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History of Tobacco
Ethics & Social Values
Ecology & Natural esources
Saint Leo Core Values
Throughout its long and storied history, tobacco has served the various appetites of religious shamans, aristocratic noblemen, common sailors, money changers and modern-day captains of industry. The aeromatic plant grew naturally in the moderate climates of the Americas and was transported to every corner of the world by seagoing merchants. Tobacco evolved from a miracle cure-all to a current medical pariah. From the days of King Philip III of Spain to present days, the tobacco industry has been controlled by a small number of governments and private companies. It wasn't until the nineteenth century that scientists began to understand the destructive nature of nicotine, about the same time that the automated cigarette rolling machine was…
Altria, (2011), Standard & Poor Stock Report, Charles Schwab, retrieved April 14, 2011 from https://www.schwab.wallst.com
Andre, Clair & Velasquez, Manuel, (2011), "The Morality of Marketing the Marlboro Man," Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University, retrieved April 14, 2011 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n4/marlboro/htm
Borio, Gene, (2011), Tobacco.org, "The Tobacco Timeline," retrieved April 14, 2011 from http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History
Boston University Medical Center, (2011), "History of Tobacco," retrieved April 14, 2011 from http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/tobacco/ history.htm#begin
Tobacco and Its Influence on the American Economy
Tobacco trade has been an integral part of the American economy for centuries. From its early use by the Native American Indians to its adoption by the European settlers in the New World in the early 17th century, tobacco has played a significant role in early and modern America in both an economic and political sense. "y the advent of the Civil War, the Indian custom had been transformed into a significant American industry. " (The Story behind the Homestead and Museum)
The powerful modern American economy can be traced back to the early European settlers and their search for economic security and gain. The initial New World economy gradually developed into a successful farming economy and eventually into the complex industrial economy of today. (The U.S. Economy: A rief History) In this process tobacco played an impart part in the founding…
Nichols, Capper. Tobacco and the rise of writing in colonial Maryland., The Mississippi Quarterly, December 22, 1996.
International Tobacco Issue. Accessed December 8. 2004.
http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:1n38v7rgIgMJ:www.international.ucla.edu/mun/syn/WHO_InternationalTobaccoIssue.doc+importance+of+tobacco+role+in+the+early+economy+of+America.& hl=en& start=12
The Fundamental Role of Tobacco in Shaping Virginia Society. Virginia Places. Accessed December 10, 2004 http://www.virginiaplaces.org/classschedule/7tobacco.html
Ironically, those opposed to smoking used the very same medium to help kill smoking in public places, restaurants, and even cars when children are present (as is the case in several states now). Smoking and tobacco products are a pariah now - no longer the universal symbol of cool, no matter how much money the companies spend on advertising.
The alcohol and gambling industries, on the other hand, have clearly taken a chapter out of the strife facing the tobacco companies and have done some very consistent things over the course of time. First, gambling and alcohol, all of the vices for that matter, have been connected with the adult world. But it is the "sin" of drink that led to prohibition, and the "sin" of gambling that led most states in the nation to outlaw the practice entirely. While tobacco has been considered to be a public nuiscance and…
Hemphill, T.A. (2002). A prohibition on advertising?. Regulation 25:1, p8(3).
Messner, M.A. & Montez, J. (2005). The male consumer as loser: beer and liquor ads in mega sports media events. Signs 30:3, p1879(31).
Pritcher, L. (2007) Tobacco Advertising. Duke.edu. Online. Internet. Avail. http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/eaa/tobacco.html . Info Acc: 11 April, 2007.
Quigley, P.H. (2006). Tobacco's Civil War: images of the sectional conflict on tobacco package labels. Southern Cultures 12:2, p53(5).
I would continue offering information including access to Web sites, books, and multimedia sources. If possible, I will spend extra time with the patient to help them reinforce their decision and offer psychological support.
Other ways to address resistance to change include asking the patient's family members and close friends to participate in their treatment plan. If the patient has children, the children can volunteer information about how they feel about their parent smoking. The children can offer anything from "I don't like the way it smells" to "I'm worry about mommy dying."
Friends who have stopped smoking can be among the greatest sources of psychological and social support during this critical time in the treatment plan. A friend who can be there not just to provide advice but also as a role model is an invaluable asset. Moreover, friends who have stopped will not tempt the patient by smoking…
The American Cancer Society (2002). Smoking Cessation Products. ACS
The Canadian Council for Tobacco Control (1999). Guide Your Patients to a Smoke-Free Future.
Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. Tobacco Cessation.
Interference of nicotine with the immune system further aggravates the chances of cardio-vascular disease. ("High Blood Pressure") Carbon monoxide, another constituent of tobacco smoke, latches on to the red blood cells reducing their ability to carry oxygen to the heart muscles and other parts of the body. It also causes thickening of the blood which can lead to a greater likelihood of clotting and increased risk of CHD.
Cigarette Smoking and Cancer: uestions and Answers." National Cancer Institute: Fact Sheet. 11/4/2004. March 8, 2008. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cancer
Hecht, Stephen S. "Tobacco Smoke Carcinogens and Lung Cancer." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 91, No. 14, 1194-1210, July 21, 1999. March 8, 2008. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/91/14/1194
High Blood Pressure: Tips to Stop the Silent Killer." University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). June 27, 2007. March 8, 2008. http://www.umm.edu/features/blood_pressure.htm
&a: Passive Smoking." BBC News World Edition. October 18, 2004. March 8, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/3235820.stm…
Q&a: Passive Smoking." BBC News World Edition. October 18, 2004. March 8, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/3235820.stm
Tobacco Use and Pregnancy." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Department of Health and Human Services. 10/2 / 07. March 8, 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/TobaccoUsePregnancy/
Prominent carcinogens present in tobacco smoke that have been shown to cause lung tumors in laboratory animals and humans are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (Hecht, 1999)
There are numerous legislative actions that have been addressed at the federal level. Both these laws, and the State of Washington's rules and regulations regarding tobacco and smoking present a complete overview of how this behavior is regulated.
The federal laws are numerous but there are some that stand out more than others when legislating tobacco. The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 prevented deception in acts of commerce which affected many of the health claims made by this industry. The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965 required package warning lable on cigarette packages. The Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969 prohibited cigarette advertising on television and radio. The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 excluded tobacco from being a controlled substance. More recent legislation includes Public Law 100-202 passed in 1987 that banned smoking on domestic airline flights . The most recent law is the Family…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. " Smoking and Tobacco Use." Viewed 28 May 2013. Web.
IMDb. "Water For Elephants." Viewed 28 May 2013. Web.
Washington State Department of Labor and Industries. "Tobacco." Viewed 28 Ma7 2013. Web
For example, the patient will be expressly forbidden from smoking based on behavioral cues or previous patterns such as immediately upon waking, with coffee, after meals, in conjunction with social interactions, or while doing anything enjoyable or recreational such as watching television. The purpose is to ensure that the only time the patient smokes during the first phase of this treatment plan will be for the express purpose of administering the necessary "dose" of nicotine to address actual physical withdrawal symptoms.
To help ensure that the only smoking will be for the purpose of addressing symptoms of physical withdrawal in the manner intended, the patient will be required to agree to conditions under which permissible smoking will occur. For example, if she determines that smoking is necessary because of actual symptoms of physical withdrawal, she will smoke a half of one cigarette standing on one leg in her backyard, or…
Although it is expected to die in Congress -- and President Bush has promised a veto if it does not -- a bill is currently circulating that would allow the FDA to control cigarette contents ("eynolds American" 2008). If this bill were to pass, and the likelihood of it doing so is much greater with a Democratic congress and president, it could mean the perpetual death of the tobacco industry. Thus, these issues continue to be primary as shareholders determine if and when to buy.
III. International Ethics
Once a symbol of American life and a major contributor to evolutionary War funds, tobacco quickly found itself unwanted by many vocal United States' citizens once its harmful health effects became known. Since the late 1990s, the issue of international ethics has been of prominence in the discussions regarding the tobacco industry. As outraged Americans began to restrict the tobacco industry's options…
"A brief history of tobacco." (2000). Retrieved September 28, 2008, from CNN.
Web Site: http://edition.cnn.com/U.S./9705/tobacco/history/
Charlton, Anne. (2004). Medicinal uses of tobacco in history. Journal of the Royal
Society of Medicine. 97(6), p. 292-296. Retrieved September 28, 2008, from the Royal Society of Medicine Press.
Tobacco Smoking in United State of America
Tobacco is a plant which belong to the nightshade family, which also include potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant and red pepper. Whoever the concentration of nicotine in these vegetables is lower compared to Tobacco.
Tobacco smoking has been shown to be unhealthy as it has proved to be the leading cause of preventable deaths in United States, killing more than four hundred thousand people and costing nearly $100 billion in health care bills every year, research shows that nearly all smokers start before the age of 18. Everyday 1000 become regular smokers while one-third of who die prematurely.
Research has also shown that it takes long time of constant smoking to actually become dependent to nicotine. People like the effects of nicotine and get used to them making them to desires it more, smokers think tobacco help them to reduce stress, anxiety and controlling their…
For example, one approach to regulation would be to outlaw tobacco use entirely, but this action would have serious consequences that the government may not be able to accept. Thus the government must walk a precarious line within its role in the system, cautious of setting precedents that could be harmful in other areas of governing, yet still acting in the interest of the public.
The authors identified five systemic problems that exist within the current tobacco management system:
1) Tobacco is marketed with the goal of making a profit, by for-profit tobacco industry companies, and this is at odds with the goals of the public health sector related to reducing the use of tobacco products.
2) the Tobacco Use Control subsystem is limited in its abilities to create and provide cessation products and prevention services, and lacks a dynamic capacity in addressing these issues
3) This same subsystem is…
Borland, R., Young, D., Coghill, K., & Ying Zhang, J. (2010). The tobacco use management system: Analyzing tobacco control from a systems perspective. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 1229-1236.
" (Sciencentral, 2006)
Sepsis is not the only immune response system disease that cigarette smoking has been credited for protection the individual from developing as it is additionally it is reported by Ulla that those who consume cigarettes are "...less prone to another disease of the immune system, ulcerative colitis. This inflammatory disease attacks the digestive system, but was found to affect a disproportionate number of non-smokers." (Sciencentral, 2006)
III. The Functions of Tobacco Litigation
The work of Vernick, Rutkow and Teret (2007) state in the work entitled: "Public Health enefits of Recent Litigation Against the Tobacco Industry" states that the litigation against the tobacco industry "...as with lawsuits involving other dangerous products...can serve several important functions." (Vernick, Rutkow and Teret, (2007) Those are stated as follows: (1) Lawsuits can compensate individuals harmed by the product; and (2) Lawsuits can serve a public health purpose by encouraging manufacturers to change…
Vernick, J.S.; Rutkow, Lainie; and Teret, Stephen P. (2007) Public Health Benefits of Recent Litigation Against the Tobacco Industry. JAMA Vol. 298. No.1-4 July 2007. Online available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/298/1/86
Chambers, Marcia (1985) Ideas & Trends; Tobacco Companies Breathe a Bit Easier. 29 Dec 1985. The New York Times. 8 Dec 2009. online available at: http://www.nytimes.com/1985/12/29/weekinreview/ideas-trends-tobacco-companies-breathe-a-bit-easier.html
Richman, Rich (1996) Escape from Responsibility. May 1996. The Future of Freedom Foundation. Online available at: http://www.fff.org/freedom/0596c.asp
Good Nicotine (2006) Sciencentral Archive. Online available at: http://www.sciencentral.com/articles/view.php3?article_id=218392804&cat=1_1
Alcohol, even at low doses, significantly impairs the judgment and coordination required to drive a car safely. Low to moderate doses of alcohol can also increase the incidence of a variety of aggressive acts, including domestic violence and child abuse. Hangovers are another possible effect after large amounts of alcohol are consumed; a hangover consists of headache, nausea, thirst, dizziness, and fatigue."
On the other hand, "prolonged, heavy use of alcohol can lead to addiction (alcoholism). Sudden cessation of long-term, extensive alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal symptoms, including severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations and convulsions. Long-term effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol, especially when combined with poor nutrition, can lead to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and liver. In addition, mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome."
All in all, I consider that the arguments stated…
Vladimir KRASICOV, "Vice," at http://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/vice.htm
You can quit smoking/Nicotine Addiction/, at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/quit_smoking/you_can_quit/nicotine.htm
US Code Collection, 8/14/99 www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/15/1331.html" Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act of 1969
World Health Organization, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Health_Organization
There are, of course, other methods that have been developed for the reduction of destruction to agricultural crops from pest insects such as the Manduca sexta, including the use of aqueous vermicompost solutions as fertilizers for plant growth (Edwards et al. 2010). The efficacy of such other endeavors arguably questions the need for the creation of food alternatives for the purposes of crop protection, and the current research definitely suggests that greater difficulties would be had in this area than in developing other plant-focused (rather than pest-focused) means of protecting crops and the interests of agribusiness. The increased growth rate of the artificial food source could also lead to problems with growing populations of the pest insect, leading to greater destruction by subsequent generations.
Ultimately, however, further research into the creation of alternative food sources is suggested before such methods and endeavors are entirely scrapped. The research clearly shows that…
Edwards, C.; Arancon, N.; Vasko-Bennet, M.; Askar, a. & Keeney, G. (2010). "Effect of aqueous extracts from vermicomposts on attacks by cucumber beetles (Acalymna vittatum) on cucumbers and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) on tomatoes." Pedobiologia 53(2), pp. 141-8.
Kingsolver, J. (2007). "Variation in growth and instar number in field and laboratory Manduca sexta." Proceedings - Royal Society. Biological sciences 274(1612), pp. 977-81.
Nijhout, H.; Smith, W. & Schachar, I. (2007). "The control of growth and differentiation of the wing imaginal disks of Manduca sexta." Developmental biology 302(2), pp. 569-76.
Pauchet, Y.; Wilkinson, P.; Vogel, H. & Nelson, D. (2010). "Pyrosequencing the Manduca sexta larval midgut transcriptome: messages for digestion, detoxification and defence." Insect molecular biology 19(1), pp. 61-75.
Just put out the facts and let the public make their own decision on the use of Tobacco products. At times revealing information and statistics is all the public needs.
Tobacco smoking is one of the most common habits prevalent throughout the world. People continue to smoke tobacco and there is very little concern for the health consequences of tobacco use. Every year smoking takes a huge toll on peoples lives, greater than any other epidemic disease like AIDS. Cardiac arrest and lung cancer are two of the potentially fatal diseases, which are directly attributed to tobacco smoking. Apart from this tobacco is also the leading cause for respiratory problems like asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, infertility, oral diseases and other complications. A discussion on the health effects of smoking, laws pertaining to tobacco trade and some statistical insight would certainly help us get a better picture of the problem.…
1) FRANK D. GILLILAND, YU-FEN LI, and JOHN M. PETERS, "Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Asthma and Wheezing in Children," AJRCCM, Volume 163, Number 2, February 2001, 429-436
2) Josephine Thomas, "Toddler Behavior and Early Smoking Experimentation," NIDA Notes, Volume 16, Number 1, March 2001, Accessed on May 13th 2004, http://www.drugabuse.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol16N1/Maternal.html
3)EPA, "Fact Sheet: Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://www.epa.gov /iaq/pubs/etsfs.html
4) HSC, "Smoking: Effects on Mothers and Babies in West Virginia," Accessed on May 14th 2004, http://www.wvdhhr.org/bph/oehp/hsc/briefs/four/
Tobacco Control Program
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is one of the oldest state tobacco control programs in the Nation. Established in 1990, CTCP was the first tobacco control program to include a change of social norms in its strategy. Largely a success due to impacts in and out of California, CTCP must continue to work against the tobacco industry's marketing tactics.
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established in 1990 and was the first tobacco control program to incorporate a change of social norms in its core strategy (California Department of Public Health, n.d.). The program's stated mission is "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). The program's ambitious long-term goals are to empower statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life…
tobacco industry has made its business by portraying smoking as hip, debonair, classy, and a symbol of stature in society. The way the tobacco companies went about doing this was by flooding the advertising markets with advertisements in both print and other media and recruiting public figures to promote their products. Over the years the tobacco industry has caused millions upon millions of addictions and deaths due to public opinion and use of their products. However, in recent years they have been getting a taste of their own medicine. Many people have now been steered away from smoking due to the blunt facts about smoking and its effects on everyone, even non-smokers. Due to this deluge of information, I feel very strongly that employers have every right to do anything they need to do to create and maintain a smoke-free workplace, even if this means banning cigarettes altogether and testing…
ABCNEWS.com: Serious Health Effects of Passive Smoking. 5 July 2001. http://abcnews.go.com/onair/ABCNEWSSpecials/smoking_010705_passive.html .
ACS: Americans Subject to Less Second-hand Smoke. http://www.cancer.org/eprise/.../NWS_T_TX_Americans_Subject_to_Less_Second_hand_Smoke .
Healthy People provides nationwide objectives for 10 years that are based on science with the objective of enhancing the health of all Americans nationwide and abroad. For the past 30 years, Healthy People has established standards and monitored advancement in the course of time so as to measure the influence of prevention activities, empower individuals towards undertaken knowledgeable and well-versed health decisions, and encouraging partnerships across communities and dissimilar sectors. Notably, Healthy People 2020 purposes to enhance the health of the nation with the main vision of attaining a society in which all individuals live lengthy and healthy lives (Healthy People, 2017).
The following is a small budget of a proposed program that will delineate expenses, the manner in which it will funded, the suitability of the choice of funding and why the program is essential on the basis of an objective from Healthy People 2020.
The effects of Tobacco…
Healthy People. (2017). About Healthy People. Retrieved from: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/About-Healthy-People
Healthy People. (2017). Tobacco Use. Retrieved from: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/tobacco-use
Surgeon General. (2017). Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/factsheet.html
Thus, tobacco advertisements tend to show these vulnerable and observational children and young adults that smoking is associated with their favorite athletes. This may make them more eager to try smoking. Yet still, the LPGA included a tobacco company within their arsenal of sponsorships. In order to determine if this was a good move, and potentially be a source of removing the sponsor from the list, they condoned a study of their audience's opinion. The results showed overall that the audience did support tobacco sponsorship, despite its unhealthy connotations.
There are several elements which the author failed to provide that could have given a clear explanation for the final result. Yes, its a common association between cigarettes and more health, but many fans of the specific sport may also be smokers. Sports, in large part, are adored by older adults, thus there is a larger market for more responsible adults…
Danylchuk, Karen E. (2000). Tobacco sponsorship: spectator perceptions at an LGPA event. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 9(2):103-113.
4. Was it ethical for the tobacco industry to continue to market cigarettes, even after evidence emerged that smoking caused lung cancer and other illnesses?
Purely from a rule utilitarian and personal rights perspective, it is difficult to justify so-called vice legislation, because governmental paternalism conflicts with individual freedoms of adults to make choices for themselves. From a more general functional utilitarianism perspective and general principles of justice in society, certain personal vices require legislation, simply because even their personal use harms society as a whole (Taylor, 1989). For example, tobacco use in public is a direct threat to the health and welfare of others, by virtue of exposure to second-hand smoke. Even more importantly, the aggregate cost in medical expenses ultimately borne by public health systems and insurers depletes public resources.
Ethically, there is no justification for manufacturing a product known to cause as much harm and human suffering…
FreePatentsOnline Website. (2007) Process for Treating, Drying and Expanding Tobacco; U.S. Patent No. 4,677,994 (Jul.7/87) Retrieved December 19, 2007, at http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4677994.html
Lehrer, J. (1998) Online News Hour: The Smoke Clears; Nov. 23/98. Retrieved December 19, 2007, at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/law/july-dec98/tobacco_11-23.html
The New York Times (1997) a Worrisome Tobacco Deal; Jun.21/97. Retrieved December 19, 2007, at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F03E1DB103EF932A15755C0A961958260
The State Tobacco Information Center (STIC) (1998) State of Arkansas v. American Tobacco Co., et al. (complaint) (5/5/97)
At first glance, many would agree that there is little reason to keep the tobacco industry afloat. The glaring health concerns and ethically questionable political actions of this industry have vilified its members in the eyes of countless global citizens. However, upon objective examination of the relevant data one finds this industry to be startlingly lucrative. Accordingly, the global production of tobacco continues to be a leading commodity in the globalized market. The fiscal benefits realized by governments are another factor promoting the security of this industry far into the future . What is more, knowing the high volume of production in this industry, there are certainly quite a few jobs at stake. When considering the relatively inelastic demand for tobacco products, this industry is one of the rare arenas that is presumably capable of offering its employees genuine job security. Thus, bearing in mind the uncertainty present in…
Action on Smoking and Health. "ASH Research Report." 1 August 2007. Tobacco: Global Trends. 21 October 2011 .
Australia Bureau of Statistics. "Australian National Accounts, National Income, Expenditure and Product." 6 September 2006. Household Final Consumption HFCE Australia. 21 October 2011 .
Collins, David J. And Helen M. Lapsley. "The Costs of Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse to Australian Society in 2004/05." 1 January 2008. National Drug Strategy. 21 October 2011 .
PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Sales of Cigarettes and Tobacco Products by Type of Retail Business." 7 January 2005. An Analysis of the Significance of Sales of Cigarettes and Tobacco Products to Tobacco Retailers in Australia. 21 October 2011 .
Because the tobacco industry sells a product that kills one million people in India annually, therefore, industry's interests will always be in conflict with public health. It is high time that national tobacco control policies in India are congruent to what India is obligated to do by ratifying the international global tobacco treaty - HO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (HO FCTC).'" (CNS, 1)
This underscores the basic policy position of the AFTC as it has voiced the public demand for more aggressive product-labeling. Particularly, the AFTC has reported on evidence that current health warning policies lack effectiveness. This has underscored the push for pictorial warnings depicting the mouths of tobacco users who have developed cancer. (CNS, 1) This is an important consideration as it helps to delineate an appropriate intervention strategy within the print media. The AFTC is working based off of findings in other developing nations that demonstrate…
ANI. (2010). Cigarette Ads Can Fuel Teens' Smoking Desires The Times of India.
Arori, M.; Reddy, K.S. & Stigler, M.H. (2010). Associations Between Tobacco Marketing and Use Among Urban Youth in India. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32(2), 283-294.
Bansal, R.; John, S. & Ling, P.M. (2005). Cigarette Advertising in Mumbai, India: Targeting Different Socioeconomic Group, Women, and Youth. Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, 14, 201-206.
Braun, S.; Mejia, R.; Ling, P.M. & Perez-Stable, E.J. (2008). Tobacco Industry Targeting Youth in Argentina. Tobacco Control, 17, 111-117.
Environmental Tobacco and Asthma
Does environmental tobacco smoke increase the risk of asthma in children?
Smoking is observed as a common habit among uncountable number of people belonging to various countries of the world. It is expected that the number of smokers will rise in the near future because of attractive marketing campaigns run by tobacco companies. There was a time when only men were habitual to smoking. In the modern 21st century, youngsters and girls are also exposed to the thrills of smoking. People love to smoke despite knowing about its detrimental effects.
It is interesting to mention that smoking kills not only the smokers but also the ones who hate it. It is an interesting study that non-smokers are subject to all harmful effects of smoking just because they are present in the environment where people smoke.
There is significant relationship between passive smoking and disease and mortality…
Austin, J.B., Selvaraj, S., Godden, D. & Russell, G. (2005). Deprivation, smoking, and quality of life in asthma. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 9 (3), 253-257.
Cheraghi, M. & Salvi, S. (2009). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 168 (8), 897-905.
Chilmonczyk, B.A., Salmun, L.M., Megathlin, K.N., Neveux, L.M., Palomaki, G.E., Knight, G.J., . . . Haddow, J.E. (1993). Association between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Exacerbations of Asthma in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 328 (n.d.), 1665-1669.
DiFranza, J.R., Aligne, C.A. & Weitzman, M. (2003). Prenatal and Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children's Health. Official Journal of American Academy of Pediatrics n.d..
The different practices studied varied a lot in how often and how intensely they participated in anti-tobacco activities with patients.
The conclusions drawn by the authors of this article were that there are not enough tobacco control activities taking place among physicians. Those that are addressing tobacco with patients need to increase the intensity and frequency with which they do so. Those that are not addressing tobacco with patients need to begin to do so. Each practice should be individually evaluated to determine what changes need to be made to the tobacco use prevention policies and how to implement these changes most effectively. Physicians need to abandon the one-size-fits-all approach and actually individualize intervention methods for each patient and each specific situation. Simply handing out promotional literature on smoking will not be effective enough and a more complete approach must be planned.
While the conclusions drawn by the authors of…
Backer, E.L., Crabtree, B.F., Gilbert, C., Havranek, R., & McIlvain, H.E. (1997).
Current trends in tobacco prevention and cessation in Nebraska physicians' office. Journal of Family Practice, 44,193-202. Archived article accessed online October 2, 2004 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_n2_v44/ai_19181952 .
The Topic Company: DN.
1) Does the organization treat management and leadership as one in the same? YES or NO
2) Does the organization rely heavily on employee training and development? YES or NO
3) Does the program use employee feedback at the lowest levels in its overall decision making process? YES or NO
4) Do you believe all stakeholders are aware of the organizations goals and objectives and are willing to work towards the achievement of those goals? YES or NO
5) in your opinion is the organization structured in a way that inhibits innovation? YES or NO
6) Are there any other aspects that you believe should be improved within the organization? If so, how?
1) Bulmer, M. And Warwick, D. (1993). Social research in developing countries: surveys and censuses in the Third World. London: outledge.
2) Ebbutt, D. (1998). Evaluation of projects…
1) Bulmer, M. And Warwick, D. (1993). Social research in developing countries: surveys and censuses in the Third World. London: Routledge.
2) Ebbutt, D. (1998). Evaluation of projects in the developing world: some cultural and methodological issues. International Journal of Educational Development, 18, pp. 415-424.
3) Potter, C. (2006). Program Evaluation. In M. Terre Blanche, K. Durrheim & D. Painter (Eds.), Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences (2nd ed.) (pp. 410-428). Cape Town: UCT Press.
4) Potter, C. (2006). "Psychology and the art of program evaluation." South African journal of psychology 36 (1):
3. Third world countries are more likely to rely more heavily upon excise taxes on gasoline, tobacco, and alcohol because those are products that sell very well around the world. These are also products that are in a number of cases, particularly tobacco, that are cheaper than essential items such as water or food. Taxes on tobacco help poor countries who would rely on the taxes more wealthy and more reliant upon tobacco.
4. People in lower and middle income countries are more likely to react to taxation on tobacco because for the consumers of that product in those countries, they will have less income for food and shelter for example. People in wealthier countries can afford the increase; they may hardly notice the increase and if it bothers them on principle, for example, they can afford other alternatives just as easily.
5. Whether or not a government uses consumptive…
Berlinger, Joshua. "Why Smokers Shouldn't be Scared of the WHO's Global Recommendations for Cigarette Taxes." Business Insider, Web, Available from: http://www.businessinsider.com/who-global-cigarette-tax-2012-9 , 2012. 2013 May 13.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay. "Wealth Health Organization Calls for Higher Taxes on Tobacco." The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/28/world/world-health-organization-calls-for-higher-taxes-on-tobacco.html , 2002. 2013 May 13.
S. provide funds for staff development on drug use and alcohol use by school-age children. But only 26% of elementary school classes and required middle school and high school health education courses had a teacher that had received "staff development on alcohol or other drug-use prevention" (SHIPPS). Still, SHIPPS reports that 91.4% of high schools and 80.4% of middle schools surveyed teach the "benefits of not using alcohol" and 90.3% of high schools and 79.4% of middle schools teach the "benefits of not using illegal drugs." These data are based on schools that have "required instruction" in those areas of health education.
An article in the Journal of School Health (Summerlin-Long, 2008) details "tobacco-free school" (TFS) policies; the article references "positive reports" from "key informants" in 46 school districts in North Carolina that had passed TFS policies between December 2001 and August 2005. This article is particularly pertinent because of…
Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly. (2002). Teenagers abusing cough syrup. Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-2173465_ITM .
Brooks, Ashley, Gaier Larkin, Elizabeth M., Kishore, Sonal, & Frank, Scott. (2008).
Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 32(6),
Bryant, Alison L. (2003). How Academic Achievement, Attitudes, and Behaviors Relate
Healthy People 2020 and Tobacco Use
The Healthy People 2020 initiative provides a set of goals to improve the health of American citizens. The science-based goals set out ten-year targets to be achieved by 2020 across a wide range of health issues. One health issue included in the initiative is tobacco use with a target to reduced tobacco use to a "point that it is no longer a public health problem" (DHHS, 2012).
Over the last forty years there ahs been a wealth of research examining the health impacts associated with the use of tobacco, with tobacco use being cited as being the single most preventable cause of death in the United States (DHHS, 2012). Tobacco has a negative impact on those who smoke as well as those who do not smoke but are exposed to the second hand smoke. The health problems associated with tobacco use in cancer, heart…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2005), Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs -- United States, 1995 -- 1999, MMWR, 51(14), 300-3
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC), (2012), United States Cancer Statistics (USCS), retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/
Frieden, Joyce, (2004, June 15), Peer pressure likely to prompt tobacco use: behavior predictors studied, Family Practice News, p66
Guilfoyle, Jessica, (2011), Toll of Tobacco in the United States of America, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, retrieved 17th March 2012 from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0072.pdf
Taxes on Alcohol and Tobacco:
The alcohol industry is increasingly being considered for an increase in taxes in attempts to help in providing health care insurance to all people. As heath care insurance continues to be a major issue in the United States, policy makers are looking for effective measures to provide health insurance coverage for all. Currently, senators and other policy makers are focusing on the ways to provide health care coverage in order to extend insurance for approximately 50 million uninsured Americans that could total to $1.5 trillion over a decade. Furthermore, these policymakers are examining various ways to lessen expenses and increase taxes including increasing alcohol and tobacco tax to help cater for the expansion. The main reason for the proposed increase in taxes of alcohol and tobacco is that they are among the main contributors to the increasing medical costs. With these proposals and measures, the…
Gravelle, J.G. & Zimmerman, D. (1994, March 8). Cigarette Taxes to Fund Health Care
Reform: An Economic Analysis. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from U. http://www.forces.org/evidence/files/crs-tax.htm
"Higher Taxes on Alcohol Being Considered." (n.d.). Promises Treatment Centers. Retrieved October 28, 2012, from http://www.promises.com/articles/public-policies/higher-taxes-on-alcohol-being-considered/
Minmum 750 words.
The tobacco industry is one of the most successful businesses in the contemporary society. This happens in spite of the fact that individuals who smoke are very well-acquainted with the risks coming along with smoking the substance. What is even more concerning is that smoking is often adopted by certain individuals as a result of the fact that they believe that they are fashionable because they smoke. Surely, freedom is one of the most important values that the social order benefits from and it would be absurd to deny someone the right to smoke as long as the respective individuals understands the risks and still wants to do it. However, considering that most people who start to smoke do it because they are searching for social acceptance or simply want to feel what it is like to smoke, it seems that the system needs to install more…
Pahl, Nadine, and Richter, Anne, "Does the Latest German Anti-Smoking Law Affect the Restaurant Behaviour of the Berlin People?," (GRIN Verlag, 2009)
Slovic, Paul, "Smoking: Risk, Perception & Policy," (SAGE 2001)
Enterprise systems development strategy BITISH AMEICAN TOBACCO
British American Tobacco (BAT) is a leading tobacco company globally producing 200 brands of cigarettes. The company global drive brands are Dunhill, Pall Mall, Kent, and Lucky Strike, and these brands provide 35% of the company revenue. Other international brands manufactured by the company are Benson & Hedges, othmans, Viceroy, Vogue, Kool, Gold leaf, John player, Express 555 etc. British American Tobacco operates under tobacco industry and is the second largest tobacco company in the world with market capitalization of $98.07 billion. The overall market capitalization of tobacco industry is $356 billion and within the global tobacco industry, British American enjoys 27.55% of the market share. However, Philip Morris International Inc. is an industry leader with the market capitalization reaching approximately $151.2 billion.
British American Tobacco operates in 180 markets with more than 708 billion cigarettes sold annually. The vision of the company…
Annual Report, (2011). British American Tobacco 2011 Annual Report. London British American Tobacco (2011). Our History. British American Tobacco Plc. London.
Dai, Y. & Su, Y. (2009).Assuring the Information Quality of Production Planning and Control in Tobacco Industries. Cooperation and Promotion of Information Resources in Science and Technology: 236 -- 241.
Eshlaghi, A.T. Asadollahi, A. & Poorebrahimi, A.(2011). The Role of Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) in the Contribution and Integration of the Information in the Supply Chain. European Journal of Social Sciences.20(1): 16-27.
Huang, C. & Hsu, P. (2011). Perceptions of the Impact of Chief Executive Leadership Style on Organization Performance through Successful Enterprises Resources Planning. Social Behavior and Personality. 39(7): 865-878.
Typically the highest unemployment rates in these nations are in the most rural of areas, which are precisely the areas where tobacco tax-based dollars are most often investment.
The reliance on taxes from tobacco across the 24 nations profiled in Figure 2 also lead many of the tobacco farmers not just in these nations, but globally, to have a higher level of income stability per acre, and also generate higher income for small and medium farmers. These are critical aspects of the broader and longer-term economic strategies of third-world nations to ensure that their most transient and difficult-to-transfer workers stay in their field of experience, which is agriculture. By incenting agricultural expertise in tobacco farmers, there is also a pronounced focus on how to increase profits per acre, thereby giving farmers and their families a chance to better themselves and also receive better healthcare and education in the process. In…
The World Bank (2003)- the Economics of Tobacco Use & Tobacco Control in the Developing World. The World Bank. Brussels 3-4, February 2003
US Census Bureau (2007) - U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances (01-June-07); and State & Local Government Finance Data Query
State and Local Tobacco Tax Revenue, Selected Years 1977-2005 thousands of dollars)
Established in 1990, the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is one of America's oldest state tobacco control programs. As a longstanding program, CTCP is logically evaluated by "process evaluation" questions. Fortunately, the program's 20+ years of existence in serving large target populations provides a significant amount of meaningful data for collection and evaluation.
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established in 1990 with the stated mission "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). To that end, CTCP embraced the core strategy of changing social norms (California Department of Public Health, n.d.) and long-term goals of: empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by providing leadership and research in advocating social norms creating an environment that is tobacco free; stopping illegal tobacco sales…
Anonymous. (n.d.). Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation.
Anonymous. (n.d.). Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation.
California Department of Public Health. (2010, modified 10/31/2012). California Tobacco Control Program. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from www.cdph.ca.gov Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Pages/default2.aspx
California Department of Public Health. (n.d.). About the California Tobacco Control Program. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from www.cdph.ca.gov Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/tobacco/Documents/Making%20a%20Difference%20012012.pdf
Tobacco arketing: Get Them Young or Not at All
The tobacco industry has been in a battle to capture the youth market for decades mainly because of the degree of brand loyalty that is characteristic of cigarette smokers. Cigarette companies have a lot at stake in making sure that their brand is one of the first tried by the young smoker. In its bid to obtain young smokers, R.J. Reynolds created the Joe Camel campaign with a cool character that youths found highly appealing and the company created fierce advertising, promotional, and sales campaigns to take their message to market. The Joe Camel campaign proved to be one of the most successful bids to capture young smokers in tobacco history. Ultimately, its tremendous success was in part the reason for the campaign's eventual downfall, as public outcry demanded that cigarette companies stop marketing to adolescents and as courts gained…
Magazine Ads. http://www.costkids.org/targetingkids/magazineads.htm (26).
Boyles, Salynn. "Joe Camel May Be Gone, But Legacy Lives On." WebMD Medical News, Aug 15, 2001. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.86774 (26 Nov. 2002).
Tobacco Marketing To Young People, Young People: A Key Expansion Market. http://www.infact.org/youth.html (26).
British American Tobacco Company: Business Ethics
The British American Tobacco company is a multinational company with over 200 brands that they have developed under the guidance; the company is staggeringly successful, selling 694 billion cigarettes in 2012 (bat.com). The worldwide company sees itself, and many would argue, rightfully so, as a powerful forces that has stimulated economies all over the globe in lasting and measurable ways: in 2012, the company's "subsidiaries enabled governments worldwide to gather more than £30 billion in duty, excise and sales taxes on our products, more than seven times the Group's profit after tax" (bat.com). Being a stimulus to the economy and a pillar of economic stability is something that company prides itself on: British American Tobacco has 44 factories in 39 countries, employing 55,000 people worldwide in a massive multicultural workforce (bat.com).
The company claims that it gives each local factory a tremendous amount of…
Bat.com. (n.d.). Homepage. Retrieved from http://www.bat.com/servlet/SPMerge?mainurl=/group/sites/UK__3MNFEN.nsf/vwPages
BBC. (2000, September 20). Uk tobacco firm targets african youth. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/933430.stm
Irin. (2007, November 9). Nigeria: Govt hits tobacco companies with whopping law suit.
Settlement of Tobacco During Clinton's Presidency:
The first ever initiative by the United States to safeguard its children from tobacco and long-term addiction to nicotine occurred during the tenure of President Bill Clinton. This was through the announcement by the president regarding a comprehensive program that was geared towards accomplishing this purpose in August 23, 1996. The comprehensive program commenced with the publication of the final rule on tobacco by the Food and Drug Administration. The publication was followed by the administration's launch of a process that required tobacco firms to educate children and adolescents regarding the hazards of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes through a nationwide multi-media campaign.
According to the legislation, tobacco products were sold to people from 18 years and above with those under the age of 27 years required to produce photo IDs as from February 28, 1997 ("Clinton Administration Outlines," 1997). As part of his outline,…
"Clinton Administration Outlines Tobacco Settlement Review Process." (1997, June 27). Health
and Human Services Archive. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://archive.hhs.gov/news/press/1997pres/970627b.html
Reuters (1997, August 19). Clinton Seeks to Boost Tobacco Settlement. Retrieved March 3, 2012,
Marketing obacco Dilemma
After returning from Ohio on a road trip, some friends informed us that on the way back home while gassing up, they were asked by kids on two different occasions to buy them some cigarettes. Our friends told the kids no on each occasion. What does this isolated observation have to do with the tobacco industry? he tobacco industry has continued to market their products to children throughout the nation, and they have even gone after kids in other nations. "Since the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998, tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly increased in the retail environment." (New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services) he description of the kids, obviously minors, asking an adult to buy them cigarettes is illegal. What the tobacco industry has continued to do in regard to marketing cigarettes to kids is immoral, unethical and illegal. his paper…
The tobacco industry has been forced to look abroad to sell the majority of their cigarettes and third world countries may be perfect targets. "By the year 2000, 80% of the world's population will live in less-developed countries. These countries already consume more tobacco than the developed countries." (Chapman & Leng, 2004) The United States tobacco giants have gone as far as litigate through international courts to forcefully open up third world nations' markets to tobacco products. In 2000, the Tobacco giants together sued Thailand in General Agreement and Tariffs and Trade court to reduce their tobacco tariffs. The U.S. Tobacco companies were working feverishly to maintain their profitability but they are clearly going about it through an unethical marketing effort.
We all know that how a product is marketed can make a huge difference in sales. "Brazil also has probably the highest level of tobacco advertising per capita in the world. When advertising stopped for a year, cigarette sales fell 4.8% in nine months." (Chapman & Leng, 2004) The American Cancer Society continues to be critical of U.S. tobacco companies' marketing strategies. Everyone hears about the United States' trade surplus. But not many people ever hear that the United States has become the largest exporter of tobacco products in the world. Our tobacco companies have been chastised because they not only sell a product they know is harmful; they boost the very properties that make the product bad when selling abroad. In other words, they sell cigarettes with tar levels that are higher than the products sold in the United States. The worst part of this is that their marketing strategy is directed at women and children in countries that never had high levels of smokers.
There have to be alternatives to this approach of selling high tar laced cigarettes in third world nations to women and children. It just sounds wrong because it is wrong.
Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.
Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users
In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.
The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…
Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.
Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age
New York: Little Brown & Co.
Not even 50 years ago, many people felt skeptical about the hazards of cigarette smoking. Although increasing numbers of studies showed that some connection existed between tobacco and lung and heart ailments, questions still remained about the true effects on health. In 1964, however, the United States Surgeon General Luther Terry confronted 200 media reporters in a State Department auditorium for two hours and completely changed the course of history. For the first time, the American government made it official: Smoking causes lung cancer. How much of an impact did this warning and other warnings to come by the Surgeon General and additional interested parties in the future alter the numbers of people smoking nationwide? The results are not too promising.
After the Surgeon General's first announcement, there was an immediate reaction. At this time, about 46% of people smoked in the U.S. When Americans heard the Surgeon…
Bowman, Lee. "Potomac Watch: 40 years ago, government linked smoking to cancer."
Scripps Howard News Service, January 10, 2004. 31. May 2005. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/national/156042_pot10.html
Eckman, B, & S. Goldberg. "The viability of the Marlboro Man among the 18-24 segment." Bates no. 204462266-2024462292., 8, 1992.
Geoffrey Fong. "UW Researcher to get U.S. Grant to study Warning Labels." 31 May, 2005. http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infonews/release/2002/153%20Cigarette%20warning%20labels%20studied,%20July%2024,%202002.html
Beverage & obacco
Beverage and obacco Industry Analysis
Although the beverage and tobacco industry face mounting obstacles to their success, there are also an infinite number of possible opportunities. One clear opportunity is provided by emerging markets. he numbers of individuals who have greater levels of disposable incomes are increasing exponentially in the developing world. his represents a tremendous opportunity for corporations in the beverage and tobacco industry to tap into these emerging markets. Another opportunity for this industry can be thought of in terms of a localization initiative. here are growing concerns in industrialized nations which are centered on health issues. hus the beverage and tobacco industry stands the potential to innovate based on the consumer demands. hey could create a diversified product portfolio that was catered to the needs of the specific market.
here are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and…
There are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and tobacco industry. The first is the trend that is emerging in many of the industry's primary markets which is that the consumers are becoming more health conscious. Thus consumer demand for tobacco products and unhealthy beverages that contain ingredients such as high fructose corn syrup are diminishing rapidly. Many consumers are dedicated to living more healthy lifestyles and as a consequence they are shunning products that are not consistent with this preference. Another threat that is driven by consumer preference but represent an entirely different level of threat is that many health considerations are actually the subject of increasing regulations. For example, many cities have chosen to ban smoking from public spaces as well as prohibit unhealthy beverages being sold at places such as schools.
There are a countless number of manufactures and suppliers in this industry. Phillip Morris is one of the world's largest tobacco companies which name was officially rebranded in 2003 under a new name known as Atria. Atria also holds a significant stake in Kraft foods and also subsidiaries that operate in the wine industry. PepsiCo is one of the largest food and beverage companies and the largest U.S. based firm in the industry. InBev is one of the largest alcoholic manufactures and distributors in the world and operates in over one hundred thirty different countries. It recently purchased Anheuser-Busch in 2009 which significantly increased the size of the operations. To complete the deal, the United States required that InBev quit importing certain brands of beers to the U.S. market so that InBev would meet anti-trust regulations.
hile each of these studies has reported a cardioprotective effect of alcohol, they differ over which type of alcoholic beverage provides the greatest benefit" (634).
Overlooked in many of these studies, though, is the fact that some people who categorize themselves as being one type of drinker compared to another may engage in other activities that are unhealthy from the outset (for instance, beer drinkers may be more likely to also be tobacco users) while others may engage in a wide range of healthy behaviors (for example, wine drinkers may not be smokers and may job or exercise regularly). As McGregor and his colleagues emphasize, "One inherent difficulty within these studies is that in the general population, drinkers distinguished as primarily wine, beer or spirits drinkers tend to differ in other important aspects. If, for example, wine drinkers are found to be healthier, it may be the result of a…
"Alcohol." 2009, Partnership for a Drug-Free America. [Online]. Available: http://www.drug free.org/Portal/drug_guide/Alcohol.
Booth, Brenda M., Joann, Kirchner, John Fortney, Robin Ross and Kathryn Rost, 2000, "Rural
At-Risk Drinkers: Correlates and One-Year Use of Alcoholism Treatment Services."
Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61(2): 267.
Health Care -- Measurable Outcomes -- Tobacco Control Program
n "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of a program. Programs ideally have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes leading to achievement of the program's stated goals. The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is an excellent example of a program that has attained short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes due to its aggressive, ambitious mission and efforts. Through its 20+ year history, the CTCP program's outcomes have included significant inroads in public attitudes about smoking, lower smoke-related illness, morbidity and health care costs, and impactful actions against the tobacco industry. Given the measurable outcomes of the CTCP program, it is understandably a guiding force for tobacco control programs in other states and countries.
Body: The Measurable Outcomes that Would be Representative of the California Tobacco Control Program
n important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome"…
An important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of the program (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 31). Well-planned programs typically have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes that ideally lead to achievement of the program's stated goals. A short-term outcome is typically an immediate effect of a program, usually focusing on the target population's desired gains in attitudes, knowledge and skills because of the program. Some examples of short-term outcomes for a tobacco control program might include: the public's greater awareness of the harms of environmental tobacco smoke; the public's greater understanding of valid reasons for bans on smoking in public places; and business owners' more positive reactions to smoking bans in places of business (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). An intermediate outcome normally involves a more established change in behavior, norms and policies. Some examples of intermediate outcomes for a tobacco control program are voluntary clean air policies and voluntary bans on smoking in public places (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). A long-term outcome is typically achieved over a period of years. Examples of long-term outcomes for a tobacco control program are: a decrease in the use of tobacco; a decrease in tobacco-related illness; and a decrease in tobacco-related deaths (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). Though tobacco control programs may differ in some specific approaches, their short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes are often similar or even identical.
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established more than 20 years ago with the specific mission "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). With that ambitious mission in mind, CTCP developed the core strategy of changing social norms (California Department of Public Health, n.d.) and long-term goals of: empowering health agencies to promote health and quality of life by giving leadership and research advocating the appropriate social norms creating a tobacco-free environment; halting illegal tobacco sales to California youth; combatting the aggressive marketing employed by the tobacco industry; assisting people in permanent smoking cessation programs (California Department of Public Health, n.d.). Given the ardent mission and long history of the CTCP, it has achieved numerous measurable short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes, though the program has operated so successfully for such a long time that many of the cited outcomes are long-term.
The CTCP's measurable outcomes, whether short-term, intermediate or long-term, are so numerable that it they could not be listed in a short paper. However, several measurable outcomes are obvious. For example, through data collection and evaluation, researchers have found
"FDI in a Developing Country: Case of British American Tobacco" examines the particularities of British American Tobacco's long, and complex, history in India. The article traces the company from its origins as the result of a merger between a major American tobacco company and a major British tobacco company in 1902 all the way up to present times. In addition to providing a seemingly comprehensive detailing of the mergers, acquisitions, and other changes in ownership, leadership, and revenue that have marked the company's history, including that within India, the article highlights some characteristics of British American Tobacco and its actions in India that distinguish the company from many others involved in foreign direct investment in a developing country. One of these was the decision by company leadership to align the company's business interests with the professed national interests of India and its government. The second distinguishing characteristic relates…
Nayak, Amar K.J.R. 2008, 'FDI in a Developing Country: Case of British American Tobacco', XIMB Centre for Case Research: Multinationals in India, pp. 1-29.
Janet should not really have a moral dilemma here -- she already knows she can't take the job. The dilemma is presented in a couple of ways. The first is the argument that Janet needs employment, and this job can give her the employment that she needs, and she must weigh this against her own convictions. In fact, that is not quite accurate in terms of framing. First, there are strict laws regarding the marketing of tobacco products to youth. The FDA is tasked with developing and enforcing these laws, as of 2009 in the Tobacco Control Act (NIH, 2015), and that includes a minimum legal age of 18 for the purchase of tobacco products, and a variety of restrictions on the promotion of tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco, to youth (NIH, 2015). If the company is marketing to 12-year-olds, then it is violating both the letter and…
FDI in a Developing Country Case of British American obacco
Globalization is a reality. Partnerships between international companies and international governments are fairly routine in today's marketplace. In many ways, this trend in business began from the ashes of colonization. Amar K.J.R. Nayak's journal article, "FDI in a Developing Country Case of British American obacco" demonstrates part of the history of today's global economy by tracing the chronological development of the British American obacco (BA) company's involvement in India.
his article provides a comprehensive overview of BA's history, which is heavily rooted in the development of the international tobacco and cigarette industry. he company's initial expansion from Britain to India occurred in the early part of the 20th century during the epoch in which the British colonized the latter country. his development would ultimately prove to tremendously benefit BA, as its developments in India greatly assisted the British company in…
The British company's involvement with its Indian expansion was not entirely seamless. BAT had to demonstrate a cultural sensitivity to the needs of its Indian counterparts by slowly, systematically removing the majority of its employees from the Indian branches of its business. Eventually this move would pay off, as BAT was able to greatly increase its profits by diversifying the company into its subsidiary, ITC. Actually, the relationship between BAT and ITC was somewhat symbiotic in the sense that it allowed for greater business diversification and entry into more markets for BAT, and enabled India to modernize and to industrialize in a way that would not have been possible without some form of outside assistance.
It is quite clear that the primary boon of BAT's involvement in India was the legacy of companies it engendered, some of the most lucrative of which it is a mere partner in. Yet one particular aspect o the history of BAT that the author of this article alluded to, yet did not specifically address has to do with the issue of ownership of the conglomeration that BAT spawned through its activity on India's soil. Nayak's article takes great pains to emphasize BAT's dominance over its subsidiaries, which lasted until the middle of the 20th century. Yet the author offers relatively no explanation for the transition of ownership from BAT to ITC that was solidified in 1975. He simply states that this occurrence happened, leaving the reader curious as to what was responsible for such a significant transition.
In fact, the significant reduction in equity that BAT possesses in what essentially was its scion, ITC, serves to underscore this confusion on the part of th reader. The article would have been better served by explaining what factors were responsible for such a change. Still, the overall strength of this particular article is its comprehensive nature. It manages to chronicle the rise and expansion of a company for more than 100 years. In attempting to do so, the author may not have provided as many details as readers may have wanted. Still, in relating the history of that long of a time period, is not always space to cover every aspect of a company's history as thoroughly as one may have if one were simply writing about a particular aspect of a company's history. Additionally, the article does well to depict the cultural differences that BAT had to take account for in order to eventually continue to grow as a company in India.
CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products
(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?
There is a mix of winners and losers in this story and some parties could be considered both. For example, CVS is gaining a lot of support for its new focus on health, but it also does so at the expense of revenues. The video mentions that CVS's revenue will decrease from the organization stopping the sale of tobacco products at its retail chains.
The consumers could also be considered both winners and losers. The video mentions one individual who states that he will simply have to walk across the street to buy his cigars. However, other tobacco customers could be more significantly inconvenienced and have to travel further to buy tobacco products. However, depending on the perspective, some would argue that…
Boughton, J. (2014, January 16). Reflecting on the history of smoking cessation. Retrieved from MedPage: http://www.kevinmd.com/blog/2014/01/reflecting-history-smoking-cessation.html
Tobacco Education and Outreach Specialist
egularly reviews published peer-reviewed literature on the health impacts of tobacco use and addiction, and writes blog posts and news articles based on this data.
Designs and implements outreach programs for varying demographics, focusing on smoking prevention as well as smoking cessation.
Investigates local tobacco retailers and ensures compliance with tobacco control legislation.
Issues warning letters accordingly when tobacco vendors have been shown to violate tobacco control legislation.
Provides, when necessary, testimony in courtrooms for tobacco-related lawsuits.
Creates comprehensive tobacco education programs for the corporate sector, with the goal of helping organizations become tobacco-free environments.
Works closely with local health care organizations including private clinics and hospitals, to promote tobacco education services.
Degree in public health administration, nursing, or related field.
Work or internship experience in a public health organization.
Strong verbal and written communication skills.
$35,000-$45,000 ("Community Outreach Specialist Careers,"…
"Community Outreach Specialist Careers," (n.d.). Careers in Public Health. Retrieved online: http://www.careersinpublichealth.net/careers/community-outreach-specialist
Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resources management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 38(3): 635-672.
"Recruitment and Retention," (n.d.). PHF. Retrieved online: http://www.phf.org/programs/recruitmentandretention/Pages/RecruitmentandRetention_of_public_healthworkers.aspx
United States Department of Labor (2016). Summary of the major laws of the Department of Labor. Retrieved online: http://www.dol.gov/general/aboutdol/majorlaws
MEDIA LA: Argue Against: Discuss 1st amendment implications Family Prevention Tobacco Act 2009. Are tobacco
The Family Prevention Tobacco Act of 2009 was one of the more controversial pieces of legislature passed in recent times, for the simple fact that it gave a great deal of authority to the Food and Drug Administration to limit the effectiveness of the tobacco industry and its various companies to sell its products. There are multiple components of this legislation, which encompass various aspects of sales, advertising, inspections and registration of new products on the part of manufacturers. Among the many points of dissension that individual and collective entities within this industry claim regarding this legislation is that it limits their First Amendment right of freedom of speech. A thorough examination of the spirit and the lettering of this act, however, reveals that of its many different components, only one (that pertaining to advertising)…
No author. "Tobacco Controls Have Public Health Impact." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/TobaccoControls/
Sifferland, Alexandria. "Colorful Ways Tobacco Industry May Be Skirting Labeling Rules." Time. 2013. Web. http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/15/colorful-way-tobacco-industry-may-be-skirting-labeling-rules/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: Consumer fact Sheet." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Web. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm246129.htm
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…
American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA
Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf
Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).
In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)
While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…
Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/es.html
Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm
Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.
Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research -- California Tobacco Control Program
The CTCP is a statewide program using a number of individuals and is, therefore, subject to a number of potential ethical problems. The number and scope of those potential ethical problems is limited only by the private agendas of these individuals, the parameters of the program, and safeguards used by program administrators/staff to counteract those potential problems. Given the "public health" nature and concerns of the CTCP, its adherence to the highest ethical standards is not only warranted but would also be beneficial for the CTCP's ongoing work in controlling tobacco use. In addition, the final evaluation plan for CTCP follows.
Identify and discuss potential ethical issues where your health/social program is concerned. How might these impact your evaluation? How might these be overcome?
Since human beings have their own agendas, and since the CTCP is…
Due to the CTCP's established practices and relatively long history, proper evaluation questions are geared toward "process evaluation" (Anonymous, Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 4). The program's extensive long-term and short-term goals lend themselves to multiple evaluation questions. Deliberately limiting those questions for this assignment, one example of a proper evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by providing leadership and research in advocating social norms creating an environment that is tobacco free?" Another possible process evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by stopping illegal tobacco sales to youth?" A third possible process evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by fighting the tobacco industry's aggressive marketing?" A fourth possible process evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by assisting people to permanently quit smoking?"
In the specific case of the CTCP, these stakeholders would include: the Principal Media Strategist and the Chief of the Media Campaign Unit, whose interests include the CTCP media campaign and who could contribute focus/questions/perspective based on the media campaign, then use the evaluator's collected data/findings for more effective use of media to further CTCP objectives (California Department of Public Health, 2012); the Chief of the Tobacco Control Branch, whose interests include the overall program objectives, and who can contribute focus/questions/perspective based on system-wide goals, then use the evaluator's collected data/findings system-wide through department heads (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012); the Chief of the Strategic Planning and Policy Unit, whose interests include planning and implementing policies/strategies for achieving the CTCP's goals, and who can contribute focus/questions/perspective based on policy/strategy and use the evaluator's collected data/findings to tweak policy and strategy (California Department of Public Health, 2012); at least 1 of the 13 members of the Tobacco Education and Research Oversight Committee, whose interests include planning and implementation of the CTCP's education/research efforts, and who can contribute focus/questions/perspective based on education/research,
Part 3) What does the Court conclude in the case and why? The Court concluded that the FDA did not, under the current set of legal standards, have the power to enact and enforce the regulations and could not "regulate" tobacco. The Court had the legal responsibility, under a previous precedent Chevron USA v Natural esources Defense Council (467 U.S. 837), whether Congress had already spoken to the issue at hand., and if so, must give deference to Congress' decision. In this case, Congress had, under several occasions, spoken to the rule of law, and therefore, the Court could not expand or contract said authority.
Part 4) if regulation of tobacco is to occur, what has to happen first? Two things, which have actually happened. 1) Congress must rule that tobacco products are drugs and that the FDA may regulate drugs, and 2) Congress must expressly grant the DFA the…
Rogers, D. (June 8, 2009). Senate Vote a Sea Change for Tobacco. Politico. Cited in:
See, "Tobacco Products," (2011). U.S. Food and drug Administration. Cited in: http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/default.htm
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…
10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.
Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General
Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
Marginal ate of Substitution (MS) is the rate that an individual is ready to give up from "good A" to obtain one or more unit of "good B" while keeping the overall utility constant. In other words, MS reveals how many units of good x that an individual is ready to give up to gain extra unit of good y while keeping the same level of utility constant. The MS involves the trade off of goods to change the allocation of the total bundles of goods while maintaining the level of satisfaction. Typically, MS is calculated between goods being placed on indifferent curve. The product of cheeseburger and hotdogs is used to illustrate the MS. If the marginal rate of substitution of cheeseburger for hot dogs is 2, thus, consumer will be willing to give 2 cheeseburger to obtain 1 extra hot dog.
However, marginal rate of substitution diminishes…
Jha, P. Chaloupka, F.J. Moore, J. et al. (2006). Chapter 46 Tobacco Addiction from the book Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Second edition. World Bank.
For example, if the mother has a computer at home and uses it regularly the hygienist can suggest some Web sites that contain information about the oral health effects of tobacco use. The mother might want to learn more about oral health in general, which would encourage her to monitor Jason's habits and scrutinize his behavior to the point where she might notice if he had been smoking. If Jason's oral health deteriorated over time, the hygienist might need to make more overt statements to the mother such as, "Jason assured me that he is not using tobacco, but I am concerned about the lesions in his mouth." The hygienist also needs to confide in the presiding dentist.
3. Which of the ethical principles apply to this situation? Explain your response from both the dental hygienist's perspective and the patient's perspective.
The dental hygienist is experiencing an ethical dilemma. On…
Soon after the failure of the raid, ATF surrendered control of the scene to the FBI and withdrew to a supporting role. Subsequent handling of the events proves that the leadership in FBI was similarly lacking. After 51 days of stand-off at Mt. Carmel during which unsuccessful negotiations were held with David Koresh for the surrender of the sect members, a massive assault with tear gas and tanks was ordered by the FBI. Soon after the attack, the Davidian compound was engulfed by fire in which 76 Davidians including 27 children were burned alive. The Davidians were "officially" blamed for starting the fire but on September 1, 1999 videotapes containing footage of pyrotechnic tear gas rounds being fired at the Mt. Carmel complex were seized from the FBI headquarters by the Justice department. Throughout the investigations, the FBI leadership maintained that none of its agents fired guns at…
Lynch, Timothy. (2001). "An Unofficial Account of the Waco Incident." Cato Institute. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 at http://www.apologeticsindex.org/pa395.pdf
Vizzard, William J. (1997). In the Cross Fire: A Political History of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, CO.
A the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
Vernon Wayne Howell, who later took the name -- David Koresh
Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).
The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…
About Altria. (2008). Official Website. Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.altria.com/about_altria/1_2_companiesandbrands.asp
Fisher, Laurie (2000, April.) "Divestment in the tobacco industry." Cancer Causes & Control.
Glover, Willa. (2008). "An exploratory study of key factors of self-organization in organizational systems." Human and Organizational Systems: Fielding Graduate Institute.
Retrieved December 8, 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/cmogata/wwglover.html
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.
National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
Health Care -- Tailoring and Planning Evaluation - Rewrite
The required readings for this course provide definitions and parameters for several types of evaluation. Review of those readings supports the use of the "learning process" and "process evaluation" for the orld Health Organization's Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI). Planning and conducting the evaluation entails three key phases and the assistance of multiple stakeholders to ensure the effectiveness of the evaluation.
The type of evaluation that you would conduct as discussed by Powell (2006). hat phases would your evaluation entail?
The TFI is logically classified as a developmental program and its interests are apparently best served by the "learning process" approach (Aubel, 1995, p. 13). hat is more, the TFI's worldwide practices, at times borrowing from older, established tobacco control programs in its member countries, warrant "process evaluation" (Anonymous, Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation, n.d.), defined by Powell as…
Anonymous. (n.d.). Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation.
Aubel, J. (1995, June). Participatory program evaluation. A manual for involving program stakeholders in the evaluation process. Retrieved on December 21, 2012 from www.ericed.gov Web site: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED421509.pdf
Metcalfe, S.A., Aitken, M., & Gaff, C.L. (2008, February 5). The importance of program evaluation: How can it be applied to diverse genetics education settings? Retrieved on December 21, 2012 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/218662059/13AAD2917351A1A1F1C/1?accountid=28844
Powell, R.R. (2006, Summer). Evaluation research: An overview. Retrieved on December 21, 2012 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/220455507/139E976709F239B2F98/1?accountid=28844