111 results for “Totalitarianism”.
Hannah Arendt, in her book, "Origins of Totalitarianism," attributes the formation of a mass society in Europe in the first decades of the 20th century to "grassroots eruptions" from a number of collective groups. These were the Mob, the masses, the tribes and the starving multitude - all "mobilized for action" and powerful (Arendt 1973).
The first of these groups, the Mob, Arendt perceives to have proceeded from the anti-Semitic riots that flared during the Dreyfus events in France. This Mob, according to her, was recruited from all classes of society, the "residue" or the "refuse of all classes" that accumulated from those left behind by the economic cycles of capitalism. They were displaced by the class structure and resented ordered society, and quickly mobilized for violence by instigators. Arendt distinguishes the Mob from the People in that the Mob was outside the class structure and always attuned to…
Arnedt, Hannah. (1973) The Origins of Totalitarianism. Paperback, new edition. Harvest Books
He also says that he wants to be more on his own, "not so completely a part of something else. Not just a cell in the social body" (90).
Later, he tells her that he wants to "know what passion is... I want to feel something strongly" (94). The only way that Lenina can respond is by telling him that when the "individual feels, the community reels" (94). His feelings and inclinations that there must be something better is a testament that humanity is born with the notion to be free. Keith May maintains, "The chief illusion which Brave New orld shatters has less to do with an unthinking faith in scientific progress than with the assumption that truth, beauty, and happiness are reconcilable goods on the plane of ordinary, unregenerate human activity'" (May qtd. In Hochman). Hochman adds that the only way to deal with the nasty little ideas…
Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. 1960.
Hochman, Jhan. "An overview of Brave New World." GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 24, 2008. www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Hochman, Jhan. "An Overview of Brave New World." Exploring Novels. 1998. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 24, 2008. www.infotrac.galegroup.com
McGiveron, Rafeeq. "Huxley's Brave New World." EBSCO Resource Database. Site Accessed March 24, 2008. www.searchepnet.com
Despite the high costs the Four Modernizations implied, China succeeded to enter "into the milieu of international bank loans, joint ventures, and whole panoply of once-abhorred capitalist economic practices."
As it might be inferred from above, this task was not an easy one, and China's officials had first of all to convince the rather-conservative part of the population of the necessity of these reforms and of the continuity of the Four Modernizations program. Similarly to the case of other communist movements, the changes had to come from above, so the unity among the mentalities needed firstly to e achieved at the top-level and only afterwards should the belief in newness be spread among the population.
Deng's attempt in this perspective seem to have succeeded, or at least this was the common feeling in the 1980s, when improvements in both rural and urban life became obvious, and the replacements of new…
China - History, Briefly stated, at http://www.sitara.com/china/history.html
Exploring Chinese History: Culture, Philosophy, Maoism, at http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/02cul/c04s07.html#Introduction
Cultural Revolution, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Revolution
Great Leap Forward, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Leap_Forward
Summary of the Chapter "The Potent Wizard" from "The Origins of Totalitarianism" by Hannah Arendt
This chapter revolves around Benjamin Disraeli, who is portrayed as a very ambitious politician and was characterized by luck and fortune. He did not know the feeling of déclassé, and thus, he expressed his being a Jew through every aspect possible. He rose through the political ladder in London despite his family being not born in England. He had an excellent and deep understanding of society, as demonstrated in his saying, 'What is a crime among the multitude is only a vice among the few' (p.89), which could be used as an indication of the rise of the Mafia and Mob of the 19th century.
Another factor contributing to his success was his ability to 'absolute sincerity and unreserved' (p.90). He was born an Englishman, and England admired his Jewish history because Jews who had…
Authoritarianism vs. Democratic Leadership: Why People Choose
Because politics is a social expression, it is natural for philosophers and political scientists to examine the sociology of a group of people regarding their choices of leaders whom they choose to support. In terms of choosing to support a democratic or non-democratic leader, the Frankfurt School of philosophers (Arendt, Adorno, Fromm, Nevitt et al.) show that society can be manipulated into choosing as the powerful elite, who control the media and the manner in which the public masses think, prefer them to choose. In other words, there is an art of deception and manipulation exercised by the purveyors of mass media. On the other hand, there is also a willingness on the part of the public to ascribe to the views of a demagogue, who projects himself vividly, with force, conviction and articulation. Such a leader can attract masses to supporting a…
The Totalitarian Soviet Ideal and The Circus
In Grigori Aleksandrov’s (1936) Soviet film The Circus, an American white woman named Marion Dixon is chased out of the racist South after giving birth to a black baby. She escapes by train and is protected by a German, who becomes her manager, as she is a dancer. Their act takes them to the Soviet Union, where her act is incorporated into the circus there. She becomes beloved of the people for her performances and in turn falls in love with a Soviet engineer. This raises the ire of her manager, who tries to blackmail her to leave the Soviet Union. However, the Soviets are not put off by her son, who is of mixed ethnicity. The film indicates that Russians themselves are of mixed ethnicity and for that reason they are very accepting of the bi-racial child. The film ends with Marion’s…
Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions
The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work
Since the publication of her 1951 work on The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt has received much criticism as a philosopher and an historian for her theory of the human, historical development of notions of society or what Arendt terms 'the social.' From the social organizations of the salon, which were loose and diffuse, and based on ideological alliances, human beings evolved in their organization, she suggests, to alliances upon material interests in the forms of classes. But the nationalist and imperialist movements of the 19th century perverted these previous mental and material social alliances in history, to create the manifestation of 'the masses' that enabled totalitarianism to take hold in Germany, Russia, and other areas of the world.
Critical to Arendt's conception of totalitarianism is her notion of the…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.
Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.
The Communist Manifesto
The central aspect of the Manifesto of the communist party is how to effectively handle the ever increasing rift between the contending classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The development of the bourgeoisie at the expense of the proletariat has highly been exacerbated by the industrialization and trade development over the years, the various revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange. The bourgeoisie has played the bigger role in the revolutions that have shaped the system to its favor, turning the physicians, the lawyers, the priest, the poet, the man of science into its paid wage laborers. Bourgeoisie has also torn away the noble family veil and has reduced family relations into mere money relations.
There is a big difference between the way the bourgeoisie view labor wage and that of the proletariat. The bourgeoisie see it as a means to increase accumulated labor, yet…
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on a single project -- typically the major "goal" of a regime such as war.
Complete government control on weapons, although not an exclusive characteristic of totalitarian governments precludes the chances of successful uprisings.
Case Studies: Specific Examples of Totalitarian egimes
The Soviet Communist regime under Joseph Stalin, the fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy and Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler are typical examples of totalitarian regimes.
Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin: As observed earlier, it is debatable whether Karl Marx had clearly envisaged the formation of totalitarian governments by the application of his Communist theory. However, the first country to adopt Communism, i.e., the Soviet Union soon degenerated into the worst type of totalitarian government imaginable under Joseph Stalin who…
Arendt, Hannah. (1966). The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=23477515
Blum, G.P. (1998). The Rise of Fascism in Europe (R. M. Miller, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Characteristics of Totalitarianism." (n.d.) From: Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, by Carl Friedrick and Zbigniew Brzezinski. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://plato.newarka.edu/~labbey/ap_total_charac.html
Kreis, Steven. (2004) "The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler." Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe: The History Guide. Retrieved on November 5, 2004 at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture10.html
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168).
Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels. Huxley for instance, applied the idea of mass production in human reproduction, since the people has abandoned the natural method of reproduction. Mass production as the conventional feature of capitalism and Huxley's novel reinforces such. He talked about the requirement of the World State about constant consumption, which is considered as foundation of its stability. Huxley apparently criticizes the commercial dependence of the world towards goods. Conditioning centers teaches people to consume. Orwell similarly provides criticism to capitalism as well: "The centuries of capitalism were held to have produced nothing of any value." The Proles are the symbols of the capitalist system as they constitute the working class who work in assembly lines.
Destruction of the concept of family
Bessa, Maria de Fatima (2007). Individuation in Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and Island: Jungian and Post-Jungian Perspectives. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Beniger, James K. (1986) the Control Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 61.
Greenberg, Martin H., Joseph D. Olander and Eric S. Robbon. No Place Else: Expectations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. Southern Illinois: University Press, 1983. 29-97.
Grieder, Peter. "In Defense of Totalitarianism Theory as a Tool of Historical Scholarship" Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 8.314 (September 2007) Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Grace Van Dyke Bird Library, Bakersfield, CA. 15 November 2008 ( http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct-true&db=aph&an=27009808&site=ehost-live .
Recent Trends in Restrictions on Freedoms by a Totalitarian State
Two and a half centuries ago, the Founding Fathers of the United States forged what has become regarded as a “living document” with the U.S. Constitution that has managed to weather numerous conflicts, including a civil war, two world wars and dozens of regional clashes over the years. This foundation in liberty is being threatened by some politicians today to the point of making the United States a totalitarian state, including most especially the current occupant of the Oval Office. For example, in their article, “Three warning signs of ideological totalitarianism” (September 8, 2020), Sharansky and Troy make the point that more than 3 decades after the collapse of the former Soviet Union, “embers of the kind of totalitarian thinking that spawned the Communist Revolution are inflaming Western debate — and inciting Americans” (para. 2).
In truth, not all Americans…
A McDonald's hamburger in the United tates and in the United Kingdom for example is to be sold within the same price range when the exchange rate is calculated. McDonald's has had a large amount of success in its global expansion. The reasons for this comprise a number of factors, one of which is the perceived value to the purchaser. In all countries where McDonald's is sold, the customer perceives the value of food purchased for a certain price as economically viable. The food is of the same quality and portion size globally. This kind of stability is valued by the customer.
Possible short-term problems for McDonald's relate to the daily changes in foreign exchange rates. It is hardly practicable to change prices on a daily basis. Customers have come to expect stability from the company, especially in terms of price, which makes maintaining PPP a challenge. This problem is…
Antweiler, Werner (2006). Purchasing Power Parity. University of British Columbia. http://fx.sauder.ubc.ca/PPP.html
Chapman, Alan (2005-2006). Change management. http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
Mrak, Mojimir. (2000). Globalization: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities for Countries in Transition. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization. http://www.unido.org/userfiles/PuffK/mrak.pdf
Nishimura, Yoshiaki. (2001, March) Economic Policy for Transition to Market Economy - Overview. Economic and Social Research Institute. http://www.esri.go.jp/en/tie/russia/russia1-e.pdf
Terror, Imperialism, And Totalitarianism
Imperialism is defined in the abstract, quite often, as the ideology of 'carrying the white man's burden,' in other words, of carrying the white cultural burden of civilization to the native or darker peoples of the world. But in practice, imperialism often has a less lofty goal and terror rather than teaching is the method used to enforce imperialism's 'laws' and values of social and political control. In the past, such as in French-controlled Algiers, depicted in the 1965 film directed by Pontecorvo "The Battle of Algiers," imperialism is often enforced through a series of dominating policies or military actions by a stronger European nation. One country seeks to exert its control over another country or territory, often to gain an economic or political advantage in a particular region.
In the film, the Algerian people fight long and hard to wrest control over their own territory…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. 1958.
"Battle of Algiers." Directed by Pontecorvo. 1965.
Camus, Alberto. "Caligula." 1936.
"The Great Dictator." Directed by Charlie Chaplin. 1940.
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
Therefore, the totalitarian threat does not just replace the first president with Hitler, but also removes any possibility of difference or ambiguity. The multiple, varied, and multifaceted portraits of Washington are replaced entirely by a single, repeated image, because the totalitarian regime must remove any room for interpretation. Furthermore, the importance of the name of Washington himself is demonstrated by the careful attention to the ribbons which once held his name:
And on the ribbon beneath each portrait, there was no longer the name "Washington" either. Whether the ribbon curved downward as on the one-half-cent stamp and the six, or curved upward as on the four, the five, the seven, and the ten, or straight with raised ends as on the one, the one and a half, the two, the three, the eight, and the nine, the name lettered across the ribbon was "Hitler" (Roth 43).
Thus, the family's trip…
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements
This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of it influence. The argument that this is both a conscious and accidental program of influential individuals and organizations carried out through the procedure of reification of philosophical beliefs which are misshapen into institutions, services, technologies policies and in the end, culture. Some experts that have explored this topic believe that by pay no attention to the costs of new technologies, what there may be some kind of loss in the bargain and that it can lean so something that is immeasurable and potentially disastrous. It is obvious that history was not or is not all the way inevitable, however, it is likewise a question of human values in connection to changes that are looked at as being natural. Although there have…
Carpo, Mario. "Architecture in the Age of Printing." The History of Architectural Theory. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data, 6 March 1998.
-- . "The Alphabet and the Algorithm." Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. The MIT Press, 7 May 1995.
Giroux, Henry. Totalitarian Paranoia in the Post-Orwellian Surveillance State. 14 Feruary 2014. http://billmoyers.com/2014/02/11/totalitarian-paranoia-in-the-post-orwellian-surveillance-state/ . 18 March 2014.
Keller, Marcello Sorce. "Why is Music so Ideological, Why Do Totalitarian States Take It So Seriously: A Personal View from History, and the Social Sciences",." Journal of Musicological Research, XXVI 2.3 (2007): 91 -- 122.
The book even goes beyond this assertion because in Oceania Big Brother even controlled the thoughts of the people. This made it impossible for people to rebel because rebellion cannot be carried out without ideas and the cooperation of many people.
The novel also focuses the reader to consider the power of their thoughts. In the book a government believed that though was so powerful that it created a system in which free though was discourages and even punishable unto death. Big Brother understands that thoughts lead to action and rebellious actions could threaten the authority of the government. In addition, punishing people for thinking the wrong way was designed to deter others from having thoughts that were not sanctioned by the government. This was a fear tactic used to maintain control.
Interestingly enough Orwell had great difficulty publishing many of his novels because of the thoughts that he expresses.…
Atkins J. Orwell in 1984 College Literature, Vol. 11, No. 1 (1984), pp. 34-43
dystopia. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from Dictionary.com website: http: / / dictionary. reference.com/browse/dystopia
Lyons J.O. And Orwell G. (1961) George Orwell's Opaque Glass in "1984" Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature, 2 (3), pp. 39- 46
Meyers J. (1997) George Orwell. Routledge Resch R.P. (1997) Utopia, Dystopia, and the Middle Class in George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Boundary 2, Vol. 24 (1), pp. 137-176
Each had distinct characteristics that made them endearing to the animal members in the farm. In this social order, animal farm members became idealistic and hopeful, adopting the political slogan, "Four legs good, two legs bad." However, this social order was also considered as a transitory phase in the shift of animal farm from being capitalist to totalitarian, because at this stage, Napoleon and Snowball were shown to subsist to different ideals. While Napoleon believed that a strong, peaceful, and stable animal farm was based on a strong military and massive political propaganda, Snowball believed in the provision of education and basic social services for the animals: "Until now the animals had been about equally divided in their sympathies, but in a moment Snowball's eloquence had carried them away..." This event led to the full transition of animal farm into a new social order, that of totalitarianism. In effect, Major's…
Lenhoff, a. (2001). "Animals behaving badly." Writing, 23 (6).
Lucas, S. (2000). "The socialist fallacy." New Statesman, 129 (4488).
Martin, K. (1997). In George Orwell: the critical heritage. J. Meyers (Ed.). NY: Routledge.
Rodden, J. (2003). "Appreciating 'Animal Farm' in the New Millennium." Modern Age, 45 (1).
The history of communism and fascism
The two movements have been known to share a lot in terms of their history and even ideologies. Both are clearly seen to have been established after the First World War in order to create a new world political order that would not plunge blocks or continents into such a gruesome war as was WWI. Both ideologies loathed the domination of the bourgeoisie and wanted to recruit people to the new utopia that made all members of the society equal. Both the systems put totalitarianism into action. It was Lenin’s step of kick starting totalitarianism in October 1917 that brought into existence totalitarianism as we know it today. Both movements initiated the insurrection of the masses in politics and diminished the significance of individuals in politics. As stated by Hobsbwan E., (nd: Pp 29) “revolution swept across central and south-eastern Europe in the autumn…
The continued reunification of Sudan, remains to be fully realized, even some 7 years after the official end to the civil war. Oppression and lack of representation still occur as do more subtle marginalizing tactics on the part of the favored government. Secrecy and fear still abound in the nation, as do economic and social hardships that are difficult to overcome.
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133
Deng, Francis M. "Egypt's Dilemmas on the Sudan." Middle East Policy 4.1 & 2 (1995): 50-56. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95248133.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 41. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036026.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. "The Sudan -- Contested National Identities." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 111. Questia. 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036042.
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, and Richard Lobban. "The Sudan since 1989: National Islamic Front Rule."…
Judy Mayotte, "Civil War in Sudan: The Paradox of Human Rights and National Sovereignty," Journal of International Affairs 47.2 (1994), Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000189501 .
Richard Lobban, "Slavery in the Sudan since 1989," Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.2 (2001): 31, Questia, 24 Sept. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001036022 .
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our society. The Bush administration has repeated thwarted the power of Congress and the Supreme Court by attempting to pass laws that directly by-pass the national legislature and promoting a system that takes away presidential checks. The Bush administration repeated refuses to provide subpoenaed documents and to allow information access and disclosure. It is evident from their behavior that without such accurate disclosure the government is drifting closer and closer to the realities discussed within this book.
In the final analysis, Blair's new book is a haunting reminder of the world of 1984, and the contemporary establishment of his book, featuring a four-term Bush administration only highlights the urgency of the issues and themes he discusses within his book. The fact is…
Dawn Blair, America 2014 - an Orwellian Tale, Counsel Oaks Books, 2004
Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet, 1992. In addition, Fromm's Afterword was indispensable to this study.
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman. "The Golden Country: Sex and Love in 1984," in 1984 Revisited: Totalitarianism in Our Century. Harper & Row, 1983, pp. 47-56.
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an ethnic group while the other did not seem to have threatened the latter? This question is certainly strange but answer is worth seeking which also helps us understand the concepts of conformity and social perception that affects global conflicts of such magnitude. The German-Jewish conflict is as much grounded in ugly realities of imperislaims and racism as any other. Arendt discovered two important innovations that were cultivated during the rise of modern imperialism i.e. "race as a principle of the body politic" and "bureaucracy as a principle of foreign domination." (Arendt, p. 185) While racism was seriously grounded in the fear of the white man, bureaucracy emerged as a result of over exaggerated and entirely false sense of protection that white…
Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. 1976
Du Bois. The Souls of Black Folks.
Convincing Others Needs 1-2 pages long.
In all actuality, neither Alan Ehrenhalt nor Barbara Dority are exceedingly convincing in their arguments posed in the "The Misguided Zeal of the Privacy Lobby" and "Halt and Show Your Papers!," respectively. Ehrenhalt's conviction largely banks on widely rambling generalizations, while Dority's essay is littered with too many illogical conclusions or, conclusions which may in fact be logical, but for which the evidence that makes them so is not presented and leaves the reader wondering as to how certain effects may be produced from the causes the author mentions. To that end, then, Ehrenhalt's essay is the least illogical, and therefore by default the most convincing.
An example of one of the numerous generalities that Ehrenhalt utilizes throughout "The Misguided Zeal of the Privacy Lobby" can be found near its conclusion, when he is trying to discredit the perceived threat to privacy…
Ehrenhalt, Alan. "The Misguided Zeal of the Privacy Lobby."
Dority, Barbara "Halt and Show Your Papers!"
That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries.
By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring the troops home" (one of Obama's campaign promises) -- the American public are fooled about politicians' plans. Politicians are by and large bought and sold by lobbyists from the military-industrial complex as well as by the Israeli lobby like AIPAC. If Americans in favor of peace cannot be fooled by phony promises of pulling the troops out (because they know they are only being replaced by hired mercenaries and unrest is still being promoted in the Middle East as a part of America's foreign policy), then Americans are tricked into believing that the Arab states are full of terrorists and that America is not safe unless it occupies the whole of the Middle East.
As Howard Zinn observes, "The United States…
Joseph, Paul. Are Americans becoming More Peaceful? MI: Paradigm Publishers,
McCoy, Katherine. "Uncle Sam Wants Them." Contexts, Winter 2009, 14-19. Print.
Zinn, Howard. A Power Governments Cannot Suppress. SF: City Lights, 2007. Print.
Kafka, he Wannsee Conference, And Shadows and Fog
Kafka's protagonist of "he Metamorphosis," Gregor Samsa, perfectly embodies the totalitarian mindset in the sense that he is colonized by the desires of his employer, his family, and even the room in which he lives to the point that he can hardly think for himself. he room in which Samsa dwells is so small; the man becomes a virtual prisoner of its confines. Samsa turns into an insect seemingly as a result of the limiting pressures of his physical space and cramped social and emotional life. In fact, his life is so confining, he can only think of returning to the office, even after becoming transformed into a huge and hideous insect.
Over the course of the short story by Kafka, Gregor's own family rejects him after his physical alteration, despite the fact that Gregor has long been giving up his own…
The film shows the discussions that caused the Nazi officers to arrive at the exact particulars of settling the 'final solution' of the so-called Jewish question or problem of living space in Europe, as well as of Jewish culture. At the conference depicted in the film, which actually took place, the 'hothouse' nature of the discussion of the officers, according to the apparent theory of the director of the film regarding totalitarianism, created the necessary 'freedom' for the Nazi officials at the conference to discuss the removal of Jews from every sphere of life of the German people and the expulsion of the Jews from the supposed righful European living space of the Ayran German people. Because everyone at the conference agreed, in totalitarian lockstep and mind that Jews were inferior, this horrifying decision became feasible to the Nazi's mindset.
Over the course of the film, the ability to be the most restrictive in terms of Jewish life becomes a kind of competition for the Nazi officers, as they compare who enacted legislation to prohibit Jews from owning canaries, with those who engage in the most bloody anti-Semitic rherotic. Before the viewers' eyes, with beautiful scenery in the background, the totalitarian mindset takes hold, and measures about the concept of the deportation, labor use, and extermination of the Jews.
The much earlier 1955 film "Night and Fog" enacts as a similar depiction of the totalitarian mindset after the fact. The film is a documentary of the Holocaust crafted by Alain Resnais. Less than a decade after the end of the war, it interposes archival clips from the concentration camps with denials of the camps' existence. Under totalitarianism, it suggests, even as obvious a truth as the Final Solution can be ignored, as Gregor Samsa ignored his limited life, and as the Nazi officials as a collective denied their individual humanity.
Therefore, there arose a need for the embracing of economic theory and political strategy that made this sort of free commerce possible (Porter, 2002, p. 44). In fulfillment of this need, the pure view of liberalism that was explained earlier was highly effective as a remedy (Miller, 1998, p.64). Under a liberal international order, free trade, political expression and human rights could be realized, in stark contrast to the deprivations and limitations of the wars that so recently threatened to destroy the entire planet.
Perhaps due to the liberalization of the international order, or in spite of it, the U.S.S.R. tightened restrictions on its economy and citizenry in the years after World War II, adding to the superpower's isolation and economic woes; eventually, however, this policy of separation and isolation eventually sealed the U.S.S.R.'s fate, and led to the collapse of Communism in the early 1990's. ecause of this collapse,…
Beeson, M., & Bellamy, a.J. (2003). Globalisation, Security and International Order after 11 September. The Australian Journal of Politics and History, 49(3), 339+.
Conquest, R. (1999, February). Liberals & Totalitarianism. New Criterion, 17, 4.
Cumings, B. (2000, May 8). FREE-MARKET LIBERALISM IS NOW PROCLAIMED a UNIVERSAL MODEL for SUCCESS, but THIS BELIEF IS BASED on a PARTIAL and LIMITED WORLDVIEW: The American Ascendancy Imposing a New World Order. The Nation, 270, 13.
Foot, R., Gaddis, J., & Hurrell, a. (Eds.). (2003). Order and Justice in International Relations. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
obert Conquest's The Great Terror: A eassessment is a book that is an absolute 'must read' for anyone who is interested in the history of Communism, and more important, the issue of human rights. In fact, it can be said that the book is perhaps one of the most powerful arguments in favor of human liberty, rights and the democratic process of government. It is also of interest to note that Conquest's book contains the only really exhaustively researched, historical record of the reign of terror unleashed by Stalin's purges. Though Conquest wrote the original The Great Terror some twenty years ago, this version assumes higher importance given recent new evidence, which emerged during the glasnost period. And also because the new references help put to rest any doubt over the accuracy of the source material (Conquest, 1990, p.viii), or earlier speculation that Conquest derived his material from the…
Conquest, Robert. (1999, February). Liberals and totalitarianism. New Criterion, 17,4.
Conquest, Robert. (1990). The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford U.S..
Wikipedia. Robert Conquest. 4 Reference Web site. Retrieved Jan 19, 2004:
Post orld ar I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset
The outbreak of orld ar I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs. The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.
hen the Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud sat down to write an article on the war in early 1915, it was this sense of disillusionment, of a loss of faith in progress, that was uppermost in his mind. The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…
Freud, Sigmund, "Thoughts for the Times on War and Death" (1915), in Collected Papers: Volume IV (London: Hogarth Press, 1924).
Gilbert, Martin, First World War (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1994).
Ortega y Gasset, Jose, The Revolt of the Masses (English translation, New York: Norton, 1932; 2nd edn., 1957).
Pick, Daniel, War Machine: the Rationalization of Slaughter in the Modern Age (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993).
Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…
Chaffee, J. (2012). The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas (4th ed.).
London, Greater London: Pearson.
Ormerod, R.J. (2009). The History and Ideas of Critical Rationalism: The Philosophy of Karl
Popper and Its Implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2009(60), 441-460.
reason than his critique of Plato, Popper provides much food for thought about political philosophy, and especially the political philosophies underlying American society and government. So much modern critical theory and political philosophy is rooted in Plato that it is easy to take for granted that much of what is said in The Republic and other texts needs to be scrutinized. Plato was brilliant but not sacrosanct. I appreciate that Popper urges his readers to criticize Plato and cease believing Plato to be a sacred text. Criticizing Plato actually fulfills Plato's very own objective in his writings, which is to stimulate dialogue and discussion, promote open-mindedness, and encourage critical thought rather than blind faith. What else is the cave analogy if not an urging to readers to step outside the shadow world of falsehood and into the light of truth?
Ironically, Popper champions Plato by critiquing his arguments. Popper is…
The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests us. Sometimes we return to it in order to judge it anew or attempt to reconstruct it in a way that allows it to make more sense. Sometimes new information is uncovered from the past that puts a new perspective on things. Sometimes the past can be impactful on the course of events still occurring in the present. In short, there is no wall or barrier between the present and the past. The two mix and mingle and inform one another. Therefore, everything about the past is relevant in 2016. This paper will examine 8 articles that deal with specific incidences in the past that I find to be particularly meaningful today.
History teaches us to pay attention -- to be…
This provides two strong disincentives to innovate. hat is left is a Chinese state that discourages the development of the most tried-and-true means of economic development -- competition and innovation -- and instead relies on wealth transfer due to currency manipulation as the foundation of its success.
The role of government in an economy, therefore, should be limited if long-term sustainable growth is the objective. For totalitarian capitalism to be the superior system would require that system to develop competencies that enable its economies to compete globally. Thus far, these competencies have only emerged in the Chinese firms that have access to estern systems -- Lenovo's Hong Kong roots place it into estern-style competition for example. ithout competencies, you have short-term success built on an artificial and unsustainable economy, rather than long-term success. The estern style emphasizes a limited role for government and the power of market forces. The totalitarian…
Huang, Y. (2008). Just how capitalist is China? MIT Sloan Research Paper 4699-08.
No author. (2008). The long march backwards. The Economist. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/culture/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12333103
No author. (2010). The spirit of enterprise fades. The Economist. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/business-finance/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15331470
Krugman, P. (2010). Taking on China. New York Times. Retrieved March 21, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/15/opinion/15krugman.html?hp
In IBM's case, the Department of Justice found that their efforts were mired in failure. Unfortunately, IBM was so central to the economic operations of Germany and occupied Europe that it was necessary to preserve IBM's role in the economy of Europe so as not to jeopardize the postwar occupation.
Part II-Present Corporatist America and Comparisons with Fascist Italy-
When the Wall Street Journal, the United States' newspaper of record for financial affairs makes an explanatory note, it gives us all pause. Gerald F. Driscoll in "An Economy of Liars" takes aim at both the Obama and George W. Bush administrations when he speaks about the present economic reality and asserts "We call that system not the free-market, but crony capitalism. It owes more to Benito Mussolini than to Adam Smith ("An Economy of Liars" 2010)."
If a communist agitator on the proverbial soapbox spouted this statement, it could be…
Alter, J. 2006, the Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope,
New York, Simon and Schuster.
Black, E. 2001, IBM and the Holocaust, Crown Publishers, New York.
(1965) "The Economy: We Are All Keynesians Now," Time, Available from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,842353-1,00.html
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
" He concluded that "the prosecutor's office must be centralized and completely independent of the local organs of authority." This conclusion, quite naturally, was buttressed with the appropriate reference to the guiding hand of the revolution's leader: "From the principle that there is a single legality obtaining throughout the epublic "and the entire federation" (Lenin) and from the obligation of the public prosecutor to see to it that no single decision of local authority deviated from the law, Lenin deduced all the most important principles for the organization of the prosecutor's office..." (Vyshinsky, Law, 525). Contrast this with Vyshinsky's admonition of a witness, "Don't pay attention to the laws, just listen to me" (Huskey, "Vyshinsky, Krylenko," 427).
The Soviet people, however, lost a great deal more from their ordeal of the 1930s. Not only did they lose the best of their intelligentsia and military, they ultimately lost the power for…
Abramovitch, R. (1962). The Soviet Revolution. New York: International Universities
Amba, a. (1952). I Was Stalin's Bodyguard. London: Frederick Mueller.
Armstrong, W., et.al. (2009). World War II: Behind Closed Doors. London: BBC Video.
Over the course of time, this helps to fuel anger and a sense of helplessness, that no can be able to take charge of their own future. A good example of this can be found with the passage that says, "For years, hate had become with them a habit. It had given an object and a target to their impotent anger. Only there was one condition: that was reconciliation. And what did it cost them? A mere gesture, a few steps like walking over a bridge, and they would leave behind bad days of poverty, they would enter the land of abundance." (Roumain, 1944, pr. 131) This is significant, because this passage is highlighting the underlying challenges facing Haiti on a daily basis. Where, everyone becomes focused on themselves and angry about the entire situation (i.e. The poverty and harsh economic conditions). At which point, they will begin to take…
Literature About Haiti. (1998). Language Works. Retrieved from: http://www.language-works.com/Haiti/lit.htm
Arnold, J. (1994). Exile and Recent Literature. A History of Literature in the Caribbean. (pp. 451 -- 464). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Carby, H. (1999). Proletarian of Literary Revolution. Cultures in Babylon. (pp. 135 -- 144). London, Verso.
Roumain, J. (1944). Masters of the Dew. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating the expectations of behavior between different classes. While Plato philosophized that persons are born with the characteristics fitting of their caste, Russell envisages a society in which "ordinary" men and women are expected to be collectivized and, therefore, devoid of individual expression.
Jean Jacques Rousseau paid his respects to the philosophy of Plato, although he thought it impractical, citing the decayed state of society. This sort of romanticism has been downplayed by the modern scientific establishment, who denounce the noble savage theory of human nature. Humans are not born purely good, modern science maintains. Instead, evolutionary traits are promoted at the biological level, thereby giving rise to how people are. It is not society that corrupts, but rather an interrelationship between…
9. Woolhouse, R.S. (1995) Locke: A Biography. Cambridge University.
10. Pinker, Steven. (2007) the Blank Slate, New York: Penguin Books.
11. Grasha, Anthony. (1989) Teaching Styles. Cambridge University.
Ethical Case Analysis
A productive organization is one that ensures customer satisfaction and protects the interests of its workers, thereby enhancing the welfare of the society and business.There is a growing belief that good ethics mean good business for an organization; however, ethical cultures emerge from strong leadership that is also ethical. The rewards to organizations supporting ethical cultures include increased efficiency in decision making in operational issues, employee commitment, product quality improvements, customer loyalty and improved financial performance. Typically, business firms use several different approaches to implement ethics initiatives. Two of the most popular ones are first, complying with the law of the land and this helps the organizations by effectively using internal controls to gain ethical conformity (oyce & Jensen 1971). Secondly, organizations may use ethics in public relations to enhance their reputation and gain attention from all stakeholders including media which has become a watchdog for the…
Alpaslan, C. (2009). Ethical Management of Crises: Shareholder Value
Maximisation or Stakeholder Loss Minimisation? The Journal of Corporate
Arjoon, S.: 2005 "Corporate Governance: An Ethical Perspective." Journal of Business Ethics. 61 (4), 343-352.
Furthermore, Peterson, a correspondent for the Post Gazette, recently reported that, "Mr. udd has been seen as intent on balancing Australia's relations with China and those with the United States, a longtime ally and major trading partner. But he has argued recently that China should, to reflect the changing world economic order, have greater voting rights within the IMF and a greater say in how its funds are spent" (2009, 2). Based on China's role as Australia's largest trading partner and its proximity, Australia's current Minister for Foreign Affairs is using the Group of Twenty (G20) forum to advance these goals. In this regard, Peterson adds that, "Canberra's key ambitions heading into the G-20 summit go beyond the trilateral Australia-China-U.S. relationship. Mr. udd -- currently co-chair of the G-20's working group on IMF reform -- is arguing for a clear role for China in the management of the global economy"…
Australia (2010), CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html [date accessed: 1 December 2010].
Calvert, Ashton (2003), "Australia's Foreign Policy Priorities: Ashton Calvert Discusses Australia's Place in the International System and Its Relations with New Zealand in Light of the White Paper on Australia's Foreign and Trade Policy Released in February 2003." New Zealand International Review, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 25-27.
Darwall, Rupert (2005), "John Howard's Australia." Policy Review, no. 132, pp. 57-58.
Elliott, Lorraine, Greg Fry, William T. Tow and John Ravenhill. (2008, April). Australian foreign policy futures: Making middle-power leadership work? Canberra: Department of International Relations.
His life became a constant dread, a horrible fear that German militia would kill him or his family.
On June 16, 1941, the Nazis ordered his father to report to the militia. "I looked out the window for hours on end," David wrote in his diary (p. 17). He thought his parents would return soon but "…the hours went by and still no sign of them…in the end I didn't know what to think." On the 17th of June, the Nazis came into David's village and searched other houses but not David's. One day a Nazi (David always referred to them as "militiamen") pushed a motorcycle into David's house after the motorcycle had broken down. hile the Nazi was still in the neighborhood, some Jews came along; the Nazi checked their papers and then administered "…a severe beating" to an innocent man (p. 18).
"Nowadays a person can be arrested…
Boas, Jacob. (2009). We Are Witnesses: Five Diaries of Teenagers Who Died in the Holocaust.
New York: Macmillion.
CBN News. (2009). Amid Protests, Iran President Denies Holocaust. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2010,
From http://www.cbn.com .
The title character is a foster girl living in Munich during the time of World War II, who lives largely by stealing, and begins adding books to her store of illicit goods and takings when she is taught to read by her foster father. She and the cast of characters she shares her treasured books with find them a welcome escape from the fearful and hungry lives they lead. The slice of history that is presented in the book along with the fiction of the story itself makes this as much an educational novel as it is a coming of age story, and the plot touches on many other deeper and more universal themes, as well. Narrated by Death, it is known that doom eventually comes to each of the characters, but the mechanisms by which this occurs and the poignancy of the tale maintains both suspense and enjoyment of…
The neglected desire of Witkiewicz's modern man, then, is for literary significance, not historical significance. When they lament that their lives do not have meaning, they are comparing their lives to the lives in the novels and plays they have read. There is no way to know if the life of modern man has any less meaning than that of the French aristocrat of the 17th Century. What we do know is that, since only the priesthood and the aristocracy had the time and skill to write literature in that period, the literature is invariably concerned with aristocrats.
Modern existence in Janulka is premised on the notion that the world will stagnate, go into atrophy, from a lack of meaning and vitality. However, this is only true for those who do not have to work for a living or who do not have arts to devote themselves to. In…
Stanley Hochman, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Drama: Volume 1 p. 164-168
The Witkiewicz Reader (1992) p. 155-207
Daniel Charles Gerould, Witkacy: Stanis-aw Ignacy Witkiewicz as an Imaginative Writer (1981) p. 234-243
Interestingly, the connection between private property ownership and political freedom developed in a roundabout way. As property owners grew richer from their commercial endeavors, the state sought to reap benefits via property taxation and this in turn helped to empower the people and Parliament. Pipes draws further connections between the evolution of the commonwealth, the British Empire, and burgeoning rights and freedoms for property owners.
Chapter 4 addresses the history and evolution of property ownership in ussia. ussia's history is far different from that of England, especially with regards to property and its connection with individual rights and freedoms (or lack thereof, in the case of ussia). Pipes explains thoroughly the origin and impact of the patrimonial system in ussia, which established monarchs firmly as the property owners and precluded genuine private property ownership. Patrimony, ussian style, is clearly and simply defined as "the fusion of sovereignty and ownership," (p.…
Pipes, Richard. Property and Freedom. Vintage, 2000.
In this regard, Meyers concludes that, "As for Flory, environment has been too much for him, for he is not really alcoholic or crapulous by nature, and he regrets it when a girl from England arrives to stay at Kyauktada; she is a poverty-stricken little snob on the look-out for a husband, but he has not seen a spinster for a decade, and he succumbs on the spot whereupon his discarded Burmese mistress makes a scene in front of her and every one else, and he ends by committing suicide" (Meyers 52). hile it may seem that Flory simply got what he deserved given his wishy-washy nature and lack of fortitude when it came to standing up for his friend, Dr. Veraswami when put to the test, but the suicide of the protagonist provides a useful literary vehicle whereby Orwell advances the plot and highlights just how shallow the friendship…
Aung-Thwin, Maitrii. 2003, "Brave Men of the Hills: Resistance and Rebellion in Burma, 1824-
1932." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34(2): 376-377.
Brunsdale, Mitzi M. Student Companion to George Orwell. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize his line of reasoning that related to morality for he added that "the truth and certainty of moral discourses abstracts from the lives of men, and the existence of those values in the world, whereof they treat." Locke believed in inquiring everything and denying the authority either of the past or of the clergy for he desired everyone to depend on their own judgment and reasoning which is exactly the he created an contention to defend believing in God, and made sure to rebut the thought that reason is different to faith, saying that faith can never sway us of anything that opposes our knowledge and disagreeing that, apart from in the instance of divine revelation, people must constantly look first…
Binga, T. (2000). Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from Council for Secular Humanism: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=hall_of_fame&page=voltaire
Hewett, C. (2006). The Life of Voltaire. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate:
Hewett, C. (2006). John Locke's Theory of Knowledge. Retrieved on March 19, 2009, from the Great Debate: http://thegreatdebate.org.uk/LockeEpistem.html
During the period of transition, defense spending needed to be maintained in order to avoid returning to depression. The Cold War provided a means for this. The intense rhetoric provided justification to the American people, but the combination of high defense spending and the rhetoric only further inflamed the U.S.S.R.
Inflammation also stemmed from several short-term incidents that occurred in the post-war years. The Soviet Union, for example, attempted a blockade of West Berlin, which ultimately failed. The establishment of the People's Republic of China and the start of the Korean War exacerbated Communist-Capitalist tensions further.
The Cold War was inevitable. The length and depth of the conflict, however, could have been ameliorated. Stalin's paranoia at the time made distrust of the West inevitable - he did not trust anybody in Russia, either. For the U.S.' part, a return to isolationism was not a viable option, and the extension of…
However, the system is much more representative. Thus, in the ritish Parliament there are representatives from the Scottish parliament as well as from the Northern Ireland Assembly. Even so, the proposals for the reform of the electoral law and program have tried to ease the access of the population to the voting system, to increase the public awareness in relation to the political representation. This would determine a better ethnical and religious representation on the one hand, an element that would help the issues with Northern Ireland. At the same time, it would influence the way in which people express their opinions, views, and preferences, which would in time determine a change in the economic and political decisions taken at the level of the Parliament.
Changes such as the ones from Russia and ritain can affect to a certain point the American political framework. The Russian democracy cannot be considered…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
CIA. "The Russian Federation." The World Fact Book. 2008. 7 March 2008 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html
CIA. "United Kingdom." The World Fact Book. 2008. 7 March 2008 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html
Cohen, Ariel. "Putin's Legacy and United Russia's New Ideology." The Heritage Foundation. 2006. 7 March 2008 http://www.heritage.org/Research/RussiaandEurasia/bg1940.cfm
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these technical and social prototypes are essentially part of Western civilization is more complicated to respond. Many would dispute that the query cannot be responded by a reply from science and as an alternative is a worth question which should be answered from a respect scheme. However, much of anthropology these days has shown the close connection between the physical surroundings and daily actions and the configuration of a civilization such as the findings of society's ecology with others. In contrast to many other civilizations in the world, western civilizations lean to highlight the individuals. On the other hand, western societies have usually been more communally cooperative by giving a foremost significance to social preponderance civilization or propensities such as mores, procedures,…
Wikipedia. (December 27, 2007) Western Culture. Retrieved on December 30, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture
That is if no successful intervention takes place. Campson and Laub go on to say that:
e further hypothesize that the concentration of racial poverty and inequality will exert macrolevel effects on punitive forms of social control that are larger for blacks than whites and for drug offenses than other delinquencies. As argued above, the dual image of minority offenders and the "drug war" appears to have formed a symbolic yet potent threat to the middle class population. (Sampson, and Laub 293)
In sharp contrast to this perceived threat, overclass crime such as embezzlement or other money pilfering schemes, are often considered merely "paper crimes" and disasters such as Enron, while horrific to the persons involved, are not the fodder for sensational journalism. Computers and stock reports are not as interesting as police chases and body counts when it comes to attracting the attention of lay people, criminologist and forensic…
Gibbs, Blair. "The Underclass and Crime: How to Deal With an Economic, Political, and Cultural Disaster?" The Spectator 16 January 2006
Gordon, Randall a. "Perceptions for Blue-Collar and White-Collar Crime: The Effects of Subject and Defendant Race on Simulated Juror Decisions." Journal of Applied Social
Psychology 20 (1990): 971-983
Magnet, Myron. "Rebels With a Cause." National Review. 45 (1993): 46-50
The free election of Hitler as a ruler was soon adopted by the Nazis' philosophy and Hitler was presented as a man of the people. The Nazis inoculated into people's mind the idea that since they had chosen Hitler as their ruler, he must be the right man.
All in all, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was aimed at subjugating and controlling the people and it was done through the manipulation of people into achieving the Reich's goals. As such, the Gleichschaltung philosophy was that of eliminating all individual features and unifying the population's objectives in the direction desired by the Nazis.
3. The Gleichschaltung philosophy as applied by the Gestapo and the SS
In order to gain control over the people, the Nazi thinkers needed the support of military and police forces. The necessary aid came from the Geheimes Staatspolizei-Amt or Gestapo and from the Schutzstaffel, or the SS. The…
Feuchtwanger, E., Nazi Gleichschaltung, Volume 7, Number 2, History on the Web, http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/concepts/concept72_gleichschaltung.htm , last accessed on October 19, 2007
Orlow, D., the History of the Nazi Party: 1933-1945, Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 7, No.3, Sept 1974
Evans, J.R., the Third Reich in Power, 1933-1939, New York, Penguin, 2005
Browder, G.C., Hitler's Enforces: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution, the American Historical Review, Vol. 103, No. 3, June 1998
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential position. A closer look to Goering's life of luxury shows that he was more than enjoying his success, his arrogance and extravagance being by now well-known.
Goering had good organizational skills and he was appointed in charge of so many different positions because he had the capability to follow the Nazi ideology with more belief than many others. Goering was truly dedicated to the Nazi cause, although not entirely unmotivated.
Goering was the man that stood behind the elimination of the Jewish community from German economic life, as he fined the German Jewish community a billion marks and order their exclusion from economy, their properties, even schools, parks, or forests. Goering was one of the leading figures that planned the "Aryanisation"…
Hermann Goering, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_G%C3%B6ring ;
Hermann Goering, Jewish Virtual Library, available at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/goering.html ;
Jagdgeschwader 1 (World War 1), available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_%28World_War_1%29 ;
Manvell, Roger and Franenkel, Heinrich, Goering, Greenhill Books, London UK, 2005;
S. constitution grants its citizens the right of freedom of speech but this freedom is not available in absolute terms. Many a times schools & educational institutions exercise control in different affairs related to its curricula, extra curricular activities and even in-house publications. The administration however can not take this exception for granted and have to prove that their control does not blatantly impinge upon the rights given to students by the First & the Fourth amendment of the constitution.
First Amendment Right to Schools: Just like First amendment gives rights to the students similarly the same laws give rights to schools to promote particular student speech. They have the right to control "school sponsored publications, theatrical productions, and other expressive activities that students, parents, and members of the public might reasonably perceive to bear the imprimatur of the school."
Case of Tinker is one of the most famous…
Generally, the European economy was characterized by the following aspects:
The development of the economic activity's industrial side, not only in Western Europe but also in other countries previously considered to be exclusively agrarian. The industry and services presented the highest increases, and the gap between labor productivity in agriculture and the one in industry significantly increased
The Eastern and South-Eastern European countries' economic evolution suffered important transformations, with quantitative and qualitative restructurings
Maintaining the inequalities between European countries, given their distinct evolution
The heterogeneity of options regarding European development strategies
It is considered that the war delayed the European economy's evolution with approximately 8 years, which means that the 1929 production quantum might have been attained in 1921 if it had not been for the war and if the growth rates before 1913 would have been maintained (Kennedy, pp 361).
2.2. The Great Depression and European Economy's Post-crisis situation…
1. Perry, K. Modern European History. Made Simple. London, 1976.
2. Heaton, Herbert. Economic History of Europe. Harper & Row, London, 1966.
3. Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London, 1989.
4. Kindleberger, C.P. The World Depression 1929-1939. University of California Press, 1973.
Serious Morning (Yes! Capra Chapbook Series; no. 9), Capra Press, 1973
Necrocorrida, Panjundrum Press, 1980
Diapers on the Snow, Crowfoot Press, 1981
Selected Poems: 1970-1980, 1983, Sun Books
Comrade Past and Mister Present, Coffee House Press, 1986
Belligerence: New Poems, Coffee House Press, 1991
Alien Candor: Selected Poems, 1970-1995, Black Sparrow Press, 1993
: Poeme alese, 1970-1996, Editura Funda-iei Culturale Romane, 1997
License to Carry a Gun, Carnegie-Mellon University Press, 1998
It was Today, Coffee House Press, 2003
American Poetry Since 1970: Up Late, Four alls Eight indows, 1988
The Stiffest of the Corpse: An Exquisite Corpse Reader, Consortium Book Sales & Dist., 1989
American Poets Say Goodbye to the Twentieth Century, co-edited with Laura Rosenthal, Four alls Eight indows, 1996
Thus Spake the Corpse: An Exquisite Corpse Reader 1988-1998. Volume 1, Poetry & Essays, co-edited with Laura Rosenthal, Black Sparrow Books, 1999
Andrei Codrescu Bio." 2007. April 21, 2007. http://www.codrescu.com/bio/index.html.
Codrescu, Andrei. "The Iconography of Hell and Our Guilt." Jewish World Review Insight (12 Sept 2005). April 22, 2007. http://www.jewishworldreview.com/0905/codrescu091205.php3 .
Codrescu, Andrei, "Liberal Help for Iran." Downtown Express 19(34)(January 5, 2007). April 22, 2007. http://www.downtownexpress.com/de_191/thepennypost.html.
Codrescu, Andrei, "A Moving Moment for Me and My Books." The Villager 75(49)(April 26, 2006). April 22, 2007. http://www.thevillager.com/villager_156/amovingmomentforme.html .
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
On the other hand, those who opt to break the new laws would be swiftly punished. The punishment would be in the vein of the Singapore method, i.e. wonks on a violator's hindquarters with a brine-soaked rattan cane. One could assume this disciplinary perspective would be maximally effective as Singapore boosts one of the lowest crime rates in the world.
Tier 3: Pre-emptive Force
One of the core tenets of the Bush doctrine is "anticipatory self-defense" or pre-emptive force. The idea is that in order to prevent a terrorist attack it is necessary to strike at the enemy before he/she/it can organize, coordinate, and/or execute an attack on the U.S. (Beres, 2005).
In order to prevent future accidents, it's necessary to adopt the disciplinary perspective of pre-emption. In short, we need to be proactive. e need to go after future violators. Now, unfortunately we don't have oracles vis a vis…
Beres, L.B. (2005, July 24). Anticipatory Self-Defense. The Washington Times.
Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2005/jul/24/20050724-101302-5685r/
Humanities are Important:
An analysis of the Da Vinci Code, Beethoven's 9th, and 1984.
A novel by George Orwell (pseudonym), real name Eric Blair
Published in 1949
A reaction to the totalitarian state engulfing the global community
The Da Vinci Code
A (2006) film by on Howard
Based on the novel by Dan Brown
obert Langdon follows a series of clues that link Leonardo's masterpieces, the mystery of Jesus Christ, and a totalitarian regime in the guise of the Catholic Church
Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Completed in 1824 after the composer (Ludwig van Beethoven) had gone completely deaf, this -- his final symphony -- is often considered to be one of the greatest musical masterpieces of all time. The fourth movement is based on Schiller's "Ode to Joy" and invokes a chorus of universal brotherhood. If you listen long enough, you will hear the music swell into a magnificent burst of…
Kyziridis, T. (2005). Notes on the History of Schizophrenia. Retrieved from http://www.gjpsy.uni-goettingen.de/gjp-article-kyziridis.pdf
Lief, R.A. (1969). Homage to Oceania: the prophetic vision of George Orwell. OH: Ohio University Press.
McLellan, J. (1988). The Beethoven Collection. NY: Time-Life Books.
Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. NY: Harcourt.
Surviving the Irrational orld: the "Fight or Flight" Instinct in Angela's Ashes and Catch-22
Both Angela's Ashes by Frank McCourt and Catch-22 by Joseph Heller are novels set during the time of II. Both authors use satire to examine a world that has abandoned the rule of law and now faces life in what might be called "survival mode." Indeed, if one theme may be said to unite the two works it is the theme of "fight or flight" as a survival instinct. As Meridel Le Sueur states, "Survival is a form of resistance," and it is resistance to an encroaching environment of totalitarianism (in Catch-22) and the breakdown of social order (in Angela's Ashes) that propels the protagonists of each work to fend for themselves and secure their own survival. In other words, they "fight" and "flee" as they illustrate a principle of Thomas Carlyle: "Permanence, perseverance and persistence…
Heller, Joseph. Catch-22. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2004. Print.
Koontz, Harold. Essentials of Management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
Le Sueur, Meridel. [qtd in] Women in Search of Literary Space [ed. Gudrun Grabher].
Totalitarianism Hannah Arendt, in her book, "Origins of Totalitarianism," attributes the formation of a mass society in Europe in the first decades of the 20th century to "grassroots eruptions"…Read Full Paper ❯
He also says that he wants to be more on his own, "not so completely a part of something else. Not just a cell in the social body" (90).…Read Full Paper ❯
Despite the high costs the Four Modernizations implied, China succeeded to enter "into the milieu of international bank loans, joint ventures, and whole panoply of once-abhorred capitalist economic practices."…Read Full Paper ❯
Summary of the Chapter "The Potent Wizard" from "The Origins of Totalitarianism" by Hannah Arendt This chapter revolves around Benjamin Disraeli, who is portrayed as a very ambitious politician…Read Full Paper ❯
Authoritarianism vs. Democratic Leadership: Why People Choose Because politics is a social expression, it is natural for philosophers and political scientists to examine the sociology of a group of…Read Full Paper ❯
The Totalitarian Soviet Ideal and The Circus In Grigori Aleksandrov’s (1936) Soviet film The Circus, an American white woman named Marion Dixon is chased out of the racist South…Read Full Paper ❯
Holocaust Politics Totalitarianism's Controversial Notions The human social animal's capacity for collective tyranny and violence in Hannah Arendt's seminal work Since the publication of her 1951 work on The…Read Full Paper ❯
The Communist Manifesto The central aspect of the Manifesto of the communist party is how to effectively handle the ever increasing rift between the contending classes, the bourgeoisie and…Read Full Paper ❯
It is necessary to control the workers and make them dependent on the government. The policy also makes it possible for the government to direct all its resources on…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Whatever happened you vanished, and neither you nor your actions were ever heard of again" (Orwell, 1949, p.168). Capitalism Principles of mass production are very clear in the novels.…Read Full Paper ❯
Government - Presidents
Recent Trends in Restrictions on Freedoms by a Totalitarian State Two and a half centuries ago, the Founding Fathers of the United States forged what has become regarded as…Read Full Paper ❯
A McDonald's hamburger in the United tates and in the United Kingdom for example is to be sold within the same price range when the exchange rate is calculated.…Read Full Paper ❯
Terror, Imperialism, And Totalitarianism Imperialism is defined in the abstract, quite often, as the ideology of 'carrying the white man's burden,' in other words, of carrying the white cultural…Read Full Paper ❯
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Therefore, the totalitarian threat does not just replace the first president with Hitler, but also removes any possibility of difference or ambiguity. The multiple, varied, and multifaceted portraits of…Read Full Paper ❯
Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements This paper examines some of the different aspects of the coming worldwide technological totalitarianism and the expanding of…Read Full Paper ❯
The book even goes beyond this assertion because in Oceania Big Brother even controlled the thoughts of the people. This made it impossible for people to rebel because rebellion…Read Full Paper ❯
Each had distinct characteristics that made them endearing to the animal members in the farm. In this social order, animal farm members became idealistic and hopeful, adopting the political…Read Full Paper ❯
The history of communism and fascism The two movements have been known to share a lot in terms of their history and even ideologies. Both are clearly seen to…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African
The continued reunification of Sudan, remains to be fully realized, even some 7 years after the official end to the civil war. Oppression and lack of representation still occur…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our…Read Full Paper ❯
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on,…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
German-Jews. The history of German-Jewish conflict is widely known but many might wonder why it started in the first place. Why would Germans show such extreme hatred for an…Read Full Paper ❯
Convincing Others Needs 1-2 pages long. Brave New In all actuality, neither Alan Ehrenhalt nor Barbara Dority are exceedingly convincing in their arguments posed in the "The Misguided Zeal…Read Full Paper ❯
That is simply not the case. Troops are being pulled out and replaced with mercenaries. By using such deceptive tactics as talking points like that -- "I will bring…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Kafka, he Wannsee Conference, And Shadows and Fog Kafka's protagonist of "he Metamorphosis," Gregor Samsa, perfectly embodies the totalitarian mindset in the sense that he is colonized by the…Read Full Paper ❯
Therefore, there arose a need for the embracing of economic theory and political strategy that made this sort of free commerce possible (Porter, 2002, p. 44). In fulfillment of…Read Full Paper ❯
Terror obert Conquest's The Great Terror: A eassessment is a book that is an absolute 'must read' for anyone who is interested in the history of Communism, and more…Read Full Paper ❯
Post orld ar I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset The outbreak of orld ar I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a…Read Full Paper ❯
reason than his critique of Plato, Popper provides much food for thought about political philosophy, and especially the political philosophies underlying American society and government. So much modern critical…Read Full Paper ❯
Worth Remembering The past is not something that stays in the past. It reaches out and extends forward into the present; it shapes and instructs us, warns and interests…Read Full Paper ❯
This provides two strong disincentives to innovate. hat is left is a Chinese state that discourages the development of the most tried-and-true means of economic development -- competition and…Read Full Paper ❯
In IBM's case, the Department of Justice found that their efforts were mired in failure. Unfortunately, IBM was so central to the economic operations of Germany and occupied Europe…Read Full Paper ❯
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes. Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures The Place de la Concorde…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
" He concluded that "the prosecutor's office must be centralized and completely independent of the local organs of authority." This conclusion, quite naturally, was buttressed with the appropriate reference…Read Full Paper ❯
Over the course of time, this helps to fuel anger and a sense of helplessness, that no can be able to take charge of their own future. A good…Read Full Paper ❯
" (7) Chomsky warns of ideological motivations of some scientific paradigms, just as with the aforementioned racial emphasis of early anthropology. Here, Russell espouses a Platonic episteme by enunciating…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethical Case Analysis A productive organization is one that ensures customer satisfaction and protects the interests of its workers, thereby enhancing the welfare of the society and business.There is…Read Full Paper ❯
Furthermore, Peterson, a correspondent for the Post Gazette, recently reported that, "Mr. udd has been seen as intent on balancing Australia's relations with China and those with the United…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
His life became a constant dread, a horrible fear that German militia would kill him or his family. On June 16, 1941, the Nazis ordered his father to report…Read Full Paper ❯
The title character is a foster girl living in Munich during the time of World War II, who lives largely by stealing, and begins adding books to her store…Read Full Paper ❯
The neglected desire of Witkiewicz's modern man, then, is for literary significance, not historical significance. When they lament that their lives do not have meaning, they are comparing their…Read Full Paper ❯
Interestingly, the connection between private property ownership and political freedom developed in a roundabout way. As property owners grew richer from their commercial endeavors, the state sought to reap…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
In this regard, Meyers concludes that, "As for Flory, environment has been too much for him, for he is not really alcoholic or crapulous by nature, and he regrets…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
d.). Hewett (2006) stated Locke believed that merely facts from abstract ideas are eternal "as the existence of things is to be known only from experience," this moreover emphasize…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
During the period of transition, defense spending needed to be maintained in order to avoid returning to depression. The Cold War provided a means for this. The intense rhetoric…Read Full Paper ❯
However, the system is much more representative. Thus, in the ritish Parliament there are representatives from the Scottish parliament as well as from the Northern Ireland Assembly. Even so,…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
What is usually unconcealed is that much of the machinery and social prototypes which make up what is distinct as modernization were urbanized in the Western worlds. Whether these…Read Full Paper ❯
That is if no successful intervention takes place. Campson and Laub go on to say that: e further hypothesize that the concentration of racial poverty and inequality will exert…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
" The free election of Hitler as a ruler was soon adopted by the Nazis' philosophy and Hitler was presented as a man of the people. The Nazis inoculated…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
He liked to show of the luxury than by now he could afford at the expense of the robberies conducted by him and his men and his very influential…Read Full Paper ❯
S. constitution grants its citizens the right of freedom of speech but this freedom is not available in absolute terms. Many a times schools & educational institutions exercise control…Read Full Paper ❯
Generally, the European economy was characterized by the following aspects: The development of the economic activity's industrial side, not only in Western Europe but also in other countries previously…Read Full Paper ❯
Braziller, 1973 Serious Morning (Yes! Capra Chapbook Series; no. 9), Capra Press, 1973 Necrocorrida, Panjundrum Press, 1980 Diapers on the Snow, Crowfoot Press, 1981 Selected Poems: 1970-1980, 1983, Sun…Read Full Paper ❯
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to…Read Full Paper ❯
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark: It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing…Read Full Paper ❯
On the other hand, those who opt to break the new laws would be swiftly punished. The punishment would be in the vein of the Singapore method, i.e. wonks…Read Full Paper ❯
Humanities are Important: An analysis of the Da Vinci Code, Beethoven's 9th, and 1984. A novel by George Orwell (pseudonym), real name Eric Blair Published in 1949 A reaction…Read Full Paper ❯
Surviving the Irrational orld: the "Fight or Flight" Instinct in Angela's Ashes and Catch-22 Both Angela's Ashes by Frank McCourt and Catch-22 by Joseph Heller are novels set during…Read Full Paper ❯