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This tactic has proved probably the most effective out of the previous mentioned. Unlike Hitler who was only in power a short period before loosing control of his newly created empire to the United States and the Soviet Union, Stalin held his red Russia with an iron fist for close to a half of a century. hen he died, efforts were taken to try and de-Stalinize the country through deregulation and de-nationalizing of certain industries; yet, his influence would continue on with future Soviet dictators. Stalin capitalized on the fear his actions and policies evoked, forever becoming the true face of fear in Communist Russia.
And so, within the context of the iron rule of totalitarianism, Hitler and Stalin implemented unique and powerful strategies to encourage the submission of their citizens and the position of fear as seen in the eyes of their enemies. Although both regimes ultimately fell, the…… [Read More]
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…… [Read More]
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…… [Read More]
Everyone is under suspicion, according to the eye of the camera. Everyone is treated as if they are a likely criminal. This has a negative psychological affect on the general population who are not criminals.
For those who are not criminals, they feel as if their privacy is being invaded for no reason. They are reduced to being under suspicion and scrutinized even though they are upstanding citizens. They feel as if they are being treated as a criminal and that their freedoms are being slowly eaten away one by one. More and more the general population expresses concerns about the trend toward and Orwellian world. The telescreens in Orwell's world broadcast propaganda and continually exaggerated positive production numbers and lied about the failing state of the economy. The telescreens made the economy sound like a growth economy, when it was slowly slipping away, sound familiar?
In Orwell's novel, inston…… [Read More]
U.S. History 1877-Present
America has changed so vastly since the U.S. Civil War that it is hard to single out three events that have had the most beneficial impact from the later nineteenth century to the present day. However, in terms of selecting events that have had the greatest impact on the daily lives of Americans in this time period even to the present day it is possible to nominate some specific events. he ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920, the introduction of the New Deal under President Franklin Roosevelt, the passage of the Civil Rights Act during the Presidency of Lyndon Johnson are all events which continue to have a positive impact felt by all Americans.
he Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is what permits women to vote. he fact that it was only passed in 1920 is something of a scandal --…… [Read More]
Nature.... General Will
The ideas to create just and liberal society go all the way back to ancient times. The first examples of civil society were proposed by Plato and Aristotle, who saw the ideal state to be a republic ruled by the wise men and aristocrats as "first among equal." They didn't go in depth to explain its structure, functions of government in details, etc. These were the first discourses about the state where the harmony and equality established by the laws of nature will be preserved and developed. But the history shows that Greek republic failed under the pressure of power-gaining ome and Greek democracy was forgotten for centuries, but some of its principles preserved and where later developed by the philosophers of Enlightenment.
Enlightenment or renaissance of political thought and birth of civil political teachings was represented by a new idea of state, where the power was…… [Read More]
Max Weber defined state as "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory whether that legitimacy derives from charisma, tradition, or law" (Hokim 2012). Weber held that domination of people being ruled by a ruler is an unavoidable political fact. His vision for democracy in Germany was a political marketplace where charismatic rulers are elected by winning votes in free competition, whether in struggle or not. He saw localized, public associational life as the breeding ground of charismatic rulers.
Weber suggested that social pluralism should be the sociocultural ground for political education of lay citizens, which requires an organized civil society. He also suggested that the political education should contain ethics in conviction and responsibility. The political ethics also involved value-freedom and value-relativism.
Under Weber's definition, North Korea under Kim Jong-il, after American invasion or Cambogia under the Khmer…… [Read More]
Liberal States Values
When curtains fell to mark the end of the cold war, countries like the United States who were the protagonists in the cold war era resorted to promoting international spread of democracy. This became guiding principle in the formulation of foreign policy (Lynn-Jones, 1998). Democratization therefore became America's next mission because it was believed liberal democracy would benefit the citizens of new democracies, promote international peace, and serve America's interests abroad. This paper supports the notion that liberal states like the United States are obliged to promote their values abroad.
United States of America is a country that is credited for having an open democratic space where anybody can air out their grievances without the fear of being shut up by the government. It is the hallmark of almost every person migrating to the U.S. To experience the liberal approach to almost everything, the liberal approach to…… [Read More]
In the words of BBC Middle East analyst Gerald Butt (2001), "…his (Saddam's) opponents have not been able to nominate anyone else who might hold Iraq together -- with its Kurds in the north, Sunni Muslims in the centre [sic], and Shi'a in the south. What the outside world calls terror, Saddam calls expediency." Interestingly, Butt's analysis took into consideration the fact that despite the atrocities that Saddam had and has purportedly done to Iraqis and Iraq's neighbors, world leaders, particularly Western leaders like the U.S. And Britain, are still actually taking an active role in Saddam's political decision-making, albeit the latter has chosen to contain himself within Iraq's borders. Prior to 9/11, U.S. leadership continued to tolerate Saddam's regime, only until the point that it is able to find a 'suitable' replacement for the dictator (Dickey and Thomas, 2002).
In addition to "covert actions" taken to secure that Iraq…… [Read More]
Instead of providing a democratic model that Chinese companies could follow, American companies and not only go to China for the advantage of paying a lot less for the same work. The fact that our government tolerates and encourages such practices must change.
After the 1989 massacre in Tiananmen Square, one of the sanctions imposed on China was to be denied any World ank loans. A year later, the sanction was reduced as China was supposed to improve its human rights practices in order to get World ank loans. This measure, as many others, was never applied, as China is now one of the main beneficiaries of World ank loans and has done little in changing its human rights practices. Despite the fact that U.S. could have used its influence in the World ank and impose strict sanctions on China, it preferred not to do so, most probably based on…… [Read More]
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…… [Read More]
For example, the sexual revolution in Iran was part of a larger cultural movement that encouraged the challenge of a large number of social changes. "This social movement encompasses behaviours such as pushing the envelope on Islamic dress, sexual behaviours, heterosocializing, driving around in cars playing loud illegal music, partying, drinking, dancing and so on -- to include basically, young people doing what they were not supposed to do under Islamic law" (Mahdavi, 2012, p.35).
In fact, the link between how a society approaches sex and that society's overall approaches towards human rights is interesting to note. Generally, the more liberal a society and the more protective of individual freedoms, the more permissive that society's approach will be towards sexuality, particularly female sexuality. In fact, when a totalitarian regime has been challenged, there seems to be a swing in the other direction, with an embrace of human rights, including rights…… [Read More]
Combat. A French Resistance Newspaper from 1944
COMBAT: THE RESISTANCE NESPAPER
Big Brother: The Physical Embodiment and Symbol of the Party in Oceania
Big Brother's Predecessors: Hitler, Stalin and an Old British Recruiting Poster Featuring Lord Kitchener
BIG BROTHER IS HITLER AND STALIN, INCLUDING THE MOUSTACHE
By O'Brien X
Unlike the real dictators Hitler and Stalin, Big Brother does not really exist and has never existed, except as the symbol of English Socialism (Ingsoc) and the Party that controls all aspects of life in Oceania through totalitarian, police state methods. After all, a dictator with a physical body will eventually become ill, decline with age and die, Big Brother will live forever as the image of a Party that intends to remain in power forever. Its members will die off, even at the privileged Inner Party levels, but that matters no more than cutting off dead fingernails. As…… [Read More]
I think the state should be neutral, and there should be opportunities for everyone, but that is not real life. I think that men mostly run government, but to call states patriarchal seems too extreme for me. I believe that there will be more opportunities for women both in government and the private sector, and that this is a wiser and less volatile outlook than the more radical feminist ideas. I do not have a problem with women or minorities in government, and I believe the state should encourage and make way for more of this type of participation.
As far as economic ideals are concerned, I believe a blend of the Minimalist and the Developmental state is the best alternative. I believe that capitalism is a good thing, but that wealth does not need to be distributed evenly, so I am not a fan of the socio-democratic state. I…… [Read More]
Rice Sprout Song
In a foreword given by David ang, he explains the important background for this story, written as an anti-communist story set in the 1950s, just after the Land Reform Movement has taken place in rural China. The Land Reform was meant to liberate local peasant by redistributing land, "giving" each farmer his or her own plot to own. However, what was meant as a way for farmers to produce more in an area that had always been prolific, another threat of famine is on the horizon but no one, not even Communist Party members, are allowed to speak about the "deepening misery" the peasants must face.
hat was interesting to me as I read through the story, is that on the surface the novel should be about celebration. There is, after all, a wedding and the impending New Years celebrations which is taken just as seriously, if…… [Read More]
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
oth novels…… [Read More]
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…… [Read More]
Marie Corelli writes in her article: Poisoning Young Minds in Nazi Germany: Children and Propaganda in the Third Reich about a math problem taught in the German schools under the Nazi regime: "The Jews are aliens in Germany -- in 1933 there were 66,060,000 inhabitants in the German Reich, of whom 499,682 were Jews. What is the percent of aliens?"(Corelli, 2002).
Another important age group, the youth, received full attention from the part of the Nazis and the first youth organization was established in 1922 and was called the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. It went through a series of transformations and had several different names, till it finally became the name: Hitler Yugend. y 1935 over a half of the total German youth was member of this organization. After 1939 it became compulsory for the young Germans to join the organization.
It is obvious that children, young people, mothers were only…… [Read More]
paradox of the perfect selfless citizen O-90
On one hand, the soft, unified and always feminine presence of O-90 in Yevgeny Zamyatin's novel e stands as an idealized example of unquestioned obedience to the authority of a unified and totalitarian state. The future dystopia of e in the form of One State in e has entirely erased the concept of human individuality and independent thought. It has produced a citizen body that is entirely permeated by its beliefs, of which the spherical O-90 is perhaps the most obvious physical and psychological example. However, O-90's existence in a state of emptiness and her willingness to become a psychic void lacking a sense of self also means she is paradoxically capable of embodying the ideal of unconditional love, more than anyone else in the novel.
Of course, unconditional love is something hardly tolerated as a product of a unified state ideology. Love…… [Read More]
Behrman holds that it was weak political institutionalization rather than a weak civil society that shackled Weimar Germany.
Unfortunately, many scholars of democracy theory and proponents of democratic culture have approached the Weimar Republic already holding the assumption that a democratic culture is necessary for a functioning democracy. With this assumption in place, they then debate whether Weimar Germany really possessed a "democratic culture." A democratic culture is often taken to entail Toqueville's "associationism," a vibrant public sphere, formal outlets for political dissent, and informed political debate. Such inquiries have provided little insight into the nature of healthy democracies because they are based on a faulty assumption, that culture is a condition or even a determinant in the formation of a society's political structure.
As Berman observed, passionate civic engagement among a nation's citizens, without an adequate institutional foundation to channel such passion, can actually be averse to functional democracy.…… [Read More]
The ritish came to impose serious taxes as a result of the French Indian war. These in turn were unacceptable to a people which considered itself not to be responsible for the causes of the war. The confrontation had been in fact another matter of European dispute that had to be solved outside the continent in the colonies.
Third, there is a disagreement in the way in which the war was perceived at the local level. The American colonies viewed this struggle as a need for independence from a regime that continued to impose an undemocratic control over its institutions and the lives of the people. On the other hand, the ritish saw it as a rebellion that must be immediately squashed. In its view, it was a war for the maintenance of a certain order, while the Americans viewed it as one of disruption of this order. While the…… [Read More]
Fall of the Soviet Union: Internal Causes Were to lame, Not External
In December of 1991, as the world watched in sheer perplexity and wonder, the mighty Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate smaller countries. Its collapse was hailed by the west as a convincing victory for freedom, a triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, and evidence of the final proof of superiority of capitalism over socialism. The United States rejoiced as its sworn enemy was brought to its knees, thereby ending the unprecedented Cold War which had hovered over these two superpowers like a thunderhead since the end of World War II. In fact, the end of the Soviet Union transformed the entire world political situation, leading to a complete reformulation of political, economic and military alliances all over the globe, not to mention spurred a whole new set of political-economic theories.
What were the causes of this monumental historical…… [Read More]
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…… [Read More]
This provides two strong disincentives to innovate. hat is left is a Chinese state that discourages the development of the most tried-and-true means of economic development -- competition and innovation -- and instead relies on wealth transfer due to currency manipulation as the foundation of its success.
The role of government in an economy, therefore, should be limited if long-term sustainable growth is the objective. For totalitarian capitalism to be the superior system would require that system to develop competencies that enable its economies to compete globally. Thus far, these competencies have only emerged in the Chinese firms that have access to estern systems -- Lenovo's Hong Kong roots place it into estern-style competition for example. ithout competencies, you have short-term success built on an artificial and unsustainable economy, rather than long-term success. The estern style emphasizes a limited role for government and the power of market forces. The totalitarian…… [Read More]
Humanities are Important:
An analysis of the Da Vinci Code, Beethoven's 9th, and 1984.
A novel by George Orwell (pseudonym), real name Eric Blair
Published in 1949
A reaction to the totalitarian state engulfing the global community
The Da Vinci Code
A (2006) film by on Howard
Based on the novel by Dan Brown
obert Langdon follows a series of clues that link Leonardo's masterpieces, the mystery of Jesus Christ, and a totalitarian regime in the guise of the Catholic Church
Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Completed in 1824 after the composer (Ludwig van Beethoven) had gone completely deaf, this -- his final symphony -- is often considered to be one of the greatest musical masterpieces of all time. The fourth movement is based on Schiller's "Ode to Joy" and invokes a chorus of universal brotherhood. If you listen long enough, you will hear the music swell into a magnificent burst of…… [Read More]
Autocracy and Democracy
There are different forms of government throughout the world. Each nation decides how it will govern its people and in whom the power will be vested. It is expected that when the nation is established, either the citizens or those who led the efforts to create the new nation will find a system of governance that works for all considered. There are many different forms of government, perhaps as many different forms as there are governments to adopt them. Some nations have kings and queen who rule their monarchy, others are theocracies where the rulers are the clergy, and still others are meritocracies where those who are put in positions of power have been granted the honor based on their value to the rest of the society. Two nearly diametrically opposed systems of government are democracies and autocracies. In the former government type, the people are the…… [Read More]
The Social Media Age
A social change that I have experienced is the arrival of the Digital and Information Age, which has led to a revolution in the way people communication, obtain knowledge, and engage with ideas. Mainly the big change is the arrival of social media which has made everything private suddenly public. There is no more line between a private life and a public life. Everything is blurred together. People are less genuine and more interested in building their “brand” than in actually being human—because, after all, being human does not necessarily get one a million subscribers on YouTube. As Olsen (2013) notes, everything is “leading to a world that feels less personal, less polite and less human.” So while there have definitely been some good points about the Digital Era and the Information Age—such as the ability to now share information more easily than ever before, to…… [Read More]
yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…… [Read More]
liberal democracy? Who are/Were its competitors?
This article by Francis Fukuyama was written 15 years ago, in 1989, so when reviewing his points, it is important to keep in mind that the views he makes are dated. Though his views are taken 15 years ago, that should not make them obsolete, it is just important to keep the perspective of when he offered this paper.
Liberal democracy is, from reading Fukuyama's article, the democratic force that defeated fascism (Hitler) and totalitarian fanaticism (Japan) in WWII. Since there are no "viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism," the author states, then liberal democracy must be the best system (although that ignores the huge power wielded by the Chinese form of communism). Liberalism generally is defined as a progressive form of politics, where minorities and women should be given equal rights with men, and where voters decide whom their leaders will be -…… [Read More]
"The rumor claiming that the commercial almost never aired is true," said Clow (www.ciadvertising.com).The Apple board "demanded that it not be aired," Clow goes on, but Apple CEO Steve Jobs insisted that it be played, and so it was. Clow says that this commercial wasn't just a parody of Nineteen Eighty-Four; "one could almost interpret this commercial as a bleak commentary on society," he writes. It shocked the "PC world into paying a little more attention to their competitors in their field," Clow asserts.
In conclusion, TV Guide called the Apple commercial "the greatest commercial of all time," according to CNN. And while Orwell's book isn't the greatest by any means, it has created an endless number of allusions and references, including the phrase "Big Brother," who, unfortunately, is with us today far more than most of us probably realize.
Clow, Lee. "Lee Clow: His Masterpiece." Chiat/Day Advertising.…… [Read More]
Some of the mathematics of the book are shown to correlate to certain political aspects of the book, making the work perhaps more profound than Abbott ever intended (McCubbins & Schwartz, 1985). Certainly, the entire novel pushes for freedom, justice, and equality, both by satirizing certain social institutions and beliefs and by promoting the free and rigorous use of logical examination as a way of discovering, learning, and truly knowing things about the world we live in. he alternative that Flatland shows is a world full of people that do not really listen to or respect each other, and they often show as little regard for the realities of physical and theoretical truth.
hough this book is almost one hundred and thirty years old, it is still very useful today. It can be read as an introductory text to certain mathematical and philosophical concepts, a historical document showing the opinions…… [Read More]
A second major advantage of online catalogs over their printed counterparts is speed of updating; with the web you can update a catalog literally overnight. There is also the advantage of being able to quickly change pricing with an online catalog, with a printed catalog this is simply not the case. The advantages of a printed catalog include greater depth to the products presented, more "shelf life" of the catalog itself, and more focus on how to make the catalog more magazine like, as Disney often drives towards with their catalog designs.
) What, if any, are the dysfunctional aspects of the "New Economy" promoted by e-Business? Identify any legal, ethical, regulatory and social issues that might negatively impact people, organizations and/or society.
What was once thought of as being the panacea for global growth of democracy has become a balkanized medium where quantification of trust and security is very…… [Read More]
" This predictability is not and could never be a part of democracy; democracies must change with the will of the people, and so might have periods of instability. In fact, Berber notes, "Multinational corporations sometimes seem to prefer doing business with local oligarchs, inasmuch as they can take confidence from dealing with the boss on all crucial matters." Consistency and predictability are almost by definition easier to find in harsh dictatorships or oligarchies than democracies. The real danger I see in this is the possibility of a totalitarian state that looks like a democracy, such as the imagined by Aldous Huxley in Brave New World and which is every similar to the McWorld Barber sees us approaching. It might, in fact, already be happening, as warrant-less wiretapping becomes executive practice, and perhaps even more insidiously through the attempts of companies like Google to maintain huge databases of information about…… [Read More]
England - China
For managers conducting cross-border activity between England and China, there are a number of factors that should be considered. The differences between English and Chinese business culture are striking, and it is important to understand the nature of those differences and how they can affect business relations between the two countries. There are also significant differences in the economies of each country and again it is valuable for managers to understand these differences and how they may affect the business dealings between English companies and Chinese ones.
This report will analyze the differences between England and China from a number of perspectives. The first component of the report will focus on the macro-level environmental differences between the two, using the PESTLE framework as the basis of the analysis. The second component of the report will focus on the business culture of the two nations, including Geert Hofstede's…… [Read More]
Once again, research reveals a healthcare setting where professionals are supposed to be trained to help those with mental deficiencies. But something is wrong here. This is not comparable with Cuckoo's Nest, but it reflects bad management, which leads - at the very least - to poor service at the patient level, and at worst, brutal abuses of the kind that were seen in Cuckoo's Nest.
Doctors, nurses and medical students in nursing and doctor training are pivotal actors in the fight to detect, prevent, and somehow manage substance abuse among patients; that is a given when it comes to mental health services across the board. But in London a recent study reveals that "...many doctors and nurses can have a negative attitude towards the management of drug and alcohol problems" of patients and of their own community of professionals (O'Gara, et al., 2005, p. 328). Doctors themselves "are at…… [Read More]
threat posed to it by the estern Secular or Christian orld View
Is fundamentalism an expression of cultural regression? Or is it an act of creative nationalism? Truly, religious and nationalist fundamental can manifest itself in both guises. On one hand, during the dissolution of the former Soviet Union, the fundamentalist expression of religion became a creative response of liberation in the eyes of the many whom had been oppressed by the Soviet, communist, and fundamentally anti-religious regime. On the other hand, fundamentalism can also be used to express fears of estern economic and cultural domination, rather than to express an alternative political voice.
For instance, for a woman to wear the veil in a once-Muslim Soviet republic was an act of transgression against a state, a state that would punish her for behaving according to her religious beliefs with heavy penalties. To learn the language of the Koran rather…… [Read More]
Nietzsche's Twilight Of The Idols
Nietzsche mischaracterizes the Christian tradition when he states that "the Church fights passion by cutting it out." The Catholic Church has never dogmatically opposed passion, but it has opposed sin. Nietzsche is writing out of the naturalist, Romantic tradition. He is a believer in self-determination, of the will to power. He views natural instincts and natural desires as justified and in no need of Redemption. His conflict with the Church is that the Church views man as having a fallen human nature in need of redemption, which is offered through the Blood of Jesus Christ. Nietzsche rejects this view: he sees man in line with what Rousseau taught -- that what is natural is good. The Church, for example, preaches against lust because this is disordered passion. Ordered passion, according to the Church, would be sexual love between husband and wife. If one or the…… [Read More]
The fact that Lysistrata's "came to power" by virtue of her own leadership abilities which were recognized and celebrated by their peers rather than having them thrust upon her from above is pointed out by Ober (1989), who reports, "The Athenians' demonstrated concern with native intelligence, their distrust of elite education, and their respect for the authority of the elders are parodied by Aristophanes, who mimics rhetorical topoi in the speech of Lysistrata, the female demagogue:
Listen to my words
I am a woman, but I'm smart enough
Indeed, my mind's not bad at all.
Having listened to my father's discourses
And those of the older men, I'm not ill educated. (Lysistrata 1123-27 quoted in Ober at 182)
Indeed, Lysistrata's leadership qualities were clearly demonstrated in her ability to organize the women of Athens to show the warring men of the city just who in fact had "the power" suggests…… [Read More]
This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…… [Read More]
Thucydides was an Athenian, but had very little reason for offering a distorted view of the war that was eventually won by Sparta.
Jackson states, "Thucydides was an active participant in Athens for a time, he had a network of contacts, while banished to Thrace he observed the war there first hand, and as an Athenian exile he traveled along the Peloponnese" (Jackson, p.175). Thucydides wrote of a Sparta that used an eight deep fighting stance against the Athenians who could not, or did not, adapt to a style that would lead to victory when battling against that type of tactic.
Other army tactics began to be used after the Peloponnesian ar, many of which were introduced by the Spartans in order to maintain their military might. One such tactic would play a key role in the battle of Leuctra.
Of particular relevance to Leuctra, however, was the battle of…… [Read More]
With this statement Berlin aims to make the point that those who have freedom have achieved it by exploiting others, and, at the same time, by placing those individuals within certain categories of social and economic degrees of freedom, to which they themselves are not subject.
Despite his high rhetoric which goes on for over 30 pages, Berlin does conclude that he is of the opinion that no matter whether liberty is negative or positive, it is, nonetheless, important, should be available to all, and simply because values are compromised does not mean that they are not eternal or secure. The reader, thus assumes by the end of the commentary that Berlin is indeed of the opinion that liberty is of the utmost importance to a functioning society.
There are various critiques upon Berlin's work. The one to be examined here will be that of oberto Toscano who…… [Read More]
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…… [Read More]
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Western…… [Read More]
West Germany sustained what many call an "economic miracle" rebuilding after the war. Their social market economy allowed for individuals to be entrepeneurial and yet be socially responsible to the state. With so much rebuilding necessary, but an entire Western Europe and the United tates ripe for importing and exporting, the economic future of the West was in high gear (Erhard, 2000). In contrast, East Germany as a client state to the oviet Union, was part of the large buffer zone Moscow set up between themselves and the West. Because so much of the GDP either went back to Moscow or to run the tasi, economic growth was typically stagnant, and there was little motivation for increased production or free spirit workers (Leonhard, 2000).
This also bled over politically; West Germany had free elections, East Germany's a ruse and the ruling elite chosen by Moscow. ocially, West German standards of…… [Read More]
S. from the preparation and supervision of the coming elections . . . during this period, the training of Iraqi forces might, of necessity, remain a coalition task, but it ought to be monitored and supervised by the U.N." (Hoffmann & Bozo, 113)
It is clear though that at this juncture, the world community is not yet prepared to take control of the operation. The presence of U.S. forces is a reality prompted by the aggressive lead in to war and the obligations thereby created. And quite certainly, no nation or organization has stepped up to take the lion's share of responsibility which the U.S. has taken for contending with Hussein and his legacy. Thus, Obama's plan does not fully withdraw troops, instead maintaining a significant American presence that suggests the war is not truly yet ended. Accordingly, his 'exit' plan "would leave in Iraq a residual force of as…… [Read More]
Arguments for and against the Patriot Act
The unusual events surrounding the creation and passing of the Patriot Act make it a suspect bill in many eyes. However, major media reports like this one: "Fifty-nine percent in an ABC News/ashington Post poll favor continuing the additional investigative authority in terrorism investigations that was granted to the FBI starting in 2001. President Bush urged such an extension of the Patriot Act today" (Langer) insist that there are others who support it and promote it as a protection against the kind of terrorism that was seen on 9/11. For supporters the idea of sacrificing civil liberties for security measures such as the TSA is, while unfortunate, a necessary evil. Those who oppose it, like alternative media journalist Ryan Dawson and Sen. Ron Paul, decry it as government intrusion. This paper will give arguments for and against the Patriot Act and…… [Read More]
social contract would observe the law as well as the institution to enforce that law. y the enforcement of that law, those covered could expect justice to be done to them and everybody else. In times of trouble, such as when burglars or other criminals attack, one could call the police for help. Those covered by the contract need neither to fear such unjust attacks nor to take the law into their own hands. The weak need not fear the strong.
The deal for those covered by the social contract is that they join individual forces and resources with others who also want peace and equality, so that their own goods may not be taken from them unjustly, either. And because there are more people who want their goods and other rights protected than those who want a free-for-all all the time, there would be more people who would join…… [Read More]
Why Due Process Matters in the US Constitution
The Importance of the 6th Amendment and the Right to Effective Counsel
Unit 1-5 Journals Criminology: The Core
This unit looks at biological and psychological trait theories, social structures and how standards influence criminal outcomes. Conflict theory was the most interesting theory for crime because it looked at the persona conflict issue and that people are inherently in conflict with one another at some point, and that crime occurs because of that conflict. It is interesting that it grew out of Marx’s approach to capitalism, but what I find most compelling about it is that it explains crime basically perfectly: crime is committed because one person wants what someone else has. There is a conflict because person B is not willing to do what person A wants. This is especially relevant because of the role confusion that resulted after the…… [Read More]
Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.
The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.
The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…… [Read More]
There are also the occurrences where rapid expansion has also led to an exceptionally high level of conflict and turmoil as well. The culture clash in India between American and Indian outsourcing companies is a case in point. And whole the Indian government welcomes the investments of western nations, the impact on their culture and the strict controls Indian ministries of commerce have put into place are designed to guard against foreign nations taking too much control of the country's economy. The detrimental effects of these factors is a rapidly changing social fabric and set of value sin the fastest growing Indian cities, where many move to in the hope of getting a lucrative position with a western company. Too often this leads to a loss of the local culture and also a continual struggle for sovereignty of these high-growth regions of the country. Bangalore and Mumbai city ministries are…… [Read More]
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…… [Read More]
The nature and intent of their friendship was questioned, and they a promise was extracted from them both that they would have no abnormal relationship until Lin was divorced and they were married. It was implied and understood clearly that "abnormal" meant "sexual" and that if they broke this promise, their careers and futures would be in jeopardy. This incident shows the way that Chinese society viewed sex and marriage. Sexual intercourse was a very private thing that a woman reserved for her husband and a man and woman reserved only for marriage. Anyone who was caught to violate this practice was judged to be immoral and would be harshly criticized and even ostracized by the community.
The way that Manna's career in the army is described is redolent of the discrimination that women faced. The reasons for this discrimination changed somewhat during the twenty-year span of the novel, but…… [Read More]
Market Society and the Public Sphere
My journal text comes to illustrate the utmost significance of globalization viewed as the force molding and shaping the current world. It describes the multidimensional aspect of globalization that influences and encompasses all facets of life through an integrated network. Currently, globalization is the buzzword in media articles, daily talks of media people and talks of politicians. There is no aspect of life that is not influenced or affected by globalization (Tober, 2006, 33). However, many people find it difficult to reflect on this phenomenon. This is because the term is applied in so many aspects leading to its ambiguity in defining it according to my text.
Numerous volumes of work have written about globalization in numerous fields such as political, science, business, economics, sociology and many more. This has made the term globalization lack a precise cogent theory and definition. This is seen…… [Read More]
Perhaps that more timely international cooperation could do better to save innocent people.
Stephanie Power covers a period from 1915 to 2001 with the increasing capacity of U.S. response to genocide. While in 1915, nothing could be done about the urkish genocide in Armenia, the U.S. role increased constantly to the ones played at the end of the 20th century in Yugoslavia and with the role in Saddam's Iraq. Perhaps such examples can help develop preemptive action towards genocide that can be acted upon in the future.
4. Between 1939 and 1941, Germany had started the war in Europe with its attack on Poland, on September 1, 1939, preceded by a series of aggressive actions such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and the annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia. With Great Britain and France declaring war on Germany, armed conflict proceeded in Europe with the rapid German victories over Poland,…… [Read More]
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…… [Read More]
Telecommunications made it easier to transfer ideas and information instantly and without the delays that hindered previous efforts at military and strategic intervention. Similarly, the barriers to international trade had largely been lifted. The seeds of the World Trade Organization had already been laid by the end of the Second World War. Finally, the United Nations and other trans-national governing bodies would become legitimized sources of power. Nations who could climb on board stood a chance and those who could not join in faced a perilous century of poverty and political disenfranchisement. America directly contributed to the imbalance of power that would ensue throughout the 20th century.
Being a bully seemed to come easy to the Americans. Armed with what had become the largest and most well-endowed military in the world, the United States forged a path toward hegemony almost effortlessly. As if it were trying to be the world's…… [Read More]
limiting free speech ID: 53711
The arguments most often used for limiting freedom of speech include national security, protecting the public from disrupting influences at home, and protecting the public against such things as pornography.
Of the three most often given reasons for limiting freedom of speech, national security may well be the most used. President after president, regardless of party has used national security as a reason to not answer questions that might be embarrassing personally or would show their administration as behaving in ways that would upset the populace. Although there are many examples of government apply the "national security" label to various situations, perhaps some of the stories that are associated with the Iran-Contra issue best display what government uses limitations on free speech for. In horrific tangle of lies double and triple dealing that resulted in the deaths of many Nicaraguans, the egan administration sought to…… [Read More]
S. stays one step ahead of the hackers. This is not easy, but the DoD could not have possibly thought it would be.
Proper defenses, enhanced offensive capabilities and strategies to reduce risk by taking some sensitive data offline will all work to deliver better results in e-spionage of the United States. The Internet has become globalized, and nothing can take that back. That there are threats as the result of globalization is nothing new -- it is simply another arena for age-old international political traditions. How we manage the threats and take advantage of the opportunities is the most important aspect to this problem -- and this means proper isolating and neutralizing of viral threats. By addressing the issue of e-spionage effectively, the Internet can still be viewed as a net benefit for the United States.
Callaham, J. (2012). New Internet Explorer vulnerability used to deliver "Poison…… [Read More]
ise of the Secular Turkish epublic
It was in 1923 that the epublic of Turkey appeared on the face of the globe. The Turks consider the preceding years i.e. 1919-1922 as the years of their struggle for independence. The Turkish state that was formed as a consequence of this struggle was a completely new republic despite the fact that various partition schemes were proposed by the triumphant Allies during and after The Great War I (Alaranta 115). This paper will discuss the rise of the Secular Turkish epublic. It will elaborate the state of the empire when Sultan Abdul Hamid II came into power. It will also tackle the actions taken under his leadership to restrain European authority and involvement which eventually led to Sultan's demise. However, the rise of the secular Turkish epublic is mainly due to the countless efforts of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Therefore, this paper would extensively…… [Read More]
A core weakness in the current dynamic seems to be the laxity of enforcement on the part of the EU with respect to this issue of citizenship. According to EU Facts, "although they had to improve their citizenship process in order to join the EU in 2004, a significant proportion of the population (10% of Estonians and 19% of Latvians) have still not been given these rights. Relations with Russia are critical to all three countries." (p. 1)
Today, there is an opportunity to force reconsideration of Russian relations for the Baltic States. As the global recession spreads through the EU and imposes heavy burdens upon the three states in question, leaders are being forced to reconsider the unilateral approach that has caused such problematic dependency on a struggling economic coalition.
The greatest threat to the critical relations between Russia and the Baltics is the cultural tension which exists between…… [Read More]