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After taking the position and working for the World Health Organization, the researcher has been tasked with re-evaluating the current policies outlined in their Position Statement. Also, this position statement in the document is what summarizes the issues that are surrounding the usage of DDT for vector-control reasons.
What types of toxicology data would you need to make this decision?
One of the data used would be the safety data that proves that it is not safe for humans. This information goes onto show that DDT has a low acute toxicity especially when the skin comes in contact with it, but if a human being swallows it, then it becomes is more toxic and must be kept out of the reach of children. On account of the chemical stability of DDT, it gathers in the environment by means food chains and in tissues of wide-open organisms, as well as…
The use of DDT in malaria vector control. (2011, August 21). THE USE OF DDT IN MALARIA VECTOR CONTROL. World Health Organization.
Discussions and studies on the health consequences of DDT use have focused around reducing infant illness and death from vector control. "In laboratory experiments, effects of DDT include hepatic and central nervous system toxicity, estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, and possible carcinogenicity" (Chen and ogan, 2003). Some evidence has suggested that DDT exposure increases the risk of preterm delivery and shortens the length of lactation. If this evidence holds true then these conditions could increase the rate of infant deaths and thus void any benefits on mortality rates from a reduction in malaria. In a study conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Studies, it was found that the association between DDT exposure and infant illness and death were causal and the effects were very small compared to the conceivable benefits from vector control (Chen and ogan, 2003).
When doing re-evaluations of DDT, the World Health Organization works hard to…
"The Use of DDT in Malaria Vector Control." (2007). Retrieved April 21, 2009, from World
Health Organization Web site:
"Disposition of Chemical Compounds." (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2009, from Web site:
Toxicology eport: Abandoned Industrial Site
An overview of site conditions
Located about one mile upstream from a residential area, conditions at the site in question are similar to those involved in many abandoned industrial sites across the country where there has been little attention paid to remediating the leftovers from chemical-intensive commercial operations. The site had been in continuous use for the past 6 decades by two different companies and approximately one hundred unmarked 55-gallon drums are buried around the site which carry a strong chemical odor. This is not surprising since the drums in particular are in poor shape and many are rusted out and cracking in places Although the drums are unmarked, it is known that wastes from the previous industrial activities included: (a) PCBs; (b) chromium waste; (c) acrylamide; and (d) toluene diisocyanate (TDI). In addition, a stream that is favored for fishing meanders through the site…
Acrylamide consumer fact sheet. (2012). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/historical/upload/Archived -
Butrica, A.J. & Douglas, D.G. (1990). Out of thin air: A history of Air Products and Chemicals,
Inc., 1940-1990. New York: Praeger Publishers.
We have identified the hazards as PCBs and hexavalent chromium, both of which are classified as potential carcinogens and which may also cause acute and/or chronic health problems in humans. An exposure assessment has revealed that ingestion is likely to be the main exposure point of entry for PCBs, whereas inhalation is likely to be the main point of entry for exposure to hexavalent chromium. The risks are characterized as high, and therefore all the following recommendations should be implemented immediately.
An immediate ban on fishing in the local stream will be necessary, because "PCBs have been detected in food; they bioaccumulate through the food chain, with some of the highest concentrations found in fish," (EPA 2007). Prominent signs and physical barriers will be posted to prevent fishing in the stream, and discourage consumption of any fish that had been previously caught and subsequently frozen. The stream water and…
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). ToxFAQs ™ for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Retrieved online: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=140&tid=26
Allport, D.C., Gilbert, D.S. & Outterside, S.M. (2003). MDI and TDI: A safety, health and the environment. John Wiley and Sons.
Iyengar, M. (2005). Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Retrieved online: http://www.ph.ucla.edu/ehs/student%20hazards/PCB.pdf
National Cancer Institute (2008). Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk. Retrieved online: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/acrylamide-in-food
Toxicology of Bisphenol A
Health - Safety
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
The use of plastic in modern cultures is so ever-present it is almost invisible. Consumers trust manufacturers and distributors to sell products that are generally safe to the public. Bisphenol A is a synthetic estrogen that has been in existence for more than 100 years. It is a chemical that causes harmful effects to both humans and animals. This is a chemical that is found in baby bottles. The issue is sensitive because many countries are heavily dependent on plastic for numerous functions. This is also a sensitive issue because of the population that is specifically at risk -- infants. The paper will outline the general debate concerning the proliferation and unintended consumption of this chemical. The reader will gain a context on the issue from several sources. After analyzing the…
Aschberger, K., Castello, P., Hoekstra, E., Karakitsios, S., Munn, S., Palakin, S., & Sarigiannis. (2010) "Bisphenol A and baby bottles: challenges and perspectives." Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Luxembourg, 1 -- 57.
Case, F. (2008) "Bisphenol A and the baby bottle debate." Royal Society of Chemistry, Web.
Vandenberg, L.N., Hauser, R., Marcus, M., Olea, N., & Welshons, W.V. (2007) "Human Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA)." Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 1 -- 86.
Maryland Public Interest Research Group (2011) "Baby's Toxic Bottle: Bisphenol A -- A Leaching from Popular Baby Bottles." Web.
For instance iron and manganese oxides particulate substances or, could in addition precipitate outside solution with carbonate or sulphide (Prosi, 1989). Sediments, thus, acts like significant course of exposure to lead for marine plants and animals. The likely or probable effect levels abbreviated as PEL may be employed in assessing the extent with which undesirable biological impacts are liable to happen due to exposure to lead in sediments.
Describe pathways for Lead that can affect humans, and aquatic organisms. Are there key chemical transformations that affect the degree of impact? What are they?
The undesirable biological impacts for lead in BEDS consist of augmented transience, reduced benthic invertebrate profusion and assortment. It also results in anomalous growth. For example, in Toronto Harbour, Ontario, Jaagumagi and Lomas (1989) viewed an elevated profusion of amphipods at locations in which the average concentration of lead in the dregs was ten point eight mg…
Berard, M.T. (2005). PVC handbook. Munchen: Hanser.
Jaagumagi, R.D. P & Lomas, T.(1989). The in-place pollutants program, Volume V,
Part a. A synthesis of benthic invertebrate studies. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Water Resources
Branch, Aquatic Biology Section, Toronto
Science of Forensic Toxicology
Prior to modern medicine and the advent of forensic toxicological sciences, death from intentional poisoning was often indistinguishable from natural causes.
Consequently, poisoning with toxic substances was a preferred form of murder throughout human history until relatively recently. Arsenic, in particular, was used so often as a method of murdering wealthy elderly relatives, that it was sometimes known as "inheritance powder."
Prior to the nineteenth century, it was virtually impossible to establish poisoning as the cause of death, even where it was strongly suspected, owing to the unavailability of any scientific means of conclusively identifying specific poisons in bodily tissues. y 1787, Johann Daniel Metzger demonstrated a method of identifying the presence of arsenic within food, but it was another two decades before method was first devised for identifying the poison within bodily organs and tissues.
Initially, it was the work of two scientists who improved…
1. Barret, Sylvia. The Arsenic Milkshake. Toronto: Doubleday (1994)
2. Evans, Colin. The Casebook of Forensic Detection.
New York: Wiley (1996)
3. Mega Links in Criminal Justice Website. Forensic Toxicology.
EPA Process Evaluation
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities of electricity, transportation, and industry that accounted for 84% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activity in 2010 (Greenhouse Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Emissions). CO2 has a natural presence through the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals. Human activity is altering the carbon cycle by influencing the ability of natural sinks, such as forests, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. ecause of this situation, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) takes measures by testing processes and public policies to reduce the influence of the human activity in reduction of the CO2 in the atmosphere.
The toxicity assessment is the tool EPA uses to determine what levels are dangerous or could cause harm to the environment or human health. The basic objective of the toxicity assessment is to identify adverse effects of a chemical and how…
Greenhouse Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Emissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from EPA: http://www.epa.gov /climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html
Press, A. (2012, Dec 14). It Begins: EPA imposes controversial new rul on soot pollution. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/12/14/epa-imposes-new-rule-on-soot-pollution
Toxicity Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved from EPA: http://epa.gov/region8/r8risk/hh_toxicity.html
History in forensic science is referred to as application of science into law. The process came at a time when crime needed to be solved using sophisticated means, and institutions needed innovations in the field of science. Many techniques were adopted to determine level of toxins in people’s blood or fluids. It has helped identify harmful toxins that would otherwise not have been discovered. Toxicology testing refers to the methods used to determine toxic levels in samples. The process of toxicology testing includes collecting samples, testing the samples by use of special methods like chromatography, analyzing results and finally generating a toxicology report.
The process that leads up to the report is an important aspect for accurate results. This happens to be a highly sensitive area, so maximum cleanliness is required and sterilized materials need to be used. This form of testing is commonly used in police stations…
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom
Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…
Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.
Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,
TX: LFB Scholarly.
Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A continuous…
Muetterties M, O'Halloran Schwarz L, Wang R. Sandblasters. In: Greenberg M, editor. Occupational, Industrial, and Environmental Toxicology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2003.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. Publication No. 2003-111; Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2003.
Cassel SL, Eisenbarth SC, Iyer SS, et al. (June 2008). "The Nalp3 inflammasome is essential for the development of silicosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (26): 9035.
Rees D, and Murray J. Silica, silicosis and tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2007; 11: 474 -- 84.
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic which was most often utilized in products such as baby bottles. This was because the BPA plastic is strong and easily-sterilized. Products like baby bottles require lots of use and quite a bit of abuse, such as being thrown around by a small child. Consequently, it proved useful to consumers because they would not have to replace the product regularly. BPA is also used in eyeglass lenses, medical materials, water bottles, CDs and DVDs, cellular telephones, computers, electronics, household appliances, safety shields, sporting equipment, and cars (Bisphenol A). This material is used in many products and consequently is an important factor in the manufacturing of other consumer products. However, there has been a debate in recent years about whether or…
Baker, Nana (2008). The Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things
Threatens our Health and Well-Being. New York: North Point Press.
"Bisphenol A (BPA)" (2010). FDA. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov /newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm
"Bisphenol A: Information Sheet" (2002). Bisphenol A Global Industry Group.
On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:
Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward ichardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer ichardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him,…
Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011
Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
Healthcare Quality Management
PDCA Modeling in Healthcare
Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with behavioral crisis intervention. The purpose of this exercise is to help staff improve understanding and coping with nonmedical emergencies that occur in medical settings using the PDCA cycle.
X is a 41-year-old male admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of possible stroke. The patient is ambulatory, 5'10," and 350 lbs. Mr. X presented to the emergency department the day before after apparently losing consciousness at home. The initial CAT scan of his head was negative. It is suspected that Mr. X may be an IV drug user since his urine toxicology screening came back positive for opiates. The medical staff thinks that Mr. X had a seizure prior to admission, but he has shown no abnormal signs…
Bennet, L., & Slavin, L. (2009, April 3). What Every Health Care Manager Needs to Know. Retrieved from Continous Quality Improvement: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/CQI.htm
i Six Sigma. (N.d.). Focus - PDCA. Retrieved from I Six Sigma: http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/focus-pdca/
Pestka, E., Hatterberg, D., Larson, L., Zwygart, L., Cox, A., & Cox, D. (2012). Enhancing Safety in Behavioral Emergency Situations. Medsurg Nursing, 335-341.
The first is that some nanotoxicological effects are the direct result of new nanotechnologies: There is a strong ethical argument that can be made that as humans develop new technologies we must also -- and as simultaneously as possible -- develop strategies to counter any detrimental effects of the new technologies. (This is a corollary of the second lesson of global warming.) This could also be seen as a sort of corollary of the Hippocratic Oath: If at first you can do no harm than as quickly as possible move to fix the harm that we as humans have caused.
ut there is another aspect of nanotoxicology that fascinates a number of job seekers, which is the fact that nanoparticles act in ways that cannot be easily predicted from larger particles. This makes nanotoxicology in many ways a complex new that needs a number of different types of workers in…
Bainbridge, William and Mihail Roco (Eds.) Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologies in Society. New York, Springer, 2006.
Barhard, Amanda. "Nanohazards: Knowledge Is Our First Defense." Nature Materials 5, pp. 245-8.
Berger, Michael. Toxicology - from coal mines to nanotechnology, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1382.php
Environmentalists are worried about the possible risk associated with Nanosilver,
Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan
BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274
Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)
6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…
16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
Chemistry and Recreational Drugs
The objective of this study is to examine chemistry as it relates to recreational drugs. Toward this end, this study will review literature in this area of inquiry and report on the same.
Recreational drugs refer to drugs such as marijuana, methamphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine, and other such drugs. The chemistry of each of these recreational drugs is unique and each cause specific effects to the individual taking these drugs. The top five recreational drug chemists include: (1) Raphael Mechoulam known as the king of cannaboid research and to have identified delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an active ingredient of Cannabis Sativa in 1964; (2) Albert Hofmann -- famous for LSD research; (3) Charles Romley Alder Wright -- lecturer on chemistry at St. Mary's hospital Medical School in London who synthesized heroin in 1875 in his search for a non-addictive alternative to morphine; (4) Anton Kollisch who synthesized MDMA in…
Hill, SL and Thomas SH (2011) Clinical toxicology of newer recreational drugs. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011 Oct;49(8):705-19. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21970769
Klein, B. (2011) Lawmakers Can't Keep Up with Chemists Developing Recreational Drugs. 31 May 2012. Wired Science. Retrieved from: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-05/31/war-on-drugs
Methamphetamine (nd) Shelbyville Police Department. Retrieved from: http://www.shelbyvillepd.com/meth.htm
Top 5 Recreational Drug Chemists (2007) A Synthetic Environment. Retrieved from: http://syntheticenvironment.blogspot.com/2007/03/top-5-recreational-drug-chemists.html
Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.
Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.
Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…
Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.
"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .
Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .
Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).
The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in…
Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law. http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm
Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm
Prosecutors feel the CSI Effect. February 10, 2005. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/10/eveningnews/main670360.shtml
Rincon, P. (2005). CSI shows give "unrealistic view." BBC News. Retrieved August 13 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4284335.stm
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.
Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.
Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
People wok had to lose pounds fom thei abs, with the pesistence to make evey step geat and had objective to lose few pounds each time they execise. In fact, some of the encouagements ae not moe than umos. Scientists evealed tuths and oppotunities in the aticle, aiming to give eachable goals and simple methods to bun fat.
Accumulating body fat could be elated to pesonality inetness and high fatty food intake fo yeas, theefoe it is impotant that people incease thei awaeness to educe fatty components in thei diets fo egula basis, while at the same time incease active body movement fom daily activities and mild execises.
The aticle explained, while a numbe of people misundestood that cutting fat intake and aising execise fequency gow linea with body fat loss, in eality, half of the points may need second thought. Thee ae many factos contibuting to obesity.
Meyer, M. (1999). The Truth About Losing Body Fat. Better Homes and Gardens. Mar. 1999
Common Mistake That Prevents Most People from Losing Weight and How to Avoid It. Better Nutrition. May, 2003. Primamedia Intertec.
Bemben, M.G. (1998) Age-Related Variability in Body Composition Methods For Assessment of Percent Fat and Fat-Free Mass in Men Aged 20-74 Years. Age and Ageing.
Health and Ecological Effects of Turf Fields
These are a recent type of synthetic turf, covered by a grass-like ground that strongly resembles natural grass in looks and function (STC 2015). They are said to function this way on a year-round basis in all weathers and for prolonged use without need for recovery. ecause it is synthetic, it is offered as a suitable solution and replacement for worn-out playing fields. At the same time, it does not need water or fertilizer as much as its natural counterpart. It is also available in different attractive styles, which match the locality (STC).
Sellers of artificial turf fields argue that natural grass fields cannot remain fresh and resilient if used for more than three to four days in a week, under the rain or when grass does not naturally grow (STC 2015). The low maintenance and water needs of a huge turf…
Cheng, H. et al. Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: a Review. Vol. 48
number 4, Environmental Science and Technology, 2014. Retrieved on November 4, 2015
Ginsberg, G. et al. Human Health Risk Assessment of Synthetic Turf Fields, Based upon
The safety, or lack thereof, of genetically modified foods is subject to considerable debate in the public sphere. In order to render a reasonable opinion on the subject of feeding GMO foods to my children, I would want to defer to the best available science, and add a dash of reason. The first thing that would need to be established is the methodology by which one assesses the concept of safety. Clearly, there are no safety issues in the sense of GMO foods being poison (i.e. having immediate negative health effects). The question of GMO safety therefore is more a question of long-term impacts on human health.
A major study on the safety of genetically modified foods determined that, based on the traditional human food consumption patterns, there are no safety issues with the consumption of plant-based GMO foods (Konig et al, 2004). Further studies have examined the…
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
Spiegel & Velga (2010) report that a new international effort is underway to regulate the diffusion of mercury into the environments contextualizing mining operations. According to Spiegel & Velga, the world community has recently developed a set of International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-Scale Gold Mining. As Spiegel & Velga report, "commissioned by the United Nations Global Mercury Project, the purpose of the guidelines is to assist policymakers, practitioners, researchers, miners and the public in developing strategies for reducing mercury use, eliminating major pollution point sources and reducing risks." (p. 375)
This points to the worldwide interests that are implicated by the current conflict between miners and environmental advocates in Colombia, which over the course of the country's gold-mining boom, has become a template-setter for how national and world governments must balance mounting economic opportunity with the threat of environmental destruction.
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle,…
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle, a First in Eco Gold. The Independent.
Angenent, M. (2010). Artisanal Gold Mining in Colombia Co-Creating a Sustainable Future. Fair Jewelry Action.
Associated Press (AP). (2010). Colombia Shuts 18 Gold Mines. Straits Times.
Colombian Solidarity Campaign (CSC). (2007). Gold Mining in Colombia; Cauca Assembly in Resistance. Colombia Solidarity.
Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).
Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for…
Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20
October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>
"CSR Building Materials Rockwool Insulation," 2008, viewed 20 October 2010,
Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals (Small, 2009). There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building. These include: cleanliness, thermal comfort, ventilation and air quality, lighting, noise, outside awareness and furniture (Hubbard, ice and Beamish, 2008).
The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed. A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority…
Document Helps Implement Green Building Codes. (2009). Professional Safety. 54(11), p18.
Garde, Ajay. (2009). Sustainable by Design?: Insights From U.S. LEED-ND Pilot Projects.
Journal of the American Planning Association. 75(4), p424-440.
Hubbard, G. Rice, J. And Beamish, P. (2008). Strategic Management: Thinking, Analysis and Action (3rd ed), Australia: Pearson Education.
Additionally, the water intake near Chelsea may be used, at times, to supplement New York City's water supply, during times of drought. The Town of Waterford and the Town of Halfmoon both get their muncipal water supply from the Upper Hudson iver ("Hudson iver PCBs," 2008).
GE's Involvement in the Build Up of PCBs in the Hudson iver
From 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson iver, polluting 197 miles of the river and creating America's largest Superfund site. Two of GE's facilities, one at Hudson Falls and one at Fort Edward are reported to be the source of the pollution. As Angelo (2009) notes, PCBs were used as high-temperature insulators in the manufacturing process of transformers and capacitors, at the GE facilities. Even today, more than three decades later, PCBs still leak into the river from GE's…
Angelo, W. (25 Feb 2008) Hudson River PCB cleanup projects under construction. Engineering News Record, 260(7). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
(1 Jun 2009). PCB remediation work starts in the Hudson River. Engineering News Record, 262(17). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
Historic Hudson River cleanup to begin after years of delay, but will General Electric finish the job? (23 Mar 2007). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/hhudson.asp .
Hudson River PCBs. (31 Dec 2008). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.epa.gov /region02/superfund/npl/0202229c.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" (Ware, 35) The PHB is a high weight polymer that is used for energy storage and carbon storage by a large number of microorganisms. PHB is synthesized and degraded by a lot of organisms and is said to be the most economic alternative to petrochemical plastics. The commercial production of PHB is on and in the brand name Bipol. The attractive feature is that the polymer degrades into carbon dioxide and water without harmful residues. PHAs are biosynthesized polyesters and are thermoplastics thus can be melted and molded and ideal for consumer products. There are over ninety varieties of hydroxyalkanotic acids that are the constituent of the monomer constituents of biosynthetic PHA. (Ware, 35)
Plastic waste is a problem of great magnitude. ecycling the waste is found to be the better solution. In the actual consideration we have to divide the plastic waste into many categories and decide…
Azapagic, Adisa; Emsley, Alan; Hamerton, Ian. Polymers: the environment and sustainable development. John Wiley and Sons, 2003.
Mantia, Francesco Paolo La. Recycling of PVC and mixed plastic waste.
ChemTec Publishing, 1996.
Martin, L. Plastic bags evil? Think again, some scientists say.
The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)
It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and…
Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs - A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.
Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future -- Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 -- 647.
This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National esearch Council (U.S.), 1)
According to a 1976 EDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at ichland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists.…
Brown, Lester R; Earth Policy Institute. Eco-Economy.
Cember, Herman. Introduction to Health Physics.
McGraw-Hill Professional, 1996.
This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.
Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly…
Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.
Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.
Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.
Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
Ruth E. Mathias and a.E. Benjamin (2003) report that social workers are becoming increasingly concerned about elder abuse in long-term care settings (p. 174). A study conducted by these social scientists/authors, reveals that Medicaid related agency care demonstrates no harmful or increase in the abuse suffered by elderly people receiving care through private agencies, but that there is little social worker oversight, and because of that, reports and information supporting that fact can be misleading at this point in time (p. 174). Mathias and Benjamin reported, too, that direct care provided by family members was proven to be less abusive to the elderly than services rendered by state and private providers (p. 174).
The most concentrated areas of consumer complaints reported was the difficulty in scheduling services, language barriers, and high care-giver/assistant turnover (p. 174). These are areas of concern, because the elderly are often suffering levels of dementia that…
Litwin, H., & Zoabi, S. (2004). A Multivariate Examination of Explanations for the Occurrence of Elder Abuse. Social Work Research, 28(3), 133+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007316778
Matthias, R.E., & Benjamin, a. (2003). Abuse and Neglect of Clients in Agency-Based and Consumer-Directed Home Care. Health and Social Work, 28(3), 174+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001999500
Thorslund, M., & Parker, M.G. (1994). Elder Care in the Priorities Discussion. The Hastings Center Report, 24(5), 29+. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002212664
In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy rewer. alko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. ut professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. ut these continuing scandals suggest another,…
Danger to Society: Fooling the Jury with Phony Experts (nd) Chapter Three. State of Texas Law Review.
Bite Mark Evidence Dispute in Murder Cases (2008) CNN.com Crime. 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/29/bite.marks.ap/
Bowers, C. Michael and Johansen, Raymond J. (2001) Digital Rectification and Resizing Correction of Photographic Bite Mark Evidence. Forensic Science Communications. July 2001. Vol. 3 No. 3. Online available at;
This engages a calm and quiet, however from time to time overjoyed state of mind. At high dosages, it can cause illusions. The consequences last from two to four hours after the drug is used and it mostly leaves the user of the marijuana in a calm condition for more than a few hours after getting high. One of the main invigorating properties is that temporary memory is reserved for the period of the high. Opinions may seem indistinct and it might be hard for a user to deliberate on rational difficult ideas like arithmetic. Long-standing causes have been disputed for several years. There are alleges of a motivational condition where the users marijuana are said to depart from civilization and lose their objective. (uckley, William F., 1997).
Conclusion whether cannabis usage effects enduring physical or psychological alterations in its users is still under question. The most solemn distress is…
Cabral, G. et al. Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and Protein Expression. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1991.
Cohen, S. Therapeutic Aspects. Marijuana Research Findings: 1980. NIDA Research Monograph 31. 1980.
Winters, T.H., Franza, J.R. Radioactivity in Cigarette Smoke. NEJM. 1982.
Buckley, William F., Jr. Marijuana Myths/Marijuana Facts. National Review. 1997.
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998
Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
Since radon is a widely known and established carcinogen, researchers have found it important to investigate the biological risks associated with exposure. Catelinois et al. (2006) sought to assess the lung cancer risk in France due to the inhalation of radon. In particular, these researchers examined exposure-response results of both studies involving miners as well as case control studies, and furthermore investigated the interaction between radon and tobacco. The results of this study indicated that the estimated number of deaths due to lung cancer that could be attributed to radon exposure ranged from 543 to 3108 with a 90% uncertainty level. The specific number of deaths was dependent on the particular model being adhered to. From this number, the researchers suggested that 2.2% to 12.4% of these lung cancer deaths may actually be due to indoor radon exposure (Catelinois et al. 2006).
Since exposure to radon is widely considered to…
Breier, R., Bohm, R., Kopani, M. "Simulation of radiation damage to lung cells after exposure to radon decay products." Neuro Endocrinology Letters 27.2 (2006): 86-90.
Catelinois, O., Rogel, a., Laurier, D., Billon, S., Hemon, D., Verger, P., Tirmarche, M. "Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France: impact of the risk models and uncertainty analysis." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.9 (2006): 1361-6.
Lubin, J.H., Boice, J.D. Jr. "Lung cancer risk from residential radon: meta analysis of eight epidemiologic studies." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89.1 (1997): 49-57.
Samet, J.M. "Residential radon and lung cancer: end of the story?" Journal of Toxicology and Health. Part a 69.7 (2006): 527-31.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.
Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…
Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.
CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.
atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.
In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…
Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.
Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html .
Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com .
Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce
The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as…
1. Ben GS, Hashim Z, Hamzah R. Occupational heat stress of workers in a plastic industry,
Selangor. J of Occupational Health 2009; 1(2):56-63.
2. Chen M, Chen C, Yeh W, Huang J, Mao I. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J. 2003; 64(3):352-359.
3. Bates GP, Miller VS, Joubert DM. Hydration status of expatriate manual workers during summer in the Middle East. Ann. Occupational Hygiene 2009; 54(2):137-143.
Animal Advocacy Organizations
There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.
PETA & ASPCA
The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).
PETA was founded in 1980, and their…
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize
Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org .
Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.
CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…
Addario, Frank. (2008). Nasty Criminal Law Will Achieve Nothing for Public Safety.
Criminal Lawyer's Association. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.criminallawyers.ca .
Bill C-2. (2007). An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to Make Consequential Amendments
To Other Acts. Parliament of Canada. Virtual Library. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.parl.gc.ca .
The Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines 'race' as not "scientific or anthropological" rather consisting of "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry" using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference" (American Anthropological Association, 1997 )
Possible quality management issues that may arise are that since people are in essence individuals and characterized by a plethora of both experiential as well as biological, sociological, historical, environmental, and so forth features, race may have little determination in the way that they act and respond to situations. An individual from one race, for instance, may have happened to have been born in that race but may look and act according to the stereotypical characteristics of another. When the concept of race is used strictly to record the quantity of people who were born to a certain category, this may not be problematic. However, when…
American Anthropological Association. (1997 ) "A Brief History of the OMB Directive 15." http://www.aaanet.org/gvt/ombdraft.htm
Banton, M. The Idiom of Race in Black, Les & John Solomos, 2009. Theories of Race and Racism, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).
PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…
BrighterEnergy.org. SunPower offers solar modules boasting 19% efficiency. 3 May 2010. Web. 20 October 2011.
Chen, Hong Wen. "Exposure and Health Risk of Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry Workers." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2007): 5-9.
Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). Home. n.d. Web. 20 October 2011.
Edelman, Philip. "Environmental and Workplace Contamination in the Semiconductor Industry: Implications for Future Health of the Workforce and Community." Environmental Health Perspectives 86 (1990): 291-295.
From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.
As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…
MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.
Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.
Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.
Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.
pneumothorax.We identify the two main types of Pneumothorax with its causes and possible treatments. We also analyze a case study involving a 33-year fruit vegetable merchant, who, while delivering merchandise a mini supermarket developed chest pain difficulty breathing. And then subsequently admitted to casualty and diagnosed with pneumothorax.
Pneumothorax which is defined by Light (1995) as the unprecedented entry of air into an individual's pleural space is a serious ailment. Its pathophysiology described by Combulsier in 1747 (Mohebbi and ad, 2007). This was after realizing that the noted reduction in the pulmonary function was as a result of lung compression caused by air present in the pleural space as outlined by Sadiron et al., (1997).
Types and causes of Pneumothorax
This type of pneumothorax is caused by the presence of air within a victim's pleural space. It is a consequence of a blunt or a penetrating trauma with…
Al-Tarshihi, MI, Khamash, FA, Al Ibrahim, AEO (2008). Thoracostomy tube complications and pitfalls: an experience at a tertiary level military hospital http://www.rmj.org.pk/ram_july_dec_08/original_articles/thoracostomy_tube_complications/pdf.pdf
American Thoracic Society (2004). Chest Tube Thoracostomy.
Gupta, D., Hansell, A. And Nichols, T. et al. 2000. Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England.
Toxins Cause Autism?
The Jury is Still Out
Nicholas Kristoff's writes about the issue of environmental toxins and autism, and the link between exposure to these toxins and the rise in autism spectrum disorders. Autism comprises a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders -- collectively referred to as "autism spectrum disorders" (ASD) -- that share common features of impaired social relationships, impaired language and communication, and repetitive behaviors or a narrow range of interests. Autism has a current prevalence of 1% in children.
Kristoff explores the relationship between toxins and autism by referring to expert opinion; that is, public health officials who have found epidemiological links between exposure to such harmful substances as mercury, lead, and thalidomide and neurodevelopmental disorders. Kristoff cites studies in which researchers "have found that disproportionate shares of children develop autism after they are exposed in the womb to medications such as thalidomide (a sedative), misoprostol (ulcer…
Barbaresi WJ, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, and SK Katusic. "The incidence of clinically diagnosed vs. research identified autism in Olmsted county, Minnesota, 1976-
1997: results from a retrospective, population-based study." J. Autism Dev Disord 39 (2009): 464 -- 470.
DeSoto, Mary Catherine and Robert T. Hitlan. "Sorting out the spinning of autism: heavy metals and the question of incidence." Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 70 (2010): 165-176.
Heron J, Golding J, and ALSPAC Study Team (2004) "Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom does not support a causal association." Pediatrics 114 (2004): 577 -- 83.
A Comparison of Methods for Toxin Exposure Measurement: Personal Exposure v Colorimetric Tubes
Several incidents in the past decade have created an increased attention to the issue of toxin exposure level measurements in both the public sphere and amongst security and emergency response agencies. The need to accurately measure the presence of a variety of air-borne and other toxic substances in specific environments in an incredibly rapid manner can be an issue of truly vital importance in emergency situations, and the measuring of exposure levels for certain individuals -- especially first responders and other emergency response personnel -- is also key to an effective yet careful management of events involving the release of toxic substances. This has led to increasing research in the area of toxicity measurements, and an investigation of the best practices for rapidly and accurately measuring exposure.
This paper will present a brief overview of…
Dodson, R., Perovich, L., Nishioka, M., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J. & Rudel, R. (2011). Long-term Integrated Sampling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: Measurement of Emerging Compounds Using Novel Active and Passive Sampling Methods. Epidemiology 22(1): 160-78.
Feng, L., Musto, C., Kemling, J. Lim, S. & Suslick, K. (2010). A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chemical Communication 46: 2037-9.
Hewitt, D. & Gandy, J. (2009). Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52(7): 579-86.
Hughes, S., Blake, B., Woods, S. & Lehmann, C. (2007). False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis in neonatal resuscitation: potential for serious patient harm: False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis. Journal of Perinatology 27: 800-1.
West (1997) stated that clinicians, researchers, policy makers and others who work in the area of addiction, with addicts or who have to deal with the consequences of addiction, cannot easily ignore the strong ethical dimension to the problem. Ethics is concerned with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. It is concerned with how we should live, as individuals and societies, what is right and wrong, what is good and bad and what is just and unjust. The bases on which such judgments can be made have been subject to systematic enquiry since before the time of Plato. Utilitarianism is perhaps the strongest thread running through the analysis of ethical and policy decisions in the field of addiction.
(Weissman, 1997) reported the following findings regarding tobacco companies and their advertising, He reported that the tobacco companies are expected to meet…
Pollack, H., Lantz, P.M., & Frohna, J.G. (2000, March). Maternal Smoking and adverse birth outcomes among singletons and twins. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 395-400.
Schwartz-Bickenbach, D., Schulte-Hobein, B., Abt, S., Plum, C., & Nau, H. (1987, January). Smoking and passive smoking during pregnancy and early infancy: effects on birth weight, lactation period, and continue concentrations in mother's milk and infant's urine.. Toxicology Letter, 35(1), 73-81.
Weissman, R. (1997, July/August). The Great Tobacco Bailout. Multinational Monitor, 18(7/8), 9-18.
West, R. (1997, September). Addiction, Ethics and Public Policy. Addiction, 92(9), 1061-1071.
In the same year, the founders started a new company for computer development called the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. By 1949, this company launched the BINAC or Binary Automatic computer. This computer made use of magnetic tape for the storage of data. Then this company was bought by emington and Corporation and the name was changed to Univac Division of emington and. This company was the organization to bring out UNIVAC which is one of the originals of the type of computers that are used today. (Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly)
1951 - UNIVAC begins to take over the business industries market:
Presper Eckert and John Mauchly set up their company and found their first client in the United States Census Bureau. The population of United States was growing very fast due to the baby boom that was taking place…
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Atanasoff-Berry Computer the First
Electronic Computer - John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry." Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050898.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The ENIAC I Computer - J Presper Eckert and John Mauchly" Retrieved at http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa060298.htm . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Bellis, Mary. "Inventors of the Modern Computer: The Harvard MARK I Computer - Howard
Contract production will allow favorable pricing of both ingredients and finished product. Sampling will allow for marketing controls and for targeting national and export markets. The product will meet the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), European Union, and other specific certification requirements, so may be exported. The Internet will be considered as a target for purchases, but will mainly be used for advertising the product. Mapco stores will be the exclusive client of this product, and will be the outlet to other organic health food agencies that may elect to sponsor sales of this product, as well.
The increased product range will depend upon acceptance by Mapco clientele and consumers, with sampling in other areas and acceptance in the health food market.
Success in product marketing starts by finding the point of difference - the cluster of strengths and selling points that are unique to this product alone.…
Born, subject=Marketing%20Organic%20Grains" Holly, 2005, Marketing organic grains, subject=Blueberries:%20Organic%20Production" NCAT Agriculture, ATTRA Publication #CT154
FAO, 2006, Essential Nutrients - Vitamins, [Online] Available at www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AB470E/AB470E05.htm
FDA, October 29, 2004, Pasteurized Juice Warning by FDA, FDA Talk Paper, [Online] Available at http://www.fda.gov /bbs/topics/ANSWERS/2004/ANS01321.html
In a jam and out of juice (2000) [Online] Available at http://www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk/ncbe/protocols/inajam/pdf/jam01.pdf.
If there is disulfiram in the patient's system, it takes about 5-10 minutes for the effects of the drug to form the outward symptoms of a severe hangover. These symptoms last from 30 minutes to several hours, and may include flushing, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, throbbing headaches, mental confusion and even circulatory collapse. There is no known tolerance to the drug, the longer it is taken, the stronger the effects. Because of its molecular make up, it is absorbed slowly through the digestive tract with the effects lasting up to two weeks after the initial doses. This makes the issue of informed consent very important for this substance (Wright and Moore).
The efficacy of the drug is debatable. On one hand, the biological and chemical effects of are proven. One study showed that there is about a 50% compliance rate in a supervised atmosphere,…
Chemical Summary for Acetaldehyde. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Web.
Disulfiram. Drugs.com. Drug Information Online. 2011, Web.
Nakamura, K., et.al. Acetaldehyde Adducts in the Brain of Alcoholics. Archives of Toxicology. 77 (10): 591-3. 2004. Print.
Perry, L. Biology of a Hangover: Acetaldehyde. How Stuff Works. 2011. Web.
H.B. Fuller in Honduras: Street Children and Substance Abuse
The discussion of ethics in business is one that continues to receive increased attention in today's society, especially in viewing the ever-increasing technological business facets that exist in today's business environment. With the increased transparency of the internet age, as well as growing emphasis on a connected, global economy, the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is one that has risen to the forefront in the minds of many business owners and stakeholders, alike. Ethical issues in the business world occur quite frequently in the business world today, and certain courses of action must be taken in order to ensure that a business fulfills its duties, not only to itself but to its stakeholders, in undertaking a course of action on such ethical dilemmas. In these situations, each step -- or misstep -- can alter the future of a company forever,…
B and T. Lymphocytes
The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them
The Biology of B. Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…
Austyn, J., M. And Wood, J., K. (1994). Principles of Cellular and Molecular Immunology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Beltman, J., B., Maree, A. & Boer, R. (2007), Spatial modelling of brief and long interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, Australian Society for Immunology, Pp. 1-9, Retrieved October 14, 2012.
House, B., R. & Descotes, J. (2010), Cytokines in Human Health: Immunotoxicology, Pathology,
and Therapeutic Applications (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology), New
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers
This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.
It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…
Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners
Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.
Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.
(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press