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In the New Testament of the Bible, Jesus spent his latter days healing and caring for the sick, dying, and possessed. This should be the way that all Christians act and taking care of the environment for the sake of the poor and needy as well as all living organisms.
egarding the faith and teaching of the Christian Bible, Christians play a vital role in the maintenance of the Earth. The newspaper article found in The Press, titled "Is Christianity Bad for the Environment?" on Hay states, "Someone has said, 'It's impossible to say you love embrandt while you trash his paintings'. True faith involves love for God and love for all God has made. It makes no sense to claim to love God while being indifferent to his world" (Hay, 2010). The website, NPE.org, states that the various fields of both the Christian and Jewish faith are parallel in…
"Caring for Creation: A Christian Responsibility." 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.bgct.org/texasbaptists/Page.aspx?pid=3748&srcid=1247
Deem, R. 2007. " Is Christianity anti-Environmental?" Retrieved October 15, 2010 from http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/environment.html
Hay, Ron. 2010. "Is Christianity bad for the environment?." The Press. Independent Newspapers Limited. Retrieved October 15, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Modest Proposal and the Toulmin Model
The Toulmin Model shows that arguments generally have six distinct parts: 1) reasons or evidence, 2) qualifications, 3) a claim, 4) warrants, 5) rebuttal, and 6) backing. In conjunction with these six parts there may be said to be three others: assumptions, counter-arguments, and implications. The claim in the Toulmin Model is the position that is taken. The evidence is that which supports the claim. The warrant is the idea or principle that relates the reason to the claim -- it draws a line from the one to the other. The backing is the support or the justification of the warrant/principle. The rebuttal is the counter to the claim, the exception or counter-argument. The qualification is the limitation of the claim, the extent of its warrant/backing. A warrant can be implied (unstated) and can be made in a variety of ways: through generalizing, by…
moral and other imperatives that Christians have when it comes to the environment. Indeed, Christians believe that God created all of the heavens and the earth. As such, what burdens this places on Christians when it comes to the same is a valid question. That question shall be answered using the Toulmin model argument and shall be inclusive of a number of references that support the differing viewpoints, angles and prisms through which this issue is looked at. While the general premise of Christians protecting the environment can be taken too far and/or to ridiculous lengths, it is clear that Christians have a moral imperative to be stewards of the environment.
As this report goes on, the Toulmin model will be detailed step-by-step along with an answer to each piece as the report goes along. In order, there are basically six facets, those being a claim, ground for the claim,…
Bible Hub,. (2015). Matthew 12:30 "Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters.. Biblehub.com. Retrieved 16 October 2015, from http://biblehub.com/matthew/12-30.htm
Bible Hub,. (2015). 1 Timothy 6:7 For we brought nothing into the world, and we can take nothing out of it.. Biblehub.com. Retrieved 16 October 2015, from http://biblehub.com/1_timothy/6-7.htm
Borba, A. (2015). 420 Partiers Leave Behind Mess At Golden Gate Park. Sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. Retrieved 16 October 2015, from http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2015/04/21/420-marijuana-partiers-mess-hippie-hill-golden-gate-park-san-francisco/
DeWitt, C. (2015). Christians and the Environment: How Should Christians Think about the Environment? - Christian Research Institute. Christian Research Institute. Retrieved 16 October 2015, from http://www.equip.org/article/christians-and-the-environment-how-should-christians-think-about-the-environment/
Toulmin Model and Sherlock Holmes
The Toulmin Model of argumentation asserts that a good argument consists of six parts which intend to develop a practical argument. The first element is the "claim," or the conclusion that the argument must establish. The next part is the "data," or the facts and evidence collected and used to confirm the argument. In order to support the data, general, hypothetical, or logical statements are used, these are called "warrants." A good argument should limit itself to what can be proven and so it requires "qualifiers" which restrict the argument to a point where it can be supported by facts. In order to support the warrants made during the argument, sometimes "backing statements" are used to add credence to the statements made during the argument. These backing statements may not directly support the claim, but should always support the supporting warrants. Finally, since there are…
Toulmin Model Argument About the Environment
God has obviously put the human beings in a status of having full responsibility over the establishment. In bible in the section called Genesis 2:15 mentions "And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made."(2) It is understood that everyone produced are a part of God's contribution to the earth (3) and that all of those that are individuals living on this planet are responsible to take care of it. In Deuteronomy it says "A land that the Lord your God cares for. The eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year to the end of the year." This verse clearly explains that God commands us to take charge over the formation in a way that endures,…
Guth, J.L. (2005). Faith and the environment: religious beliefs and attitudes on environmental policy. American Journal of Political Science, 19, 364-382.
Hitchcock, D. (2005). Good reasoning on the toulmin model. Argumentation, 21(6), 45-46.
Merritt, J. (2010). Green Like God: Unlocking the Divine Plan for Our Planet. New York.
Voss, J.F. (2005). Toulmin's model and the solving of ill-structured problems. Argumentation,, 9(2), 21-23.
In regard to organizational strategy, the companies can work towards a similar strategy of delivering high quality products to their clients. This would be the same for their shared values. The efforts towards integrating the structures, systems and strategy should however be given most attention. The strategy of partnerships, strategic alliance and acquisitions must be upheld.
Using this framework, we can see the need for new leadership so as to ensure that the new acquisition does not suffer from the past bad decisions.
Congruence Model for Organization Analysis
The congruence model of organizational analysis specifies the inputs, outputs and the throughputs in manner which is more consistent with the open systems theory as noted by Katz and Kahn (1978).In this regard the inputs, outputs and the throughputs of both Skype and Microsoft must be analyzed with a view of transforming them into a clear and concise organizational model.According to this…
Bryce, DJ (2011). Microsoft's Skype Deal: How to Make it Work.Available online at http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/05/microsofts_skype_deal_how.html
Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (1993). Organization development and change. Fifth Edition. New York, NY: West Publishing.
Gable, R.K. & Wolf, M.B. (1993). Instrument development in the affective domain: Measuring attitudes and values in corporate and school settings. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
French, W.L. & Bell, C.H. (1995). Organization development: Behavioral science interventions for organization improvement. Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Organizational Diagnostic Models
Falletta (2005) outlines several different organizational diagnostic models. The first such model is the Force Field model, developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951. In this model, an organization remains in as state of equilibrium until it is shifted out of that state by a driving force that overcomes the restraining forces. The current state then becomes a problem (Falletta, 2005). This model can be used to explain what situation an organization is in, and even how that situation came about. The downside is that it provides little in terms of information about how the company can move to its new equilibrium point. But Lewin's model explains how companies enter into an equilibrium state. The company's current equilibrium has still allowed for steady gains in revenue and profit based on growth, but stability in profit margin (MSN Moneycentral, 2014).
Leavitt's model is a somewhat different representation…
Falletta, S.V. (2005) Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved January 15, 2014, from http://www.iei.liu.se/fek/frist/723g16/files/1.120328/Orgmodels.pdf
McMillan, T. (2014). Can Whole Foods change the way poor people eat? Slate.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.slate.com/articles/life/food/2014/11/whole_foods_detroit_can_a_grocery_store_really_fight_elitism_racism_and.html
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved November 28, 2014 from http://www.msn.com/en-us/money/stockdetails/fi-126.1.WFM.NAS?symbol=WFM&form=PRFIEQ
National Defense University, Systems Thinking and Learning Organizations, Retrieved November 7, 2012 from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt1ch4.html
Toulmin's Model of Argument Analysis
Connection of Wilsonian and Hamiltonian Traditions
Hamiltonians is the first U.S. secretary of Treasury who believes that the central purpose of American foreign policy is to promote foreign trade as well as securing a stable national market economy. On the other hand, Wilsonians doctrine states that the promotion of international law involves using the World Court and United Nations for the promotion of permanent international peace. Kettl, (2015) points out that the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions frame the classical approach of American public administration, which practitioners develop towards the end of the 20th century. Kettl, (2015) connects the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions by combining the strong administration with classical approach. Hamiltonian tradition focuses on executive leadership principles using the top-down authority to enhance control and efficiency. However, Wilsonian tradition argues that managers can apply their functions within the scope of American constitutions to enhance efficiency.…
Kettl, D.F. (2015). The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lowi. T.J. (1993). Legitimizing Public Administration: A Disturbed Dissent. Public Administration Review. 53(5):261-264.
Denhardt, J.V. And Denhardt, R.B. (2011). The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering. Armonk, (3rd edition). NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Quinn, R.E., Faerman, S.R., Thompson, M.P. et al. (2011). Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing values Framework. (5th edition Hoboken) NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Whole Foods Market
Which Organizational Diagnosis Model Is Best to Use at Whole Foods Market
Open Systems Theory
Weisbord's Six-Box Model
McKinsey 7S Framework
Likert System Analysis (1967)
Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model
Methods to use this Tool
Analyze each key element separately
ecognize the people that can help to get the work done and help in accomplishing the goals of the organization
Analyze how these Elements Interrelate in the Organization
Plan to Create and Maintain Congruence
Issues of Whole Foods Market
Poor Working Conditions
Failure to Support Farmworkers
Best Model to esolve Issues of Whole Food Markets
In this modern competitive era of rapid transformation and advancement, new organizations must be evolved and developed continuously. More effective learning processes need to be adopted and goal setting and planning processes must be learned and time should be spent to improve and advance the goal-setting…
Hedge, J.W. (2002). Implementing Organizational Interventions: Steps, Processes, and Best Practices. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Lusthaus, C. (2002). Organizational Assessment: A Framework for Improving Performance. Ottawa: International Development Research.
Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. Oxford.
Pheysey, D.C. (1993). Organizational Cultures: Types and Transformations. New York: Routledge.
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…
Beisner, E. Calvin. (1990) Prospects for Growth: a Biblical View of Population, Resources, and the Future. Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books,.
DeWitt, Calvin B., Ed. (1991) The Environment and the Christian: What Can We Learn from the New Testament? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House,.
Target Earth http://christianteens.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=christianteens&cdn=religion&tm=294&f=20&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.targetearth.org/
Yahoo Voices, Simple Steps to Help the Environment
Environment: Toulmin Model Argument
To be environmental or not may not be a difficult question for Christian people, then again, for others it might be. However, when it comes to Christians and the Environment, the question is, should Christians be worried about the ecosystem? Spending time in the bible can clearly show Christians that they need to accept the obligation to be more active in caring for the environment for the reason that it is God's creation. If people believe, as Christians that they are God's workers, they should not have any part in helping destroying the earth. Any utilization of earth's resources need to upkeep the sustainability of such assets. If this is done would be to act in revolt against the objective of God in design and in a very real sense walk in insincerity in regards to the environment. With that said, this paper will argue specific…
Attfield, R. (2003). "Christian Attitudes to Nature.." Journal of the History of Ideas, 44(3), 369-86.
Berry, T. (2009.). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. . New York City: Orbis.
Bianchi, E. C. (2009, March 8). The Ten Commandments of Ecological Spirituality. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237314672_Chapter_7_The_Ten_Commandments_of_Ecological_Spirituality
Gebara, I. (1999.). Longing for Running Water: Ecofeminism and Liberation. . Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.
deteriorating effects of wars. The line of reasoning follows the commonly used Taulmin's Model. The orks Cited four sources in MLA format.
All wars are not wrong?
The world that we live in is estimated to have the age of 5000 years plus. All wars throughout the history of the world have ended in terrible devastation and extensive destruction in terms of economic, social and political repercussions for the countries and their people (Sullivan- iley & Eisentein) [Sullivan-iley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of orld ar I similar to the effects of orld ar II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html]
Different wars led to different end results. In some cases, the economies crashed such as the Great Depression in the United States of America after the orld ar 1 which reduced the value of the currency to mere its paper, cost of living escalated beyond human…
Sullivan-Wiley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of World War I similar to the effects of World War II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html
Koeller D. The World Wars: 1900- 1989. Retrieved February 08, 2003 from: http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/World/WorldWars.html. Why World War II?. Last updated 29 Dec. 1999. The History Ring. 2 Mar. 2000.
Reynolds C. What is the Taulmin's Model? Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.concentric.net/~Creyn266/COMM335/Toulmin.htm
The tone of the argument is generally constructive. While the author implies a clear conflict -- in this situation the basic class warfare argument -- the author proposes constructive resolutions to the issue, such as the passage of new laws governing campaign finance. Because the call to action is aimed at all parties, there is little in the way of disruptive tone, save for disruption to the status quo, which is argued to be a threat.
There is also an element of group and cultural influence in the argument. The author takes care to otherize the threat as being that of "foreign" influence, a clear device used to galvanize those in support of the author's proposals as American. This stretch of the truth -- the vast majority of campaign financing comes from American sources -- is used specifically to invoke America's culture of independence from foreign influence and to galvanize…
A stronger argument would have galvanized one or both of these groups. The group should have been identified and an argument developed around some sort of common trait among the group members.
One of the most glaring weak points of this argument is the lack of conflict. The author fails to convey a sense of outrage about the status quo that he feels needs to be changed. There are no entrenched interests that must be dislodged. Without this sense of conflict, no solution either disruptive or constructive can be proposed. This perhaps is why the solution proposed at the article's closing is so uselessly vague -- there is no conflict to be resolved so no particular need for a strong resolution to be called for.
Instead, this argument is effectively egocentric. The author apparently wants something changed, but does not take the time to inform the audience about the issue,…
Unit 4 Assignment Worksheet
In the Units 3 and 4 Discussions, you created a thesis statement that offered a solution to a problem in your community or workplace. In this unit’s Assignment, you will revise and evaluate the effectiveness of that thesis using the Toulmin Model.
Part I: First of all, you will revise the provisional thesis statement that you generated in the previous unit Discussion. Make sure the thesis is concise (1–2 sentences) and includes two parts: a proposal for solving a problem and a reason that solution is needed. For more on creating effective persuasive thesis statements, review the following Writing Center resources:
· “Give Your Paper Direction: Developing a Strong Thesis Statement”
· “Writing a Thesis for a Persuasive Essay”
Write your revised two-part thesis statement here, and be sure to include a claim + reason (the “because” or “since” clause):
Employees should be taught stress management…
action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
There is presently much controversy regarding environmentalism and religion is particularly important when considering people's involvement in preserving the environment, with Christian groups from around the world being actively engaged in preserving and restoring it. Although there are a series of techniques that people can use in trying to save the environment, some methods are actually ineffective. The environment is rapidly deteriorating and urgent action needs to be taken in order for the process to be slowed down and eventually even stopped. Christian values influence people in protecting the environment, as it is essential for humans to benefit as a result of having access to the resources offered by a healthy planet. Christians should take advantage of the fact that their religious preferences bring them together and attempt to fight against environmental deterioration on several fronts.…
Jenkins, Willis "Missiology in Environmental Context: Tasks for an Ecology of Mission," International Bulletin of Missionary Research Oct. 2008
Novotny, Patrick Where We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000)
Reilly, Patrick "Leftists Pushing Radical 'christian' Environmentalism," Human Events 22 June 2009
Sideris, Lisa H. Environmental Ethics, Ecological Theology, and Natural Selection (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003)
Likeability: A Factor in Managerial Success
A 2007 survey in which 90,000 employees from all over the world were interviewed revealed that only 20% of those questioned were attempting to perform to their utmost abilities in the workforce. The remaining 80% were reported to be disengaged (Bhargava). hat was the cause of the overwhelmingly lackluster workplace attitudes? A number of researchers have identified the root of the cause in a failure of leadership to personally interact and form bonds of human sympathy with subordinates (Bhargava; Pink; Holmes). Indeed, Daniel Pink has shown in his best-selling work Drive that leaders who demonstrate likeability in the workplace actually have a higher success rate in motivating teams in the long run. Likeable managers establish workplace cultures that provide a necessary foundation for attracting, forming and keeping autonomous, masterful and purpose-driven employees in their workplace environment. This paper will show how likeability is…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., Weber, T.J. "Leadership: Current Theories,
Research, and Future Directions." Annual Review of Psycholog, 60 (2009): 421-29. Print.
Bhargava, Rohit. Likeonomics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Print.
Elkind, Peter; McLean, Bethany. Enron: the Smartest Guys in the Room. NY: Penguin,
Immigration to America
An Introduction and Claim
Over the years, the issue of immigration in America United States has raised complex demographic issues. Elements of population increase and cultural change on the native societies in the United States are evident characteristics of immigration. The social, political, and economic components of immigration cause controversies on issues of employment, settlement patterns, ethnicity, and economic benefits for non-immigrants. The government works on developing social mobility, reducing crime, and controlling voting behavior. This paper intends to outline the negative issues surrounding immigration in the U.S. The United States has fewer immigrants on per capita consideration comparable to half the OECD countries. Policies had developed before 1965 focused on establishing a working formula for limiting naturalization and immigration opportunities for persons without native claim.
The exceptional economic status of America makes it a haven for immigrants (David & Okazaki 887). However, globalization is fast…
David, Richards, and Okazaki Stephens. Activation and automaticity of colonial mentality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40.4(2010), 850 -- 887. Print
Mossakowski, Kilchenmann. Are immigrants healthier? The case of depression among Filipino Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70.3(2007), 290 -- 304. Print
Picot, George. Hou, Farou., & Coulombe, Silva. Poverty dynamics among recent immigrants to Canada. The International Migration Review, 42.2(2008), 393 -- 424. Print
Stickels, Jackie. The Victim Satisfaction Model of the Criminal Justice System, Criminology and Criminal Justice Research and Education, 2.1 (2008), 1-19. Print
young, most of us do not think about making a conscious decision to die. e look forward to years of long and healthy life, and if death ever seems appealing it is as an antidote to depression. It does not often, if ever, occur to us that there will be a time when we look forward to the "good death" promised by euthanasia.
But it is inevitable that for many of us there will come a time in our lives when suicide may indeed seem appealing because we are fighting a losing battle against a certainly fatal disease that fills our remaining days with pain and despair. In such a position many of us may wish to have our doctors help us die by prescribing for us drugs that when we ourselves take them will prove to be fatal. Or we may wish that other people should have this option…
Callahan, Daniel, "Good Strategies and Bad: Opposing physician-assisted suicide," Commonweal, December 3, 1999, sec1. 7+.
Cassel, Christine K. "AMA Guidelines for Caring for Patients in the Last Phase of Life.," CQ Researcher 7 (1997): 774. ( http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/amn_97/edit0721.htm )
Humphrey, Derek. Euthanasia: Essays and Briefings on the Right to Die. Los Angeles: Hemlock Society, 1991. http://deathwithdignity.org/euth_us2htm .
Orric, Sarah. "House Judiciary Committee Rationale." Congressional Digest 77 (1998); 263-264.
Paternity leave has emerged as one of the debatable issues in today's society, especially because of the changing nature of the modern workplace. Generally, many new fathers tend to return to work after celebrating the birth of their newborns. Fathers barely take time off after the birth of their children despite of the need to take paternity leave. Actually, based on the findings of a survey on working fathers by the Center for Work and Family at Boston College, fathers rarely take time off after the birth of their children (Hall, 2013). Even in situations where men are offered paid paternity leave, most of them won't take it mainly because of the stigma associated with such measures. The issue of paternity leave has generated numerous arguments and counter-arguments between proponents and opponents respectively. An analysis of these arguments demonstrates that paternity leave is vital to promote the involvement of both…
Cohn, J. (2014, July 14). Leave No Parent Behind. New Republic, 245(12), 7-9.
The article shows how the existing stingy family-leave policies may be shirking the economy. The author demonstrates how the transformation of these policies and inclusion of paternity leave enhances productivity.
Delingpole, J. (2009, September 16). Paternity Leave? It's Not Natural. The Telegraph.
Retrieved July 24, 2014, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/personal-view/6196220/Paternity-leave-Its-not-natural.html
Seeking support before a program is put into place is crucial, as it is this network of support that will serve to assist in solving the problems that will
The second common roadblock is inadequate planning and scheduling for inclusion. Planning and scheduling should not only occur at the local level, but at the district level as well (orrell 53). Often, the entire organizational structure of a district needs to be examined and revamped for an inclusion program to succeed (Stainback 144). Making certain that there is not an "overload" of special education students within one general education classroom takes much planning and effort on the part of teachers and counselors. Planning also includes making certain that special education students are provided with all appropriate services that they would have received had they not been placed in the inclusion classroom setting (orrell 53). This not only includes…
Anderson, David W. "Inclusion and Interdependence: Students with Special Needs in the Regular Classroom." Journal of Education & Christian Belief 10.1 (2006): 43-59. Print.
Carr, Margaret N. "A Mother's Thoughts on Inclusion." Journal of Learning Disabilities 26.9 (1993): 590-592. Print.
Connor, David J., and Beth a. Ferri. "The Conflict Within: Resistance to Inclusion and other Paradoxes in Special Education." Disability & Society 22.1 (2007): 63-77. Print.
Leyser, Yona, and Rea Kirk. "Evaluating Inclusion: An Examination of Parent Views and Factors Influencing their Perspectives." International Journal of Disability, Development and Education 51.3 (2004): 271-285. Print.
History of Constructivism
As long as there were people asking each other questions, we have had constructivist classrooms. Constructivism, the study of learning, is about how we all make sense of our world, and that really hasn't changed."
Jacqueline Grennan rooks (1999)
The concept of constructivism is as old as Socrates, but 20th Century pioneers of the movement include Jean Piaget, John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky. Jean Piaget and John Dewey were early adaptors of "Progressive Education" ideals that led to the formal concept of constructivism. For Piaget, these ideas were grounded in the notion that people learned in logical increments, through structured introduction and that children absorbed information in different ways than did adults. John Dewey thought that learning should be associated with real life experience achieved through inquiry. Vygotsky introduced a social aspect by asserting that children exceed their average learning capability when interacting with others.
Dettrick, G.W. Constructivist Teaching Strategies. School of Education
Monash University - Gippsland Campus. Churchill Australia 3842
1896 EW5: 96-109 The reflex arc concept in psychology
Shapers and Definers
Characteristic of Modernity
It is true that renaissance was not based in sudden rediscovery of classical civilization but it was a continuation of the use of classical models to test the authority underlying conventional taste and wisdom (Garner, 1990). According to Davies, identity does not stop at a national frontier and that Europe has seen radical changes in tribal boundaries until recently of national homelands. If a peasant of the Middle Ages had been asked where he lived he would probably have replied Christendom. Equally he shows how ubiquitous nationalist inspired historical reconstruction has distorted historical reality.
In addition, in the book, a kingdom of England did exist in 1265, on the ruins of the Plantagenet Empire; but it still had stronger connections with the Continent, in Gascony and Aquitaine, than with Wales or Ireland. Its French speaking Anglo-Norman aristocracy did not yet share a common culture…
Davies, N. (1996). Europe. A History. Oxford University Press.
Garner, R. (1990). Jacob Burckhardt as a Theorist of Modernity: Reading The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Sociological Theory, 8(1), 48-57.
Rabb, T.K. (2006). The Last Days of the Renaissance and The March to Modernity. Basic Books.
Administrative Traditions in America
American administrative tradition has been a historic dilemma for a long time. This is caused by the existence of various administrative traditions like the Hamiltonian traditions, the Madisonian, Wilsonian, and the Jeffersonian tradition. The mode of managing has improved dramatically, and the gap between the theory and the actual activities has brought many challenges to the managing sector. According to Kettl, political scientists have been in the process to initiate some approaches. Formal modeling is one of the administrative traditions that Kettl supports. He also suggests a public method of management and a right of citizens to choose institutions of their choice. Additionally, Kettl goes ahead and gives the effective methods America should focus on to have formal obligations. He talks of administration personnel and theorists who need to focus on the link between the government and its surrounding which include political, social and administrative. The…
Kettl, D.F. (2015). The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press
White, L. (1926). Introduction to the Study of Public Administration
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…
Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language .
Lexicon (2001). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary:
Lexicon. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia:
All of these steps are easy to take and can help protect the Earth. Developing renewable energy sources is also an important step Christians should take regarding preserving the environment.
The commercial energy consumption, in the United States alone, in 2006, was 1,994,876 kilotons of oil equivalent. The most disturbing part of that figure is that only 8.41% of that energy came from renewable electricity production ("Energy"). Investment in research and development for technology to efficiently harness renewable energy sources is critical. In addition to investment in new technology, large energy consuming countries, such as the United States, need to take advantage of current technology to utilize renewable energy sources -- like wind.
In 2004, the United States generated 6,740 M of power with wind turbines. However, other, smaller countries have taken greater advantage of this inexpensive, clean, renewable source of power. Germany produced 16,629 M of power with wind…
Air Pollution. United Nations, Oct. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/ODS_Consumption.htm .
Climatological Disasters. United Nations, Oct. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Climatological_disasters.htm .
Energy. United Nations. Sept. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/Energy.htm .
Greenhouse Gas Emissions. United Nations, Aug. 2009. Web. 9 Dec. 2009. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/environment/air_co2_emissions.htm .
Christians and the Environment
When it comes to the environment, Christians are as beholden to it as anyone regarding its preservation and restoration. The environment is a physical manifestation of God's love and it's for us to preserve. This notion is found clearly in scripture which asserts in Colossians 1:1619, "For by Him [Jesus] all things were created, in heaven and on earth… whether on earth or in heaven…" This clearly demonstrates the undeniable responsibility that all Christians have in preserving and protecting the environment and how they have an obligation to protect the earth not just for themselves but for future generations.
One of the major articles of proof for such a thesis is in the belief or viewpoint that the environment is a gift from God and thus the responsibility of all Christians. As one scholar explains, "Our environment is one of the greatest examples we have of…
Belknap, J. (2013). God's Gift, Our Responsibility. Retrieved from Christianitytoday.com: http://www.christianitytoday.com/iyf/hottopics/faithvalues/belknap.html
Dwyer, R. (2013). Caring for God's gifts: the natural environment and faith. Retrieved from spsmw.org: http://spsmw.org/2009/04/20/caring-for-gods-gifts-the-natural-environment-and-faith/
Escrivia, J. (2013). The environment should mirror the creative love of God. Retrieved from JOsemariaescrivia.info: http://www.josemariaescriva.info/article/the-environment-should-mirror-the-creative-love-of-god
UPI.com. (2013, February 25). Poll: Environment is low global priority. Retrieved from UPI.com: http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2013/02/25/Poll-Environment-is-low-global-priority/UPI-97081361826137/
(Deuteronomy 22:28-29). hile these Biblical endorsements of unequal treatment may seem historical and antiquated to a modern, estern audience, the fact is that many parts of the world still treat women in a similar fashion, so that the Bible would be useless in helping to determine a standard of human rights for women.
In addition, many human rights activists believe that the death penalty is a de facto violation of human rights, regardless of the guilt or innocence of the person to be executed and the nature of the crime committed by that person. However, the Bible clearly endorses the application of the death penalty. Moreover, the Bible endorses the use of the death penalty in areas where most of the modern world has determined its use to be inappropriate. Amaziah executed his father's assassins, and the Bible described him as doing "what was right in the eyes of the…
Adherents.com. "Major Religions Ranked by Size." Adherents.com. 2007. Adherents.com 28
Sept. 2007 http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html .
Carlson, Doug. "ENDA: Ending an Important Employer Right." The Ethics and Religious
Liberty Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention. 2007. The Southern Baptist Commission. 28 Sept. 2007 http://erlc.com/article/enda-ending-an-important-employer-right .
The backing of the warrant includes the drawing of different parachutes. If the artist only drew one parachute then the reader would infer that the stimulus package is monolithic. Instead, the artist portrays the stimulus package as being multifaceted and potentially saving jobs in multiple business sectors. The fear on the skydiver's face and the cry of "Faster! Faster!" are used to back the claim that Americans may be worried for nothing.
Possible rebuttals to the cartoon include the following. First, a reader might note that many of the parachutes appear not to be working or have yet to be deployed. Second, the artist does not show how close to the ground the jumper is. These two facts add doubt as to how effective and efficient the stimulus plan is. Opponents and critics of the existing stimulus plan are directly addressed and will also identify strongly with the skydiver.
4). He then goes on to give examples and states that almost all of the great executives he has worked with throughout his business career used swear words. Lochhead also mentioned that a study conducted in 2007 found that teamwork can be inspired through swearing. He illustrates these findings by sharing a personal story. He was giving a speech to over 1,000 salespeople and the crowd roared with approval when he said, "e are not participating in this f*cking recession!" These examples warrant his argument because they counter the mainstream belief that only uneducated, rude, and ignorant people use such language. Instead, his evidence shows that the use of swear words can have an energizing and positive effect on the people who are being addressed and can portray a sense of power and control for the people who are swearing. Lochhead uses a number of words which may be seen…
Lochhead, Christopher. "In Praise of Cussing." CBSNews.com 9 July, 2009
Examining the difficult process that Huck has when he finally determines not to turn Jim in can be especially helpful in this. In addition, readers of this opinion can discuss the effects of Twain's own divergence from society when contemplating the ways in which his articulation of his nonstandard views into text affected society.
Thus, while two sides clearly exist in this debate -- one stating that Twain's novel advocates racism through the relationship between Huck and Jim and the other arguing that Twain actually condemns the ideology by using this relationship -- a compromise can be reached. Each side can still find Twain's novel valuable in a discussion of the effects of racism on society and the role literature plays in those effects. Thus, the need to ban this novel from the classroom is null and void when this type of compromise can be reached.
Regardless of the fact…
Alonso, Alex. "Won't You Please Be My Nigga: Double Standards with a Taboo Word."
Streetgangs Magazine. 30 May 2003. 17 April 2009. < http://www.streetgangs.com/magazine/053003niggas.php>
Depalma, Anthony. "A Scholar Finds Huck Finn's Voice in Twain's Writing About a Black Youth." The New York Times. 7 July 1992. 17 April 2009.
Fox, Laurie. "Huckleberry Finn N-word lesson draws controversy." The Dallas News. 1
"he final third are an estimated 10,000 "people group," or 2.1 billion humans, who for reasons of language or geography have never heard about the Christ of Christmas. And reaching them, missionaries say, involves crossing physical, political, and linguistic barriers." hose barriers will not always be gracious, not always be welcoming, but it goes without saying that devoted Christians do, and will continue, to overcome those barriers to touch the lives of other who have yet to experience the inspiration of the Word of God.
Not a Competition
here is not a competition for souls in Christian missionary work. Missionary work does not use people as human pawns on the chessboard of world politics.
Sometimes, it may be difficult for people, and missionaries alike, to understand that. Christians missionaries serve vital roles in places around the world where each day people lose the battle against the natural forces of nature,…
The Sphere Project represents a far more recent attempt at codification. It was established on July 1, 1997 by the Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SCHR) and Interaction, with the aim of examining and setting the minimum standards of behavior for those involved in humanitarian responses. The project has involved front line NGOs and the Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement, interested donor governments, and UN agencies cooperating to develop a set of standards in core areas of human relief."
More Quiet Missionary
There are those who have alleged that the Anglican Church has forgotten its missionary responsibility In fact,
Are Americans of African decent entitled to compensation for the American South's slavery past? Does the American government owe people whose ancestors were slaves reparations in the form of money, land or capitol goods? Many African-Americans and white liberals feel that black Americans are owed something and a movement in this country has been stirring for a while agitating for forced reparations by the U.S. government. (Conyers 2003) This paper will argue that reparations for slavery should not occur. It will be shown why reparations are wrong and how reparations would ultimately cause deeper divisions in our society then already exist.
Today there are increasing numbers of black professionals and scholars advocating reparations for slavery. Black lawyers have filed lawsuits against the federal government and companies that have profited from slavery. In 1989, Congressional representative John Conyers introduced H.R. 40 titled, "Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act."…
Brian Kuzma Black Month Should Be History 2/14/2002 http://www.cornellreview.org/viewart.cgi?num=125 Accessed April 19, 2003
Conyers John http://www.house.gov/conyers/news_reparations.htm Accessed April 19, 2003
Damu Jean web site article http://www.campusaction.net/news/fight_racism/reparations_article.htm2003
Engerman Stanley Inikori Joseph, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe, Duke University Press, 1992
By only being interested in themselves, people fail to accomplish one of their main missions as Christians-that of discovering the Kingdom of God. People should not understand personal satisfaction as being equivalent to the greatest achievement. Christians should constantly be engaged in stepping in when they know that the circumstances require them to do so.
Protecting the environment does not mean that one would have to perform dehumanizing acts, but that the respective person should attempt to do as much as possible in order for them to assist nature.
Practically everyone comes across the topic of environmental protection at a certain point in their lives and it is up to them if they want to be a part of the movement. People need to understand that it is not themselves who should be the center of their interest, as they should also look into assisting others and the planet in…
1. Butman, Richard E. And Kruse, Sandra Johnston, "On Creating a Healthy Supervisory Environment: a Christian Relational and Developmental Perspective," Journal of Psychology and Christianity 26.4 (2007)
2. Cox, Thomas R. "Shinrin Bunkaron" to Kirisuto-kyo, " Environmental History 3.3 (1998)
3. Goss, Benjamin, "Proposing a Biblical Ethic for Environmentalism," The Christian and the Environment, March 1, 2007.
4. Gnanadason, Aruna, "Yes, Creator God Transform the Earth! The Earth as God's Body in an Age of Environmental Violence," The Ecumenical Review 57.2 (2005)
The Living Essentials company claims it markets its high-powered beverage (which is sold in a 2-oz bottle as a "shot") to "…hardworking adults who need an extra boost of energy" (Meier, p. 2).
Another article in the respected New York Times reports that in addition to the 13 fatalities linked to 5-Hour Energy, another 5 deaths have been linked to "Monster Energy" (Meier, 2012). These data were released by the FDA in November, 2012, because, according to spokeswoman Shelly Burgess, the FDA is making "…an effort to be transparent" (Meier, p. 1). hile the FDA did not officially find the product at fault -- at this point there are linkages but no empirical proof that the deaths were a direct result of consuming the energy drinks -- Burgess added that if a "relationship between the consumption of the product and harm" can be proved, the FDA will take "appropriate action…
Huffpost. "Energy Drinks Hire Lobbyists to Fend Off Regulation." Retrieved March 6, 2013,
from http://www.huffingtonpost.com .
Meier, Barry. "Caffeinated Drink Cited in Reports of 13 Deaths." The New York Times.
Retrieved March 6, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2012.
Pledge of Allegiance should not be revised it has stood the test of time in the United States, and has been existent for nearly as long as this country has. There are countless people who have recited its words throughout the course of this country's existence. It is an integral part of this country. There is no reason sufficient enough to revise the Pledge of Allegiance, least of all because it states that country is one nation under God.
There are a number of reasons as to the validity of the aforementioned claim. Firstly, God has always played a vital role in the sort of patriotic propaganda that this country has always embraced. The back of the dollar bill explicitly states "In God We Trust." There are no huge movements to revise that slogan, mostly because it is innocuous as most beliefs in God are. There is a similar degree…
The speech is full of images and words denoting grand principles, especially "freedom," and the manner in which these are intermingled with the logical arguments and exhortations for support -- and pledges of support -- that have direct literal meanings blur the line between discursive and presentational symbols. Each of Obama's words has specific meaning out of the context of this speech, and each word largely retains this meaning within the speech, but the context of the speech as a whole shifts the meanings of these words and of the entire speech, transforming the symbols into something that appears to have ore substance presentationaly than is substantiated through a discursive examination of the same speech.
An excellent early example of the way Obama melds discursive and presentational symbols is in his first direct reference to the division that Berlin experienced for decades: "And on the twenty-fourth of June, 1948, the…
Brand, Peg. "Susanne Katherina Knauth Langer." Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London, 1998.
Langer, S. (1951) Philosophy in a New Key. "Discursive Forms and Presentational Forms"
Liukkonen, Petri. "Susanne K. Langer." Accessed 29 April 2010. http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/slanger.htm
New World Encyclopedia. "Susanne Langer." Accessed 29 April 2010. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Susanne_Langer#Symbols_and_myth
Differences in age between romantic partners can elicit a number of reactions, depending on the age of the youngest partner. Hollywood celebrities, who marry much younger partners, are often made fun of in the entertainment media; however, if the younger partner is still a teenager, or worse yet, a minor, then the mainstream media may weigh in with their own brand of demonization directed at the older partner. Phrases like 'cradle robber' are bandied about, or in the case of an attractive younger individual becoming involved with a much older 'elderly' partner, the phrase 'gold digger' may be heard. There is thus a sense that power imbalances within relationships will result in the exploitation of the more vulnerable partner. The following essay attempts to show that age does matter in romantic relationships, but primarily when one of the partners is a minor.
Men and women generally prefer…
Allen, Amy. "Does Age Matter in a Relationship." Helium.com. RR Donnelley. 7 May 2010. Web. 17 May 2012.
Darroch, Jacqueline E., Landry, David J., and Oslak, Selene. "Age Differences Between Sexual Partners in the United States." Family Planning Perspectives 31.4 (1999): 160-167.
Hamilton, Brady E. And Ventura, Stephanie J. "Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups." CDC.gov. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 89 (2012 Apr.): 1-8. Web. 17 May 2012.
Lehmiller, Justin J. And Agnew, Christopher R. "Commitment in Age-Gap Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A Test of Evolutionary and Socio-Cultural Predictions." Psychology of Women Quarterly 32.1 (2008): 74-82.
(Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999)
To conclude, it be said that if we will not be able to master imparting the capability to think in a developed form, our profession, as well as perhaps our world, would be influenced and taken over by someone who would be able to outsmart us to find it out. We would in that case not only remain thinking as to what happened but would also not have the skills required to provide answers to our own question.
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). etrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, .M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
etrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., udowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student…
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, R.M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
Retrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student Journal, 36(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database February 14, 2007.
He bases his warrant on the belief that with love as the driving force, the correct decisions will be made. He says being with one happy parent at a time is preferable to being with both unhappy parents. He is gracious in saying each of his parents made a "sacrifice" to relinquish control of him for six months. There is one statement he makes I certainly disagree with: "I can hardly imagine a more well-adjusted and contented family." That is stretching credulity because in my mind a well-adjusted, contented family would be one in which both parents provide love and nurturing for their children in the same home -- as a loving couple.
Question SIX: As already mentioned in this paper, when Putnam changes course in the opening of the third paragraph, it is almost like a night and day difference from what he put forth in the first two…
health care in the United States has been the source of heated debate for a number of years. Although the publicity surrounding the issue has been considerable and made to look like it is a recent problem facing the nation, the problem, in reality, has been on the horizon for nearly a century. During President Woodrow Wilson's administration, efforts were unsuccessfully made to pass national legislation regarding the delivery of health care in the United States and the issue has appeared periodically on the national agenda ever since (Lepore, 2009). Finally, on March 23, 2010, among massive controversy, the Affordable Care Act, through the massive efforts of the Obama administration, became law.
Despite the passing of the Affordable Care Act, health care in the United States remains dismal for a large percentage of American citizens. Although there were a number of significant provisions in the Act that took effect nearly…
Anderson, R.M. (2001). Improving Access to Care in America. Los Angeles: University of California.
Boehm, G. (2005). Debunking Medical Malpractice Myths: Unraveling the False Premises behind Tort Reform. Yale Journal of Health Policy Law & Ethics, 357-369.
Lepore, J. (2009, December 7). Preexisting Condition. The New Yorker .
Shi, L. (2003). Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach (3rd Edition). Burlington, VT: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
learning in schools. Schools must progress and advance in order to keep up with the ever changing and advancing workload. In order to do that, online learning is an option that can be incorporated. I hope the reader is able to realize the scope in the necessity for schools to have options that can include online learning as a means to better serve the student population at large.
What I learned from completing this assignment is the need for the school system to evolve to meet the needs of students presently. Things always to have to adapt and change for the requirements and demands of students are constantly growing and changing. The more options are presented to aid in resolving this issue, the better.
It was difficult to research successful strategies in adopting internet learning for schools. Children didn't seem to respond very well to internet learning. This counteracted my…
Repetto, J., C. Cavanaugh, N. Wayer, and F. Liu. "Virtual high schools: Improving outcomes for students with disabiltiies." N.p., 2010. Web. 18 May 2012.
To improve outcomes for students with disablities academically, one must increase contact and communication. Communication is key to their success.
Ogunleye, Ayodele. "Evaluating An Online Learning Programme from Students' Perspectives." The Clute Institute. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 2010. Web. 18 May 2012.
It is important to incorporate today's technology into the teaching regime. Keeping up-to-date is vital to the evolution of education.
Electronic communication such as texting and emailing are not as effective as talking face-to-face with someone.
Premises/Data: Studies have showed that without face-to-face interaction, the lack of nonverbal cues, facial emotions prevents successful communication and hinders growth in a relationship. One study of preteens at a summer camp found that with just five days without electronics, the children showed improvement in there nonverbal communication skills (Uhls et al., 2014). We already know that non-verbal communication is a significant portion of communication, that when presented with a person face-to-face, as little as 7% of communication was verbal (Yaffe, 2011). Thus, these preteens were improving immediately their ability to comprehend what is in many cases the majority of communication messages.
Studies of virtual teams have found that people are even inclined to interpret email text for non-verbal messages. The problem with doing so is that we tend to use shorthand for…
Bitti, P. & Garotti, P. (2011). Nonverbal communication and cultural differences: Issues for face-to-face communication over the Internet. face-to-face Communication Over the Internet. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Cheshin, A., Rafaeli, A. & Bos, N. (2011). Anger and happiness in virtual teams: Emotional influences of text and behavior on others' affect in the absence of non-verbal cues. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 116 (1) 2-16.
Uhls, Y., Michikyan, M., Morris, J., Garcia, D., Small, G., Zgourou, E. & Greenfield, P. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior. Vol. 39 (Oct 2014) 387-392.
Yaffe, P. (2011). The 7% rule, fact, fiction or misunderstanding. Ubiquity Vol. 2011 (Oct) 1-5.