94+ documents containing “toxicology”.
After taking the position and working for the World Health Organization, the researcher has been tasked with re-evaluating the current policies outlined in their Position Statement. Also, this position statement in the document is what summarizes the issues that are surrounding the usage of DDT for vector-control reasons.
What types of toxicology data would you need to make this decision?
One of the data used would be the safety data that proves that it is not safe for humans. This information goes onto show that DDT has a low acute toxicity especially when the skin comes in contact with it, but if a human being swallows it, then it becomes is more toxic and must be kept out of the reach of children. On account of the chemical stability of DDT, it gathers in the environment by means food chains and in tissues of wide-open organisms, as well as people living in….
Discussions and studies on the health consequences of DDT use have focused around reducing infant illness and death from vector control. "In laboratory experiments, effects of DDT include hepatic and central nervous system toxicity, estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, and possible carcinogenicity" (Chen and ogan, 2003). Some evidence has suggested that DDT exposure increases the risk of preterm delivery and shortens the length of lactation. If this evidence holds true then these conditions could increase the rate of infant deaths and thus void any benefits on mortality rates from a reduction in malaria. In a study conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Studies, it was found that the association between DDT exposure and infant illness and death were causal and the effects were very small compared to the conceivable benefits from vector control (Chen and ogan, 2003).
When doing re-evaluations of DDT, the World Health Organization works hard to gain….
Toxicology eport: Abandoned Industrial Site
An overview of site conditions
Located about one mile upstream from a residential area, conditions at the site in question are similar to those involved in many abandoned industrial sites across the country where there has been little attention paid to remediating the leftovers from chemical-intensive commercial operations. The site had been in continuous use for the past 6 decades by two different companies and approximately one hundred unmarked 55-gallon drums are buried around the site which carry a strong chemical odor. This is not surprising since the drums in particular are in poor shape and many are rusted out and cracking in places Although the drums are unmarked, it is known that wastes from the previous industrial activities included: (a) PCBs; (b) chromium waste; (c) acrylamide; and (d) toluene diisocyanate (TDI). In addition, a stream that is favored for fishing meanders through the site and local….
Acrylamide consumer fact sheet. (2012). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/historical/upload/Archived -
Butrica, A.J. & Douglas, D.G. (1990). Out of thin air: A history of Air Products and Chemicals,
Inc., 1940-1990. New York: Praeger Publishers.
We have identified the hazards as PCBs and hexavalent chromium, both of which are classified as potential carcinogens and which may also cause acute and/or chronic health problems in humans. An exposure assessment has revealed that ingestion is likely to be the main exposure point of entry for PCBs, whereas inhalation is likely to be the main point of entry for exposure to hexavalent chromium. The risks are characterized as high, and therefore all the following recommendations should be implemented immediately.
An immediate ban on fishing in the local stream will be necessary, because "PCBs have been detected in food; they bioaccumulate through the food chain, with some of the highest concentrations found in fish," (EPA 2007). Prominent signs and physical barriers will be posted to prevent fishing in the stream, and discourage consumption of any fish that had been previously caught and subsequently frozen. The stream water and its….
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2001). ToxFAQs ™ for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Retrieved online: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=140&tid=26
Allport, D.C., Gilbert, D.S. & Outterside, S.M. (2003). MDI and TDI: A safety, health and the environment. John Wiley and Sons.
Iyengar, M. (2005). Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Retrieved online: http://www.ph.ucla.edu/ehs/student%20hazards/PCB.pdf
National Cancer Institute (2008). Acrylamide in Food and Cancer Risk. Retrieved online: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/acrylamide-in-food
Toxicology of Bisphenol A
Health - Safety
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
The use of plastic in modern cultures is so ever-present it is almost invisible. Consumers trust manufacturers and distributors to sell products that are generally safe to the public. Bisphenol A is a synthetic estrogen that has been in existence for more than 100 years. It is a chemical that causes harmful effects to both humans and animals. This is a chemical that is found in baby bottles. The issue is sensitive because many countries are heavily dependent on plastic for numerous functions. This is also a sensitive issue because of the population that is specifically at risk -- infants. The paper will outline the general debate concerning the proliferation and unintended consumption of this chemical. The reader will gain a context on the issue from several sources. After analyzing the perspectives on….
Aschberger, K., Castello, P., Hoekstra, E., Karakitsios, S., Munn, S., Palakin, S., & Sarigiannis. (2010) "Bisphenol A and baby bottles: challenges and perspectives." Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Luxembourg, 1 -- 57.
Case, F. (2008) "Bisphenol A and the baby bottle debate." Royal Society of Chemistry, Web.
Vandenberg, L.N., Hauser, R., Marcus, M., Olea, N., & Welshons, W.V. (2007) "Human Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA)." Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 1 -- 86.
Maryland Public Interest Research Group (2011) "Baby's Toxic Bottle: Bisphenol A -- A Leaching from Popular Baby Bottles." Web.
For instance iron and manganese oxides particulate substances or, could in addition precipitate outside solution with carbonate or sulphide (Prosi, 1989). Sediments, thus, acts like significant course of exposure to lead for marine plants and animals. The likely or probable effect levels abbreviated as PEL may be employed in assessing the extent with which undesirable biological impacts are liable to happen due to exposure to lead in sediments.
Describe pathways for Lead that can affect humans, and aquatic organisms. Are there key chemical transformations that affect the degree of impact? What are they?
The undesirable biological impacts for lead in BEDS consist of augmented transience, reduced benthic invertebrate profusion and assortment. It also results in anomalous growth. For example, in Toronto Harbour, Ontario, Jaagumagi and Lomas (1989) viewed an elevated profusion of amphipods at locations in which the average concentration of lead in the dregs was ten point eight mg kg_1.….
Berard, M.T. (2005). PVC handbook. Munchen: Hanser.
Jaagumagi, R.D. P & Lomas, T.(1989). The in-place pollutants program, Volume V,
Part a. A synthesis of benthic invertebrate studies. Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Water Resources
Branch, Aquatic Biology Section, Toronto
Science of Forensic Toxicology
Prior to modern medicine and the advent of forensic toxicological sciences, death from intentional poisoning was often indistinguishable from natural causes.
Consequently, poisoning with toxic substances was a preferred form of murder throughout human history until relatively recently. Arsenic, in particular, was used so often as a method of murdering wealthy elderly relatives, that it was sometimes known as "inheritance powder."
Prior to the nineteenth century, it was virtually impossible to establish poisoning as the cause of death, even where it was strongly suspected, owing to the unavailability of any scientific means of conclusively identifying specific poisons in bodily tissues. y 1787, Johann Daniel Metzger demonstrated a method of identifying the presence of arsenic within food, but it was another two decades before method was first devised for identifying the poison within bodily organs and tissues.
Initially, it was the work of two scientists who improved these earliest attempts to….
EPA Process Evaluation
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities of electricity, transportation, and industry that accounted for 84% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activity in 2010 (Greenhouse Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Emissions). CO2 has a natural presence through the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals. Human activity is altering the carbon cycle by influencing the ability of natural sinks, such as forests, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. ecause of this situation, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) takes measures by testing processes and public policies to reduce the influence of the human activity in reduction of the CO2 in the atmosphere.
The toxicity assessment is the tool EPA uses to determine what levels are dangerous or could cause harm to the environment or human health. The basic objective of the toxicity assessment is to identify adverse effects of a chemical and how appearance of….
Greenhouse Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Emissions. (n.d.). Retrieved from EPA: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/co2.html
Press, A. (2012, Dec 14). It Begins: EPA imposes controversial new rul on soot pollution. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2012/12/14/epa-imposes-new-rule-on-soot-pollution
Toxicity Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved from EPA: http://epa.gov/region8/r8risk/hh_toxicity.html
History in forensic science is referred to as application of science into law. The process came at a time when crime needed to be solved using sophisticated means, and institutions needed innovations in the field of science. Many techniques were adopted to determine level of toxins in people’s blood or fluids. It has helped identify harmful toxins that would otherwise not have been discovered. Toxicology testing refers to the methods used to determine toxic levels in samples. The process of toxicology testing includes collecting samples, testing the samples by use of special methods like chromatography, analyzing results and finally generating a toxicology report.
The process that leads up to the report is an important aspect for accurate results. This happens to be a highly sensitive area, so maximum cleanliness is required and sterilized materials need to be used. This form of testing is commonly used in police stations and hospital….
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom
Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before the forum.'….
Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites (leukotriene-B4, prostaglandin E2). When alveolar macrophages including silica die launch silica bits that are then re-engulfed by various other alveolar macrophages, they end up causing a cycle of injury. This cycle is accompanied by the motion of neutrophils and lymphocytes to the locations of injury leading to additional inflammatory modifications. Inflammatory cytokines consisting of interleukin 1 (IL-1), growth necrosis aspect-, arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, leukotrienes), and chemokines such as IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, MIP-1, MIP-1, and monocyte chemoattractant proteins all seem associated with this inflammatory process. In addition, macrophage- obtained fibrogenic aspects such as platelet-derived development elements, transforming development elements (TGF) - and - epidermal development aspect, and insulin-like development factor-1 are launched as the body starts reparative measures. A….
Muetterties M, O'Halloran Schwarz L, Wang R. Sandblasters. In: Greenberg M, editor. Occupational, Industrial, and Environmental Toxicology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby, 2003.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report 2002. Publication No. 2003-111; Cincinnati, OH: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2003.
Cassel SL, Eisenbarth SC, Iyer SS, et al. (June 2008). "The Nalp3 inflammasome is essential for the development of silicosis." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (26): 9035.
Rees D, and Murray J. Silica, silicosis and tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2007; 11: 474 -- 84.
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a suspect atmosphere. ecause….
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic which was most often utilized in products such as baby bottles. This was because the BPA plastic is strong and easily-sterilized. Products like baby bottles require lots of use and quite a bit of abuse, such as being thrown around by a small child. Consequently, it proved useful to consumers because they would not have to replace the product regularly. BPA is also used in eyeglass lenses, medical materials, water bottles, CDs and DVDs, cellular telephones, computers, electronics, household appliances, safety shields, sporting equipment, and cars (Bisphenol A). This material is used in many products and consequently is an important factor in the manufacturing of other consumer products. However, there has been a debate in recent years about whether or not….
Baker, Nana (2008). The Body Toxic: How the Hazardous Chemistry of Everyday Things
Threatens our Health and Well-Being. New York: North Point Press.
"Bisphenol A (BPA)" (2010). FDA. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm
"Bisphenol A: Information Sheet" (2002). Bisphenol A Global Industry Group.
On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:
Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward ichardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer ichardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him, Johnson had….
Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011
Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
Healthcare Quality Management
PDCA Modeling in Healthcare
Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with behavioral crisis intervention. The purpose of this exercise is to help staff improve understanding and coping with nonmedical emergencies that occur in medical settings using the PDCA cycle.
X is a 41-year-old male admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of possible stroke. The patient is ambulatory, 5'10," and 350 lbs. Mr. X presented to the emergency department the day before after apparently losing consciousness at home. The initial CAT scan of his head was negative. It is suspected that Mr. X may be an IV drug user since his urine toxicology screening came back positive for opiates. The medical staff thinks that Mr. X had a seizure prior to admission, but he has shown no abnormal signs or symptoms within….
Bennet, L., & Slavin, L. (2009, April 3). What Every Health Care Manager Needs to Know. Retrieved from Continous Quality Improvement: http://www.cwru.edu/med/epidbio/mphp439/CQI.htm
i Six Sigma. (N.d.). Focus - PDCA. Retrieved from I Six Sigma: http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/focus-pdca/
Pestka, E., Hatterberg, D., Larson, L., Zwygart, L., Cox, A., & Cox, D. (2012). Enhancing Safety in Behavioral Emergency Situations. Medsurg Nursing, 335-341.
Toxicology After taking the position and working for the World Health Organization, the researcher has been tasked with re-evaluating the current policies outlined in their Position Statement. Also, this position…Read Full Paper ❯
Discussions and studies on the health consequences of DDT use have focused around reducing infant illness and death from vector control. "In laboratory experiments, effects of DDT include hepatic…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
Toxicology eport: Abandoned Industrial Site An overview of site conditions Located about one mile upstream from a residential area, conditions at the site in question are similar to those involved in…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
We have identified the hazards as PCBs and hexavalent chromium, both of which are classified as potential carcinogens and which may also cause acute and/or chronic health problems…Read Full Paper ❯
Toxicology of Bisphenol A Health - Safety Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc. The use of plastic in modern cultures is so ever-present it is…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
For instance iron and manganese oxides particulate substances or, could in addition precipitate outside solution with carbonate or sulphide (Prosi, 1989). Sediments, thus, acts like significant course of…Read Full Paper ❯
Science of Forensic Toxicology Prior to modern medicine and the advent of forensic toxicological sciences, death from intentional poisoning was often indistinguishable from natural causes. Consequently, poisoning with toxic substances was…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
EPA Process Evaluation Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities of electricity, transportation, and industry that accounted for 84% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions…Read Full Paper ❯
Toxicology Testing History in forensic science is referred to as application of science into law. The process came at a time when crime needed to be solved using sophisticated means,…Read Full Paper ❯
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to…Read Full Paper ❯
Transcription aspects (NFkB and activator pro- tein-1) might then be launched causing the manufacturing and launch of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), proteases, and arachidonic acid metabolites…Read Full Paper ❯
Mold Spore Trapping Current Scientific Knowledge People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important…Read Full Paper ❯
Bisphenol-A The organic compound Bisphenol-A, often abbreviated as BPA, is used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. In the past, it was used primarily as a clear, strong plastic…Read Full Paper ❯
Police eport On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local…Read Full Paper ❯
Healthcare Quality Management PDCA Modeling in Healthcare Psychiatric emergencies in medical settings may be particularly challenging since the staff does not encounter them frequently and may not have experience dealing with…Read Full Paper ❯