Toxicology Essays (Examples)

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Forensic Toxicologist

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89546765

Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom

Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.

SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.

Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,

TX: LFB Scholarly.
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Silicosis Is a Possibly Deadly

Words: 2245 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34993030

Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A continuous…… [Read More]

References

Muetterties M, O'Halloran Schwarz L, Wang R. Sandblasters. In: Greenberg M, editor. Occupational, Industrial, and Environmental Toxicology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2003.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. Publication No. 2003-111; Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2003.

Cassel SL, Eisenbarth SC, Iyer SS, et al. (June 2008). "The Nalp3 inflammasome is essential for the development of silicosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (26): 9035.

Rees D, and Murray J. Silica, silicosis and tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2007; 11: 474 -- 84.
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.

Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.

CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.

CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
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Use of Bisphenol a BPA

Words: 786 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97821535

Bisphenol-A

The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic which was most often utilized in products such as baby bottles. This was because the BPA plastic is strong and easily-sterilized. Products like baby bottles require lots of use and quite a bit of abuse, such as being thrown around by a small child. Consequently, it proved useful to consumers because they would not have to replace the product regularly. BPA is also used in eyeglass lenses, medical materials, water bottles, CDs and DVDs, cellular telephones, computers, electronics, household appliances, safety shields, sporting equipment, and cars (Bisphenol A). This material is used in many products and consequently is an important factor in the manufacturing of other consumer products. However, there has been a debate in recent years about whether or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Baker, Nana (2008). The Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things

Threatens our Health and Well-Being. New York: North Point Press.

"Bisphenol A (BPA)" (2010). FDA. Retrieved from  http://www.fda.gov /newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm

"Bisphenol A: Information Sheet" (2002). Bisphenol A Global Industry Group.
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Case Information Police Report

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14026874

Police eport

On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:

Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward ichardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer ichardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him,…… [Read More]

References

Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011

from http://www.bendbulletin.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070214/NEWS05/702140312/1010

Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
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Healthcare Quality Management Pdca Modeling in Healthcare

Words: 1458 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41430170

Healthcare Quality Management

PDCA Modeling in Healthcare

Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with behavioral crisis intervention. The purpose of this exercise is to help staff improve understanding and coping with nonmedical emergencies that occur in medical settings using the PDCA cycle.

X is a 41-year-old male admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of possible stroke. The patient is ambulatory, 5'10," and 350 lbs. Mr. X presented to the emergency department the day before after apparently losing consciousness at home. The initial CAT scan of his head was negative. It is suspected that Mr. X may be an IV drug user since his urine toxicology screening came back positive for opiates. The medical staff thinks that Mr. X had a seizure prior to admission, but he has shown no abnormal signs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennet, L., & Slavin, L. (2009, April 3). What Every Health Care Manager Needs to Know. Retrieved from Continous Quality Improvement: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/CQI.htm

i Six Sigma. (N.d.). Focus - PDCA. Retrieved from I Six Sigma:  http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/focus-pdca/ 

Pestka, E., Hatterberg, D., Larson, L., Zwygart, L., Cox, A., & Cox, D. (2012). Enhancing Safety in Behavioral Emergency Situations. Medsurg Nursing, 335-341.
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Big Can Sometimes Be Very

Words: 2895 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52528903

The first is that some nanotoxicological effects are the direct result of new nanotechnologies: There is a strong ethical argument that can be made that as humans develop new technologies we must also -- and as simultaneously as possible -- develop strategies to counter any detrimental effects of the new technologies. (This is a corollary of the second lesson of global warming.) This could also be seen as a sort of corollary of the Hippocratic Oath: If at first you can do no harm than as quickly as possible move to fix the harm that we as humans have caused.

ut there is another aspect of nanotoxicology that fascinates a number of job seekers, which is the fact that nanoparticles act in ways that cannot be easily predicted from larger particles. This makes nanotoxicology in many ways a complex new that needs a number of different types of workers in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bainbridge, William and Mihail Roco (Eds.) Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologies in Society. New York, Springer, 2006.

Barhard, Amanda. "Nanohazards: Knowledge Is Our First Defense." Nature Materials 5, pp. 245-8.

Berger, Michael. Toxicology - from coal mines to nanotechnology,            http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1382.php           

Environmentalists are worried about the possible risk associated with Nanosilver,
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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
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Chemistry and Recreational Drugs the Objective of

Words: 1129 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8043740

Chemistry and Recreational Drugs

The objective of this study is to examine chemistry as it relates to recreational drugs. Toward this end, this study will review literature in this area of inquiry and report on the same.

Recreational drugs refer to drugs such as marijuana, methamphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine, and other such drugs. The chemistry of each of these recreational drugs is unique and each cause specific effects to the individual taking these drugs. The top five recreational drug chemists include: (1) Raphael Mechoulam known as the king of cannaboid research and to have identified delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an active ingredient of Cannabis Sativa in 1964; (2) Albert Hofmann -- famous for LSD research; (3) Charles Romley Alder Wright -- lecturer on chemistry at St. Mary's hospital Medical School in London who synthesized heroin in 1875 in his search for a non-addictive alternative to morphine; (4) Anton Kollisch who synthesized MDMA in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hill, SL and Thomas SH (2011) Clinical toxicology of newer recreational drugs. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Oct;49(8):705-19. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21970769 

Klein, B. (2011) Lawmakers Can't Keep Up with Chemists Developing Recreational Drugs. 31 May 2012. Wired Science. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-05/31/war-on-drugs

Methamphetamine (nd) Shelbyville Police Department. Retrieved from:  http://www.shelbyvillepd.com/meth.htm 

Top 5 Recreational Drug Chemists (2007) A Synthetic Environment. Retrieved from:  http://syntheticenvironment.blogspot.com/2007/03/top-5-recreational-drug-chemists.html
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Role of Lifestyle Factors in Inducing Cancer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72545690

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

Course code

Cancer is one of the leading international causes of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors that contribute to causing cancer have been widely studied in recent years. Summarizing relevant studies, lifestyle factors identified include smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, weight management, physical activity, and environmental exposure. These studies use a variety of methodologies to determine the link between the lifestyle factor and risk of cancer. Issues with the methods of these studies can be addressed by future research that attempts to remedy methodological defects while replicating results. Valid and reliable information is essential to using information about lifestyle factors to combat cancer.

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

As one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, it is estimated that cancers will have killed 10 million people around the globe by 2020 (Haque et al. 2010). In 2009, the American Cancer Society estimated that there…… [Read More]

References

Bissonauth, V., Shatenstein, B., Fafard, E., Maugard, C., Robidoux, A., Narod, S., & Ghadirian, P. (2009). Weight History, Smoking, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk among French-Canadian Women Non-Carriers of More Frequent BRCi Mutations. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, 2009, 1-11.

Boniol, M. & Autier, P. (2010). Prevalence of main cancer lifestyle risk factors in Europe in 2000. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2534-2544.

De Vries, E., Soerjomataram, I., Lemmens, V.E.P.P., Goebergh, J.W.W., Barendregt, J.J., Oenema, A., Moller, H., Brenner, H., & Renehan, A.G. (2010). Lifestyle changes and reduction of colon cancer incidence in Europe: A scenario study of physical activity promotion and weight reduction. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2605-2616.

Haque, N., Salma, U., Nurunnabi, T.R., Haque, A.K.M.F., Mukti, I.J., Pervin, S., & Nahar, R. (2010). Lifestyle Related Cuases of Cancer and Chemoprevention through Phytonutrients. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(19), 916-926.
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New Drug Development and Approval

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49692904

Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.

Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.

Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…… [Read More]

References

Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.

"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
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Art Imitates Life but the

Words: 4074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50458139

This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).

The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law.  http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm 

Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm

Prosecutors feel the CSI Effect. February 10, 2005. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/10/eveningnews/main670360.shtml

Rincon, P. (2005). CSI shows give "unrealistic view." BBC News. Retrieved August 13 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4284335.stm
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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]

References

Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
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Weight and Body Fat

Words: 1187 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35193446

People wok had to lose pounds fom thei abs, with the pesistence to make evey step geat and had objective to lose few pounds each time they execise. In fact, some of the encouagements ae not moe than umos. Scientists evealed tuths and oppotunities in the aticle, aiming to give eachable goals and simple methods to bun fat.

Accumulating body fat could be elated to pesonality inetness and high fatty food intake fo yeas, theefoe it is impotant that people incease thei awaeness to educe fatty components in thei diets fo egula basis, while at the same time incease active body movement fom daily activities and mild execises.

The aticle explained, while a numbe of people misundestood that cutting fat intake and aising execise fequency gow linea with body fat loss, in eality, half of the points may need second thought. Thee ae many factos contibuting to obesity.

Human develops…… [Read More]

reference:

Meyer, M. (1999). The Truth About Losing Body Fat. Better Homes and Gardens. Mar. 1999

Supplemental references:

Common Mistake That Prevents Most People from Losing Weight and How to Avoid It. Better Nutrition. May, 2003. Primamedia Intertec.

Bemben, M.G. (1998) Age-Related Variability in Body Composition Methods For Assessment of Percent Fat and Fat-Free Mass in Men Aged 20-74 Years. Age and Ageing.
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Artificial Turf Fields Their Benefits and Risks

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86606005

Health and Ecological Effects of Turf Fields

Logos

These are a recent type of synthetic turf, covered by a grass-like ground that strongly resembles natural grass in looks and function (STC 2015). They are said to function this way on a year-round basis in all weathers and for prolonged use without need for recovery. ecause it is synthetic, it is offered as a suitable solution and replacement for worn-out playing fields. At the same time, it does not need water or fertilizer as much as its natural counterpart. It is also available in different attractive styles, which match the locality (STC).

Sellers of artificial turf fields argue that natural grass fields cannot remain fresh and resilient if used for more than three to four days in a week, under the rain or when grass does not naturally grow (STC 2015). The low maintenance and water needs of a huge turf…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cheng, H. et al. Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: a Review. Vol. 48

number 4, Environmental Science and Technology, 2014. Retrieved on November 4, 2015

from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24467230

Ginsberg, G. et al. Human Health Risk Assessment of Synthetic Turf Fields, Based upon
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Obesity in Elderly Obesity Is

Words: 2155 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88964438

In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.

Future

A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.

Another important step…… [Read More]

References

Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912

Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58

Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.

Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
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Colombia Gold Colombian Gold Mining

Words: 1956 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20640569

Spiegel & Velga (2010) report that a new international effort is underway to regulate the diffusion of mercury into the environments contextualizing mining operations. According to Spiegel & Velga, the world community has recently developed a set of International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-Scale Gold Mining. As Spiegel & Velga report, "commissioned by the United Nations Global Mercury Project, the purpose of the guidelines is to assist policymakers, practitioners, researchers, miners and the public in developing strategies for reducing mercury use, eliminating major pollution point sources and reducing risks." (p. 375)

This points to the worldwide interests that are implicated by the current conflict between miners and environmental advocates in Colombia, which over the course of the country's gold-mining boom, has become a template-setter for how national and world governments must balance mounting economic opportunity with the threat of environmental destruction.

orks Cited:

AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle, a First in Eco Gold. The Independent.

Angenent, M. (2010). Artisanal Gold Mining in Colombia Co-Creating a Sustainable Future. Fair Jewelry Action.

Associated Press (AP). (2010). Colombia Shuts 18 Gold Mines. Straits Times.

Colombian Solidarity Campaign (CSC). (2007). Gold Mining in Colombia; Cauca Assembly in Resistance. Colombia Solidarity.
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Architecture Construction Thermal Isolation Materials

Words: 4132 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46741322



Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).

Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20

October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>

"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,

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Business Lend Lease Australia The

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49670510

Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals (Small, 2009). There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building. These include: cleanliness, thermal comfort, ventilation and air quality, lighting, noise, outside awareness and furniture (Hubbard, ice and Beamish, 2008).

The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed. A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority…… [Read More]

References

Document Helps Implement Green Building Codes. (2009). Professional Safety. 54(11), p18.

Garde, Ajay. (2009). Sustainable by Design?: Insights From U.S. LEED-ND Pilot Projects.

Journal of the American Planning Association. 75(4), p424-440.

Hubbard, G. Rice, J. And Beamish, P. (2008). Strategic Management: Thinking, Analysis and Action (3rd ed), Australia: Pearson Education.
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PCB Contamination of the Upper

Words: 4465 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7588112

Additionally, the water intake near Chelsea may be used, at times, to supplement New York City's water supply, during times of drought. The Town of Waterford and the Town of Halfmoon both get their muncipal water supply from the Upper Hudson iver ("Hudson iver PCBs," 2008).

GE's Involvement in the Build Up of PCBs in the Hudson iver

From 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson iver, polluting 197 miles of the river and creating America's largest Superfund site. Two of GE's facilities, one at Hudson Falls and one at Fort Edward are reported to be the source of the pollution. As Angelo (2009) notes, PCBs were used as high-temperature insulators in the manufacturing process of transformers and capacitors, at the GE facilities. Even today, more than three decades later, PCBs still leak into the river from GE's…… [Read More]

References

Angelo, W. (25 Feb 2008) Hudson River PCB cleanup projects under construction. Engineering News Record, 260(7). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.

(1 Jun 2009). PCB remediation work starts in the Hudson River. Engineering News Record, 262(17). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.

Historic Hudson River cleanup to begin after years of delay, but will General Electric finish the job? (23 Mar 2007). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/hhudson.asp.

Hudson River PCBs. (31 Dec 2008). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.epa.gov/region02/superfund/npl/0202229c.pdf.
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Plastic in the United States

Words: 2107 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76462440

" (Ware, 35) The PHB is a high weight polymer that is used for energy storage and carbon storage by a large number of microorganisms. PHB is synthesized and degraded by a lot of organisms and is said to be the most economic alternative to petrochemical plastics. The commercial production of PHB is on and in the brand name Bipol. The attractive feature is that the polymer degrades into carbon dioxide and water without harmful residues. PHAs are biosynthesized polyesters and are thermoplastics thus can be melted and molded and ideal for consumer products. There are over ninety varieties of hydroxyalkanotic acids that are the constituent of the monomer constituents of biosynthetic PHA. (Ware, 35)

Conclusion

Plastic waste is a problem of great magnitude. ecycling the waste is found to be the better solution. In the actual consideration we have to divide the plastic waste into many categories and decide…… [Read More]

References

Azapagic, Adisa; Emsley, Alan; Hamerton, Ian. Polymers: the environment and sustainable development. John Wiley and Sons, 2003.

Mantia, Francesco Paolo La. Recycling of PVC and mixed plastic waste.

ChemTec Publishing, 1996.

Martin, L. Plastic bags evil? Think again, some scientists say.
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Renewable Chemical Feedstocks the Fossil

Words: 5669 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7695445

The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)

It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…… [Read More]

References

Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.

Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs - A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.

Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future -- Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 -- 647.
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Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes

Words: 1817 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20429209

This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National esearch Council (U.S.), 1)

According to a 1976 EDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at ichland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists.…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Lester R; Earth Policy Institute. Eco-Economy.

Earthscan, 2003.

Cember, Herman. Introduction to Health Physics.

McGraw-Hill Professional, 1996.
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Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively

Words: 2143 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14456156

This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.

Conclusion

Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly…… [Read More]

References

Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.

Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.

Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.

Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
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Elder Care the Baby Generation

Words: 5100 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76486184

Ruth E. Mathias and a.E. Benjamin (2003) report that social workers are becoming increasingly concerned about elder abuse in long-term care settings (p. 174). A study conducted by these social scientists/authors, reveals that Medicaid related agency care demonstrates no harmful or increase in the abuse suffered by elderly people receiving care through private agencies, but that there is little social worker oversight, and because of that, reports and information supporting that fact can be misleading at this point in time (p. 174). Mathias and Benjamin reported, too, that direct care provided by family members was proven to be less abusive to the elderly than services rendered by state and private providers (p. 174).

The most concentrated areas of consumer complaints reported was the difficulty in scheduling services, language barriers, and high care-giver/assistant turnover (p. 174). These are areas of concern, because the elderly are often suffering levels of dementia that…… [Read More]

Litwin, H., & Zoabi, S. (2004). A Multivariate Examination of Explanations for the Occurrence of Elder Abuse. Social Work Research, 28(3), 133+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007316778

Matthias, R.E., & Benjamin, a. (2003). Abuse and Neglect of Clients in Agency-Based and Consumer-Directed Home Care. Health and Social Work, 28(3), 174+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001999500

Thorslund, M., & Parker, M.G. (1994). Elder Care in the Priorities Discussion. The Hastings Center Report, 24(5), 29+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002212664
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Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics

Words: 7122 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49210575

In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy rewer. alko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. ut professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. ut these continuing scandals suggest another,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Danger to Society: Fooling the Jury with Phony Experts (nd) Chapter Three. State of Texas Law Review.

Bite Mark Evidence Dispute in Murder Cases (2008) CNN.com Crime. 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/29/bite.marks.ap/

Bowers, C. Michael and Johansen, Raymond J. (2001) Digital Rectification and Resizing Correction of Photographic Bite Mark Evidence. Forensic Science Communications. July 2001. Vol. 3 No. 3. Online available at;

http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2001/bowers.htm
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Negative Effects of Marijuana Presently

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4474438

This engages a calm and quiet, however from time to time overjoyed state of mind. At high dosages, it can cause illusions. The consequences last from two to four hours after the drug is used and it mostly leaves the user of the marijuana in a calm condition for more than a few hours after getting high. One of the main invigorating properties is that temporary memory is reserved for the period of the high. Opinions may seem indistinct and it might be hard for a user to deliberate on rational difficult ideas like arithmetic. Long-standing causes have been disputed for several years. There are alleges of a motivational condition where the users marijuana are said to depart from civilization and lose their objective. (uckley, William F., 1997).

Conclusion whether cannabis usage effects enduring physical or psychological alterations in its users is still under question. The most solemn distress is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cabral, G. et al. Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and Protein Expression. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1991.

Cohen, S. Therapeutic Aspects. Marijuana Research Findings: 1980. NIDA Research Monograph 31. 1980.

Winters, T.H., Franza, J.R. Radioactivity in Cigarette Smoke. NEJM. 1982.

Buckley, William F., Jr. Marijuana Myths/Marijuana Facts. National Review. 1997.
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Drug Free Workplace in Favor

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15910707

What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]

References

Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68

Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998

Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
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Biological Effects of Radon Is

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56239359



Since radon is a widely known and established carcinogen, researchers have found it important to investigate the biological risks associated with exposure. Catelinois et al. (2006) sought to assess the lung cancer risk in France due to the inhalation of radon. In particular, these researchers examined exposure-response results of both studies involving miners as well as case control studies, and furthermore investigated the interaction between radon and tobacco. The results of this study indicated that the estimated number of deaths due to lung cancer that could be attributed to radon exposure ranged from 543 to 3108 with a 90% uncertainty level. The specific number of deaths was dependent on the particular model being adhered to. From this number, the researchers suggested that 2.2% to 12.4% of these lung cancer deaths may actually be due to indoor radon exposure (Catelinois et al. 2006).

Since exposure to radon is widely considered to…… [Read More]

References

Breier, R., Bohm, R., Kopani, M. "Simulation of radiation damage to lung cells after exposure to radon decay products." Neuro Endocrinology Letters 27.2 (2006): 86-90.

Catelinois, O., Rogel, a., Laurier, D., Billon, S., Hemon, D., Verger, P., Tirmarche, M. "Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France: impact of the risk models and uncertainty analysis." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.9 (2006): 1361-6.

Lubin, J.H., Boice, J.D. Jr. "Lung cancer risk from residential radon: meta analysis of eight epidemiologic studies." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89.1 (1997): 49-57.

Samet, J.M. "Residential radon and lung cancer: end of the story?" Journal of Toxicology and Health. Part a 69.7 (2006): 527-31.
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FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Was

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70009229

1968).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.

eferences

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…… [Read More]

References

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.

CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.
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Forensic Nursing in the Past

Words: 2240 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87651556

atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.

In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.

Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html.

Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com.

Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
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Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino

Words: 13893 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27469635

(1999) which are:

1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)

Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.

An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at   http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html  

Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.

Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
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Wbgt Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce the

Words: 3222 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84881586

WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce

The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as…… [Read More]

Reference List

1. Ben GS, Hashim Z, Hamzah R. Occupational heat stress of workers in a plastic industry,

Selangor. J of Occupational Health 2009; 1(2):56-63.

2. Chen M, Chen C, Yeh W, Huang J, Mao I. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J. 2003; 64(3):352-359.

3. Bates GP, Miller VS, Joubert DM. Hydration status of expatriate manual workers during summer in the Middle East. Ann. Occupational Hygiene 2009; 54(2):137-143.
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Rights and Welfare of Animals

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54812576

Animal Advocacy Organizations

There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.

PETA & ASPCA

The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).

PETA was founded in 1980, and their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize

Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org.

Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.

CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
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Defense of Impair Driving

Words: 5187 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54195322

Driving hile Impaired in Canada

Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.

hat is Impaired Driving?

The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Addario, Frank. (2008). Nasty Criminal Law Will Achieve Nothing for Public Safety.

Criminal Lawyer's Association. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from  http://www.criminallawyers.ca .

Bill C-2. (2007). An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to Make Consequential Amendments

To Other Acts. Parliament of Canada. Virtual Library. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from  http://www.parl.gc.ca .
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Lacking Since it Has Irrelevant

Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10243553



The Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines 'race' as not "scientific or anthropological" rather consisting of "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry" using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference" (American Anthropological Association, 1997 )

Possible quality management issues that may arise are that since people are in essence individuals and characterized by a plethora of both experiential as well as biological, sociological, historical, environmental, and so forth features, race may have little determination in the way that they act and respond to situations. An individual from one race, for instance, may have happened to have been born in that race but may look and act according to the stereotypical characteristics of another. When the concept of race is used strictly to record the quantity of people who were born to a certain category, this may not be problematic. However, when…… [Read More]

Reference

American Anthropological Association. (1997 ) "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15." http://www.aaanet.org/gvt/ombdraft.htm

Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
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Grid-Connected Photovoltaic PV Systems Though

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59047870

Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).

PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BrighterEnergy.org. SunPower offers solar modules boasting 19% efficiency. 3 May 2010. Web. 20 October 2011.

Chen, Hong Wen. "Exposure and Health Risk of Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry Workers." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2007): 5-9.

Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). Home. n.d. Web. 20 October 2011.

Edelman, Philip. "Environmental and Workplace Contamination in the Semiconductor Industry: Implications for Future Health of the Workforce and Community." Environmental Health Perspectives 86 (1990): 291-295.
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Supreme Court of U S Has

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25155642



From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.

As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…… [Read More]

Reference

MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.

Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.

Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.
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Pneumothorax We Identify the Two Main Types of

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72507007

pneumothorax.We identify the two main types of Pneumothorax with its causes and possible treatments. We also analyze a case study involving a 33-year fruit vegetable merchant, who, while delivering merchandise a mini supermarket developed chest pain difficulty breathing. And then subsequently admitted to casualty and diagnosed with pneumothorax.

Pneumothorax which is defined by Light (1995) as the unprecedented entry of air into an individual's pleural space is a serious ailment. Its pathophysiology described by Combulsier in 1747 (Mohebbi and ad, 2007). This was after realizing that the noted reduction in the pulmonary function was as a result of lung compression caused by air present in the pleural space as outlined by Sadiron et al., (1997).

Types and causes of Pneumothorax

Simple pneumothorax

This type of pneumothorax is caused by the presence of air within a victim's pleural space. It is a consequence of a blunt or a penetrating trauma with…… [Read More]

References

Al-Tarshihi, MI, Khamash, FA, Al Ibrahim, AEO (2008). Thoracostomy tube complications and pitfalls: an experience at a tertiary level military hospital http://www.rmj.org.pk/ram_july_dec_08/original_articles/thoracostomy_tube_complications/pdf.pdf

American Thoracic Society (2004). Chest Tube Thoracostomy.

http://patients.thoracic.org/information-series/en/resources/chest-tube-thoracostomy.pdf

Gupta, D., Hansell, A. And Nichols, T. et al. 2000. Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England.
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Toxins Cause Autism The Jury Is Still

Words: 1397 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65078651

Toxins Cause Autism?

The Jury is Still Out

Nicholas Kristoff's writes about the issue of environmental toxins and autism, and the link between exposure to these toxins and the rise in autism spectrum disorders. Autism comprises a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders -- collectively referred to as "autism spectrum disorders" (ASD) -- that share common features of impaired social relationships, impaired language and communication, and repetitive behaviors or a narrow range of interests. Autism has a current prevalence of 1% in children.

Kristoff explores the relationship between toxins and autism by referring to expert opinion; that is, public health officials who have found epidemiological links between exposure to such harmful substances as mercury, lead, and thalidomide and neurodevelopmental disorders. Kristoff cites studies in which researchers "have found that disproportionate shares of children develop autism after they are exposed in the womb to medications such as thalidomide (a sedative), misoprostol (ulcer…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbaresi WJ, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, and SK Katusic. "The incidence of clinically diagnosed vs. research identified autism in Olmsted county, Minnesota, 1976-

1997: results from a retrospective, population-based study." J. Autism Dev Disord 39 (2009): 464 -- 470.

DeSoto, Mary Catherine and Robert T. Hitlan. "Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence." Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 70 (2010): 165-176.

Heron J, Golding J, and ALSPAC Study Team (2004) "Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom does not support a causal association." Pediatrics 114 (2004): 577 -- 83.
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Exposure Testing a Comparison of Methods for

Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92064056

Exposure Testing

A Comparison of Methods for Toxin Exposure Measurement: Personal Exposure v Colorimetric Tubes

Several incidents in the past decade have created an increased attention to the issue of toxin exposure level measurements in both the public sphere and amongst security and emergency response agencies. The need to accurately measure the presence of a variety of air-borne and other toxic substances in specific environments in an incredibly rapid manner can be an issue of truly vital importance in emergency situations, and the measuring of exposure levels for certain individuals -- especially first responders and other emergency response personnel -- is also key to an effective yet careful management of events involving the release of toxic substances. This has led to increasing research in the area of toxicity measurements, and an investigation of the best practices for rapidly and accurately measuring exposure.

This paper will present a brief overview of…… [Read More]

References

Dodson, R., Perovich, L., Nishioka, M., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J. & Rudel, R. (2011). Long-term Integrated Sampling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: Measurement of Emerging Compounds Using Novel Active and Passive Sampling Methods. Epidemiology 22(1): 160-78.

Feng, L., Musto, C., Kemling, J. Lim, S. & Suslick, K. (2010). A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chemical Communication 46: 2037-9.

Hewitt, D. & Gandy, J. (2009). Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52(7): 579-86.

Hughes, S., Blake, B., Woods, S. & Lehmann, C. (2007). False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis in neonatal resuscitation: potential for serious patient harm: False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis. Journal of Perinatology 27: 800-1.
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Psychology and Physiological Aspects of Substance Abuse

Words: 1227 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65984339

West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.

(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…… [Read More]

References

Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.

Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.

Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.

West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
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Computer What Is Going to

Words: 4223 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83050421

In the same year, the founders started a new company for computer development called the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. By 1949, this company launched the BINAC or Binary Automatic computer. This computer made use of magnetic tape for the storage of data. Then this company was bought by emington and Corporation and the name was changed to Univac Division of emington and. This company was the organization to bring out UNIVAC which is one of the originals of the type of computers that are used today. (Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly)

1951 - UNIVAC begins to take over the business industries market:

Presper Eckert and John Mauchly set up their company and found their first client in the United States Census Bureau. The population of United States was growing very fast due to the baby boom that was taking place…… [Read More]

References

Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer the First

Electronic Computer - John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry." Retrieved at  http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005

Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly" Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa060298.htm. Accessed 6 October, 2005

Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Harvard MARK I Computer - Howard
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Nutrition Development of an Innovative

Words: 2423 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78625244

Contract production will allow favorable pricing of both ingredients and finished product. Sampling will allow for marketing controls and for targeting national and export markets. The product will meet the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), European Union, and other specific certification requirements, so may be exported. The Internet will be considered as a target for purchases, but will mainly be used for advertising the product. Mapco stores will be the exclusive client of this product, and will be the outlet to other organic health food agencies that may elect to sponsor sales of this product, as well.

The increased product range will depend upon acceptance by Mapco clientele and consumers, with sampling in other areas and acceptance in the health food market.

Success in product marketing starts by finding the point of difference - the cluster of strengths and selling points that are unique to this product alone.…… [Read More]

References

Born, subject=Marketing%20Organic%20Grains" Holly, 2005, Marketing organic grains, subject=Blueberries:%20Organic%20Production" NCAT Agriculture, ATTRA Publication #CT154

FAO, 2006, Essential Nutrients - Vitamins, [Online] Available at www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AB470E/AB470E05.htm

FDA, October 29, 2004, Pasteurized Juice Warning by FDA, FDA Talk Paper, [Online] Available at  http://www.fda.gov /bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2004/ANS01321.html

In a jam and out of juice (2000) [Online] Available at  http://www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/ncbe/protocols/inajam/pdf/jam01.pdf .
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Acetaldehyde and Anabuse Acetaldehyde Also

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89273220

al. 477-8).

If there is disulfiram in the patient's system, it takes about 5-10 minutes for the effects of the drug to form the outward symptoms of a severe hangover. These symptoms last from 30 minutes to several hours, and may include flushing, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, throbbing headaches, mental confusion and even circulatory collapse. There is no known tolerance to the drug, the longer it is taken, the stronger the effects. Because of its molecular make up, it is absorbed slowly through the digestive tract with the effects lasting up to two weeks after the initial doses. This makes the issue of informed consent very important for this substance (Wright and Moore).

The efficacy of the drug is debatable. On one hand, the biological and chemical effects of are proven. One study showed that there is about a 50% compliance rate in a supervised atmosphere,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Chemical Summary for Acetaldehyde. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Web.

Disulfiram. Drugs.com. Drug Information Online. 2011, Web.

Nakamura, K., et.al. Acetaldehyde Adducts in the Brain of Alcoholics. Archives of Toxicology. 77 (10): 591-3. 2004. Print.

Perry, L. Biology of a Hangover: Acetaldehyde. How Stuff Works. 2011. Web.
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H B Fuller in Honduras Street Children and

Words: 1801 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9138478

H.B. Fuller in Honduras: Street Children and Substance Abuse

The discussion of ethics in business is one that continues to receive increased attention in today's society, especially in viewing the ever-increasing technological business facets that exist in today's business environment. With the increased transparency of the internet age, as well as growing emphasis on a connected, global economy, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is one that has risen to the forefront in the minds of many business owners and stakeholders, alike. Ethical issues in the business world occur quite frequently in the business world today, and certain courses of action must be taken in order to ensure that a business fulfills its duties, not only to itself but to its stakeholders, in undertaking a course of action on such ethical dilemmas. In these situations, each step -- or misstep -- can alter the future of a company forever,…… [Read More]

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B And T Lymphocytes the Biology of

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69729583

B and T. Lymphocytes

The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them

The Biology of B. Lymphocytes

B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…… [Read More]

References

Austyn, J., M. And Wood, J., K. (1994). Principles of Cellular and Molecular Immunology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Beltman, J., B., Maree, A. & Boer, R. (2007), Spatial modelling of brief and long interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, Australian Society for Immunology, Pp. 1-9, Retrieved October 14, 2012.

House, B., R. & Descotes, J. (2010), Cytokines in Human Health: Immunotoxicology, Pathology,

and Therapeutic Applications (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology), New
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…… [Read More]

References

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98603012

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Preservation of the existing ecosystems

Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…… [Read More]

References

Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning

Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning

Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
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Application Quality Improvement Models Organizations Systems Part

Words: 1294 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96765389

Application Quality Improvement Models Organizations Systems, Part I Analysis equired esources eadings Course Text: Applying Quality Management HealthCare: A Systems Approach eview Chapter 9, "Improving Processes Implementing

oot cause analysis

According to Nicolini (2011)

the first step in CA is identifying the incident to be analyzed. This step requires for the problem or incident to be clearly defined and identified. Identifying the problem will assist in determining what caused the incident and how the incident occurred. In the case study, the mother requested for pain medication, and this was within her right. The nurse performed the request, and it was approved by the pharmacist, but the incident occurred when the nurse did not check the IV line correctly. The nurse confused the infants IV line with the mothers, which resulted in the infant been administered with Morphine. This should be an indicator, and it should be recorded as a fact.…… [Read More]

References

Brown, J.E., Smith, N., & Sherfy, B.R. (2011). Decreasing mislabeled laboratory specimens using barcode technology and bedside printers. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 26(1), 13-21.

Brunner, L.S., & Suddarth, D.S. (1986). The Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania J.B. Lippincott Company.

Cooper, M.R., Duquette, C.E., McWilliams, T., Orsini, M., & Klein, A.A. (2009). The unintended consequences of being friendly: A case study. Journal for Healthcare Quality: Promoting Excellence in Healthcare, 31(5), 43-47.

Nicolini, D., Waring, J., & Mengis, J. (2011). Policy and practice in the use of root cause analysis to investigate clinical adverse events: Mind the gap. Social Science & Medicine, 73(2), 217-225.
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Health Care Systems Based Upon

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59594698



2.) Based upon your personal, non-professional experiences, briefly discuss 2 or 3 applications of it which have enhanced or hindered your financial or medical well being. It and cyber-commerce/e-commerce do not exist devoid of context; thus please help define and shape this context.

The advent of computerized billing and medical coding has undoubtedly streamlined the process of managing a hospital's income and expenditures, but this aspect of healthcare it has been known to create unanticipated disadvantages as well. Although it is true that "the management of healthcare organizations can be improved through the intelligent use of information ... (and) this requires systematic planning and management of information resources to develop information systems that support patient care, administrative operations, and strategic management" (Citation pg. 21), there are a number of caveats that still apply. In my own non-professional experience, I have encountered confusion, frustration, and ineptitude on the part of healthcare…… [Read More]

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Social Media and Suicide Social Media Internet

Words: 2737 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48826609

Social Media and Suicide

Social Media

Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.

Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…… [Read More]

References

Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.

"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from  http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444 

"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics

"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
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Information Technology IT Project Management Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking

Words: 3448 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27902013

Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking

ITT Project Management - Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking

Although the sustainability movement has been advocated predominately in response to the irresponsible expansion of inefficient infrastructure by industrialized nations, with the United States and Japan now making significant efforts to embrace "green" growth practices, a growing movement has emerged that promoting sustainability throughout developing nations presents the most productive path. Even as the most modernized nations continue to update their consumption patterns to better suit the technological age, seeking efficiency and effectiveness that is sustainable for the foreseeable future, rising powers like China, India, and Brazil are expanding their spheres of influence at the expense of the natural environment. To address the threats posed by developing nations repeating the mistakes of prior generations, mistakes which run the gamut from China's reckless damming of its nation's natural waterways to India's inability to address its…… [Read More]

References

Carroll, J. (2009). Project management for effective business change in easy steps. UK: In Easy Steps, Ltd.

Cleland, D., Bursic, K., Puerzer, R., and Vlasak, A. (Ed.). (1998). Project management casebook. Sylva, NC: Project Management Institute.

Collyer, S. (2009) Project management approaches for dynamic environments. International Journal of Project Management, 27 (4), p.355-364. Retrieved from website http://espace.uq.edu.au/eserv/UQ:175094/Project_Management.pdf

Finkbeiner, M. (2009). Carbon footprinting: Opportunities and threats. The Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 14, 91-94. Retrieved from http://www.lifecycleinitiative.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/12/Carbon-Footprinting-opportunities-ans-threats.pdf
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Forensic Pathology

Words: 907 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91852648

Forensic Pathology as Scientific Evidence

Forensic Pathology is generally understood as having to do with the investigation of causation of injuries or death as a legal requirement. In the pursuit of this, pathologists usually investigate injury or death scenes and other relevant records to ascertain the cause of death.

Practically, forensic pathology incorporates the performance of post-mortem examination, which is an examination of body tissues and organs as well as investigations such as X-rays and toxicology testing. Forensic pathology makes it possible to interpret such results and reveal cause of end point of death as required by the law.

Interpreting Evidence

The results driven from forensic pathology are bound to be subjected to interpretations. The body can transform during the process of death or after, this transformation or changes are referred to as post-mortem changes or "artefacts," these changes can be misinterpreted as ailment or injuries that took place when…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goudge, S.T. (2008). Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario. Qubec: Ministry of the Attorney General.

Hickman, M., Hughes, K., Ropero-Miller, J., & Strom, K. (2007). Medical Examiners and Coroners Offices. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

National Research Council of the National Academics. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. washington DC: The National Academies Press.

R. v. Sherret-Robinson, [2009] O.J. No. 5312 . (n.d.).
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Rise of the Planet of the Apes

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49498136

Rise of the Planet of the Apes

The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Cohn, M. (2010). Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground: researchers, regulators develop new systems for experiments. The Baltimore Sun.

Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views. (12:1). 42.

Jeffries, DH (2011). Planet of the apes and the rise of the animal rights film. The Veganomaly.

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II (2012). Fullbooks.com
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Improving Emergency Department Flow by Using a Provider in Triage

Words: 11016 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23819753

Emergency oom Efficiency

Improving Emergency Department Flow by Using a Provider in Triage

Emergency room triage plays an essential role in the speed and quality of the emergency room departments. Triage represents only one small part of the process that determines quality of patient care. Emergency rooms can be crowded. Busy times are often unpredictable, making it difficult to avoid bottlenecks in the system. This has an affect on the amount of time between arrival and when the patient sees a physician. Patients can be in for frustrating long waits while sitting in the hospital lobby.Patients often leave the emergency room waiting areas without being seen because they get tired of waiting. These patients are referred to as left-without-being seen (LWBS). educing LWBS rates is crucial for improving quality of patient care in emergency rooms. Long waits also cause a potential liability for the hospitals, as patients that are critically…… [Read More]

References

Arkun, A,, Briggs, W., & Patel, S. et al. (2010). Emergency Department Crowding: Factors

Influencing Flow. West J. Emerg Med. 11(1): 10 -- 15. PMCID: PMC2850834

Armstrong, J., Hammond, J, & Hirshberg A, et al. (2008).Is overtriage associated with increased mortality? The evidence says "yes." Disaster Med Public Health Prep. P. D: 18388647. 2(1):4-5;

Bieler, G., Paroz, S., & Faouzi M, et al. (2012). Social and medical vulnerability factors of emergency department frequent users in a universal health insurance system. Acad Emerg Med. 19(1):63-8.
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Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group 1992 Evidence-Based Medicine

Words: 1909 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82007685

Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. (1992). Evidence-Based medicine: A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA, 268 (17), 2420-2425.

Evidence-based medicine is a new paradigm that places emphasis on new skills for physicians that include: performing efficient in performing literature searches and applying formal rules of evidence in examining clinical literature (critical appraisal exercise, which applies when authority is not trusted, the answer unknown, or there are divergent opinions). This is in addition to traditional clinical skills, understanding patients' emotional needs

This represents a shift from old processes used by physicians such as intuition, unsystematic clinical experience, and pathophysiologic rationale. Discusses Kuhn's notions of paradigms and paradigm shifts: paradigms are ways of viewing the world that define the problems addressed and the range of admissible evidence that can be used to solve them. Paradigm shifts occur when the old paradigm does not answer problems and a new paradigm in…… [Read More]

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68 GA Dota TOC Radiopharmaceutical

Words: 1828 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95871544

Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical

Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…… [Read More]

Tan, E.H.; Tan, C. (2011). Imaging of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2 (1) 28.

VanEssen, M. Krenning, EP., DeJong, M., Valkema, R., Kwekkeboom, D.J. (2007) Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues in patients with somatostatin receptor positive tumors, Acta Oncology 46, 723-734

Veliklyan, I. Xu, H. Nair, M. Hall, H. Robust labeling and comparative preclinical characterization of DOTA-TOC and DOTA TATE. Nuclear Medicine Biology 18, 123-128.
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Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88828889

Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay College of Criminal Justice. This is one of the most famous criminal justice programs in the nation and its home is one of the most diverse and challenging metropolis in the country: New York City. The criminal justice program here is different from others in a variety of ways, most notably in its origins.

Unlike other criminal justice programs, this one developed not out of student demand, but out of need. "In the mid 1950s, civic leaders and the New York City Police Department became increasingly aware of the growing complexity of police work, not only in the internal administration and operation of the department, but also in the ongoing relations between police and the community. In response to these concerns, a Police Science Program was established in 1954 at the then Baruch School of Business and Public Administration of City College" (jjay.cuny.edu).…… [Read More]

References

American.edu (2013). Drug Market Intervention Training. Retrieved from:

http://www.american.edu/spa/jpo/Drug-Market-Intervention-Training-Technical-Assistance-Initiative.cfm

Gendall, J. (2013). John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved from Architectmagazine.com: http://www.architectmagazine.com/education-projects/john-jay-college-of.aspx

Jjay.cuny.edu. (2013). History of John Jay. Retrieved from Jjay.cuny.edu: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/835.php
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Advances in Nanomaterials and Their Applications

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88061981

Nanomaterials

Advances in Nanomaterials and Their Applications

Nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and nanotubes, are being explored extensively for their use and application in multiple manufacturing domains. One of the most eager manufacturing sectors to incorporate nanomaterials into their midst is the athletics gear and sporting industries. Tennis rackets, surf, skate, and snow boards, skis, ski poles, boats, bicycles, hockey sticks, baseball bats, golf clubs and balls are all potentially transformed by the use of nanomaterials. Other athletics applications of nanomaterials include sports stadium materials, artificial turf, running track surfaces, clothing, and gymnasium equipment (Chunyan, 2011). While nanomaterials are proving promising from design, implementation, and development perspectives, there are also significant safety issues that need to be taken into consideration by engineers, manufacturers, and industry regulators.

The root word "nano" comes from the Greek meaning dwarf because the particles are extremely small and require special technologies for visualization as well as…… [Read More]

References

3M (2013). 3M nanomaterials strengthen sports gear. Retrieved online:  http://news.3m.com/blog/top-stories/3m-nanomaterials-strengthen-sports-gear 

Abraham, T. (n.d.). Nanotechnology and nanomaterials -- applications and global market analysis. Retrieved online:  http://www.aibn.uq.edu.au/Download/NSF/Thomas_Abraham_iRAP.pdf 

Chunyan, L (2011). Study on application of biosafety of nano-materials in sports engineering. Future Computer Science and Education (ICFCSE, 2011).

DeJong, K.P. & Geus, J.W. (2007). Carbon nanofibers: Catalytic synthesis and applications. Catalytic Reviews 42(4): 481-510.
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Crash of Arrow Airs DC 8 Flight 12 12 85

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44258445

Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on December 12, 1985. Thesis: "The crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on 12 December 1985 was caused by terrorists." (Gander, Newfoundland) Research concludes that this flight carrying soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division actually crashed due to terrorists act. Five sources are used. MLA.

The Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 Flight December 12, 1985

It had been nearly two decades since an Arrow Airs DC-8 jet crashed just after taking off from a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland on December 12, 1985. The plane rose less than 1,000 ft., then crashed, tail first, into a small hill, disintegrating in flames about a half-mile from the end of the runway (Magnuson 22). It has been listed as the worst military air disaster, killing 248 American soldiers along with eight crew members. There is still much speculation as to the cause for the crash, although…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Cox, Matthew. "Decade Later, Crash Debated." Newsday. August 25, 1996; pp A16.

http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Newsday&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.newsday.com&querydocid=4307815@urn:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Matthew+Cox&title=Decade+Later%2C+Crash+Debated++&date=08%2D25%2D1996&query=The+Crash+of+Arrow+Airs+DC%2D8+Flight+December+12%2C+1985&maxdoc=6&idx=5. (accessed 09-26-2002).

Magnuson, Ed. "NATION: THE FALL OF THE SCREAMING EAGLES A charter-jet crash kills 248 members of a famed Airborne unit." Time. December 23, 1985; pp 22.

http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Time&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~pathfinder.com~S~time&querydocid=28168329@urn:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Ed+Magnuson%2E+Reported+by+Peter+Stoler%2FGander%2C+with+other+bureaus&title=NATION%3A+THE+FALL+OF+THE+SCREAMING+EAGLES+A+charter%2Djet+crash+kills+248+members+of+a+famed+Airborne+unit++&date=12%2D23%2D1985&query=gander+crash&maxdoc=8&idx=6. (accessed 09-26-2002).
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Cocoa the Cacao Tree Theobroma Cacao What

Words: 10319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61772106

Cocoa

THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)

WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?

MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE

State of the At of Cocoa

Is Cocoa good fo you?

Buden of Poof

CHOCOLATE AS A FAT

EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS

WHAT IS OK

CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE

Chocolate Caving

F. Migaine

G. Toxicity

H. Immune Function

Allegy

J. Othe Disodes

K. Behavio

L. Antioxidants

M. Caffeine

N. Dental Caies

O. Migaines

P. Obesity

Seum Cholesteol

K. Heat Health

Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]

references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.

Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.

Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.

Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.

Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
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Environmental Biology

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934326

Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean

The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.

Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.

Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from:  http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .

Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
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Health System in Kuwait

Words: 2905 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44394796

Health System of Kuwait

The Managerial Functioning of Kuwait's Health Care System

General Description of the Kuwait Health System

Kuwait claims to have one of "the most comprehensive health care systems, and one of the most all-encompassing social service systems in the world" (KIO, 2003). This health care system has offered free - or nearly free - services to the entire population of Kuwait for about fifty years.

If a Kuwaiti citizen is sick, that person is cared for at no charge; if a person is in an auto accident, or needs an examination for an emerging skin irritation, health service is provided. Free health service is also extended to veterinary medical care for livestock and animals. If a sheep herder finds one of more of his animals is diseased, veterinarians will provide care for that disease. If a family dog is hit in the road and suffers broken legs,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Isa, Abdulwahab Naser, & Moussa, Mohamed A.A. "Nutritional status of Kuwaiti elementary school children aged 6-10 years: comparison with the NCHS/CDC reference population." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 51 (2000).

Al-Jaralla, Khaled (1996). "History of Medicine in Kuwait." Center of Research

Study of Kuwait. http://hsccwww.kuniv.edu.kw/RESOURCES/history.asp.

American Red Cross (2001). "American Red Cross Responds Quickly to Kuwait
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Roles of a Police Psychologist in an

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32674037

oles of a Police Psychologist in an Investigation

The following paper describes the roles played by a police psychologist in an investigation of a situation in which a former police officer has been killed. The police force constantly takes risks to save the lives and belongings of the people they serve. This force is known for its bravery and courage but when a situation involves the homicide of a former member of their own group, they are faced with extra trouble as their own safety becomes a concern for them. In addition to that, the pressure from media exacerbates the problem for the police force. In this case, the police force needs psychological support which is given to them by a police psychologist.

Introduction

Police offers face severe stress in their day-to-day routine. They risk their lives and their families in order to fulfill the duty assigned to them. Their…… [Read More]

References

CR, V. (2010). Psychological Autopsy -- A Review. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 10 (2), 101 -- 103.

Mayhew, C. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Risks Faced by Police Officers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 1-2.  http://aic.gov.au/documents/E/D/9/%7BED946A67-E4C8-4C46-A294-9B982325EF4D%7Dti196.pdf  [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].

Mitchell, J. (n.d.). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. College Park: University of Maryland. pp. 1-3. www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mitchellCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].

Scrivner, E. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. pp. 1-10.  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/150063NCJRS.pdf  [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].