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totalitarian regime, the first instinct for a lot of people is to keep their heads down and try to go about their lives as best they can. There is a good case to be made for this -- no good comes to people who are paid a visit by the likes of the Stasi or NKVD. Yet, there is something about non-resistance that is inherently wrong. In 1978, Vaclav Havel, the future Czech President, argued that such non-resistance contributes to a "panorama" of society, presenting the impression that non-resistance in the face of brutal totalitarianism is somehow acceptable. Havel argues that even small forms of dissident behavior -- little subtle gestures -- can carry great meaning when they are repeated throughout society. Yes, the decision to make such a gesture is difficult because of the increase in risk to one's own person and family that protest gestures carry, but such…
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…
Arendt, Hannah. (1966). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23477515
Blum, G.P. (1998). The Rise of Fascism in Europe (R. M. Miller, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Characteristics of Totalitarianism." (n.d.) From: Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, by Carl Friedrick and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://plato.newarka.edu/~labbey/ap_total_charac.html
Kreis, Steven. (2004) "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler." Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe: The History Guide. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture10.html
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…
Carpo, Mario. "Architecture in the Age of Printing." The History of Architectural Theory. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 6 March 1998.
-- . "The Alphabet and the Algorithm." Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. The MIT Press, 7 May 1995.
Giroux, Henry. Totalitarian Paranoia in the Post-Orwellian Surveillance State. 14 Feruary 2014. http://billmoyers.com/2014/02/11/totalitarian-paranoia-in-the-post-orwellian-surveillance-state/ . 18 March 2014.
Keller, Marcello Sorce. "Why is Music so Ideological, Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously: A Personal View from History, and the Social Sciences",." Journal of Musicological Research, XXVI 2.3 (2007): 91 -- 122.
In the words of BBC Middle East analyst Gerald Butt (2001), "…his (Saddam's) opponents have not been able to nominate anyone else who might hold Iraq together -- with its Kurds in the north, Sunni Muslims in the centre [sic], and Shi'a in the south. What the outside world calls terror, Saddam calls expediency." Interestingly, Butt's analysis took into consideration the fact that despite the atrocities that Saddam had and has purportedly done to Iraqis and Iraq's neighbors, world leaders, particularly Western leaders like the U.S. And Britain, are still actually taking an active role in Saddam's political decision-making, albeit the latter has chosen to contain himself within Iraq's borders. Prior to 9/11, U.S. leadership continued to tolerate Saddam's regime, only until the point that it is able to find a 'suitable' replacement for the dictator (Dickey and Thomas, 2002).
In addition to "covert actions" taken to secure that Iraq…
Butt, G. (January 2001). "Saddam Hussein profile." BBC News World Edition website. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1100529.stm
Dickey, C. And E. Thomas. (September 2002). "How the U.S. helped create Saddam Hussein." Global Policy Forum website. Available at: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/167/34978.html
O'Reilly, B. (2004). "Document connects Saddam Hussein to 9/11 terrorists." Fort Worth Business Press.
Paz, M. And J. Aviles. (2009). "Demonizing the tyrant: Saddam Hussein's image in Spanish news programs during the Second Persian Gulf War." International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Recent Trends in Restrictions on Freedoms by a Totalitarian State
Two and a half centuries ago, the Founding Fathers of the United States forged what has become regarded as a “living document” with the U.S. Constitution that has managed to weather numerous conflicts, including a civil war, two world wars and dozens of regional clashes over the years. This foundation in liberty is being threatened by some politicians today to the point of making the United States a totalitarian state, including most especially the current occupant of the Oval Office. For example, in their article, “Three warning signs of ideological totalitarianism” (September 8, 2020), Sharansky and Troy make the point that more than 3 decades after the collapse of the former Soviet Union, “embers of the kind of totalitarian thinking that spawned the Communist Revolution are inflaming Western debate — and inciting Americans” (para. 2).
In truth, not all Americans…
Sharansky, N. & Troy, G. (2020, September 8). Three warning signs of ideological totalitarianism. Newsweek. Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com/three-warning-signs-ideological-totalitarianism-opinion-1529824 .
hat we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany's inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.
2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. "Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties" (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, "Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system" (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, "The countries of east-central…
Chamber, Mortimer, et al. The Western Experience. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 1979.
Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1986.
Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.
Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
Therefore, the totalitarian threat does not just replace the first president with Hitler, but also removes any possibility of difference or ambiguity. The multiple, varied, and multifaceted portraits of Washington are replaced entirely by a single, repeated image, because the totalitarian regime must remove any room for interpretation. Furthermore, the importance of the name of Washington himself is demonstrated by the careful attention to the ribbons which once held his name:
And on the ribbon beneath each portrait, there was no longer the name "Washington" either. Whether the ribbon curved downward as on the one-half-cent stamp and the six, or curved upward as on the four, the five, the seven, and the ten, or straight with raised ends as on the one, the one and a half, the two, the three, the eight, and the nine, the name lettered across the ribbon was "Hitler" (Roth 43).
Thus, the family's trip…
This provides two strong disincentives to innovate. hat is left is a Chinese state that discourages the development of the most tried-and-true means of economic development -- competition and innovation -- and instead relies on wealth transfer due to currency manipulation as the foundation of its success.
The role of government in an economy, therefore, should be limited if long-term sustainable growth is the objective. For totalitarian capitalism to be the superior system would require that system to develop competencies that enable its economies to compete globally. Thus far, these competencies have only emerged in the Chinese firms that have access to estern systems -- Lenovo's Hong Kong roots place it into estern-style competition for example. ithout competencies, you have short-term success built on an artificial and unsustainable economy, rather than long-term success. The estern style emphasizes a limited role for government and the power of market forces. The totalitarian…
Huang, Y. (2008). Just how capitalist is China? MIT Sloan Research Paper 4699-08.
No author. (2008). The long march backwards. The Economist. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/culture/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12333103
No author. (2010). The spirit of enterprise fades. The Economist. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/business-finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15331470
Krugman, P. (2010). Taking on China. New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/15/opinion/15krugman.html?hp
Subtly, between the pages of memoir and of literary and political criticism, this book deals with the uncertain and uneasy solipsism of the world.
The way in which the totalitarian, theocratic regime seeks to impose its will on the women of Tehran is certainly horrific. Girls are forbidden to have any sort of color in their attire or about their person, as if someone the very existence of color would challenge the monochromatic existence of the regime. All must wear dark-colored robes related to the chador, and similarly dark veils that must cover every strand of hair; they must not wear lipstick or fingernail polish, or even pink socks. This robe makes women almost indistinguishable, a situation heightened by the Islamic prohibition against looking directly at unrelated women; Nafisi imagines that it makes her invisible, "I pretended that when I wore the robe, my whole body disappeared." (Nafisi, 167) in…
A McDonald's hamburger in the United tates and in the United Kingdom for example is to be sold within the same price range when the exchange rate is calculated. McDonald's has had a large amount of success in its global expansion. The reasons for this comprise a number of factors, one of which is the perceived value to the purchaser. In all countries where McDonald's is sold, the customer perceives the value of food purchased for a certain price as economically viable. The food is of the same quality and portion size globally. This kind of stability is valued by the customer.
Possible short-term problems for McDonald's relate to the daily changes in foreign exchange rates. It is hardly practicable to change prices on a daily basis. Customers have come to expect stability from the company, especially in terms of price, which makes maintaining PPP a challenge. This problem is…
Antweiler, Werner (2006). Purchasing Power Parity. University of British Columbia. http://fx.sauder.ubc.ca/PPP.html
Chapman, Alan (2005-2006). Change management. http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
Mrak, Mojimir. (2000). Globalization: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities for Countries in Transition. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization. http://www.unido.org/userfiles/PuffK/mrak.pdf
Nishimura, Yoshiaki. (2001, March) Economic Policy for Transition to Market Economy - Overview. Economic and Social Research Institute. http://www.esri.go.jp/en/tie/russia/russia1-e.pdf
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
Terror, Imperialism, And Totalitarianism
Imperialism is defined in the abstract, quite often, as the ideology of 'carrying the white man's burden,' in other words, of carrying the white cultural burden of civilization to the native or darker peoples of the world. But in practice, imperialism often has a less lofty goal and terror rather than teaching is the method used to enforce imperialism's 'laws' and values of social and political control. In the past, such as in French-controlled Algiers, depicted in the 1965 film directed by Pontecorvo "The Battle of Algiers," imperialism is often enforced through a series of dominating policies or military actions by a stronger European nation. One country seeks to exert its control over another country or territory, often to gain an economic or political advantage in a particular region.
In the film, the Algerian people fight long and hard to wrest control over their own territory…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. 1958.
"Battle of Algiers." Directed by Pontecorvo. 1965.
Camus, Alberto. "Caligula." 1936.
"The Great Dictator." Directed by Charlie Chaplin. 1940.
This would have been a truly unethical action.
The second objection that can be brought to the sustained thesis is represented by the fact that censorship is a violation of several human rights. These rights include the right to freedom of speech, the right to self-expression and the right to be well informed. It might be argued that Google made a mistake and created a precedent, proving that totalitarian regime scan impose their rules even upon independent companies because these companies are more interested in obtaining financial profits rather than defending human rights and liberties.
This may be true to a certain limited extent. Supposing that Google had refused to implement its dot cn service. In this manner it would have made a statement regarding censorship and freedom. but, at the same time, it would have failed to serve the Chinese people in any way.
An action of this kind…
Martin, K.E. "Google, Inc., in China (condensed)." Business roundtable Institute for Corporate Ethics. 30 October 2008. http://www.darden.virginia.edu/corporate-ethics/pdf/BRI-1004.pdf
Mill, J.S. "Utilitarianism." Google Books online. 30 October 2008 http://books.google.it/books?hl=it&id=9PE1LARQNV8C&dq=utilitarianism&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=54SBhkL_2p&sig=jUOgPaHFZE0wtGFE9IPUjqiAE8Q&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
" hy is this the case? hy are some concerned about privacy and others not at all? The answer lies in the fact that society is mirroring both authors' perspectives, Orwell's and Huxley's -- one fearful and the other apathetic. Society is thus a dichotomy of two anti-utopian visions.
Yet, Zittrain, like Boyd and Baym, supports the new media technology by asserting that "the Net is quite literally what we make it." So even as society moves toward a state that intertwines both Huxley's and Orwell's visions, another portion of society attempts to keep a balanced viewpoint by suggesting that such movement does not necessarily have to be as bad as it might seem.
In conclusion, although civilization is headed in a direction that looks much like that described by Orwell and Huxley -- those anti-utopian visions are not necessarily what are in store for society. Boyd and Baym do…
Baym, Nancy. Personal Connections in the Digital Age. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press,
Boyd, Danah. "Social Network Sites: Public, Private, or What?" The Knowledge Tree.
2007. Web. 8 May 2011.
Humanities are Important:
An analysis of the Da Vinci Code, Beethoven's 9th, and 1984.
A novel by George Orwell (pseudonym), real name Eric Blair
Published in 1949
A reaction to the totalitarian state engulfing the global community
The Da Vinci Code
A (2006) film by on Howard
Based on the novel by Dan Brown
obert Langdon follows a series of clues that link Leonardo's masterpieces, the mystery of Jesus Christ, and a totalitarian regime in the guise of the Catholic Church
Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Completed in 1824 after the composer (Ludwig van Beethoven) had gone completely deaf, this -- his final symphony -- is often considered to be one of the greatest musical masterpieces of all time. The fourth movement is based on Schiller's "Ode to Joy" and invokes a chorus of universal brotherhood. If you listen long enough, you will hear the music swell into a magnificent burst of…
Kyziridis, T. (2005). Notes on the History of Schizophrenia. Retrieved from http://www.gjpsy.uni-goettingen.de/gjp-article-kyziridis.pdf
Lief, R.A. (1969). Homage to Oceania: the prophetic vision of George Orwell. OH: Ohio University Press.
McLellan, J. (1988). The Beethoven Collection. NY: Time-Life Books.
Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. NY: Harcourt.
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…
1. Eher, Franz. On the German People and Its Territory.Nazi Propaganda: 1933-1945. 2007. Retrieved: Oct. 21, 2007. Available at http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/hjhandbuch.htm
2. Spielvogel, Jackson J. Hitler and Nazi Germany a History 5th Edition. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 2004
3. Welch, David. The Third Reich Politics and Propaganda 2nd edition. London. Routledge. 2002.
" He concluded that "the prosecutor's office must be centralized and completely independent of the local organs of authority." This conclusion, quite naturally, was buttressed with the appropriate reference to the guiding hand of the revolution's leader: "From the principle that there is a single legality obtaining throughout the epublic "and the entire federation" (Lenin) and from the obligation of the public prosecutor to see to it that no single decision of local authority deviated from the law, Lenin deduced all the most important principles for the organization of the prosecutor's office..." (Vyshinsky, Law, 525). Contrast this with Vyshinsky's admonition of a witness, "Don't pay attention to the laws, just listen to me" (Huskey, "Vyshinsky, Krylenko," 427).
The Soviet people, however, lost a great deal more from their ordeal of the 1930s. Not only did they lose the best of their intelligentsia and military, they ultimately lost the power for…
Abramovitch, R. (1962). The Soviet Revolution. New York: International Universities
Amba, a. (1952). I Was Stalin's Bodyguard. London: Frederick Mueller.
Armstrong, W., et.al. (2009). World War II: Behind Closed Doors. London: BBC Video.
Both Hitler and Stalin ran regimes of personality; both nations were driven by the charismatic leadership that each provided. A kind of leader worship developed in both countries (Bering, 2005). Hitler and Stalin each became something of demigods to their people, a fact that only helped reinforce their control and allowed citizens to justify the use of terrorism against dissidents. It would have simply seemed that the "troublemakers" were getting what they deserved for daring to defy their seemingly infallible leaders.
Also of note, both Hitler and Stalin came from similar backgrounds, though their eventual methods would differ somewhat. Both came from deprived backgrounds. Both had enormous chips on their shoulders. Both were possessed of an over-inflated sense of destiny that fueled their political ambitions (Bering, 2005). Because Hitler and Stalin were both moral absolutists who saw themselves as the embodiments of their people and their nations, they felt it…
Bering, H. (2005, April 25). Brothers under the skin. The Weekly Standard, pp. 37-38.
Nagorski, a. (2005, May 30). The other monster; a cascade of new books examines Stalin and his terror. Newsweek International, pp. 65.
Artists Since 1945
hat are the influences and events that caused Abstract Expressionism to develop? hat are the two modes of Abstract Expressionism? Compare and contrast these two modes and specially discuss the work of two artists from each mode. Share why you chose these four artist.
During and after orld ar II, artistic expression was destroyed in Europe. This is because, the onslaught of the Nazis created an environment of persecution. In some cases, these activities were based upon artists using their expressionism as a form of criticisms and social critiques. hile at other times; a host of individuals were persecuted because of their race or nationality. The result is that they fled to locations such as New York to be able to continue with their work. This played a major role in determining how Abstract Expressionism developed by taking a different approach that questioned and challenged the status…
Adams, Ellen. After the Rain. Ann Arbor: Proquest, 2007. Print.
Shop on the Main Street
Continental European film producers were slow to focus on political and social injustices as the dominant themes after World War II. Heroism in America and Soviet World War II movies was not a significant theme, primarily because, with the exclusion of Switzerland and Sweden, other countries' dwellers either were part of the Nazi regime or collaborated with the rule. Therefore, the filmmakers, when making films, focused on the societies' immersion in the totalitarian ruling systems. Similar to other countries of Europe, excluding Switzerland and Sweden, all other countries in central Europe lived under Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes in the period between the Second World War. However, after the war, the continent split, and this influenced how the filmmakers made films. Germans, Slovaks, Czechs and Hungary embraced the Nazi regime, whereas Austria and three quarters of Germany embraced democracy. This is partly a contributing factor as…
Crowther, B. (1966). The Shop on the Main Street (1965). Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=EE05E7DF1730E270BC4D51DFB766838D679EDE
Votruba, M. (2011). The Shop on the Main Street: The holocaust in context. Retrieved from http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/11635/3/Martin_Votruba-The_Shop_on_Main_Street_The_Holocaust_in_Context.pdf
Banovac, S. (2005). JanKadar and Elmar Klos: The Shop on Main Street (Obchod na korze),
1965. Retrieved from http://www.kinokultura.com/specials/3/obchod.shtml
Power and the Use of Language, Orwell's 1984 And Beyond
George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel 1984 has become almost iconoclastic in its meaning for contemporary society. Almost like the term Machiavellianism, 1984 evokes images in popular culture, along with the author's name as an adjective, and phrases that were used in the book. Even the term "Orwellian" denotes a certain type of society; phrases like "Big Brother," "Newspeak," "Thought-Police," etc. are now part of the vocabulary when describing totalitarian regimes. The novel's premise has become part of a modern archetype, imitated on television, popular music, movies, and even one of the most popular advertisements ever made, the 1984 launch of Apple's Macintosh.
Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses on a new type of society -- repressive, totalitarian, staunch, all-powerful, all knowing, oligarchical, and pervasive. The novel's main character, Winston Smith, is a simple civil servant assigned to the daily task of perpetuating the…
Orwell, G. (1990). 1984. New York: Penguin Books.
Rai, A. (1990). Orwell and the Politics of Despair. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wain, J. (1978). Essays on Literature and Ideas. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press.
Autocracy and Democracy
There are different forms of government throughout the world. Each nation decides how it will govern its people and in whom the power will be vested. It is expected that when the nation is established, either the citizens or those who led the efforts to create the new nation will find a system of governance that works for all considered. There are many different forms of government, perhaps as many different forms as there are governments to adopt them. Some nations have kings and queen who rule their monarchy, others are theocracies where the rulers are the clergy, and still others are meritocracies where those who are put in positions of power have been granted the honor based on their value to the rest of the society. Two nearly diametrically opposed systems of government are democracies and autocracies. In the former government type, the people are the…
Danziger, J. (2013). Understanding the Political World. 11th edition. Pearson.
Democracy in Iran
As pro-democracy movements spread across a huge segment of the Muslim world in the spring and early summer of 2011, there was a tremendous amount of speculation that Iran would be the next totalitarian regime to join the world's democracies. However, this speculation seems to have been premature. Instead, Iran's response to pro-democracy movements in the country has solidified the notion that Iran will never achieve a democracy. First, the basic stagnancy in Iran's political debate suggests an unwillingness to move towards democracy. Second, Iran continues to suggest that its current regime is in line with Muslim awakenings around the world, which reveals the depth of the government's commitment to its current regime.
Third, the current government's brutality is not conducive to the type of organization that results in democracy. While some people believe that the social changes occurring in Iran mean that it is likely to…
Baghi, E. (2004). Hope for democracy in Iran. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The
Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59941-2004Oct24.html
Gheissari, A. & Nasr, V. (2006). Democracy in Iran: History and the quest for liberty. New York: Oxford University Press.
Molavi, A. (2011, April 6). Invoking the Arab Spring, Iran rewrites its own history. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The National website: http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/invoking-the-arab-spring-iran-rewrites-its-own-history
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf. "The Holy Qur'an." Translation in English. Wordsworth Classic of World Literature. UK: Wordsworth Edition Limited: 2000
Chomsky, Noam. "Who are the Global Terrorists?" Z-Net. May 19, 2002. April 22, 2005. http://www.zmag.org/content/ForeignPolicy/chomskyglobeterr.cfm
Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+.
Hoffman, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. 2005. April 22, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564344/Terrorism.html
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
The conditions during the Cold War period were exceptional and they asked for rather exceptional measures. The foreign policy of the U.S., as a hegemonic power of the world was under a tremendous amount of pressure. On one hand there were the fear of the worst possible enemies of democracy: communism and the fear of the atomic war that could have destroyed the world in minutes and on the other hand there were the economic factors that influenced a great deal of the U.S. policy making on the international arena and its role as the impartial judge in conflicts around the globe. The dream of helping building a democratic world where peace and justice, especially, social justice were at home were left in the utopian societies described in the books. The realities of the twentieth and the approaching twenty first Century were much more practical and lacked the romantic spirit…
Meernik, J. United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy. Nov. 1996. Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 33, No. 4. Pp. 391-402.
Robinson, W.I. 1996. Globalization, the World System, and "Democracy Promotion" in U.S. Foreign Policy. Theory and Society, Vol. 25, No. 5. Pp. 615-665
Ralph, J. Review. 2001. American Democracy and Democracy Promotion. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 77, No. 1. Pp 129-140
Blanton, S.L. 2000.Promoting Human Rights and Democracy in the Developing World: U.S. Rhetoric vs. U.S. Arms Exports. American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 44, No. 1.Pp. 123-131
Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:
Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?
Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the ight Thing? The Morality of Immigration;
Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?
Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…
Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House
Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009
1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
It shows that, contrary to the idea of Islam as a uniquely 'brutal' religion as erroneously depicted the Western media, the current ideology of many activists is the product of modern forces. It disturbs the fundamentalist worldview that their vision has roots in the far past, but also provides a balanced perspective to the idea that such fundamentalist interpretations arise only from the religion's precepts itself and not from social pressures. This current ideologization of Islam has international roots, roots in colonialism, in the Marxist ideology of some of the post-colonial leaders, and also resistance to the state of Israel and the perceived domination of the world by the European powers
Chapter 8 -- Human Rights, Human Dignity and Islam. n Exploration. From Islam: historical, social and political perspectives. Edited by Jacques Waardenberg. New York: de Gryter, 2002.
lthough no state can be forced to sign the 1948 United Nation's…
Although no state can be forced to sign the 1948 United Nation's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which specify a variety of basic human rights, from children's rights to the rights of workers, there is considerable political pressure for most nations that seek to be recognized as legitimate political entities to do so (163). However, although many Islamic countries seek national legitimacy, there is also often the tendency in the international community to perceive Islam as antithetical to human rights. Within the Islamic community of nations itself, there is also resistance to conforming to any internationally prescribed ideals for fear of Westernizing their principles of Islam. Some nations, such as Saudi Arabia, resisted the Declaration, stating that unlike the principles of God, the principles laid down by an international organization as a moral formula could not last for all time (167). Islamic nations also resisted declarations that threatened polygamy and the prescription against states forbidding individuals to change their religion (168). It should be noted, however, in the Quran, religion under compulsion is strictly forbidden (179). Regardless, falling in line with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and a number of other Islamic states also showed resistance to the UN Declaration's guarantees of equality for women and other matters (169).
Islam was not the only religion whose leaders showed reluctance to endorse the doctrine. The Roman Catholic Church hesitated, perhaps fearing that some of the declarations might run against its social teachings, although the Jewish community was largely positive in its reception of the Universal Declaration, given the history of the Jewish people when they existed as a minority in many nations. Regardless, the Islamic Council of Europe did seek to delineate a list of human rights, not to rival those of Islam, but to provide political as well as religious guidelines for Islamic nations to protect human rights in keeping with the principles of Islam.
These rights, unlike the rights of the UN Declaration were not defined as essential to the human person but as rights bestowed by God that could be taken away by God. Moreover, the obligation to protect the rights of fellow was not because of the inalienable rights of all human beings, but a duty that human beings owed to God (174). This is keeping with the contractual relationship between human and God that can be traced back to the earliest days of the religion (176). This Declaration by the Islamic Council, like similar declarations of the Vatican, claimed to be both highly particular, in that it took an openly theological, in this case, Islamic view, of humanity, yet proclaimed its universality in terms of the principles it articulated. However, as problematic as the document may be, it is still worth remembering, given how human rights are violated in so many Muslim nations, that even Muslim nations themselves have collectively defined human rights as commensurate rather than antithetical to Islamic principles (181).
The Aftermath of Tiananmen Square
To this day, the country of China remains an enigma, isolated from the Western world and shrouded in mystery conceptualized by the Communist ed. Its culture both ancient and modern fascinates one on many levels mainly because it is so completely foreign. Aspects of their way of life, customs and lifestyle elements mirror the Communist doctrines and the absence of pure freedom seems sad to us. Still slowly China is opening its doors to the West. There is a changing tide, a force at work. It is the advent of globalization, mass communication and new technologies that changed the atmosphere of China. The world is forever shrinking due to the marketplace being at the speed of light and commerce taking place over new mediums. This makes possibly happen. People from every nation have yearned to participate in this explosion.
The Chinese have been…
1998. "China to Sign Rights Accord." Newsday. 13 March.
Chua-Eoan, Howard. 1989. "Despair and Death in a Beijing Square." Time.
Fewsmith, Joseph. China Since Tiananmen Square: The Politics of Transition.
There are also the occurrences where rapid expansion has also led to an exceptionally high level of conflict and turmoil as well. The culture clash in India between American and Indian outsourcing companies is a case in point. And whole the Indian government welcomes the investments of western nations, the impact on their culture and the strict controls Indian ministries of commerce have put into place are designed to guard against foreign nations taking too much control of the country's economy. The detrimental effects of these factors is a rapidly changing social fabric and set of value sin the fastest growing Indian cities, where many move to in the hope of getting a lucrative position with a western company. Too often this leads to a loss of the local culture and also a continual struggle for sovereignty of these high-growth regions of the country. Bangalore and Mumbai city ministries are…
influential factor in the evolution of the international world of politics following the end of World War II was the interrelationship between the United States and the Soviet Union. The conflictive positions between the two states influenced both the evolution of highly dominant states as well as minor governments. The world divided into two military fronts, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -- 1949, and the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The international relations were dominated by tensions between the East and the West that shaped a conflict of ideological, political, and strategic manner but not military. This bilateral contention has since come to be known as the Cold War. This image of non-conventional warfare was unfamiliar decades of years ago when massacres and slaughterous mayhem was the representative picture of battlefields that most would have associated wars with up until the emergence and unfolding of the Cold War. In 2013,…
Arnold, J.R., & Wiener, R. (Eds.). (2012). Cold War: The essential reference guide. Santa Barbara, California, Denver, Colorado, Oxford, England: ABC -- CLIO.
Feng L., & Ruizhuang, Z. (2006). The typologies of realism. Chinese Journal of International Politics, 1(1), 109-134. doi: 10.1093/cjip/pol006.
Hurst, S. (2005). Cold War U.S. foreign policy: Key perspectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
Jones, H. (1989). A new kind of war?: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford, New York, Toronto, Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Karachi, Kuala Lampur, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Cape Town, Melbourne, Auckland, Berlin, Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
Charles Edward Lindblom was born in 1917 in the state of California. His education included Bachelors in economics and political science from Stanford University. He earned a PhD in economics and the dissertation for this course, titled Unions and Capitalism, which was published as a book in the year 1949. Between 1939 and 1946, Lindblom worked in the Economics faculty at the University of Minnesota. Thereafter, he shifted to Yale University where he served until his retirement in 1991. Presently, Lindblom is Sterling Professor Emeritus of Economics and Political Science at Yale. Charles Lindblom attained a great deal of experience being a practitioner when he temporarily served for the AND Corporation. He also served as chief economic adviser for the U.S. Agency for International Development mission to India. In addition, he has served as the president for economics and political science associations (Fry and aadschelders, 1989).
Fry, B. R., Raadschelders, J. C. N. (1989). Mastering public administration: From Max Weber to Dwight Waldo. Chatham, N.J.: Chatham House Publishers.
ies by Eva Stachniak
Eva Stachniak's book Necessary ies is a book whose main character is mostly based on the author's own biography. He book is about life in Poland in communist times, the cultural shock encountered by an immigrant to Canada from a communist country, a destroyed marriage as a consequence of the estrangement of the spouses, love and betrayal. Up to a point, the book is dealing with the difficulties every immigrant encounters when moving form Europe to North America, or even from a country to a different country from the same continent. The protagonist here is just carrying the burden of twenty-eight years of living in communist Poland, until she immigrated to Canada in 1981.
The main character in Necessary ies left Poland the year following the workers strike that led to the formation of the Independent Self-Governing Union Solidarnosc, under ech Walesa's leadership.
From the moment…
Lukowski, Jerzy. Zawadzki, Hubert. .A concise history of Poland. Cambridge University Press, 2001
Poland Maps. Retrieved: Dec 9, 2009. Available at: http://www.staypoland.com/history-map.htm
Stachniak, Eva. Harper Collins Canada. Retrieved: Dec 9, 2009. Available at: http://www.harpercollins.ca/authors/60052774/Stachniak_Eva/index.aspx
War Address" by F.D. Roosevelt
Discussion analysis on Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Infamy Speech"
The Second World War had been noted as the most destructive conflict in the history of humanity, mainly because it involved and separated nations of the world into two factions: the Axis and Alliance powers. These factions reflect the kind of conflict that led to the declaration of the world war, wherein the Axis group was composed primarily of Germany, Italy, and Japan, while the Grand Alliance involved the United States, Britain, and France. The Grand Alliance was formed as a protest against the Nazi government, led by Adolf Hitler, implemented its anti-Semitism propaganda across Europe, and it moved on to include the Asian region as well (with the participation of Japan).
The Pearl Harbor attack against the United States served as the catalyst that led to its participation as member of the Grand Alliance and involvement…
Star Wars and The Lord of the Rings
Star Wars (1977) directed by George Lucas and The Lord of the Rings (2001) directed by Peter Jackson are two films of the fantasy genre. Star Wars is one of the AFI’s top picks for greatest classic films. Lord of the Rings, on the other hand, is a modern popular fantasy film. This paper will provide a narrative analysis, cultural and historical analysis, and close film analysis of these two films by comparing and contrasting them.
Star Wars was released in 1977, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox. The Lord of the Rings was released in 2001, produced by WingNut Films and the Saul Zaentz Company and distributed by New Line Cinema. George Lucas directed the former, Peter Jackson the latter. Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher and Alec Guinness stared in Star Wars. Elijah Wood, Ian…
The Social Media Age
A social change that I have experienced is the arrival of the Digital and Information Age, which has led to a revolution in the way people communication, obtain knowledge, and engage with ideas. Mainly the big change is the arrival of social media which has made everything private suddenly public. There is no more line between a private life and a public life. Everything is blurred together. People are less genuine and more interested in building their “brand” than in actually being human—because, after all, being human does not necessarily get one a million subscribers on YouTube. As Olsen (2013) notes, everything is “leading to a world that feels less personal, less polite and less human.” So while there have definitely been some good points about the Digital Era and the Information Age—such as the ability to now share information more easily than ever before, to…
Terrorism and Democracy
Terrorism is by its very nature is anti-democratic as it seeks to achieve political ends by violence. It has no interest in any of the bedrocks of democracy such as building consensus, stimulating debate or protecting the rights and interests of minorities. In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the TC twin towers, the 'clear and present' danger to democracy, freedom and liberties has become even more pronounced. There is consensus among all those who cherish democracy that urgent steps are necessary to counter the threat of terrorism. The key question is: how to accomplish this? In this essay we shall examine how terrorism undermines democracy and whether setting up an international committee can help to fight terrorism. e shall also look at short definitions of democracy and terrorism.
Definition of Democracy
Democracy (Greek demos, "the people"; kratein, "to rule") is a political system in which…
Amnesty International's concerns regarding post September 11 detentions in the U.S.A." AI Web-site. April 6, 2003. http://web2.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510442002?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA?OpenDocument&of=COUNTRIESUSA
Carothers, Thomas. "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror." Source: Foreign Affairs v. 82 no1 (Jan./Feb. 2003) p. 84-97
Hoffmann, Bruce. "Terrorism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
Pious, Richard M. "Democracy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2003
It had been complicated for Cubans to be assimilated by the American community right away, as the fact that they came in large numbers prevented them from socializing with U.S. citizens to a large degree. Determined to keep their cultural identity, the first people to immigrate into the U.S. did not want to learn English. Instead, they taught their children and grandchildren Spanish, so that they would take their family traditions further.
Americans have had the inclination to treat Cubans differently from other immigrants coming from Latin America because of the circumstances that lead to each ethnic group leaving their respective country. While most Latin Americans had been coming to the U.S. because they wanted to escape the poverty in their homeland, matters had been different when concerning the Cubans. They left their country because they could not survive there knowing that they were supporting a corrupt political ideology.…
People in Cuba had been desperately trying to emigrate to the U.S. And in 1965, at the time when the Cuban government had announced that "any Cuban with relatives in the United States was free to go there after October 10" (Victor Andres Triay, pp. 100), matters went berserk, with some people even perishing because they attempted to leave the island with unseaworthy boats.
Several waves of immigrants followed throughout the twentieth and the start of the twenty first century. My mother came with the 1980 Mariel boatlifts, which were part of a mass-immigration action performed by people that could not live in the conditions imposed by Fidel Castro. The Cuban leader took advantage of the fact that his people were leaving him in favor of democracy and the U.S. And sent along a large number of criminals from Cuba's prisons.
Adults actually had more trouble adapting to the U.S. environment than children. For children, the U.S. seemed like a place of wonder, where they had access to everything that they dreamed of. "It was only a few weeks until I moved in with the family with whom I lived for two years. They are a very, very nice family" (Aimee How'd). A large number of American families did not hesitate to offer shelter to the children immigrants coming to their country.
Prof. instead The Veil
In Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi uses the veil to represent the changes that occurred as a result of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. In Satrapi's young mind, the veil acts as the only material and symbolic reality aspect of the revolution. The story unfolds with condensing, yet loaded images. Satrapi uses the playful images of young girls as a way of foreshadowing her later thoughts of the changing times in Iran. Satrapi's feelings towards the veil are similarly contrasting. Her upbringing allows her to think freely, yet her surroundings force her to think a certain way about religion. The new Iranian government attempts to use the veil as a representation of modesty, however, Satrapi indicates that the veil truly represents a government's oppression on her people. Looking through a veil, for instance, means that one sees only a limited picture of reality, and one is…
Davis, R. "A Graphic Self." Prose Studies 27.3 (2005): 264-79. Print.
Devery, D. "The Rise of Totalitarian Regimes in the 20th Century." May 2008. Maxwell.syr.edu. Web. November 2013. .
Jones, R.A. "Durkheim's Suicide." June 1986. durkheimn.uchicago.edu. Web. November 2013. .
Satrapi, M. Persepolis. New York: Vintage, 2008. Print.
The economic pragmatism that the Marshall Plan demonstrates for the United States is not necessarily as clearly observable form a basic look at history as is the containment of communism. The decades following World War II and the implementation of the Marshall Plan were definitely economically successful fro Europe and for the United States, but how this relates directly to the Marshall Plan and not simply to the end of the war can be difficult to discern. Looking at how the economic growth and development that occurred following the Marshall Plan actually came to be makes its effects and intentions quite clear, however.
American industry had grown hugely during the war, as factories and raw materials in the United States supplied much of what was needed to engage in warfare for the Allied forces, including everything from artillery to textiles (WiseGeek 2010; InfoPlease 2010). Following the war, it was still…
InfoPlease. (2010). Marshall Plan. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0831964.html
LOC. (2010). Marshall announces his plan. Library of Congress. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/marshall/mars1.html
NARA. (2010). The Marshall Plan. National Archives and Records Adminsitration. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/marshall_plan/
Spartacus. (2010). Marshall Plan. Accessed 3 December 2010. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmarshallP.htm
Allen is saying that all of the wonders of technology can never replace tow people connecting and trusting each other. I completely agree with these concepts and given Mr. Allen's wit and comedic sense, am thankful it was made. Finally any film made during a specific period of time can't help but reflect the values of society at the time. The open discussions about sexuality and sex make light of society's open and free attitudes about these areas of the human experience in 1973.
Why Sleeper is a Classic
Sleeper will always be a classic because it combines Mr. Allen's slapstick and vaudevillian comedic approaches while integrating his favorite music, which is jazz and ragtime. In addition the triumph of the human spirit and human emotions, as chaotic and mercurial as they can be, will always be superior to technology. The use of technology as a means to coerce and…
George O'Har. "Technology and Its Discontents " Technology and Culture 45.2 (2004): 479-485.
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our society. The Bush administration has repeated thwarted the power of Congress and the Supreme Court by attempting to pass laws that directly by-pass the national legislature and promoting a system that takes away presidential checks. The Bush administration repeated refuses to provide subpoenaed documents and to allow information access and disclosure. It is evident from their behavior that without such accurate disclosure the government is drifting closer and closer to the realities discussed within this book.
In the final analysis, Blair's new book is a haunting reminder of the world of 1984, and the contemporary establishment of his book, featuring a four-term Bush administration only highlights the urgency of the issues and themes he discusses within his book. The fact is…
Dawn Blair, America 2014 - an Orwellian Tale, Counsel Oaks Books, 2004
Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet, 1992. In addition, Fromm's Afterword was indispensable to this study.
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman. "The Golden Country: Sex and Love in 1984," in 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century. Harper & Row, 1983, pp. 47-56.
This fox asks the prince to tame him (the word in French is closer to "befriend" or even "socialize") for only in being tamed and forming that sort of relationship does he become unique. The fox says, "ut if you tame me, then we shall need each other. To me, you will be unique in all the world. To you, I shall be unique in all the world..." (Ch. 21) it is this which gives color to the world. In taming the fox, and learning that establishing ties and relationships is what gives meaning to life, the prince comes to understand that his rose is unique, because she has a relationship with him. The idea that it is relationships, commitments, and sacrifices which define and give meaning to life is one which continues through-out Exupery's life and work. "One sees clearly only with the heart," the fox informs the prince,…
Brosman, Catharine (ed). Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 72: French Novelists, 1930-1960. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. The Gale Group, 1988. pp. 314-330. [Gale online database]
Linde. "Goddess in the Wheel of the Year." Matrifocus, 2003 vol 3.1. http://matrifocus.com/SAM03/wheel.htm
Mitchell, Bonner. "Le Petit Prince and Citadelle: Two Experiments in the Didactic Style," in the French Review, April, 1960, pp. 454-61. [Gale online database]
Robinson, Joy D. Marie. "Antoine de St. Exupery," in Twayne's World Authors Series Online New York G.K. Hall & Co., 1999 [Gale online database]
If these countries have a choice of two strategies of development, then Russia is left none. Russian foreign policy was historically based on domination over its neighbors and imperialist model of foreign policy over neighboring countries.
oreigners who visit former Soviet Union countries are often shocked by existing poverty, poor social infrastructure and corruption which erodes society from inside. It may be explained taking into consideration different historical factors: Soviet Union was based on strict dictatorship, where the interests of individual were not taken into consideration. Individual got basic facilities for living: in 1930's it was a great progress as USSR turned into a quickly developing industrial economy from a conservative and outdated agricultural one. ormal equality of all citizens created favorable conditions for unavoidable corruptions which made citizens to exploit their positions illegally in order to improve the living. There is an ethical explanation too: several generations of Soviet…
Foreigners who visit former Soviet Union countries are often shocked by existing poverty, poor social infrastructure and corruption which erodes society from inside. It may be explained taking into consideration different historical factors: Soviet Union was based on strict dictatorship, where the interests of individual were not taken into consideration. Individual got basic facilities for living: in 1930's it was a great progress as USSR turned into a quickly developing industrial economy from a conservative and outdated agricultural one. Formal equality of all citizens created favorable conditions for unavoidable corruptions which made citizens to exploit their positions illegally in order to improve the living. There is an ethical explanation too: several generations of Soviet people didn't know what religion and morality are, as the official religion of the U.S.S.R. was atheism. Atheism resulted the decline of social morals as more and more believed in impunity. It resulted the growth of organized crime, corruption and mafia. Term mafia may be not only referred to Russian federation, but to any country of former Soviet Union, as symbiosis of bureaucrats who have official power and organized crime leaders who have "real power" became a reality. Privatization process which started in early 1990's on the territory of former Soviet Union created favorable conditions for organized crime to legalize their capital and get legal profits in future. In order to find additional funds for budget governments of NIS allowed to "privatize" state owned enterprises, often by extremely low prices. Understandably it created favorable conditions for flourish of corruption. To change the system of values is quite difficult and it will take a long period in order reevaluation of moral values to take place in people's mentality.
Another characteristic feature of former communist countries is the growth of nationalism and religious extremism. Military conflicts took place on the territory of the following former republics of the U.S.S.R.: Armenia, Georgia, Tajikistan, and Moldova. If Central Asia remained to be relatively quick region, as only Tadjikistan had experienced horrors of Civil war, than in Caucasus region, the tragedies of war became common for every country. But ideas of religious extremism are very common for Central Asia:
Uzbek President Islam Karimov has declared on numerous occasions that the country is seriously threatened by Islamic fundamentalists. One Islamist movement, known as the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), has called for Karimov's overthrow and the
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…
Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…
Elliston, D. (2005). Erotic anthropology: "Ritualized homosexuality" in Melanesia and beyond.
In J. Robertson (Ed.), Same sex cultures and sexualities: An anthropological reader (pp.91-115). Malden: Blackwell.
Hunter, M. (2012). Rights amidst wrongs: The paradoxes of gender rights-based approaches towards AIDS in South Africa. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.66-74). London: Routledge.
Mahdavi, P. (2012). 'The personal is political and the political is personal': Sexuality, politics, and social movements in modern Iran. In P. Aggleton, P. Boyce, H.L. Moore, & P. Parker (Eds.), Understanding global sexualities: New frontiers (pp.34-48). London: Routledge.
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
The Totalitarian Soviet Ideal and The Circus
In Grigori Aleksandrov’s (1936) Soviet film The Circus, an American white woman named Marion Dixon is chased out of the racist South after giving birth to a black baby. She escapes by train and is protected by a German, who becomes her manager, as she is a dancer. Their act takes them to the Soviet Union, where her act is incorporated into the circus there. She becomes beloved of the people for her performances and in turn falls in love with a Soviet engineer. This raises the ire of her manager, who tries to blackmail her to leave the Soviet Union. However, the Soviets are not put off by her son, who is of mixed ethnicity. The film indicates that Russians themselves are of mixed ethnicity and for that reason they are very accepting of the bi-racial child. The film ends with Marion’s…
omen were also a significant part of the civilian staff, committing their
abilities as typists, phone switchboard operators and facility
Likewise, on the home front, women would commit their services in
place of their husbands, fighting abroad. In fact, the term home front
should be well understood as one coined with the psychological intention of
conveying that those who were enlisted in one manner or another for
civilian duty were themselves a crucial force in the war effort. The
terminology of 'home front' implies that such domestic locales as the
continental United States were to be seen as war theatre's demanding of
unified and concerted participation in shared goals of conservation, labor
and administrative support.
For women in all walks of American life, the end of the Depression
would coincide with the start of orld ar II, making the association
between job creation and the war effort fully inextricable.…
Associated Press (AP), Nazi Sex Slaves, Spiegel Online, 2007.
Online at http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,459704,00.html
Ardrossan Herald, Join the Women's Land Army, WWII in North Ayrshire, Mar.
Irvine Herald, Work For Women, WWII in North Ayrshire, Jan. 19, 1940.
S. foreign policy. Under this new approach, Carter would directly meet with only government officials that had favorable human rights records. The problem was that the United States' relationship with the Shah was the key for maintaining control in the region. This meant that he had to make official trips to the country, even though he did not support this policy.
As a result, Carter was indirectly endorsing activities of the Shah and the underlying amounts of brutality he was using to maintain power. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below table, which is illustrating the total amounts of abuse and torture that were conducted by the SAVAK
The Total Amounts of rutality of the SAVAK
Death Related to SAVAK activities
These different elements are important, because they are showing how U.S. foreign policy changed when it came to…
"The 1953 Coup." 2011, U Toronto. http://iran.sa.utoronto.ca/coup/web_files/markcoup.html (accessed December 5, 2011)
"Background Iran." 2011. State Department. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5314.htm (accessed December 5, 2011)
Iran." 2011. Enotes, http://www.enotes.com/iran-reference/iran (accessed December 5, 2011)
"Iran." 2011. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ci.html (accessed December 5, 2011)
Gender and Culture in Criminal Justice and Capital Punishment: A egional, National and International Comparison
Comparing the rates of crime and punishment in the United States as a whole to various individual regions and states, and to other countries in the world can provide very useful information regarding criminal justice policies in the nation. Through such measurement and comparisons, programs that work -- and those that do not -- can be identified, expanded, adjusted, or eliminated as warranted by the evidence. On a deeper level, understanding such information can tell a society a lot about its attitudes towards crime and various 'types' or demographics of criminals, potentially exposing not only more fundamental societal issues but also cultural values, perspectives, and ethics. Within North American culture violence, racism and religion are often interrelated. Although the U.S. has always claimed to be a Christian nation -- or perhaps a Judeo-Christian one --…
Amnesty International. (2011). Death Sentences and Executions 2010. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ACT50/001/2011/en/ea1b6b25-a62a-4074-927d-ba51e88df2e9/act500012011en.pdf
CPF. (2011). California Death Penalty Statistics. Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.californiapeopleoffaith.org/statestats.html
Death Penalty Information Center. (2011). Accessed 30 October 2011. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/women-and-death-penalty
Man in Terror Scare Says Woman is Lying (2002). CNN.com.
Many important revolutions and transitions in power have occurred in non-democratic countries in the past several months, sparking a great deal of debate regarding the role of social media and contemporary technology in empowering populations to demand change. The matter of the critical mass with regards to public opinion and its impact upon international attention and intervention is central to the discussion of digital resources and communications supplanting rights and privileges of democratic freedoms. It has been widely promulgated in democratic nations, such as the United States, where digital media are protected by free speech laws, that the internet has the ability to enhance communication freedom in places where governments have made efforts to restrict social and civil liberties.
In an article for Foreign Policy Magazine, Evgeny Morozov termed the belief of democratic nations in the internet's ability to catalyze democratic revolution the Internet Freedom Agenda. Key to…
Edge. Org. (2010). "Edge: Digital Democracy and Its Discontents" Retrieved from: http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/morozov_shirky10/morozov_shirky10_index.html
Morozov, Evgeny. (2011). "Freedom.gov." Foreign Policy Magazine.
Shirky, Clay. (2008). Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing without Organizations. Penguin Books: New York.
reason than his critique of Plato, Popper provides much food for thought about political philosophy, and especially the political philosophies underlying American society and government. So much modern critical theory and political philosophy is rooted in Plato that it is easy to take for granted that much of what is said in The Republic and other texts needs to be scrutinized. Plato was brilliant but not sacrosanct. I appreciate that Popper urges his readers to criticize Plato and cease believing Plato to be a sacred text. Criticizing Plato actually fulfills Plato's very own objective in his writings, which is to stimulate dialogue and discussion, promote open-mindedness, and encourage critical thought rather than blind faith. What else is the cave analogy if not an urging to readers to step outside the shadow world of falsehood and into the light of truth?
Ironically, Popper champions Plato by critiquing his arguments. Popper is…
The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests us. Sometimes we return to it in order to judge it anew or attempt to reconstruct it in a way that allows it to make more sense. Sometimes new information is uncovered from the past that puts a new perspective on things. Sometimes the past can be impactful on the course of events still occurring in the present. In short, there is no wall or barrier between the present and the past. The two mix and mingle and inform one another. Therefore, everything about the past is relevant in 2016. This paper will examine 8 articles that deal with specific incidences in the past that I find to be particularly meaningful today.
History teaches us to pay attention -- to be…
Released in 2016 in South Korea, John H. Lee Jae-Han’s film Operation Chromite is about the historic Battle of Inchon, one of the central battles in the Korean War. The film is in most ways a typical war drama with requisite sub-plots involving espionage, politics, and military strategy. Similarly, the film serves to reinforce the prevailing narrative about the Korean War, depicting the North Koreans as being summarily evil and one-dimensional while holding the South Koreans, Americans, and other allies as being more complex as well as morally righteous. Although harshly criticized from a filmmaking perspective, Operation Chromite does remain true to the historical events that took place during the Battle of Inchon. The bold invasion did indeed serve as a critical victory in the conflict, even though it still did not lead to a decisive victory for the South.
Depictions of the Korean War in film and…
These problems persist to this day, but were especially prevalent in the 1980s; Chinese immigrants were brought into the country illegally by smugglers that often sold them into slavery in the underworld of American society, or that delivered them penniless, starving, and often barely alive (or not alive at all) to fend for themselves (Kyle & Koslowski 2001; Chen 1999). Horror stories became a reason to avoid emigrating to the United States, but both legal and illegal immigration from China to America continued to rise during this decade.
An ongoing problem that would-be Chinese immigrants have faced, including through the 1990s and into the current decades, is the control of both internal and external migration by the Chinese government (Au & Henderson 2005). This, coupled with an immigration policy that many still view as restrictive of Chinese immigration (though on amore subtle and therefore more insidious level than the previous…
Au, C. & Henderson, J. (2005). How migration restrictions limit agglomeration and productivity in China." Journal of developmental economics 80(2): 350-88.
Chen, E. (2010). Encyclopedia of Asian-American Issues Today, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Chin, K. (1999). Smuggled Chinese: Clandestine immigration to the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Kyle, D. & Koslowski, R. (2001). Global human smuggling: Comparative perspectives. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
NATO intervened and bombed Serbia and Montenegro for two months, influencing the Yugoslav government to remove its forces from Kosovo. The Kosovo republic declared its independence in 2008, receiving limited support from the rest of the world, as some countries refused to accept its independence.
Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic's power had been lost and he surrendered to security forces facing various charges relating to power abuse and genocide in former Yugoslavia. He did not live to see the final verdict that his trial would have because of his death in 2006. February, 2003, marked the ending of the Yugoslav republic, consequent to an unsuccessful attempt made by Serbia and Montenegro to collaborate.
1. Akhavan, Payam. Howse, Robert. (1995). "Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region." Brookings Institution.
2. Banac, Ivo. (1998). "The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics." Cornell University Press.
1. Akhavan, Payam. Howse, Robert. (1995). "Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region." Brookings Institution.
2. Banac, Ivo. (1998). "The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics." Cornell University Press.
3. Benson, Leslie. (2001). "Yugoslavia: a concise history." Palgrave Macmillan.
4. Judah, Tim. (1997). "The Serbs: The Sweet and Rotten Smell of History." Daedalus, Vol. 126.