrote extensively to develop and mature a comprehensive theory of human motivation based on the hierarchy of needs model. The original needs hierarchy consists of five fundamental needs: for physiological comfort and fulfillment, for safety and security, for belongingness, for esteem, and for self-actualization. Although definitions of…
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
For the 21st century, I feel that the Theory of Community Empowerment is a model that will work well. When we consider the challenges of health care in the 21st century, we realize that technology advancements and new drugs are doing a lot of the technical work on physical healing, but these are the sorts of remedies that come about only after someone gets sick. Ultimately, medical procedures and drugs are not a pathway to sustainable health. As I understand the Theory of Community Empowerment, one of the most important roles of the nurse is to work with people, connect with them, and then help them to help themselves. We, as a community, are responsible for our own health, for making the right choices that can help us avoid having health problems in the first place.
This theory has been expounded upon at length in nursing literature. To…
Fawcett, S., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Schultz, J., Richter, K., Williams, E., Lewis, R., Harris, K., Berkley, J., Fisher, J., Lopez, C. (1995). Using empowerment theory in collaborative partnerships for community health and development. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 23 (5) 677-697.
Persily, C. & Hildebrandt, E. (2008). Theory of Community Empowerment, excerpt from Middle Range Nursing Theories. Springer.
Rappaport, J. (1987). Terms of empowerment/exemplars of prevention: Toward a theory of community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 15 (2) 121-148.
Nola Pender - Background and Overview
Dr. Nola Pender is credited with developing the Health Promotion Model, which is internationally adopted for education, practice and research. In the course of her career as researcher, Dr. Pender tested the Health Promotion Model on adolescents and adults. She also formulated the "Girls on the Move" program with the aid of her research group, and started intervention studies into the Health Promotion Model's usefulness in assisting adolescents in adopting lifestyles that are physically active. The team developed various instruments to measure the model's components. In retirement, Dr. Pender is a health promotion research consultant, nationally as well as internationally (School of Nursing, 2015).
Dr. Pender worked for more than forty years as a nurse educator. She taught PhD, masters, and baccalaureate students all through her career and has also mentored numerous post-doctoral fellows. She was the 1998 recipient of the University Of…
They are not forced to only do what others in the company want.
That is a big problem with followers, as well - they feel as though they cannot do anything on their own and/or that their interests are not valuable to the company. Some of these people have great ideas, but if no one listens to them it becomes very hard for them to keep their interest in working for the company or organization. When they see that their voices matter, they remain interested in what is taking place. If the leader they report to makes them feel welcome and appreciates their ideas, there is a growth period that can take place. It can be much more valuable than just having a leader who orders followers around. The leader and the followers, says ennis (2003) should be a true team.
Things that get done in a company should be…
Bennis, W. (2003). On Becoming a Leader. Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing.
Gardner, J.W. (1990). On Leadership. New York: Free Press.
overriding aim of globalization is to eliminate physical boundaries, uniting all the countries of the world into one massive village. So far, globalization has had both positive and negative influences, and has literally split the world into three -- the portion that is already reaping the benefits of globalization and is characterized by high standards of living and stable governments (the Core); that which is yet to reap any benefits and is still grappling with political repression and widespread disease (the Gap); and that which exhibits features of both the Core and the Gap (the Seam)[footnoteRef:1]. Most Americans tend to think that the problems the Core faces are a result of its association with the Gap; and hence, believe that cutting links would be the solution to the issues of drugs and terrorism. This, however, is not a valid argument because as long as the Gap is not enjoying the…
ADP 3-0, "Unified Land Operations," Department of the Army, http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/adrp3_0.pdf (accessed 23 July 2014).
Barnett, Thomas, "The International Security Environment; the Pentagon's New Map: It Explains Why We are Going to War and Why We'll Keep Going to War," Pentagon News Map, http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm. (Accessed 23 July, 2014).
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203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
The success or failure of an organization unreservedly depends upon the behavior of consumers towards its products or services (Kotler, 2010). Consumers have now become more knowledgeable and conscious towards choosing and consuming products. They do not just buy a product; but make a relationship with that brand and the manufacturer of that product (Oliver, 1999). This relationship reflects their consumption patterns and brand preference. This is the fact which business organizations must recognize about consumer behavior (Farley, 1964). To stumble upon this consumer behavior, organizations use different marketing and promotional strategies to stay competitive within their respective industries. In this way, they explore what is their potential target market and what they can do to meet these consumption demands (Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans, & Armstrong, 2010).
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of consumers towards the products offered by one of the…
Farley, J., (1964). Why Does "Brand Loyalty" Vary our Products? The Journal of Marketing, American Marketing Association, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 9-12
Kotler, P., (2010). Principles of Marketing: A South Asian Perspective, 13th Edition. India: Pearson Education
Kotler, P. Brown, L. Burton, S. Deans, K. Armstrong, G. (2010). Marketing. 8th Edition. U.S.: Prentice-Hall
Nestle.com, (2011). About Us. Retrieved on October 16th, 2011 from
The real data from audience ratings comes from the "people meters" that record what the target sample watches, how long the shows are watched, and what is fast-forwarded. In the case of the Nielsen ratings data is sent daily (both live and DV data) and even which family members are watching it. Data is broken down in the demographic age groups and ratings represent what percentage of the nearly 116,000,000 viewers are watching a particular program (a 1.0 rating would mean that one percent or about 1,600,000 viewers were watching a program; Lotz 2007). This is a disadvantage in that samples like this are extremely difficult to make representative of larger target populations.
The reasoning behind audience ratings is that audience ratings are the most obvious indicator of the program's success. However, the actual numbers that networks use to decide if a particular program is a success are not…
Baran, S.J. And Davis, D.K. 2000. Mass communication theory: Foundations, ferment, and future, 2nd Edition. Belmont CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Barry D. 2008. Rating the ratings: A study of TV audience measurement [Online]. Available at: http://nebuchadnezzarwoollyd.blogspot.com/2008/01/rating-ratings-study-of-tv-audience.html [Accessed 31 December 2012].
Hall S. 1980. Encoding/decoding. In Hall S. et al. eds. Culture, media, language. London: Centre for Contemporary Culture Studies, pp. 128-138.
Kaul A. And Wittink D.R. 1995. Empirical generalizations about the impact of advertising on price sensitivity and price. Marketing Science, 14 (3), pp. 151-160.
theories you selected, and explain how they provide a theoretical framework for your Final Project. Be specific, and provide examples.
n this week's Discussion, will briefly describe the structural/cultural social theory (traditional/classical) (Tangenberg, 2005, 197). n terms of contemporary theory, we will examine a theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration (contemporary social theory) in order to examine the issue of human trafficking (Case, 2008, 213). These theories provide a theoretical framework for the final project.
Due to the multi-faceted nature of human trafficking, it is necessary to examine it in terms of the old and the new slavery simultaneously. As Bales and Soodalter point out in their book, human trafficking has become a priority for the Obama administration (Bales & Soodalter, 2009, vii). For this reason, social work professionals have a window of opportunity in which to construct studies that will affect the contradictory sets of laws that…
In using the Tangenberg approach to combat trafficking, the theoretical integration of ecosystems and structuration has the potential to harness the great power of faith in the war against human trafficking. As they point out, the great social movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries were largely powered by religion as a progressive force. For instance, as Tangenberg documents, scholars such as Simon in 1994 have attributed empowerment practice ideology in the context of social workers to Quaker beliefs which found God in every person as the source of this empowerment. As the 19th century progressed and reactive philosophies such as Social Darwinism arose, so did progressive religious forces such as the Social Gospel.
The ecosystems perspective to social work appeared in the 1970s and 1980s. This plus postmodernism in the 1980s and 1990s led to a resurgence of interest in spiritual forces in social work (Tangenberg, 2005, 198). Tangenberg uses such modern examples as the Jackson Center that while faith-based does not proselytize, even it is affiliated with a large Protestant organization (ibid. 204).
As stated earlier, traditional social theory and contemporary social work theory must be used in tandem to have a complete "tool kit." In this way, the social worker can have the best of both worlds in the deliverance of high quality, professional, yet spiritually stimulating service to social work clients in holistic manner that befits
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…
Barker, A. (1992). Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future. New York NY: Jones & Bartlett Company.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Addressing New Challenges Facing Nursing Education. The Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/nacnep/reports/eighthreport.pdf
Early, G. (2005). Leadership Expectations: How Executive Expectations are Created and Used in a Non-Profit Setting. London, UK: OCMS Publishers.
Edmonson, C. (2010). Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), Manuscript 5.
Palese et al. (2011). According to Wood & Haber (2014) " the critique is process of critical appraisal that objectively and critically evaluates a research report's content for scientific merit and application to practice." Using the text's understanding of this examination this essay will explore the article and examine it for practical use and valid argument.
The problem that this research is premised upon is the idea that nurse's caring has gone mostly under examined in relation to patient's view of quality of care. The role of caring within the nursing profession is described as the factor which inspired this research. The variables within this examination are the patients' satisfaction measured against the practice of caring executed by nurses in their professional duties.
This problem is clearly identified and can be empirically tested as the article revealed in its conclusions. To help lessen the distortion of the ideas and values…
LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (Eds.). (2014). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Palese, A., et al. (2011). Surgical patient satisfaction as an outcome of nurses' caring behaviors: A descriptive and correlational study in six European countries. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 43(4), 341-350.
What is the Theory of Constraints?
There has been a continuous development of management from the time it was realized that it can be studied carefully to form a branch of knowledge and the individuals who had studied it generally performed better as managers than others who never spent time on the matter. The Theory of Constraints or TOC is basically a philosophy of management and improvement. The first person to draw the attention of the world to this was Eliyahu M. Goldratt and he brought it to the notice of others through his famous book, The Goal. The guiding principle behind this theory is that in any organization there exists a weak link, and this acts somewhat like a chain with a weak link. This tops the organization from performing even better than it is performing at any period of time. In short, it is important to remove…
Chaleff, Ira. (October, 1995) "Process Improvement for Knowledge Workers" AFSM International. Vol: 20; No: 3. Retrieved from http://www.ibt-pep.com/default.asp?ObjectID=257 Accessed on 29 May, 2005
'Constraint Management & Supplier Relations" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/supp1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
"Constraint Management & the Market" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/mktg1.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
'Critical Chain & Project Management the TOC Way" Retrieved from http://www.focusedperformance.com/projects.html Accessed on 30 May, 2005
There are many organizations that use strategic planning to implement change in their services so that the facility runs in a more effective manner. Thus, the overall responsibility of healthcare providers is to offer the best level of care to their patients. For those organizations that follow the plan process, they have had solid outcomes with staff and patient feedback. During my period of research, I generally noticed that many healthcare providers shared the same mission, which was to serve patients with the highest quality care through performance measurements and improvement processes. The ways in which the effectiveness of organizational change will be determined once implemented is through a strong and thorough understanding of roles and positions. This can be achieved through deadlines and guidelines being set so that the protocol is followed in all aspects through measurement. Measurement offer the ability to gather quantitative values to subjective…
Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2014). Change Agents, Networks, and Institutions: A Contingency Theory. Academy of Management Journal , 1-21.
Buchanon, D. (2013). Illusions and Delusions in the Organizational Change Process. Journal of Critical Postmodern Organizational Science, 7-15.
Oreg, S. (2011). Change Recipients' Reactions to Organizational Change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 461-524.
Thomas, R., & Hardy, C. (2011). Reframing resistance to organizational change. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 322-331.
Ethics and Morality: The Theories of Ethics and Morality
The subject in this case faces an ethical dilemma, where she has to choose between reporting an ethical concern and just playing along or doing nothing at all. Both choices have serious consequences -- reporting would mean that i) she loses her job and livelihood because of a confidentiality breach, and ii) she stops her organization from producing the environmentally-friendly hovercraft, and consequently, becomes the reason why the world will never enjoy clean unpolluted air. Playing along, on the other hand, would mean that she watches as 200,000 innocent lives are lost as a result of the hovercraft's incompatibility with existing models.
The subject has a duty to uphold confidentiality in all dealings that have to do with the company. Disclosing such information to the press would amount to breach of this duty. However, as a member of a corporate body,…
Fedler, K.D. (2006). Exploring Christian Ethics: Biblical Foundations for Morality. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Tully, P.A. (2006). Refined Consequentialism: The Moral Theory of Richard A. McCormick. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
Shaping of Virtues in a Child
There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?
The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the…
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
98). Tickner understands that men and women have been socialized to view "nurturing" as strictly a "feminine trait" and the "dominance of nature as masculine" -- and that the scientific tradition views nature as "something to be conquered and subjugated" (McNamara, p. 552).
Moreover, Tickner believes that care for the global environment must be seen as a "common human value" that men and women can and should respect; also, she asserts that environmental security goals cannot possibly be reached "as long as scholars and policy makers continue to divide the world according to gender stereotypes…" (McNamara, p. 552). In Mary Mellor's book, Feminism & Ecology, the author believes that it is essential for ecofeminists to critique "patriarchy" because women have "disproportionally born the brunt of environmental destruction" (Urbanik, 2001, p. 116). Still, "…getting the relations between humans right will not resolve the ecological imbalance because the source of much of…
McNamara, Kathleen R., 1993, 'Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security', Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, No. 2, 547-553.
Mellor, Mary, 1997, Feminism & Ecology. New York University Press, New York.
Rocheleau, Dianne E., Thomas-Slayter, Barbara P., and Wangari, Esther. 1996, Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experience, Routledge, New York.
Tickner, J. Ann, 1992, Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security, Columbia University Press, New York.
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.