Toxicology Essays Examples

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Forensic Toxicologist

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89546765

Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom

Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before the forum.' The term has practically become synonymous with the field of forensic science" (p. 4). In essence, forensic toxicology concerns the effects of drugs and poisons on the human body (Anderson & Volker, 2008). This point is also made by Buker (2012) who reports, "In cooperation with forensic pathologists,…… [Read More]

References:
Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.

SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.
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Silicosis Is a Possibly Deadly

Words: 2245 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34993030

Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A continuous manufacturing of fibrotic elements appears to add to the advancement of silicotic sores by sponsoring kind II pneumocytes and fibroblasts that produce huge quantities of fibronectin and collagen. Scar cells outcomes, and the lung architecture then ends up being permanently changed. Lab therapy of mice with an antibody to TNF-…… [Read More]

Sources:
Muetterties M, O'Halloran Schwarz L, Wang R. Sandblasters. In: Greenberg M, editor. Occupational, Industrial, and Environmental Toxicology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2003.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. Publication No. 2003-111; Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2003.
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a suspect atmosphere. Because of their small size, fungal emanations present special collection requirements to ensure particle viability for culture-based studies.

Fungi have two basic structures. Yeast grows as single cells by central division of eccentric budding to form daughter units. Most other familiar fungi are composed of branching threads, 3-10…… [Read More]

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Use of Bisphenol a BPA

Words: 786 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97821535

Bisphenol-A

The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic which was most often utilized in products such as baby bottles. This was because the BPA plastic is strong and easily-sterilized. Products like baby bottles require lots of use and quite a bit of abuse, such as being thrown around by a small child. Consequently, it proved useful to consumers because they would not have to replace the product regularly. BPA is also used in eyeglass lenses, medical materials, water bottles, CDs and DVDs, cellular telephones, computers, electronics, household appliances, safety shields, sporting equipment, and cars (Bisphenol A). This material is used in many products and consequently is an important factor in the manufacturing of other consumer products. However, there has been a debate in recent years about whether or not BPA is a hazardous material and should be banned out of concern for public safety.

There are several countries, including Canada and many nations in Europe, that have banned the use of BPA in the sale of certain products like baby bottles for fear of the potential damage to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Baker, Nana (2008). The Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things

Threatens our Health and Well-Being. New York: North Point Press.
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Case Information Police Report

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14026874

Police Report

On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:

Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward Richardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer Richardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him, Johnson had been waiting at a stop light in order to return to the school lot when she had heard a loud noise. She presumed it to be a vehicle backfire or a car crash nearby, but was too preoccupied to pay further attention to the sound.

Officer Richardson informed…… [Read More]

References:
Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011

from http://www.bendbulletin.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070214/NEWS05/702140312/1010
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Healthcare Quality Management Pdca Modeling in Healthcare

Words: 1458 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41430170

Healthcare Quality Management

PDCA Modeling in Healthcare

Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with behavioral crisis intervention. The purpose of this exercise is to help staff improve understanding and coping with nonmedical emergencies that occur in medical settings using the PDCA cycle.

X is a 41-year-old male admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of possible stroke. The patient is ambulatory, 5'10," and 350 lbs. Mr. X presented to the emergency department the day before after apparently losing consciousness at home. The initial CAT scan of his head was negative. It is suspected that Mr. X may be an IV drug user since his urine toxicology screening came back positive for opiates. The medical staff thinks that Mr. X had a seizure prior to admission, but he has shown no abnormal signs or symptoms within the last 24 hours. Mr. X was moved to an acute care unit where he sits in bed wearing only a pair of ill-fitting boxer shorts and no shirt. He is able to communicate without any signs of aphasia. The medical staff is still not sure what…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bennet, L., & Slavin, L. (2009, April 3). What Every Health Care Manager Needs to Know. Retrieved from Continous Quality Improvement: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/CQI.htm

i Six Sigma. (N.d.). Focus - PDCA. Retrieved from I Six Sigma:  http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/focus-pdca/ 
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Big Can Sometimes Be Very

Words: 2895 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52528903

The first is that some nanotoxicological effects are the direct result of new nanotechnologies: There is a strong ethical argument that can be made that as humans develop new technologies we must also -- and as simultaneously as possible -- develop strategies to counter any detrimental effects of the new technologies. (This is a corollary of the second lesson of global warming.) This could also be seen as a sort of corollary of the Hippocratic Oath: If at first you can do no harm than as quickly as possible move to fix the harm that we as humans have caused.

But there is another aspect of nanotoxicology that fascinates a number of job seekers, which is the fact that nanoparticles act in ways that cannot be easily predicted from larger particles. This makes nanotoxicology in many ways a complex new that needs a number of different types of workers in it, including both those with primarily technological skills and those with primarily human relations skills -- as well as, of course, those who are good at both sets of skills.

Nanoparticles seem to have some different properties from larger particles that are known to have pathogenic effects, like asbestos or…… [Read More]

References:
Bainbridge, William and Mihail Roco (Eds.) Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologies in Society. New York, Springer, 2006.

Barhard, Amanda. "Nanohazards: Knowledge Is Our First Defense." Nature Materials 5, pp. 245-8.
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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 197. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of…… [Read More]

Resources:

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
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Animal Testing There Are Individuals

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35644870

By using animals in research, and through animal research science learns how certain chemicals "interact with living systems"; this knowledge can be "translated into protection of humans, animals, and the environment from toxic levels of natural -- as well as man-made -- exposures (SOT, 6).

Legal and professional accountability

In Canada there are Research Ethics Boards (REBs) that have the power to authorize or reject funding for experiments with animals; when animal research proposals do not meet with proper ethical requirements, the REBs can put a halt to the experiments (Tremayne-Lloyd, et al., 2007, p. 56-57). The law in Canada -- which should be imitated in other countries that do not now have laws protecting animals -- allows that an overseeing regulatory agencies like the College of Chiropractors of Ontario (CCO) can "reprimand members and/or suspend or revoke licenses to practice" (Tremayne-Lloyd, 57). Cruelty to animals, assault on animals, or "criminal negligence" can lead to legal ramifications for the organizations conducting research using animals. An "assault" is committed when there has been no legal authorization by an REB and "force is intentionally applied" to an animal (Tremayne-Lloyd, 59). Moreover, section 446 of the Criminal Code in Canada makes it a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. (2008). Animal Research FAQ.

Retrieved April 21, 2012, from http://www.aalas.org.
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Role of Lifestyle Factors in Inducing Cancer

Words: 3777 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72545690

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

Course code

Cancer is one of the leading international causes of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle factors that contribute to causing cancer have been widely studied in recent years. Summarizing relevant studies, lifestyle factors identified include smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, weight management, physical activity, and environmental exposure. These studies use a variety of methodologies to determine the link between the lifestyle factor and risk of cancer. Issues with the methods of these studies can be addressed by future research that attempts to remedy methodological defects while replicating results. Valid and reliable information is essential to using information about lifestyle factors to combat cancer.

Lifestyle Factors Inducing Cancers

As one of the leading causes of mortality in the world, it is estimated that cancers will have killed 10 million people around the globe by 2020 (Haque et al. 2010). In 2009, the American Cancer Society estimated that there were nearly 1.5 million new cancer cases and about 560,000 cancer deaths (Khan, Afaq, and Mukhtar, 2010). Unfortunately, there is no guaranteed form of treatment for cancer and emphasis has been placed on prevention and early detection in order to combat this disease (Haque et al., 2010).

While the precise…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bissonauth, V., Shatenstein, B., Fafard, E., Maugard, C., Robidoux, A., Narod, S., & Ghadirian, P. (2009). Weight History, Smoking, Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Risk among French-Canadian Women Non-Carriers of More Frequent BRCi Mutations. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, 2009, 1-11.

Boniol, M. & Autier, P. (2010). Prevalence of main cancer lifestyle risk factors in Europe in 2000. European Journal of Cancer, 46, 2534-2544.
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New Drug Development and Approval

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49692904

Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.

Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.

Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with each phase increasing in number of test subjects and duration. Phase I verifies safety of the new drug entity; 67% of drugs successfully complete Phase I. Phase II evaluates the drug's effectiveness; 45% of drugs have a Phase II positive outcome. Phase III verifies efficacy and ascertains possible adverse reactions…… [Read More]

References:
Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.

"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. < http://www.fda.gov >.
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Art Imitates Life but the

Words: 4074 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50458139

This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).

The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in recent years (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The article asserts that It's hard to find anyone in law enforcement who can't recite a story of quackery on the stand or in the lab. Forensic practitioners say the popularity of the field may make things even worse, noting that new forensics-degree programs…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law.  http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm 

Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm
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Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and the U.S. In particular? (c)

What interdictions have proven most effective in stemming the flow of drugs into the United States from Mexico? And (d) What further steps need to be implemented to reverse the tide of drugs and violence that continues to threaten Mexican-U.S. security relations? These answers are…… [Read More]

References:
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on human and ecological health. We also have to consider the principle issues of integrity, unity and sovereignty and their role in the research studies (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Even though the social, financial, political and moral issues are interlinked and inter-dependent features, they will be tackled separately in this…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.
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Aetiology and Management of Cancer

Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (Robinson, 2009).

It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy or the complete removal of bladder is done to remove it completely from the system. Though the bladder cancer treatments are effective in most cases, it nevertheless has some side effects such as frequency of urination and severe pain during urination.

In short, bladder cancer is a preventable and treatable…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/

Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
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Mustalahti K et al 2002 Gluten-Free Diet and

Words: 3660 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11032292

Mustalahti, K., et.al. (2002). Gluten-Free Diet and Quality of Life in Patients

With Screen-Detected Celiac Disease. Effective Clinical Practice. 5 (3):

Key areas of research

SPECIFIC DATA ANALYSIS

Overview of celiac disease with a focus on patient consequences and lack of treatment options.

Limited, in this case. Brief overview, but no substantial literature review presented.

Used Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) and Psychological General Well-Being Questionnaire (PGWB) to establish quality of life index.

Analysis of data based on scores from methodological studies. Gluten free diets were associated with improved quality of life.

Over the short-term, a modern gluten free diet with more acceptable offerings and choices will provide an adequate quality of life for most patients.

The authors examined the effects of a gluten-free diet on patients that had "clinically silent -- that is, among people who ingest gluten and feel healthy (or have only minor, nonspecific symptoms) despite having typical gluten-triggered lesions of the small-bowel mucosa" (p. 109). The specific focus of the study was how a gluten free diet would influence the quality of life of patients with silent celiac. Because "psychological general well-being and abdominal discomfort are highly subjective and personal matters that depend, at least in…… [Read More]

Resources:
Losada, M. (2001). Towards a healthier diet for the colon: The influence of fructo-oligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutrition Research. 22 (1): 71-84, Retrieved from: http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317(01)00395-5/abstract

Zeratsky, K. (2010). Is it important to include probiotics and prebiotics in a healthy diet? Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health / probiotics/AN00389
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Pesticides it Has Been Fifty

Words: 1842 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53528360

Gilles mentions, for example, "faulty sprayers, lack of protective equipment adapted to tropical conditions, and nonexistent first-aid provisions" in developing nations (11).

In a Sand County Almanac, Leopold argues that it is time to extend the concept of ethics to the environment. Human attitudes and consciousness related to the environment can and should change. Leopold uses a moral and philosophical argument, whereas Carson uses a more emotional and evidence-based argument. Both these approaches continue to inform sensible domestic and foreign policy related to synthetic pesticide use. Interestingly, many scientists decry programs that minimize pesticide use because of the collusion between science and chemical industries. Chemical industries offer lucrative positions to the world's top scientists. Ames and Gold, for example, make illogical arguments about pesticides. "If reducing synthetic pesticides makes fruits and vegetables more expensive, thereby decreasing consumption, then the cancer rate will increase, especially for the poor," (1041). Ames and Gold fail to see that it is possible to increase healthy food intake among the poor without exposing the poor to toxic chemical pesticides.

A proposal for changing attitudes and perceptions about pesticide use ultimately results in different agricultural practices. There needs to be an evidence-based solution. A solution that…… [Read More]

References:
Ames, B.N. And Gold, L.S. "Environmental pollution, pesticides, and the prevention of cancer: misconceptions." The FASEB Journal. Volume 11, No. 3, p. 1041-1052.

Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, 1962
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Vigabatrin for Treatment of Cocaine

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29574375

These therapies are widely used to overcome patients with drugs problems which include male or female patients. These are psychological and medical treatments to decrease the use of cocaine and sedative drugs in the patient. These include therapies, and use of the medical drugs to reduce the patients impulsive desire to use cocaine regularly. Female patients could not treat in the case of pregnancy positive test results. Patients treated with vigabatrin therapies were reported more positive result compared to other similar available therapies.

Background:

Cocaine is sedative drug which causes brain damage and nervous blockage. Many studies have been done on cocaine addiction, which are very promising these days across different countries of the world. The two widely used treatments are vigabatrin and placebo therapies. These are psychological and medical treatments to decrease the use of cocaine and sedative drugs in the patient. These include therapies, and use of the medical drugs to reduce the patients impulsive desire to use cocaine regularly. These therapies are conducted by psychologists in centers and clinics for several weeks, which examine the results caused by the therapy procedure.

References

Brodie J.D., Figueroa E., Laska E.M. And Dewey S.L. Safety and efficacy of gamma-vinyl GABA…… [Read More]

Sources:
Brodie J.D., Figueroa E., Laska E.M. And Dewey S.L. Safety and efficacy of gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG) for the treatment of methamphetamine and/or cocaine addiction. Synapse 2005; 55:122 -- 125

Brodie J.D., Figueroa E. And Dewey S.L. Treating cocaine addiction: from preclinical to clinical trial experience with gamma-vinyl GABA. Synapse 2003; 50:261 -- 265
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Weight and Body Fat

Words: 1187 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35193446

People work hard to lose pounds from their abs, with the persistence to make every step great and hard objective to lose few pounds each time they exercise. In fact, some of the encouragements are not more than rumors. Scientists revealed truths and opportunities in the article, aiming to give reachable goals and simpler methods to burn fat.

Accumulating body fat could be related to personality inertness and high fatty food intake for years, therefore it is important that people increase their awareness to reduce fatty components in their diets for regular basis, while at the same time increase active body movement from daily activities and mild exercises.

The article explained, while a number of people misunderstood that cutting fat intake and raising exercise frequency grow linear with body fat loss, in reality, half of the points may need second thought. There are many factors contributing to obesity.

Human develops fatty cells in the subcutaneous tissue. Such cells even present in children tissue, and they tend to change size as fat consumption increases or decreases, but never gone astray once the cells are formed. Therefore, a heavy-eating child may develop obesity when he/she grows as adult. To keep their weight…… [Read More]

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Medical Science

Words: 2880 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59258369

Chemical Substances on Liver and Kidney Enzymes and Tissues

A number of common consumer products and foods contain toxic substances that can have an adverse effect on liver and kidney enzymes and tissues (Steenland & Fletcher 2010). In addition, a number of naturally occurring and artificial substances contain toxic elements that are harmful to these organs (Steenland & Fletcher 2010). In this regard, Satarug and Nishjo (2004, p. 1512) report for example, "The metals cadmium and lead are ubiquitous environmental pollutants of increasing worldwide concern because of their renal toxicity and long residence time in the kidney." Likewise, Maher (1997) emphasizes that one of the most common toxic substances ingested by humans is alcohol which can have a deleterious effect on the liver, but even more so as it is metabolized. In this regard, Maher (1997, p. 6) reports that, "As alcohol is broken down in the liver, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated, such as acetaldehyde and highly reactive molecules called free radicals. Perhaps more so than alcohol itself, these products contribute to alcohol-induced liver damage."

In fact, ordinary anti-inflammatory medications such as acetaminophen represent a real threat to liver health. For example, Gorman (2002, p. 3)…… [Read More]

Resources:
Blindauer, KM & Jackson, RJ (1999, June), 'Environmental Pesticide Illness and Injury: The

Need for a National Surveillance System,' Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 61, no.
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Artificial Turf Fields Their Benefits and Risks

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86606005

Health and Ecological Effects of Turf Fields

Logos

These are a recent type of synthetic turf, covered by a grass-like ground that strongly resembles natural grass in looks and function (STC 2015). They are said to function this way on a year-round basis in all weathers and for prolonged use without need for recovery. Because it is synthetic, it is offered as a suitable solution and replacement for worn-out playing fields. At the same time, it does not need water or fertilizer as much as its natural counterpart. It is also available in different attractive styles, which match the locality (STC).

Sellers of artificial turf fields argue that natural grass fields cannot remain fresh and resilient if used for more than three to four days in a week, under the rain or when grass does not naturally grow (STC 2015). The low maintenance and water needs of a huge turf field for numerous sports teams and games have raised the demand for synthetic or artificial field turfs in schools and parks. About 8,000 of these synthetic turf sports fields are installed and used in North American schools, colleges, parks and sports stadiums (STC).

Ethos

For their attraction in water savings…… [Read More]

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Obesity in Elderly Obesity Is

Words: 2155 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88964438

In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.

Future

A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.

Another important step is to encourage more and more people to study geriatrics to fill the gap that has arisen due to the aging population. Incentives and subsidies has to be given to attract young people to this field of study. Also, specialized training can be given to nurses who are likely to…… [Read More]

Sources:
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912

Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
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Prenatal Development Involves Not Only

Words: 1901 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16580565

The nature principle tells us that people will be what they will be, regardless of external factors that went into their prenatal development. The nurture principle states otherwise, and demands that we judiciously examine the inputs that are going into the body of the mother, which go into the body of the developing baby. Detrimental neurobiological effects can arise from substance abuse, such as alcohol, which can result in consequences like Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Additionally, while some substances may seem benign and are even espoused by the established published scientific dogma, like taking folic acid during pregnancy, an informed person would be wise to fully examine the premise and the possible effects of adding such a substance to the body of a pregnant woman. Aside from changing hair color, and perhaps reducing neural tube defects, substances that affect the epigenome are bound to have more global effects. It is the realm of science and the responsibility of individuals to seek out the truths when it comes to embracing factors that affect prenatal development.

Works Cited

Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). The Nature (and Nurture?) of Plasticity in Early Human Development. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 345-351.

DC, D., D, H.,…… [Read More]

References:
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). The Nature (and Nurture?) of Plasticity in Early Human Development. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 345-351.

DC, D., D, H., & RL., J. (2007). Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 13056-13061.
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Colombia Gold Colombian Gold Mining

Words: 1956 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20640569

Spiegel & Velga (2010) report that a new international effort is underway to regulate the diffusion of mercury into the environments contextualizing mining operations. According to Spiegel & Velga, the world community has recently developed a set of International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-Scale Gold Mining. As Spiegel & Velga report, "commissioned by the United Nations Global Mercury Project, the purpose of the guidelines is to assist policymakers, practitioners, researchers, miners and the public in developing strategies for reducing mercury use, eliminating major pollution point sources and reducing risks." (p. 375)

This points to the worldwide interests that are implicated by the current conflict between miners and environmental advocates in Colombia, which over the course of the country's gold-mining boom, has become a template-setter for how national and world governments must balance mounting economic opportunity with the threat of environmental destruction.

Works Cited:

AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle, a First in Eco Gold. The Independent.

Angenent, M. (2010). Artisanal Gold Mining in Colombia Co-Creating a Sustainable Future. Fair Jewelry Action.

Associated Press (AP). (2010). Colombia Shuts 18 Gold Mines. Straits Times.

Colombian Solidarity Campaign (CSC). (2007). Gold Mining in Colombia; Cauca Assembly in Resistance. Colombia Solidarity.

Delgado, D.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle, a First in Eco Gold. The Independent.

Angenent, M. (2010). Artisanal Gold Mining in Colombia Co-Creating a Sustainable Future. Fair Jewelry Action.
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Architecture Construction Thermal Isolation Materials

Words: 4132 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46741322



Currently, the cytotoxicity of chrysotile, which is a type of asbestos, as well as Rockwool along with other man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) have been evaluated by cell magnetometry. This method established cytoskeleton-dependent functions of macrophages, which contribute to a significant role in phagocytosis, and is used to assess the degree of harm caused on macrophages (Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009).

Biological consequences of MMVFs have to be looked at not only at the cell level but also in the lung. To date there have been no studies done to look at the safety of Rockwool by way of lung magnetometry. In a study done by Kudo, Kotani, Tomita and Aizawa, 2009, rats were forced to inhale Rockwood a nose-only inhalation exposure system, and then looked at by lung magnetometry, a biopersistence test and pathological examination. The well-being features and safe utilization of mineral wools have been looked at for almost seventy years. NAIMA and its associate businesses have put forth tens of millions of dollars in investigative projects being done by important independent laboratories and universities in the United States and around the world in order to examine the possibility of human well-being influences of rock and slag wool…… [Read More]

References:
Baldwin, Stephen Andrew. (2010). "List of Materials to Build a Vocal Booth," viewed 20

October 2010, < http://www.ehow.com/list_6299897_list-materials-build-vocal-booth.html>
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Organizational Theory for U S EPA

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92618891

These aspects should be addressed to make it more effective.

Life Cycle Stage

Organizational life cycle is a concept that "suggests that organizations are born, grow older and eventually die. Organization structure, leadership style, and administrative systems follow a predictable pattern through stages in the life cycle." (Daft, 2009, p.340). There are four stages involved and they are Entrepreneurial stage, collectivity stage, formalization stage and elaboration stage.

The EPA is currently in the elaboration stage because it is mature, large and bureaucratic. Daft has defined this stage as "large and bureaucratic with extensive control systems, rules and procedures. Organization managers attempt to develop a team orientation within the bureaucracy to prevent further bureaucratization. Top managers are concerned with establishing a complete organization." (2009, p.344). All these characteristics correspond to the EPA and it is definitely in this stage.

Organizational Change

Similar to any other organization, the EPA is also undergoing changes from time to play a more effective role in the protection of environment and human beings. Many employees within an organization resist change because they are used to a particular way of working and they feel scared and intimated to make changes. It is mostly the older employees who…… [Read More]

Sources:
Nadeau, Louis. (September, 1997). EPA effectiveness at reducing the duration of plant-level non-compliance. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Volume 34(1), Pages 54-78

Daft, Richard. (2009). Organization Theory and Design. Publisher: Cengage Learning
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Business Lend Lease Australia The

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49670510

Some conventional building design, construction and maintenance practices create conditions that are capable of causing illness in healthy individuals or exacerbating illness in already sensitized individuals (Small, 2009). There are several factors that contribute to the overall health of a building. These include: cleanliness, thermal comfort, ventilation and air quality, lighting, noise, outside awareness and furniture (Hubbard, Rice and Beamish, 2008).

The Bond received many acknowledgements in regards to its design. It received 34 awards along with massive media coverage making the return on its investment far greater than any expectations that had existed. A key change that resulted from The Bond project was the positioning of Lend Lease to take on the role of industry leader to promote development of green buildings across Australia. The sector for office buildings in Australia has its own set of unique criteria. Most office buildings are not owned by its occupants. The majority adopt the net lease system in which the customer pays for the costs of running building. In this system, reductions in the costs of running the building only benefit the tenants. The gross lease system is a system in which the costs of running the building are included in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Document Helps Implement Green Building Codes. (2009). Professional Safety. 54(11), p18.

Garde, Ajay. (2009). Sustainable by Design?: Insights From U.S. LEED-ND Pilot Projects.
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PCB Contamination of the Upper

Words: 4465 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7588112

Additionally, the water intake near Chelsea may be used, at times, to supplement New York City's water supply, during times of drought. The Town of Waterford and the Town of Halfmoon both get their muncipal water supply from the Upper Hudson River ("Hudson River PCBs," 2008).

GE's Involvement in the Build Up of PCBs in the Hudson River

From 1947 to 1977, the General Electric Company discharged as much as 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson River, polluting 197 miles of the river and creating America's largest Superfund site. Two of GE's facilities, one at Hudson Falls and one at Fort Edward are reported to be the source of the pollution. As Angelo (2009) notes, PCBs were used as high-temperature insulators in the manufacturing process of transformers and capacitors, at the GE facilities. Even today, more than three decades later, PCBs still leak into the river from GE's facilities. According to Superfun law, polluters are charged with cleaning up the pollution they've created; however, GE has continued to fight the development of a cleanup plan. The organization has lobbied Congress, attacked the Superfund law in court and launched a media campaign stating that the proposed dredging of the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Angelo, W. (25 Feb 2008) Hudson River PCB cleanup projects under construction. Engineering News Record, 260(7). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.

(1 Jun 2009). PCB remediation work starts in the Hudson River. Engineering News Record, 262(17). Retrieved December 9, 2009, from Academic Search Complete database.
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Plastic in the United States

Words: 2107 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76462440

" (Ware, 35) The PHB is a high weight polymer that is used for energy storage and carbon storage by a large number of microorganisms. PHB is synthesized and degraded by a lot of organisms and is said to be the most economic alternative to petrochemical plastics. The commercial production of PHB is on and in the brand name Bipol. The attractive feature is that the polymer degrades into carbon dioxide and water without harmful residues. PHAs are biosynthesized polyesters and are thermoplastics thus can be melted and molded and ideal for consumer products. There are over ninety varieties of hydroxyalkanotic acids that are the constituent of the monomer constituents of biosynthetic PHA. (Ware, 35)

Conclusion

Plastic waste is a problem of great magnitude. Recycling the waste is found to be the better solution. In the actual consideration we have to divide the plastic waste into many categories and decide the best method of disposing the waste. Thus domestic waste, industrial waste, marine waste all require more than one method of disposal. Since many methods other than recycling have been developed there must be a coordinated method of using all these methods simultaneously in segregating and disposing plastic waste or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Azapagic, Adisa; Emsley, Alan; Hamerton, Ian. Polymers: the environment and sustainable development. John Wiley and Sons, 2003.

Mantia, Francesco Paolo La. Recycling of PVC and mixed plastic waste.
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Renewable Chemical Feedstocks the Fossil

Words: 5669 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7695445

The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the 'oil shale' or 'tar sands', and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)

It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and these two are according to Ronald G. Ridker the variables of environmental pressures. The energy situation is worse than that for non-fuel minerals because of the volatility of prices and the technological changes. Thus the nature of a change will be determined by the elasticities and domestic prices. The demand,…… [Read More]

Sources:
Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.

Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
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Honeybee Mystery Pesticides Honeybee Mystery the

Words: 3437 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32472754

Some beekeepers use a combination of pesticides. Studies have confirmed traces of fluvalinate concentrations in honey and wax samples obtained from colonies that were treated with two strips of Apistan. [Gatien, 2003]

Besides these In-hive chemicals, bees are also affected by the agricultural pesticides when they feed on the pollens. Though these pesticides undergo a rigorous testing phase before they are made commercially available, the risk factors for Non-target ecosystems are not always fully understood. With newer pesticides appearing on the market to replace older ones, which have become less effective due to the development of resistance by pests, the risk for non-target species is also on the rise. A case in point is the recent study in France, which has implicated the new pesticide Imidacloprid (a Neonicotinoid insecticide) as the cause for the significant loss of bee colonies. Imidacloprid is found to be a safe pesticide due to its low toxicity among mammals and hence it is used extensively for pest control in big farms. While some studies report higher levels of the pesticide in pollens and nectar of the plants, others have failed to detect any residual levels of these chemicals or their metabolites. As Kimberly stoner, a…… [Read More]

References:
1) Dan Kulpinski, (2008), 'Honeybee Mystery Unsolved After Two Years', Available at, http://www.earthsky.org/radioshows/52676/honey-bee-mystery-unsolved-after-two-years

2) Gunther Hauk, (2007), 'Colony Collapse Disorder: Do we Harvest what we Sow?, ACRES, May 2007, Vol 37, No 5, available online at, http://www.biobees.com/downloads/Bees_HaukBees.pdf
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Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes

Words: 1817 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20429209

This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National Research Council (U.S.), 1)

According to a 1976 ERDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at Richland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists. (Tompkins; Smith, 375) in light of these problems, the Council on Environmental Quality has suggested that nuclear power use should not be increased until and unless an effective solution to the problem of proper disposal of radioactive wastes is not found. (Gyorgy, 130)

References

Brown, Lester R; Earth Policy Institute.…… [Read More]

Resources:
Brown, Lester R; Earth Policy Institute. Eco-Economy.

Earthscan, 2003.
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Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively

Words: 2143 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14456156

This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.

Conclusion

Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly in humans.

References

Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.

Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.

Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.
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Elder Care the Baby Generation

Words: 5100 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76486184

Ruth E. Mathias and a.E. Benjamin (2003) report that social workers are becoming increasingly concerned about elder abuse in long-term care settings (p. 174). A study conducted by these social scientists/authors, reveals that Medicaid related agency care demonstrates no harmful or increase in the abuse suffered by elderly people receiving care through private agencies, but that there is little social worker oversight, and because of that, reports and information supporting that fact can be misleading at this point in time (p. 174). Mathias and Benjamin reported, too, that direct care provided by family members was proven to be less abusive to the elderly than services rendered by state and private providers (p. 174).

The most concentrated areas of consumer complaints reported was the difficulty in scheduling services, language barriers, and high care-giver/assistant turnover (p. 174). These are areas of concern, because the elderly are often suffering levels of dementia that prohibit them from being fully mentally agile as they once were, there is a need for consistency and familiarity in their lives. These are obvious needs, and ones that can have an adverse impact on the patient's behavior and response to the level of care or assistance he or she…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
garage sale sign and their aunt's possessions on the lawn were all that alerted the Kane County family that their elderly aunt had died.

When they went to find out about funeral services, they found the North Aurora woman had been embalmed and buried at the direction of a caretaker who ended up being a twice-convicted felon.
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Odontology in Criminal Justice Forensics

Words: 7122 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49210575

In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy Brewer. Balko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. But professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. But these continuing scandals suggest another, more urgent reason: to prevent bad science from sending innocent people to prison." (2007)

The work of Katherine Ramsland entitled: "The Most Famous Bite" relates the 1978 story of two girls in the Chi Omega sorority house at Tallahassee's Florida State University. Both girls were killed by the serial killer…… [Read More]

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Negative Effects of Marijuana Presently

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4474438

This engages a calm and quiet, however from time to time overjoyed state of mind. At high dosages, it can cause illusions. The consequences last from two to four hours after the drug is used and it mostly leaves the user of the marijuana in a calm condition for more than a few hours after getting high. One of the main invigorating properties is that temporary memory is reserved for the period of the high. Opinions may seem indistinct and it might be hard for a user to deliberate on rational difficult ideas like arithmetic. Long-standing causes have been disputed for several years. There are alleges of a motivational condition where the users marijuana are said to depart from civilization and lose their objective. (Buckley, William F., 1997).

Conclusion whether cannabis usage effects enduring physical or psychological alterations in its users is still under question. The most solemn distress is its causes on the pulmonary system, until now, studies have frequently used deprived controls such as no filtration and their consequences can give the wrong impression about an un-cautious reader. Smoldering the drug with dissimilar equipment or ingesting it lacking of smoking at all could really affect the results of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Cabral, G. et al. Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and Protein Expression. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1991.

Cohen, S. Therapeutic Aspects. Marijuana Research Findings: 1980. NIDA Research Monograph 31. 1980.
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Ghb and Date Rape the

Words: 2558 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60434254

In the United States, it is classified as an illicit club drug, by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The primary concern is GHB's use as a date rape substance, due to its colorless and odorless appearance, and the ease of use on victims who are sedated prior to sexual assault (Drasbek, Christensen, & Jensen, 2006).

GHB was introduced in the United States' over-the-counter market in the spring of 1990.

It was introduced as a dietary supplement, as well as a sedative and for body-building effect (Maxwell, 2005).

This introduction was rapidly followed by reports of severe adverse effects at doses ranging from approximately 1 teaspoon to 4 tablespoons. Right away, there were widespread reports of poisonings.

In November 1990, this led to a U.S. Food and Drug Administration ban on the distribution of GHB for human use, outside approved clinical trials.

Adverse effects reported included: vomiting, nausea, dizziness, weaknesses, seizure-like activity, tonic-clonic, loss of peripheral vision, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, bradycardia, decreased respiratory effort, unconsciousness, and coma. These adverse effects were reported in as little as 15 minutes from oral ingestion. Acute symptoms appeared to remit after 7 hours. However, some patients reported lingering dizziness for up to 2 weeks.…… [Read More]

References:
Blumenstyk, G. (16 Jul 2004). A test to detect a date-rape drug. Chronicle of Higher Education, 50(45). Retrieved November 23, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Chin, R., Sporer, K., Cullison, B., Dyer, J., & Wu, T. (1998). Clinical course of gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdose. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 31. Retrieved November 23, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
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Drug Free Workplace in Favor

Words: 2623 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15910707

What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.

Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to the reliability and validity of testing technologies. Specific testing technologies are more adept at capturing the traces of different drugs relative to others yet all abide by the requirements of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) according to document published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998) which…… [Read More]

Sources:
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.

Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
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Biological Effects of Radon Is

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56239359



Since radon is a widely known and established carcinogen, researchers have found it important to investigate the biological risks associated with exposure. Catelinois et al. (2006) sought to assess the lung cancer risk in France due to the inhalation of radon. In particular, these researchers examined exposure-response results of both studies involving miners as well as case control studies, and furthermore investigated the interaction between radon and tobacco. The results of this study indicated that the estimated number of deaths due to lung cancer that could be attributed to radon exposure ranged from 543 to 3108 with a 90% uncertainty level. The specific number of deaths was dependent on the particular model being adhered to. From this number, the researchers suggested that 2.2% to 12.4% of these lung cancer deaths may actually be due to indoor radon exposure (Catelinois et al. 2006).

Since exposure to radon is widely considered to be one of the greatest risks of ionizing radiation and associated health problems in working and residential areas, researchers have place increasing attention towards models that may provide accurate estimations of health risk. The development of models that may provide accurate estimations of health risks associated with radon exposure could…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Breier, R., Bohm, R., Kopani, M. "Simulation of radiation damage to lung cells after exposure to radon decay products." Neuro Endocrinology Letters 27.2 (2006): 86-90.

Catelinois, O., Rogel, a., Laurier, D., Billon, S., Hemon, D., Verger, P., Tirmarche, M. "Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France: impact of the risk models and uncertainty analysis." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.9 (2006): 1361-6.
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FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Was

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70009229

1968).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.

References

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.

CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR…… [Read More]

Resources:
Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.
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Forensic Nursing in the Past

Words: 2240 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87651556

Batchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.

In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal Bureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage of 110,000, or 6% (Sterzenbach, 2005). According to Sterzenbach (2005), based on what is known about trends in the supply of RNs and their anticipated demand, the shortage is expected to grow relatively slowly until 2010, by which time it will have reached 12%. This affects the role of the…… [Read More]

References:
Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.

Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html.
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Dually Diagnosed African-American and Latino

Words: 13893 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27469635

(1999) which are:

1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)

Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV criteria." (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) The following chart illustrates the 'special population substance use disorders'

Special Population Substance Use Disorders

Alcohol

Juvenile Mental

SED

Child and Justice

Health

Welfare Drug

Substance Use Disorders - Lifetime

Substance Use Disorders - Past Year

Source: National Survey on Drug…… [Read More]

Sources:
Blaske, D.M., Borduin, C.M., Henggeler, S.W., & Mann, B.J. (1989). Individual, family, and peer characteristics of adolescent sex offenders and assaultive adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 25, 846-855.

Borduin, C.M., Henggeler, S.W., Blaske, D.M. & Stein, R. (1990). Multisystemic treatment of adolescent sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 35, 105-114.
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Wbgt Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce the

Words: 3222 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84881586

WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce

The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as tropical climates. With this is in mind, this study seeks to examine the compatibility of WBGT limits with a Chinese migrant construction workforce in a tropical climate by looking at the relative weaknesses of WBGT limits in comparison to alternative heat indices as well as the unique requirements for managing…… [Read More]

References:
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