1000+ documents containing “trade barrier”.
S. To at first restrict then promote the immigration of scientific, engineering and software professionals is a case in point. The growth in wage rates for difficult-to-replace professions is also driving up training and education in nursing and medicine, in part driven by the demographic bubble occurring in the U.S., in part driven by the high turn-over of nurses who exit the workforce due to retirement. The fact that wages are increasing in these acute shortage areas are also driving up the supply of labor, as workers migrate away from slower-growing professions into these of higher growth with unmet needs for workers. The combined effects of immigration and higher wage rates in those professions with the largest unmet needs drives up the supply of labor significantly.
In summary, both the increase in the supply and demand of labor is being driven by global economics and the unmet needs for specific types….
2) Most currency today is fiat currency, meaning that it is implicitly backed by the strength of the issuing nation's economy rather than by stores of gold or goods. Currency is used to facilitate financial transactions between parties. The value of the currency is determined by the trade of the nation relative to other nations. Settling that trade requires a system wherein currency values are stabilized.
Gold was once the official reserve asset, but today foreign exchange assets serve as reserves. The United States, for example, holds Euros and yen as its foreign exchange assets while many other countries hold dollars. These reserves are recognized for payment between governments.
Governments hold reserves as a means of ensuring the stability of their own currency. The foreign exchange reserves increase or decrease on the basis of the balance of trade. So for example China has a trade surplus, and this can allowed it to….
Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford. But in some instances, if a particular nation has received bad press regarding its labor practices, mandatory labeling as an imported good might act as an additional invisible trade barrier. Also, if a nation is being subject to a particularly damaging round of international publicity regarding other aspects of its international policy, this may lead to a boycott of the nation's goods, and thus invisible tariffs can be constructed through simply the apparently innocuous policy of labeling nation's country of origin, in the supposed interest of consumer information.
Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy
orking Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade sets new highs as….
Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy
Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade sets new highs as import barriers are lowered."
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is important for….
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
Earlier studies based on Bretton oods data were only refuted because the data sets of the later studies were insufficiently long. It may be, therefore, that Himarios is one of many that will now be able to demonstrate that long-term equilibrium is possible. It may that it requires nearly at least three decades' worth of data and a multi-country study in order to see the equilibrium emerge, meaning that previous theories were simply not taking into consideration the time frames that would be required for production, wage and policy shifts to be implemented and have their impact on a nation's balance of trade.
Himarios' findings do suggest that externalities cannot be maintained. hile a single government can maintain consistent economic policy for decades seemingly regardless of the consequences (Cuba or North Korea, for example) a free economy cannot. Eventually a trade deficit will result in a workforce demanding jobs, for….
Ahmad, J. & Yang, J. (2004). Estimation of the J-curve in China. East-West Center Working Paper. No. 67, 2004. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/3706/1/ECONwp067.pdf
Akbostanci, E. (2002). Dynamics of trade balance: The Turkish J-Curve. Economic Research Center. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from http://www.erc.metu.edu.tr/menu/series02/0205.pdf
Backus, D., Kehoe, P., Kydland, F. (1994). Dynamics of trade balance and the terms of trade: The J-curve? The American Economic Review. Vol. 84 (1) 84-103.
Bahmani-Oskooee, M. & Niroomand, F. (1998). Long-run price elasticities and the Marshall-Lerner condition revisited. Economics Letters. Vol. 61 (1) 101-109
trade in Mexico. The writer explores the nation's dependency on the U.S. And presents plans to reduce that dependency and increase other options. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the world continues to globalize many of the previous boundaries that were experienced have been removed. This means advancements in technology, communication, manufacturing and other areas. Mexico is frequently accused of being too dependent on the United States. With the globalizing moves forward there have been many new horizons for the country of Mexico to explore regarding trade. educing its dependence on the United States and expanding its interdependence with other nations will provide Mexico with bargaining power when it comes to its dealings with the states in the future.
Within the last decade the trade abilities and clout in Mexico has improved significantly. Whereas Mexico used to be almost exclusively dependent on the U.S., the more recent….
____ (1999). Attacking free trade growing pains., La Prensa de San Antonio, 02-28-1999, pp 2A.
____(2001). EU DIPLOMAT SEES MEXICAN DEMOCRACY OPENING INTERNATIONAL TRADE DOORS., Infolatina, 01-03-2001.
____able (1995). Fact sheets: Canada.(includes a country profile). Vol. 6, U.S. Department of State Dispatch, 03-06-1995, pp 165(7).
____(2000). MEXICO BECOMES TRADE GIANT, SAYS WTO., Infolatina, 04-16-2000
Quintessentially, a tariff is a tax on goods that are transferred overseas. Those goods are either imports or exports; tariffs provide a degree of stabilization for the competition of imports and exports (Helpman and azin, 1978, p. 1131). Specifically, tariffs apply to merchandise that is imported or exported between different nations, regardless of their location. There are a number of different types of tariffs and variations on this concept as a whole. Tariffs are similar to customs duties, which are the indirect taxes which must be accounted for when goods are traded between countries. These duties can pertain to both imports and exports. Many people use the terms tariff and customs duty interchangeably. Tariffs function as a collection or listing of goods and typically contain the rate of the customs duty. That rate is generally the amount of the tariff, whether it applies to imports or exports.
Helpmann, E., Razin, A. (1978). The protective effect of a tariff under certainty. Journal of Political Economy. 86(6), 1131-1141.
Lantheman, M. (2014). NAFTA and the Future of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. www.forbes.com Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/stratfor/2014/01/07/nafta-and-the-future-of-canada-mexico-and-the-united-states/
A neo-mercantilist trade policy is defined as a situation where the state plays an active role in shaping trade, building a close relationship with the country's businesses. In doing this, the state will take steps to encourage exports, discourage imports, and generally seek to create the conditions where the nation's producers can thrive (Thoma, 2009). Based on this definition, it is hard to argue against the idea that China is employing a neomercantilist policy. The PRC exerts strong control over imports, while providing a wide range of support to exporters. These supports include currency manipulation – not allowing the yuan to float freely is passive manipulation – the provision of financing by the state-owned banking system, and a system of favorable trade barriers.
China's trading partners should take action – the question is what? There are limits to what actions can be taken within the confines of law, and without….
Intra-Industry International Trade
Standard trade theory and its deviations
The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations theorized that free trade would be beneficial to all nations. Smith stated that much like merchants, nations should specialize in the particular goods and services which they could produce most efficiently and trade with other nations who could produce alternate goods and services equally efficiently. Thus free trade resulted in advantages for both trading parties. Smith's theory was later fleshed out by David icardo in his Principles of Economics. iccardo stated that free trade could optimize efficiency for every country on a global level by reducing the inefficiencies generated by the excess resources involved in producing the goods and services the nation was not suited to produce (Sen 2010: 2).
This common wisdom remained relatively consistent for many years: the….
Agglomeration economies. (2013). Economics Help. Retrieved from:
Carlton & Perloff. (2010). Strategic trade. Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed). Pearson.
Retrieved from: http://wps.aw.com/aw_carltonper_modernio_4/21/5566/1425036.cw/content/index.html
Trade restrictions in Honduras include price band mechanisms for yellow corn, sorghum, and corn meal .The price band mechanism works by charging 20% tariff on imports that are valued within the defined rates of the band, when the price is lower, then the rate of the tariff charged is over 20% (Carbaugh, 2004, p. 197). There are bands on United States (U.S.) raw poultry imports, which deny these products from importing into Honduras (Carbaugh, p. 198). The Government of Honduras also has seasonal import restrictions to protect local farmers during the main harvest; these policies limit access of U.S. agricultural products (Trade Compliance Center [TCC], 2000, p. 1). Until recently, import restrictions on ruminant products and sub-products existed; the following ruminant items were prohibited: meat, casings, organs, hydrolyzed proteins, glands, & bile are some of the products listed in this category. (Aphis [A], 2005, p.1). uminant is any various cud-chewing….
Aphis (2005, Aug. 2005). BSE Trade Ban Status as of 08/05. APHIS, 2005, pp. 1-11. Retrieved 08/07/05, from http://www.aphis.usda.gov
Carbaugh, R.J. (2004). International Economics (9th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomas/South Western.
Trade Compliance Center (2000, 1999). National Trade Estimate - 2000. Retrieved 08/07/05, from http://www.mac.doc.gov/tcc/data/commerce_html
Word Web Online (2005). Definition of Ruminant. Retrieved August 7,2005, from http://www.wordwebonline.com/en/RUMINANT
If the quota were to be granted to a domestic resident, then the rent that would be generated would be kept within the domestic economy, and therefore it would be referred to as a 'domestic rent capture barrier'. (Non-tariff Barriers: The eward of Curtailed Freedom)
However, the fact is that though the rent remains at home, what happens is that an inevitable 'income redistribution effect' takes place. This means that while rent is captured by a very few license holders, the imposition of a tariff would have the benefit of spreading the rent more liberally and equally. The tariff, however, accrues, at the outset, to only one party, the 'fiscus'. The advantage herein is that afterwards, it can be utilized in the various expenditures on public improvement projects that are undertaken by the government, so this means that this rent would benefit a large number of people, and not just….
Blue, Gloria. AeA Response to U.S. Federal Register Notice (FR Doc. 03-2356) Concerning the Operation and Implementation of the World Trade Organization
Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. 28 February, 2003. Retrieved From www.aeanet.org/GovernmentAffairs/aWlVayPPQKHnRLhaPZCSYnplxTDUdmtD.pdf+benefits+of+Non+Tariff+Barriers&hl=en" http://www.aeanet.org/GovernmentAffairs/aWlVayPPQKHnRLhaPZCSYnplxTDUdmtD.pdf . Accessed on 9 March, 2005
Faehn, Taran. Non-Tariff Barriers -- the Achilles Heel of Trade Policy Analyses. June, 1997. Retrieved at http://ideas.repec.org/p/ssb/dispap/195.html . Accessed on 8 March, 2005
Neven, Damien J. Evaluating the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers: The economic analysis of protection in WTO disputes. University of Lausanne and CEPR. April, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/conference/neven.pdf . Accessed on 8 March, 2005
Intra-Industry International Trade: Benefits and Costs
Trade is brought about by specialization. People specialize in those goods and services that they can produce effectively, and since they cannot survive on only these, exchange their surplus production for other items that they need, but do not produce. There are mainly two types of trade in this regard; international and domestic. The domestic form of trade refers to the exchange of trade items (services and goods) within a country's borders. International trade, on the other hand, can be defined as "the exchange of goods and services among residents of different countries" (Chacholiades, 2006). International trade can take either of two forms; intra-industry or inter-industry forms of trade. Inter-industry trade is trade between industries, whereas intra-industry trade takes place within industries. Intra-industry trade, therefore, refers to the importation and exportation of same-industry items of trade (Gandolfo, 1998).
International trade has been on the increase in….
Boyes, W.J. & Melvin, M. (2007). Microeconomics (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Chacholiades, M. (2006). The Pure Theory of International Trade. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
FAO. (2000). International Trade: Some Basic Theories and Concepts (Module 2). The Food and Agricultural Organization. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x7352e/x7352e02.htm
Gandolfo, G. (1998). International Trade Theory and Policy. Rome: Springer.
Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France
This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.
Global Trade and Currency Exchange
Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute advantage produced everything. The….
2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1
EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/
Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf
Feensrta, R.C. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12:4, 1998, pp. 31-50.
The article is about globalization and particularly how manufacturing operations are becoming global. The article describes how organizations are increasingly able to move their production processes overseas, with the author describing this as "causing a breakdown in the vertically integrated mode of production."
The author argues that foreign outsourcing has increased since the 1970s based on several different measures.
The author then looks at two implications of the changes: the impact on wages and the implications for labor policy.
The author distinguishes between final products and intermediate products, arguing that this point is often neglected, which I think is true. Manufacturing in other nations does not always mean moving complete operations to that nation, it means using certain parts from that nation that become intermediate in the final product. This intermediate product is….
nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor Mexico, so far from God, and so close to the United States." For Mexico does continue to seem to occupy a benighted position vis-a-vis its richer and more powerful neighbor to the north, a position that is in no small measure defined and continually recreated by the nature and mechanisms of international trade between the two nations. This paper examines the nature of the trade relations between the United States and Mexico in the light of several classical economics theories and models as well as in respect to recent developments in the wake of the 1992 signing of the NAFTA accord and the last decade's worth of increasing globalization.
Economic Theories and Models
We begin by discussing and summarizing some of the useful….
Danaher, K. & Burbach, R. (eds.) (2000). Globalize this!: The battle against The World Trade Organization. Los Angeles: Community Archives Publications.
Esty, D. (1994). Greening the GATT: Trade, environment, and the future. Washington DC: Institute for International Economics.
S. To at first restrict then promote the immigration of scientific, engineering and software professionals is a case in point. The growth in wage rates for difficult-to-replace professions is…Read Full Paper ❯
2) Most currency today is fiat currency, meaning that it is implicitly backed by the strength of the issuing nation's economy rather than by stores of gold or goods.…Read Full Paper ❯
Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford.…Read Full Paper ❯
Significance of the Study This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing…Read Full Paper ❯
Earlier studies based on Bretton oods data were only refuted because the data sets of the later studies were insufficiently long. It may be, therefore, that Himarios is…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
trade in Mexico. The writer explores the nation's dependency on the U.S. And presents plans to reduce that dependency and increase other options. There were five sources used…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - College
International Tariffs Quintessentially, a tariff is a tax on goods that are transferred overseas. Those goods are either imports or exports; tariffs provide a degree of stabilization for the…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - International
China Unit 5 A neo-mercantilist trade policy is defined as a situation where the state plays an active role in shaping trade, building a close relationship with the country's businesses. In…Read Full Paper ❯
Trade Theory Intra-Industry International Trade Standard trade theory and its deviations The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth…Read Full Paper ❯
Trade restrictions in Honduras include price band mechanisms for yellow corn, sorghum, and corn meal .The price band mechanism works by charging 20% tariff on imports that are valued…Read Full Paper ❯
If the quota were to be granted to a domestic resident, then the rent that would be generated would be kept within the domestic economy, and therefore it…Read Full Paper ❯
Intra-Industry International Trade: Benefits and Costs Trade is brought about by specialization. People specialize in those goods and services that they can produce effectively, and since they cannot survive on…Read Full Paper ❯
Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human…Read Full Paper ❯
Feensrta, R.C. "Integration of Trade and Disintegration of Production in the Global Economy." Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12:4, 1998, pp. 31-50. The article is about globalization and particularly how manufacturing…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
nature of U.S.-Mexican trade relations, it is difficult indeed not to think of the statement of Mexican President Porfirio Diaz at the turn of the last century, "Poor…Read Full Paper ❯