Developing A Memo Using The Toulmin's Model Of Argument Essay


¶ … Toulmin's Model of Argument Analysis Connection of Wilsonian and Hamiltonian Traditions

Hamiltonians is the first U.S. secretary of Treasury who believes that the central purpose of American foreign policy is to promote foreign trade as well as securing a stable national market economy. On the other hand, Wilsonians doctrine states that the promotion of international law involves using the World Court and United Nations for the promotion of permanent international peace. Kettl, (2015) points out that the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions frame the classical approach of American public administration, which practitioners develop towards the end of the 20th century. Kettl, (2015) connects the Wilsonian and Hamiltonian traditions by combining the strong administration with classical approach. Hamiltonian tradition focuses on executive leadership principles using the top-down authority to enhance control and efficiency. However, Wilsonian tradition argues that managers can apply their functions within the scope of American constitutions to enhance efficiency.

2.Kettl's Evaluation of Traditional Public Administration

Kettl (2015) argued, "the modern study of public administration dated back from progressive era." (p 78). However, modern theorists believed that the launching of the traditional public administration started from the time Wilson published a book titled "The study of Administration" in 1887. Kettl (2015) points out that separation of administrative practice from political influence can improve the government programs and government accountability. Moreover, the approach will clarify relationships between administrative results and policy decisions. Kettl (2015) believes in traditional public administration policy execution vs. policymaking...


private sector. The system assists in enhancing efficiency of public administration.
3."Formal Theories of Public Administration"

Formal theories of public administration focus on individuals and the criteria to motivate these individuals. The theories also discuss on the strategy to shape the motivations of individuals when they start working with organizations. The theories provide the reason employees of a complex organization behave the way they do. While the traditional public administration focuses on a relationships between the superior and subordinates, the formal theories apply economic principles to understand the motives that make individuals to work. Macroeconomic principle argues that workers work because of the rewards they gain from organizations. Thus, market theory determines the amount an employer is ready to pay and the amount an employee will accept. Thus, formal theories see "bureaucracies as network of contract rather than the system of authority and hierarchy." (Kettl 2015 p 78).

4.Reinventing Government

The phrase reinvesting government argues that systems of governance can be reoriented to enhance productivity and efficiency similar to the best-run private business organizations. The concept of reinvesting government also focuses of ten strategies ranging from "steering rather than rowing" to meet the needs of customer." (Kettl 2015 p 89). The reinvention government is also characterized by the use of customer choice, competition as well as non-bureaucratic mechanisms in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of government while enhancing customer satisfaction.

5. New Public Management

The concept of new public management points out that it is critical to shrink the size of government in order to enhance performances. The model believes that government administration should be driven by self-interest behavior and market like. (Denhardt, and Denhardt 2011). Typically, the model "borrows heavily from principal agent theory" since public officials regularly discuss the concepts of adverse selection and moral hazards making increasing number of governments globally integrating the model in their administrative systems. Additionally, the new public management integrates both political and economic systems to make modern public sectors more efficient. The model views citizens as customer and public administer as public manager where the main goals are to enhance customers' satisfactions. (Quinn, Faerman,…

Sources Used in Documents:


Kettl, D.F. (2015). The Transformation of Governance: Public Administration for the Twenty-First Century. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lowi. T.J. (1993). Legitimizing Public Administration: A Disturbed Dissent. Public Administration Review. 53(5):261-264.

Denhardt, J.V. And Denhardt, R.B. (2011). The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering. Armonk, (3rd edition). NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Quinn, R.E., Faerman, S.R., Thompson, M.P. et al. (2011). Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing values Framework. (5th edition Hoboken) NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

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