Tobacco Essays (Examples)

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Public Health Job Description

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42889337

Tobacco Education and Outreach Specialist


egularly reviews published peer-reviewed literature on the health impacts of tobacco use and addiction, and writes blog posts and news articles based on this data.

Designs and implements outreach programs for varying demographics, focusing on smoking prevention as well as smoking cessation.

Investigates local tobacco retailers and ensures compliance with tobacco control legislation.

Issues warning letters accordingly when tobacco vendors have been shown to violate tobacco control legislation.

Provides, when necessary, testimony in courtrooms for tobacco-related lawsuits.

Creates comprehensive tobacco education programs for the corporate sector, with the goal of helping organizations become tobacco-free environments.

Works closely with local health care organizations including private clinics and hospitals, to promote tobacco education services.


Degree in public health administration, nursing, or related field.

Work or internship experience in a public health organization.

Strong verbal and written communication skills.


$35,000-$45,000 ("Community Outreach Specialist Careers,"…… [Read More]


"Community Outreach Specialist Careers," (n.d.). Careers in Public Health. Retrieved online:

Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resources management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 38(3): 635-672.

"Recruitment and Retention," (n.d.). PHF. Retrieved online:

United States Department of Labor (2016). Summary of the major laws of the Department of Labor. Retrieved online:
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Media Law Argue Against Discuss 1st Amendment

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40736189

MEDIA LA: Argue Against: Discuss 1st amendment implications Family Prevention Tobacco Act 2009. Are tobacco

The Family Prevention Tobacco Act of 2009 was one of the more controversial pieces of legislature passed in recent times, for the simple fact that it gave a great deal of authority to the Food and Drug Administration to limit the effectiveness of the tobacco industry and its various companies to sell its products. There are multiple components of this legislation, which encompass various aspects of sales, advertising, inspections and registration of new products on the part of manufacturers. Among the many points of dissension that individual and collective entities within this industry claim regarding this legislation is that it limits their First Amendment right of freedom of speech. A thorough examination of the spirit and the lettering of this act, however, reveals that of its many different components, only one (that pertaining to advertising)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

No author. "Tobacco Controls Have Public Health Impact." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. /Features/TobaccoControls/

Sifferland, Alexandria. "Colorful Ways Tobacco Industry May Be Skirting Labeling Rules." Time. 2013. Web. 

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: Consumer fact Sheet." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Web.
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American Drug Policy

Words: 3213 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17883284

Drug Policy

American Drug Policy: Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.

Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
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Risk Factor Prevention Risk Factor

Words: 2115 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49555841

Clinical interventions put in place include, counseling of those teenagers who are already using tobacco and provide them with tobacco cessation. While, one of the community intervention strategies are, increase in the unit price of tobacco increased to hinder teenagers from buying hence, decreased tobacco use initiation among them. Also, there are efforts to restrict access of tobacco for minors, aided by community support to stop teenage access to tobacco. Worksite / school health promotion has also been enhanced to enlighten the students on the effects of tobacco use (Myers, 2000).

Another strategy which might be employed is the use of other teenagers as behavior change agents amongst their peers. This is where; selected teenagers are trained to act as peer educators and anti-tobacco use ambassadors within their neighborhood's and at school. These peer educators are to be selected from different ethnic groups to deal with the cultural factors that…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the Surgeon General. (2000). Atlanta: CDC Retrieved from /tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2000/index.htm.

Colby, S.M., Tiffany, S.T., & Shiffman, S. (2000). Are adolescent smokers dependent on nicotine? A review of the evidence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 59, S83 -- S95.

Derek Yach, & Douglas Bettcher. (2000). Globalisation of Tobacco Industry Influence and New Global Responses. Tobacco Control, 9(2), 206-216

Myers, M.G., Brown, S.A., & Kelly, J.F.A. (2000). smoking intervention for substance abusing adolescents: Outcomes, predictors of cessation attempts, and post-treatment substance use. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse 9, 77 -- 91.
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Smoking and Politics

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18507536

battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.

Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…… [Read More]


American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA

Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at /research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf

Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health

Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at /tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
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Harmful Health Effects of Chronic

Words: 2208 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57971802

"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).


In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)

While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…… [Read More]


Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.

Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from

Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at /tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm

Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.
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Economics Marginal Rate of Substitution Mrs Is

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9613329


Marginal ate of Substitution (MS) is the rate that an individual is ready to give up from "good A" to obtain one or more unit of "good B" while keeping the overall utility constant. In other words, MS reveals how many units of good x that an individual is ready to give up to gain extra unit of good y while keeping the same level of utility constant. The MS involves the trade off of goods to change the allocation of the total bundles of goods while maintaining the level of satisfaction. Typically, MS is calculated between goods being placed on indifferent curve. The product of cheeseburger and hotdogs is used to illustrate the MS. If the marginal rate of substitution of cheeseburger for hot dogs is 2, thus, consumer will be willing to give 2 cheeseburger to obtain 1 extra hot dog.

However, marginal rate of substitution diminishes…… [Read More]


Jha, P. Chaloupka, F.J. Moore, J. et al. (2006). Chapter 46 Tobacco Addiction from the book Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Second edition. World Bank.
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Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81320230

Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research -- California Tobacco Control Program

The CTCP is a statewide program using a number of individuals and is, therefore, subject to a number of potential ethical problems. The number and scope of those potential ethical problems is limited only by the private agendas of these individuals, the parameters of the program, and safeguards used by program administrators/staff to counteract those potential problems. Given the "public health" nature and concerns of the CTCP, its adherence to the highest ethical standards is not only warranted but would also be beneficial for the CTCP's ongoing work in controlling tobacco use. In addition, the final evaluation plan for CTCP follows.


Identify and discuss potential ethical issues where your health/social program is concerned. How might these impact your evaluation? How might these be overcome?

Since human beings have their own agendas, and since the CTCP is…… [Read More]

Due to the CTCP's established practices and relatively long history, proper evaluation questions are geared toward "process evaluation" (Anonymous, Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 4). The program's extensive long-term and short-term goals lend themselves to multiple evaluation questions. Deliberately limiting those questions for this assignment, one example of a proper evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by providing leadership and research in advocating social norms creating an environment that is tobacco free?" Another possible process evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by stopping illegal tobacco sales to youth?" A third possible process evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by fighting the tobacco industry's aggressive marketing?" A fourth possible process evaluation question would be "Is the CTCP achieving its goal (Anonymous, Typical evaluation questions - Powerpoint presentation, n.d., p. 5) of empowering statewide and local health agencies to promote health and quality of life by assisting people to permanently quit smoking?"

Evaluation Team

In the specific case of the CTCP, these stakeholders would include: the Principal Media Strategist and the Chief of the Media Campaign Unit, whose interests include the CTCP media campaign and who could contribute focus/questions/perspective based on the media campaign, then use the evaluator's collected data/findings for more effective use of media to further CTCP objectives (California Department of Public Health, 2012); the Chief of the Tobacco Control Branch, whose interests include the overall program objectives, and who can contribute focus/questions/perspective based on system-wide goals, then use the evaluator's collected data/findings system-wide through department heads (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012); the Chief of the Strategic Planning and Policy Unit, whose interests include planning and implementing policies/strategies for achieving the CTCP's goals, and who can contribute focus/questions/perspective based on policy/strategy and use the evaluator's collected data/findings to tweak policy and strategy (California Department of Public Health, 2012); at least 1 of the 13 members of the Tobacco Education and Research Oversight Committee, whose interests include planning and implementation of the CTCP's education/research efforts, and who can contribute focus/questions/perspective based on education/research,
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Learning Targets Case Food and

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37240790

Part 3) What does the Court conclude in the case and why? The Court concluded that the FDA did not, under the current set of legal standards, have the power to enact and enforce the regulations and could not "regulate" tobacco. The Court had the legal responsibility, under a previous precedent Chevron USA v Natural esources Defense Council (467 U.S. 837), whether Congress had already spoken to the issue at hand., and if so, must give deference to Congress' decision. In this case, Congress had, under several occasions, spoken to the rule of law, and therefore, the Court could not expand or contract said authority.

Part 4) if regulation of tobacco is to occur, what has to happen first? Two things, which have actually happened. 1) Congress must rule that tobacco products are drugs and that the FDA may regulate drugs, and 2) Congress must expressly grant the DFA the…… [Read More]

Rogers, D. (June 8, 2009). Senate Vote a Sea Change for Tobacco. Politico. Cited in:

See, "Tobacco Products," (2011). U.S. Food and drug Administration. Cited in:
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Nursing Supervised Smoking Cessation Plan

Words: 2766 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4187897

Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.

Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.

During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]

10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.

Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General

Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
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Ethics What Beneficial Approach Can

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91954352

For example, if the mother has a computer at home and uses it regularly the hygienist can suggest some Web sites that contain information about the oral health effects of tobacco use. The mother might want to learn more about oral health in general, which would encourage her to monitor Jason's habits and scrutinize his behavior to the point where she might notice if he had been smoking. If Jason's oral health deteriorated over time, the hygienist might need to make more overt statements to the mother such as, "Jason assured me that he is not using tobacco, but I am concerned about the lesions in his mouth." The hygienist also needs to confide in the presiding dentist.

3. Which of the ethical principles apply to this situation? Explain your response from both the dental hygienist's perspective and the patient's perspective.

The dental hygienist is experiencing an ethical dilemma. On…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Physiological Aspects of Substance Abuse

Words: 1227 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65984339

West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.

(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…… [Read More]


Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.

Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.

Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.

West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
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College Students and Alcohol Use

Words: 5292 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74738903

Psychosocial factors, such as depression, anxiety and social support, also induce drinking. This study confirmed that social cognitive factors drove college students to report on their own drinking. Psychosocial motives drove them to do so only at 1%. Social support was the only significant psychosocial predictor. The awareness of both the positive and negative consequences of drinking was quite likely behind the willingness of college students to report on their own drinking. This implied that drinking was a deliberate and conscious decision on their part. Heavy drinkers viewed their drinking as something negative in that they perceived themselves as having reduced control over it. Peer norms were also found to be an important predictor of drinking as a perceived norm and behavior, which supports drinking. Parental drinking norms also surfaced, although not as strong as the preceding predictors (Kuther & Temoshin).

Environmental Policies

Many new studies attempted to determine if…… [Read More]


Barnett, N. et al. (2008). Profiles of college students mandated to alcohol intervention.

Journal of Studies on Alcohol: Alcohol Research Documentation, Inc. Retrieved on May 20, 2009 from;col1

Black, J.M.; Ausherman, J.A.; Kandaka, T.L.; Lam, E.T. C; and Jurjevic, S. C (2004).

Urban university students' knowledge of alcohol and drinking. American Journal of Health Studies: University of Alabama Department of Health Services. Retrieved on May 20, 2009 from;col1
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Organization's Values Organizational Values Philip

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55368110

Restructuring itself for a better fit with its environment, the company established a Youth Prevention Department, staffed by a senior vice-president in Philip Morris, U.S.A. To look for ways to help reduce smoking among teenagers" (Glover 2008).

The relative lack of sincerity of these claims and the transparent dishonesty of Philip Morris' claim to stop youths from smoking is manifest in the fact that the company recently filed a suit in federal court to overturn a San Francisco ordinance that would ban the sale of tobacco products in convenience drug stores. It proclaims this proudly on a September 2008 press release on its website: "Philip Morris USA sues to overturn controversial San Francisco sales ban on tobacco products." However, teens are more likely than other consumers to use these venues to purchase cigarettes than other consumers. Philip Morris defends its actions as the promotion of freedom for adult consumers, given…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Altria. (2008). Official Website. Retrieved December 8, 2008 at

Fisher, Laurie (2000, April.) "Divestment in the tobacco industry." Cancer Causes & Control.

Glover, Willa. (2008). "An exploratory study of key factors of self-organization in organizational systems." Human and Organizational Systems: Fielding Graduate Institute.

Retrieved December 8, 2008 at
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Waco Incident Failure of Leadership

Words: 793 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17649993

Carmel compound.

Soon after the failure of the raid, ATF surrendered control of the scene to the FBI and withdrew to a supporting role. Subsequent handling of the events proves that the leadership in FBI was similarly lacking. After 51 days of stand-off at Mt. Carmel during which unsuccessful negotiations were held with David Koresh for the surrender of the sect members, a massive assault with tear gas and tanks was ordered by the FBI. Soon after the attack, the Davidian compound was engulfed by fire in which 76 Davidians including 27 children were burned alive. The Davidians were "officially" blamed for starting the fire but on September 1, 1999 videotapes containing footage of pyrotechnic tear gas rounds being fired at the Mt. Carmel complex were seized from the FBI headquarters by the Justice department. Throughout the investigations, the FBI leadership maintained that none of its agents fired guns at…… [Read More]


Lynch, Timothy. (2001). "An Unofficial Account of the Waco Incident." Cato Institute. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 at

Vizzard, William J. (1997). In the Cross Fire: A Political History of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, CO.

A the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

Vernon Wayne Howell, who later took the name -- David Koresh
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Official Legal Definition of Contradiction

Words: 4563 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55696657

This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.

Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]." Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.

National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
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Tailoring and Planning Evaluation

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84705599

Health Care -- Tailoring and Planning Evaluation - Rewrite

The required readings for this course provide definitions and parameters for several types of evaluation. Review of those readings supports the use of the "learning process" and "process evaluation" for the orld Health Organization's Tobacco Free Initiative (TFI). Planning and conducting the evaluation entails three key phases and the assistance of multiple stakeholders to ensure the effectiveness of the evaluation.

The type of evaluation that you would conduct as discussed by Powell (2006). hat phases would your evaluation entail?

The TFI is logically classified as a developmental program and its interests are apparently best served by the "learning process" approach (Aubel, 1995, p. 13). hat is more, the TFI's worldwide practices, at times borrowing from older, established tobacco control programs in its member countries, warrant "process evaluation" (Anonymous, Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation, n.d.), defined by Powell as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. (n.d.). Common conceptual and methodological frameworks - Powerpoint presentation.

Aubel, J. (1995, June). Participatory program evaluation. A manual for involving program stakeholders in the evaluation process. Retrieved on December 21, 2012 from Web site:

Metcalfe, S.A., Aitken, M., & Gaff, C.L. (2008, February 5). The importance of program evaluation: How can it be applied to diverse genetics education settings? Retrieved on December 21, 2012 from Web site: 

Powell, R.R. (2006, Summer). Evaluation research: An overview. Retrieved on December 21, 2012 from Web site:
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Ethics and Morality Case Clean

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3967560

Although the tobacco Janet would market is not smoked, it is an addictive substance, and thus it could easily lead to smoking nicotine-containing cigarettes later on in life, and cause harm through second-hand smoke to millions of other people. The societal costs to the legal system because of the lawsuits the product has inspired, and the unhappiness the product has caused for the target audience's families are another example of how the sum total happiness of society is reduced, rather than increased, if Janet takes the job. Also, the campaign is in violation of laws that prohibit minors from using tobacco, and by encouraging the violation of the laws of the land, society's total happiness is reduced, as persons (and marketing departments) feel free to behave and market products in a less law-abiding fashion.

Finally, the idea that Janet can help herself and her future career by taking the job…… [Read More]

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Substance Abuse Among High School Students

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56582143

Substance Abuse

Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.

Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.

All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…… [Read More]


Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.

Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
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Business Law the 1988 and Later 1992

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39151916

Business Law

The 1988 and later 1992 Supreme Court decision in Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. illustrates the functions and role of law in business and public health. This case relates to the tobacco industry's culpability in promoting smoking through marketing campaigns after knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking, and in spite of the mandatory Surgeon General Warning labels that had been federally mandated since the 1960s and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (1965 Act).

In the Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., case, it was ultimately decided that the federal laws trumped state laws that permitted promotion of harmful materials, in this case, cigarettes. What is interesting about this case is that it pertains directly to marketing, rather than to the tobacco companies themselves. Separate litigation, of course, impinged upon the tobacco companies. The Cipollone v. Liggett Group case illustrates several key points. First, the case upholds…… [Read More]


Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. Retrieved online: Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc.
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Advanced Practice Nursing and Health Care

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23266151

New York Times describes how R.J. Reynolds Tobacco was found guilty of breaking its agreement to market cigarette products only to adults. The judge found that the company had pursued an advertising strategy aimed at promoting youth smoking. Important to the ruling, is the judges decision that 'actions speak louder than words' with it being reported that "the judge ruled that 'it does not matter' whether Reynolds intended to single out children and get them to smoke. The fact that it did not adopt 'reasonable measures' to shield young people from its advertisements represented a breach of the company's responsibility to help reduce youth smoking" (Winter).

It is also reported that Reynolds is not the only company accused of specifically targeting young people, a snuff making company is also accused of the same thing.

These issues have several significant implications on nursing practitioners, health practices and on health care.

Firstly,…… [Read More]


Winter, Greg. "Tobacco Company Reneged on Youth Ads, Judge Rules." New York Times, 7 June 2002.
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Gender Religion and Social Relations in the Mediterranean

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75023050


Marc Baer. "Islamic Conversion Narratives of Women: Social Change and Gendered eligious Hierarchy in Early Modern Ottoman Istanbul." Gender & History 16, no. 2 (2004): 425-458

In "Islamic Conversion Narratives of Women: Social Change and Gendered eligious Hierarchy in Early Modern Ottoman Istanbul," Marc Baer presents a string of narratives illustrating the experiences of women in Early Modern Ottoman Istanbul, from around the 17th century. The narratives include strategic conversions to Islam that secured the woman some freedoms. For example, one Christian woman living in Galata near the famous tower converts to Islam. When her Christian husband refuses to convert, the woman realizes that she can be instantly divorced -- which she might not have been able to do had she not been subject to shari'ah law. Shari'ah law ironically afforded the woman, Safira (who became Saliha upon conversion) greater sexual freedom and independence.

Yet what was she sacrificing…… [Read More]


Marc Baer. "Islamic Conversion Narratives of Women: Social Change and Gendered Religious Hierarchy in Early Modern Ottoman Istanbul." Gender & History 16, no. 2 (2004): 425-458.

James Grehan. "Smoking and 'Early Modern Sociability: The Great Tobacco Debate in the Ottoman Middle East." The American Historical Review 111, no. 5 (2006): 1352-1377.

Emma Loosley. Ladies who Lounge: Class, Religion, and Social Interaction in Seventeenth-Century Isfahan." Gender & History 23, no. 3 (2011): 615-629.

Allyson M. Poska. Babies on Board: Women, Children, and Imperial Policy in the Spanish Empire. Gender & History, Vol.22, no.2 August 2010, pp. 269 -- 283.
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Letter Addressing Modifiable Risk Factors

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65223992

Heart disease and stroke are also major conditions commonly associated with the bad habit of smoking. The research shows that your chances of heart disease or stroke can double when compared to nonsmokers' chances. Heart disease is one of the most common conditions smokers face. It is a serious condition which can strike at any time, and leave you completely helpless, or worse off dead. Moreover, smoking is a major cause of respiratory diseases, like emphysema, which is "a lung disease that has no cure" (Jacobs 1997). Such respiratory diseases can severely restrict the quality of life for those suffering through them. They force patients to have to stop a number of activities they love, because they no longer have the lung capacity to continue doing them. According to the research, "a person with this disease has difficulty breathing because the walls of the small air sacs in the lungs…… [Read More]


Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Health effects of cigarette smoking, Smoking & Tobacco Use. Web. /tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/#children 

Jacobs, Marjorie. (1997). The dangers of smoking cigarettes for smokers. From the First to the Last Ash: The History, Economics & Hazards of Tobacco. Web. 

Helpguide. (2012). How to quite smoking: A guide to quitting and kicking the habit for good. Mental & Emotional Health. Web.
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Keeping Cigarettes Away From Young People Through Media Campaigns

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5135629

Public Health Achievements

hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).

the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from .

Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;

Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease

Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from .
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Community Health in Nursing Community

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48405848

Medical ethics are basically a collection of values, principles and moral judgments in the context of healthcare practice. For instance at the core of these values, is the aspect of autonomy. n this regard, it is realized that a patient is granted the right to accept or refuse treatment which only affects them. Medical practitioners are not therefore supposed to forcefully offer their services or compel patients to accept particular types of treatments. nstead, they should mostly inundate the patient with all the relevant information and give them the liberty to make their own decisions.

n the same way, the principle of beneficence states that the medical practitioner should always act to the best interest of the patient. The patient has the right to get the best service from the practitioner as much as can be granted. ndeed, considering the importance of health in the society, medical ethics are very…… [Read More]

In healthcare, civic responsibility is involves individual decisions, which are very difficult to enforce through the law. For instance, throwing away rubbish might eventually become a very grave healthcare concern to the whole community of not avoided. The public are therefore under the duty of ensuring that they always keep their environment clean and avoid practices that would compromise the healthcare situation. Civic responsibility in healthcare does not only boil down to individuals. It also encompasses the practices and duties which are supposed to be conducted by organizations. Organizations should always ensure that their activities do not in any way affect the general environment in a way that can compromise the health situation. In this regard, the dumping of toxic wastes and other concerns should be a top priority for organizations. Other organizations such as universities are supposed to teach the people and create awareness on the important aspects of healthcare without really seeking direct benefits from such programs.

The paper is based on different nursing questions which include community health nursing, tobacco cessation, health care ethics and civic responsibility. This paper is for a community health nursing course. There is four part to the paper in which each page would be directed toward a particular topic.

The first page would be about "Healthy people in 2012" in this particular page you will start off by defining public health; moreover, discuss what public heath does, essential public health services and leading health indicators. Since I live in Miami, it would be very necessary if you discuss health concerns in Miami-Dade county (HIV / AIDS, TB, Hepatitis a, obesity and School readiness to name a few). Lastly discuss the key goals focus on improving health.
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Legalizing Activities Such as Recreational Drug Use

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87368177

legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.

Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.

Drunk driving…… [Read More]

On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.

The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.

Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
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Friends From the Wrong Crowd One of

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24675388

Friends From the Wrong Crowd

One of the most challenging things among the young people on America is the idea of bad company. This problem is so pronounced and serious taking into account that the people who surround and individual largely dictates the direction of the life that the individual will take and hence shaping their future.

Ryan a 23 years old boy came from a humble Christian family where no one was allowed to smoke. When Ryan joined campus he met Pat and Torrey who were cigarette addicts. They became his close friends and went a head and invited him to hang out with them for a weekend. Pat and Torrey offered Ryan a whiff of cigarette for the first time in his life. Ryan was hesitant and said an emphatic "No" to the request but they kept on insisting on him to smoke. Ultimately he ended up smoking…… [Read More]

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For the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82013604

Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.

As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…… [Read More]


ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post., 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. . "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .
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Australian Tax on Wine Business Submission -

Words: 2122 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65157596

Australian Tax on Wine

usiness Submission - Australian Tax on Wine

With the Australian government seeking to impose additional taxation upon the use and sale of wine, there have been many outcries of indignation arguing how this would affect the Australian wine industry, and eventually the Australian economy. However, what needs to be considered are the consequences and the public cost of continuing with the discounted taxation to which wine makers in Australia are currently subjected to. The effect on the Australian GDP needs to be taken in to account with the harms that alcoholism in the increasingly youth population is set to unleash, if made available readily and at subsidized prices.

The risks and problems that have arose from the increased alcohol consumption by the Australian public in recent years, especially the young generation, point towards a possible increase in the health deterioration of most Australians while also impacting…… [Read More]


ABS. (2013, February 22). Australian Wine and Grape Industry, 2011-12. Retrieved from Australian Bureau of Statistics: 

Anderson, K. (2010, May). Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption. Wine Economics Research Centre Working Paper No. 0810 . Australia: University of Adelaide.

Andrews, T. (2013). Stop the wine Supertax! Retrieved from Australian Taxpayers' Alliance:

Government, A. (2011). Australian National Preventive Health Agency. Retrieved from
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Drugs Legal Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2553211

Drugs Legal

Drug Prohibition Causes More Problems Than it olves

This is a paper on drug prohibition and its disadvantages. It has 1 source.

During Prohibition, Americans discovered that making popular substances unlawful cause more problems than it solves. Like alcohol and tobacco, drugs should be legal in this country as most of the problems related to drug use arise from the fact that they are illegal and hence more tempting.

Imagine this: Your fifteen-year-old son is going out to a fast food store, suddenly two gangs start shooting at each other, your son gets shot and dies in a cross fire.

The government of the United tates spends more than $18 billion of tax payer's money on the drug war. The increased expenditure finances the Drug Enforcement Agency, Office of National Drug Control Policy and is used to build a new prison every week. Add to this the financial…… [Read More]


Lynch, Timothy. War no more: The folly and futility of drug prohibition. National Review, Feb 5, 2001. 4/3/04
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D A R E Program Teaches Kids How to Recognize

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29432745

D.A.R.E. program teaches kids how to recognize and resist the direct and subtle pressures that influence them to experiment with alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and other drugs. Did you or anyone you know go through the D.A.R.E. curriculum? hat do you have to say about the program? ould you like to see the D.A.R.E. program continued in our nation's schools? hy or why not?

(Drug Abuse Resistance Education) administers a school-based substance abuse, gang, and violence prevention program in 75% of U.S. school districts and in 48 countries (as of 2013); since 1983, 70,000 police officers have taught the D.A.R.E. program to over 200 million K-12 students worldwide -- approximately 114 million in the United States alone (ProCon, N.d.). The effectiveness of the program is a heavily debated subject. There is more evidence, peer-reviewed studies, which point to the program being effective in reducing the number of youth involved in drug…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gorman, D., & Huber, C. (2009). The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs. Social Sciences, 396-414.

ProCon. (N.d.). Is the D.A.R.E. Program Good for America's Kids (K-12)? Retrieved from ProCon: 

Riskind, J. (2002, June 30). Programs cost soars past $1 billion with little accounting. Retrieved from The Center for Educational Research & Development:

Sloboda, Z., Stephens, R., Stephens, P., Grey, S., Teasdale, B., Hawthorne, R., . . . Marquette, J. (2009). The Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study: A randomized field trial of a universal substance abuse prevention program. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 1-10. Retrieved from Drug and Alchohol Dependence.