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This is troubling, because these two different viewpoints increase the odds that some kind of: currency or trade war will take place in the future.
The Motivations behind hina's urrency Policy
The original reasons why hina had their currency pegged against the dollar is: that it provided stability and it allowed the country to sell low cost imports in markets where there was a large amount of consumers (i.e. The United States). Over the course of time, this helped hina to be able to adapt to the changes that are taking place in the world economy. as, they quickly became one of the largest importers for: a variety of manufactured goods. However, as time went by it became clear that the country was keeping their currency artificially low. This was a part of an effort to help the nation to: build up their currency reserves (through large trade surpluses)…
China's Growth in the World Market
The Chinese government implemented a major economic reform program in 1978, after reducing state control of all production assets. Government officials urged the formation of: rural enterprises / private businesses, liberalized foreign investment / trade, allocated various resources from government to private entities (i.e. privatization) and they invested in education / training for workers. Many of these supply-side factors pushed the country to meet the demands of a dynamic economy. as, the government's strategy; worked much better than they had expected.
Before 1978, the Chinese economy had seen an annual growth of 6%. However, post-1978, China began to experience average real growth of more than 9%. This was a steady line of growth, as opposed to
Trade Act of 1974 on Euro exchange rates?
Free Trade has been a key agenda for the past three presidents. In an expanding global market, tariffs and trade policies are more important today than they have been in the past. More and more countries are forming alliances such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Asian Alliance, and the European Union (EU). These trade agreements are meant to level the playing for all countries, both industrialized and emerging countries.
President Bush's trade policy is aimed at helping to generate American jobs, open markets to American products, and provide economic growth. Sometimes massive increases in imports can have a devastating effect on U.S. industries. [This has been the case for the U.S. steel Industry and is the issue addressed in Section 203 (B) (1) of the Trade Act of 1974. Foreign steel makers have had the luxury of government…
Arnold, James. Steel sector stares into the abyss. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm . Accessed April,
Arnold, James. Steel spat could mean wider worries. BBC News.com. March 6, 2002.
A neo-mercantilist trade policy is defined as a situation where the state plays an active role in shaping trade, building a close relationship with the country's businesses. In doing this, the state will take steps to encourage exports, discourage imports, and generally seek to create the conditions where the nation's producers can thrive (Thoma, 2009). Based on this definition, it is hard to argue against the idea that China is employing a neomercantilist policy. The PRC exerts strong control over imports, while providing a wide range of support to exporters. These supports include currency manipulation – not allowing the yuan to float freely is passive manipulation – the provision of financing by the state-owned banking system, and a system of favorable trade barriers.
China's trading partners should take action – the question is what? There are limits to what actions can be taken within the confines of…
Intra-Industry International Trade
Standard trade theory and its deviations
The classical theory of international trade can be traced back to the founding father of capitalism Adam Smith: Smith's 1776 Wealth of Nations theorized that free trade would be beneficial to all nations. Smith stated that much like merchants, nations should specialize in the particular goods and services which they could produce most efficiently and trade with other nations who could produce alternate goods and services equally efficiently. Thus free trade resulted in advantages for both trading parties. Smith's theory was later fleshed out by David icardo in his Principles of Economics. iccardo stated that free trade could optimize efficiency for every country on a global level by reducing the inefficiencies generated by the excess resources involved in producing the goods and services the nation was not suited to produce (Sen 2010: 2).
This common wisdom remained relatively consistent…
Agglomeration economies. (2013). Economics Help. Retrieved from:
Carlton & Perloff. (2010). Strategic trade. Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed). Pearson.
Retrieved from: http://wps.aw.com/aw_carltonper_modernio_4/21/5566/1425036.cw/content/index.html
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…
Bancroft, Hubert H.. American war for Independence: Early Causes. 2002-2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/americanw_bb.html .
Leach, Douglas Edward. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Morison, S.E., ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
Of course, consumers knowing the country of origin of Toyota vehicles have done little to harm the dominance of that car over traditional American manufacturers like GM and Ford. But in some instances, if a particular nation has received bad press regarding its labor practices, mandatory labeling as an imported good might act as an additional invisible trade barrier. Also, if a nation is being subject to a particularly damaging round of international publicity regarding other aspects of its international policy, this may lead to a boycott of the nation's goods, and thus invisible tariffs can be constructed through simply the apparently innocuous policy of labeling nation's country of origin, in the supposed interest of consumer information.
Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy
orking Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade…
Fliess, Barbara Carlos Busquets "The Role of Trade Barriers." OECD Trade Policy
Working Paper No. 45. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2006. 7 Mar 2007. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/25/37872326.pdf
Jennings, Horace. "Brazilian trade sets new highs as import barriers are lowered."
Despite the fact that it is considered to be responsible for the immense inequalities in the economic sector, it also provides the progress for least developed countries and the environment for the maintenance of the developed countries. The existence of trade blocks such as NAFTA or ASEAN are even more reasons to consider globalization as a means of improvement in terms of politics, economic, and social aspects of life.
ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html
Ian Goldin, Kenneth einert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .
D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm
D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.
Economic Policy, 20 (1) Spring, 72-84
Woods N. 2000a 'The Challenge to International Institutions'. Primary eading.
D Henwood, "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 13, 2003. 28 September 2011
ASEAN. N.d. About. 28 September 2011 http://www.asean.org/about_ASEAN.html
Ian Goldin, Kenneth Reinert. 2006. Globalization for development: trade, finance, aid, igration and policy . World Bank: Palgrave Macmillan, Washington, DC .
D Henwood, 2003. "Beyond Globophobia." The Nation .November 28 September 2011 http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/define/2003/1113globophobia.htm
D. Held,. 2005. Debating Globalization . Polity Press, Cambridge.
The book is constructed on two main theses, the first revolving around the relevance of the Barbary wars in the freeing of the American population and in its formation as stable and confident people. The second thesis focuses on the Tripolitan war played in the formation of the modern American Navy. However the general history courses place little emphasis on the wars against the Barbary States, the naval forces commemorate them and recognize the role they played in the formation of the modern U.S. Marine. A third specification which could be made relative to the book is that, however not implicit, it also presents the historical conflict between the American and Islamic forces, relating as such to a contemporaneous matter, which is not as new as one could think.
"Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines" is written in…
Gregory Fremont-Barnes, "Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines," Osprey Pub Co, November 2006
Wars of the Barbary Pirates: To the Shores of Tripoli, the Birth of the U.S. Navy and Marines, Random House, http://www.randomhouse.com/catalog/display.pperl?isbn=9781846030307 , last accessed on October 1, 2008
Nevertheless, at the same time when Churchill took his place as leader of the ritish armed forces, the Germans had dealt an impressive blow by invading and eventually conquering elgium, France, and the Netherlands. Standing as one of the greatest powers in the world at the time, France had only managed to hold off its oppressors for a month and a half before signing an armistice with the Axis forces and allowing the German and Italian troops to occupy its territory.
eing excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade ritain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the ritish had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to ritain, they backed the ritish by agreeing to a trade…
Being excited by their wonderful victory over France, the Germans went on a mission to invade Britain using various tactics. However, all efforts proved to be useless, as the British had managed to defend their country excellently. The United States had neuter at the time when the Germans had been sweeping across Europe. However, because of their connection to Britain, they backed the British by agreeing to a trade of destroyers meant to strengthen the British naval forces.
Japan, Italy, and Germany had signed a Tripartite Act in September 1940, stating that any country that would attack the Axis powers would be required to go at war against the three. Romania, Slovakia, and Hungary joined the Tripartite Act in November, influencing the Germans in wanting to attack the Soviet Union. The Germans advanced into Greece consequent to Bulgaria signing the Tripartite Act. The Germans did not hesitate to unleash a surprise attack on the Soviets with operation Barbarossa on 22 June, 1941, once again proving that the German armed forces could easily brake through defense lines, regardless of their strength (the Soviets had been preparing defensive campaigns even before the start of the war).
The Axis advance in the east had come to a halt near Moscow, thus marking the moment when the German could no longer continue the Blitzkrieg and had to engage in traditional warfare.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
Manufacturers are the most affected as they have to absorb the transportation costs borne by the transporters. This often results in a price hike which lowers profits. Companies who have to cut their profits lay off staff which affects consumer spending power. These actions hurt the economy in the longer run as it causes inflation and puts pressure on the government to raise wages so that consumers can afford to pay higher prices. Wages are never increased with rising prices so this result in people becoming poorer and it weakens the economy. Unemployment deters people from buying goods and results in lower sales. This causes more layoffs and pushes the economy to go down.
The automobile industry has been the most affected as car sales have slumped due to the increase in oil prices. Consumers are wary of buying SUVs because they consume a lot of fuel. SUVs form a…
Bilmes, Linda & Stiglitz, Joseph (2006). The Economic Costs of the Iraq War: An Appraisal Three Years After the Beginning of the Conflict, NBER Working Paper No. 12054
Surowiecki, James (2005, May). Oil Change. The New Yorker
Perry, George L. (2001).The War on Terrorism, the World Oil Market and the U.S. Economy, The Brookings Institution
Behravesh, Nariman, (February 2003).Iraq War Scenarios, Global Insight
Form this point-of-view (Goodman) the war hawks are considered to this day the catalysts of the 1812 war, despite the circumstances and the eventual need for world consideration.
Overall it can be concluded that the war hawks represent a rather controversial presence in the history of the United States. While some argue that they are in fact responsible for a painful war against ritain that could have been averted, other view them as important characters in shaping the honor and prestige of the United States in the decades to come.
Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .
Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186
Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives,…
Clay, Henry. Letter in Support of the War of 1812. 2008. 27 February 2011 .
Goodman, Warren H. "The Origins of the War of 1812: A Survey of Changing Interpretations ." The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 28, No. 2 (Sep., 1941), pp. 171-186
Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L. "Party Unity and the Decision for War in the House of Representatives, 1812 ." The William and Mary Quarterly Third Series, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jul., 1972), pp. 367-390
Muhall, Jill K. The War of 1812 . Huntington Beach: Shell Education, n.d.
War in Africa
Due to European colonization and then decolonization, Africa was left in a similar state of the other former colonies. What state were the other colonies left in and what are the similarities?
Concomitant colonization and decolonization of Africa left most of the countries in a state of utter economic dependence on their colonial masters. This state is more or less similar to what happened to former colonies in the Americas and Asia. While there are other socio-political impacts that also resulted, this brief paper focuses only on the state economic dependence that African colonies found themselves in soon after colonial masters went back to their countries.
Prior to the "Scramble and Partition of Africa," African economies were on an upward trend in most areas, but more so in terms of trade. Africans had already established trade patterns with some long distance traders walking covering miles just to…
Bojicic, Savo. America…. America…. Or Is It? New York, NY: AuthorHouse, 2010.
Clayton, Anthony. Frontiersmen; warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL press, 1999
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Earlier studies based on Bretton oods data were only refuted because the data sets of the later studies were insufficiently long. It may be, therefore, that Himarios is one of many that will now be able to demonstrate that long-term equilibrium is possible. It may that it requires nearly at least three decades' worth of data and a multi-country study in order to see the equilibrium emerge, meaning that previous theories were simply not taking into consideration the time frames that would be required for production, wage and policy shifts to be implemented and have their impact on a nation's balance of trade.
Himarios' findings do suggest that externalities cannot be maintained. hile a single government can maintain consistent economic policy for decades seemingly regardless of the consequences (Cuba or North Korea, for example) a free economy cannot. Eventually a trade deficit will result in a workforce demanding jobs, for…
Ahmad, J. & Yang, J. (2004). Estimation of the J-curve in China. East-West Center Working Paper. No. 67, 2004. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/3706/1/ECONwp067.pdf
Akbostanci, E. (2002). Dynamics of trade balance: The Turkish J-Curve. Economic Research Center. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from http://www.erc.metu.edu.tr/menu/series02/0205.pdf
Backus, D., Kehoe, P., Kydland, F. (1994). Dynamics of trade balance and the terms of trade: The J-curve? The American Economic Review. Vol. 84 (1) 84-103.
Bahmani-Oskooee, M. & Niroomand, F. (1998). Long-run price elasticities and the Marshall-Lerner condition revisited. Economics Letters. Vol. 61 (1) 101-109
He turns some readers off with his vitriolic attacks. Further, his attacks are is blatant propaganda. hy? Because while Taibbi does mention that the Democrats already crafted legislation more than once - setting timetables for withdrawal and tying those timetables to funding, bills that Bush subsequently vetoed - he uses quotes from unnamed "congressional aides" to solidify his assertion that the Democrats just wanted to "score political points without ever being serious about bringing the troops home."
Taibbi does use evidence that there are anti-war leaders outside of ashington who are discouraged and bitter. But he fails to build a case for his most radical assertion, that the Democrats "hijacked the anti-war movement itself" in order to play to the voters, and that the Democrats filled the "ranks of peace groups with loyal party hacks." This is pure propaganda, and the evidence he provides is very thin. He doesn't name…
Biddle, Stephen. "Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon." Foreign Affairs 85.2 (2006): 2-14.
Taibbi, Matt. "The Chicken Doves." Rolling Stone Issue 1046 (2008): 37-39.
Also, the importation of technology from abroad exposes consumers and producers alike to the innovative use of vehicles, such as hybrid technology, that domestic producers can implement even better than the original manufacturer. Innovation is the ultimate driver of new sales and the creator of new markets and new markets means more jobs for workers.
Beginning a trade war by setting tariffs or limiting imports through quotas ultimately creates waste and more expensive cars for consumers. Giving domestic producers the ability to price their products artificially low through subsides encourages them not to innovate, a critical part of remaining competitive in a high-tech industry. It has been argued that American car manufactures are out of touch with the needs of car buyers and the needs of the environment alike, but isolating them through protectionism will only preserve company profits and jobs in the short run.
Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy
An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present
In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…
Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,
Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).
International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.
war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of this policy: international trade; weapons of mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the "shock and awe" tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The analysis is performed by means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government.
The war on Iraq (which some people would argue was an illegal invasion on Iraq, as it happened without regard…
Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…
War on Terrorism: Is it Justified?
On September 11, 2001, two separate airliners, loaded with passengers, were flown into the two towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. This was soon followed by a similar act in Washington, D.C. that destroyed part of the Pentagon. Passengers on another plane attempted to retake it from hijackers, and that plane crashed into the Pennsylvania countryside, undoubtedly preventing a fourth attack.
y the time the second plane flew into the south tower of the World Trade Center, we knew these were deliberate attacks. y the time the Pentagon had been attacked, there was a widespread perception that we were at war. Spokespersons and reporters drew comparisons to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
However, there are troubling differences to the attack of December 7, 1941, particularly in who the enemy was or is in each situation. There was no doubt in…
Albom, Mitch. Oct. 15, 2001. "Battle Must be Joined as Surely as Peace." Los Angeles Business Journal.
Author not available. Dec. 2001. "Iraq, Anthrax, and the Hawks." The Progressive. Accessed via the Internet 3/19/02. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1295/12_65/80681001/print.jhtml
Pipes, Daniel. Jan. 2002. "Who Is the Enemy? (Analysis of United States War on Terrorism)" Commentary Magazine.
Stephen, Andrew. Sept. 24, 2001. "The War that Bush Cannot Win." New Statesman. Accessed via the Internet 3/19/02. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FQP/4556_130/79029848/print.jhtml
Germany is only fighting out of conquest, an intolerable aim in the present world. The modern weapons, including the submarine and the tank, have made wars more costly in terms of lives. Germany seems to disregard this loss, whether it is their own or not. Germany's conquest cannot be won. Yet, the nature of the German Chancellor seems to press the nation onward, killing many of their own in the process. It is unreasonable to expect the nature of the German leadership to change now, after they have already suffered great losses. Even now, the Chancellor claims Germany is "Stronger than we were before" (Peace ejected, 1916).
If all of this reasoning is not enough, we have the final news of German collusion with Mexico to deal with. We have heard of the Zimmerman telegram from February of this year. In it, the German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman offers portions…
Marshall, S.L.A. (1982). The American heritage history of World War I. New York: American Heristage / Bonanza Books.
Peace rejected, will fight on, says Chancellor; Germany stronger than when first offer was made, he tells Reichstag. (1916, June 6). The New York Times, p. 1-2.
Smith, P. (1985). America enters the world" A people's progressive era and World War I (Vol. 7). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wilson, W. (1985). Wilson's Address to the Senate, January 22, 1917. In Paul M. Angle (Ed.), By these words: Great Documents of American liberty, selected and placed in their contemporary settings (pp. 322-328). New York: Rand McNally.
Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.
During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…
Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities Of the American
Founders (Knopf, 2002), 185p.
HistoryKing. (2011). The social classes in 18th century colonial america. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from History King: http://www.historyking.com/American-History/The-Social-Classes-In-18th-Century-Colonial-America.html.
University of Southern Mississippi. (2011). Seven years war. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from University of Southern Mississippi: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:wvJvJ2QbbaIJ:ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w416373/HIS%2520360/HIS%2520360%2520Lsn%25204%2520Seven%2520Years%2520War.ppt+seven+years+war+outcomes&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8az8UYbRUpHVHP_TzWTpeTtDvq1m5BPG-RFmHHgEmQzzbC .
War for uban onquest
In 1883, Frederick Jackson Turner gave a speech to the World's olumbian Exposition, introducing what is now known as the "Turner thesis" of American history. This thesis says "continental expansion...was the driving, dynamic factor of American progress. Without [it] America's political and social institutions would stagnate. If one adhered to this way of thinking, America must expand or die." (Musicant) It was an odd moment to being saying such things, and a prophetic one, for America has, perhaps unbeknownst to him, just run out of frontier to conquer. Further expansion had to be overseas. Of course, "overseas" was already conquered, had its own government, and its own citizens. Thus a war of conquest rose on the horizon for America. The perfect opportunity to conquer arose during what was politely called the Spanish-American war, in which America stepped in to help out a struggling band of revolutionaries…
Cuba became increasingly caught up in trade with the United States, "Sugar estates and mining interests passed from Spanish and Cuban to U.S. hand... Cuban sugar producers were more and more at the mercy of the U.S. refiners" (Hernandez) This economic unity no doubt helped provoke America's eventual conquest. In the meantime, revolutionary spirit continued undimmed by the end of the Ten Years' War, building its foundation of support and respect among the people. "It was a multiracial and multiclass movement...Its leaders were no longer members of the creole elite, but men of modest social origin." (Hernandez) This was a true revolution of the people now, and its prospects for success seemed to grow daily under the leadership of Jose Mart', a middle class poet, journalist, philosopher, and dreamer. In 1895, following a Spain-induced loss of trade with America, and further evidence of Spanish despotism, the revolution began.
The revolution seemed successful at first; then Spain sent the best of its worst men.
General Valeriano Weyler, with his reinforcements, began a war of deprivation, forcing peasants into concentration camps where lack of food, sanitation, and water killed thousands upon thousands of them. The revolution continued in the hills and
The concept of war encompasses various different types of conflict. Wars between sovereign nations involve nation states. Regional and world wars involve multiple sovereign nations. Revolutionary wars of independence involve the populations of nations rebelling against or rejecting the continued control national authorities. ivil wars occur when rival regions or political factions within one nation seek formal separation or complete control. Proxy wars are a means by which nations prosecute their competing interests against one another through smaller conflicts involving other nations as a means of avoiding direct military conflict.
Wars between Nation States
Wars between sovereign nations have occurred throughout recorded history, dating back to Biblical times. Generally, sovereign nations go to war when they each have claims to the same land, or natural resources, or rights of passage that each seeks to own or control exclusively. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern age, the…
Civil wars occur when different political factions within one nation cannot reach an agreement or reconcile major differences. In some cases, the purpose of a civil war is similar to revolutionary wars because they are the result of one faction's desire or intention to break free from a larger unified nation and to create a new sovereign nation. The American War between the States or Civil War is an example of such a war because the southern states sought to secede from the American nation and to create their own nation where slavery could continue legally as a way of life. The northern states opposed the institution of slavery and had gradually placed more and more pressure on the southern states to give up the practice. In other instances, civil wars occur when one faction seeks to take exclusive power over the nation instead of sharing power or regional control with competing political factions. The Spanish Civil War immediately preceding the Second World War is one such example.
Sometimes, nation states prosecute wars against one another through wars between smaller nations. Generally, this occurs when much larger nations want to avoid the devastating consequences of a direct war between them. They may have long-standing conflicts with one another or competing aims and interests about foreign territories and regions. They may seek to achieve their objectives through the use of force but instead of direct military conflict, they act against one another by supporting wars and revolutions in smaller nations in those regions. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the world's two principal superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted many overt and covert proxy wars in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and in both the Middle East and the Far East. Some of the more notable examples of those proxy efforts in modern times included the Soviet Union's attempt to militarize Cuba and install nuclear missiles aimed at the U.S. supposedly to guarantee Cuba's independence in 1961; the decade-long Vietnam War in which the Soviet Union supported and finances the North Vietnamese while the U.S. supported and financed the South Vietnamese; and the Arab-Israeli wars in which the Soviet Union supported Syria and Egypt while the U.S. supported Israel.
Wa Changed Eveything," authos J.L. Ganatstein and Desmond Moton ague that the Second Wold Wa benefited Canada and Canadian society. Stating that "The Second Wold Wa was the one good wa," Ganatstein and Moton claim that Wold Wa Two impoved the Canadian economy, impoved Canada's position as a wold powe, and ceated a moe just and egalitaian society (323). The aticle is divided into seveal sections, including "What the Wa Changed fo Canada," "Canada and the Wold," and "Canada and Canadians." In the fist section, "What the Wa Changed fo Canada," the authos focus mainly on the Canadian economy, noting "The Second Wold Wa saw a quantum leap in the extent and complexity of munitions poduction," (324). In the aticle's second section, the authos descibe how Wold Wa Two alteed Canada's ole in intenational politics. In the section entitled "Canada and Canadians," the authos ague that the Second Wold Wa…
references to source material and the article contains no reference documentation.
Furthermore, the authors do not discuss exceptions to their argument. The most glaring omission from the essay is the Japanese internment camps. Although Canada had "loosened up" and became more tolerant in general, the nation also demonstrated great flaws in the way it dealt with social and economic situations. Not everyone benefited from the war. Therefore, "The War Changed Everything" glorifies World War Two without admitting that not everything about the war was wonderful.
While the United States of America over the past decades has maintained its superiority over other nations in terms of political clout, there is a certain imbalance in power within the geopolitical system of the world that is causing nations to become embittered. The United States began its reign of controversy after World War II and yet, it was the Vietnam War that completed the role in unethical representation in terms of military and political power. The Vietnam War was fought on the basis of freedom, democracy and the need to hinder the spread of the evil of Communism. The slogan of the times was that if the spread of communism was not stalled, America would soon lose its freedom and democracy the world over would be wiped out. These words may seem dramatic to the rational mind but to really understand the mood of the time such words…
Potter, Paul. "Incredible War" by Paul Potter, from Takin' it to the streets: A Sixties Reader Edited by Alexander Bloom and Wini Breine. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Smith, Ted. J., III. Propaganda: A Pluralitic Perspective New York: Praeger, 1989.
ar in Iraq focuses on the prospects of war in Iraq. This paper highlights the pros and cons of a war. The paper argues about the unethical waging of war by the United States on Iraq while highlighting some quotes to support its claim.
ar In Iraq
The United States of America and the rest of the world turned over a new leaf after the September 11 incident. Many viewpoints were put forward when President Bush decided to wage a war against Iraq. Some thought that the war was a result of America's greed for oil or to set up the corrupt status quo, as it did in Vietnam and elsewhere in the Arab world during the cold war. The reason that the United States gave for the war was to install democracy in the heart of the Muslim world. No matter what the purpose of the war may be,…
Washington T. Bush Team Doesn't Want People To See Human Cost Of War. The Toronto Star. 11 Feb. 2003.
Scott S. Analysis: Effects Of War In Iraq On Turkey, Iran And Saudi Arabia.
Weekend Edition Saturday NPR. 19 Oct. 2002.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
Because the country was essentially thirteen colonies fighting separately, the British had to deal with battles throughout the country, with people who were fighting for their homes and towns. The American forces knew their surroundings better, and they were motivated to fight well to protect their loved ones and neighbors.
The Declaration of Independence, written in July 1776, indicates how resolved most of the population was to independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, author of the document, wrote that the British government had become "destructive," and people believed they must assert their independence and be free of the country, or their lives would never be free from oppression. He wrote, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the ight of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in…
Editors. "Revolutionary War Causes." Son of the South. 2009. 20 Feb. 2009. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/cause-revolutionary-war.htm .
Gerlach, Larry R., James a. Dolph, and Michael L. Nicholls, eds. Legacies of the American Revolution. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1978.
Sweeney, Jerry K., ed. A Handbook of American Military History: From the Revolutionary War to the Present. 2nd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2006
Ward, Harry M. The War for Independence and the Transformation of American Society. London: UCL Press, 1999.
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…
(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
(2) Ibid, 1.
(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
Force that Gives Meaning
Today I received an e-mail message about a funeral for a soldier in Texas. The sender who forwarded it wrote that his "faith in America had been restored" when he read this account by the deceased's wife:
When we turned off the highway, suddenly there were teenage boys along both sides of the street about every 20 feet or so, all holding large American flags on long flag poles, and again with their hands on their hearts ... Hundreds of young people, standing silently on the side of the road with flags. At one point we passed an elementary school, and all the children were outside, shoulder to shoulder holding flags ... kindergartners, handicapped, teachers, staff, everyone. Some held signs of love and support. Then came teenage girls and younger boys, all holding flags. Then Adults. Then families. All standing silently on the side of the…
Cooper, Gloria. (2004). The censors: New patterns in opinion control. Columbia Journalism Review, 43, 2, 58-9, Jul/Aug.
Hedges, C. (2001). War is a force that gives us meaning. New York: Public Affairs.
Louis, W.R. & D.M. Taylor (2002). Understanding the September 11 terrorist attack on America: The role of intergroup theories of normative influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 87-100.
Victoroff, J. (2005). The mind of the terrorist: A review and critique of psychological approaches. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb, 3-42.
On 4th May 2016 The Trade Union Bill received royal assent to become the Trade Union Act 2016.
Employment Minister Nick Boles said:
These changes will ensure people are only ever disrupted by industrial action when it is supported by a reasonable proportion of union members. The Trade Union Act means the rights of the public to go about their lives are fairly balanced with members ability to strike.
Unite General Secretary Len McCluskey said:
The bills progress today is a dark day for workers and for those who speak up in their defence when power is misused.
(Adapted from Moss (2016) Trade Union act 2016 becomes law, Personnel Today available at http://www.personneltoday.com/hr/trade-union-act-2016-becomes-law/ )
The Trade Union Act (2016) has been a controversial piece of legislation and did not have a smooth passage through parliament. The draft regulations are set to come into force on 1st March 2017.…
War and Society
Can war be an effective policy tool in the 21st century?
War is a very contentious issue plaguing modern day society. The prospect of war is exacerbated by the continual conflicts between self-serving nations. As such discrepancies continue to either strengthen or diminish once strong relationships between countries. In addition, technology and its rapid proliferation have contributed heavily to the overall war debate. Technology, and its rapid advancement makes, acquiring and replicating weapons of mass destruction more financially feasible. As the cost to produce weapons diminishes so too will the ability to strike unsuspecting nations. Factions that ordinary would not have the financial resources to construct or attack a country, now have the ability to do so in an effective manner. As such, it is my belief that war is not an effective policy tool for the 21st century. The ability to inflict massive causalities is simply…
1) Karol Jan Borowiecki, 2012. Are composers different? Historical evidence on conflict-induced migration (1816-1997). European Review of Economic History, vol.16(3), pp.261-91
War on Drugs
The concept of the 'War on Drugs' was first coined by President Nixon back in 1971 in an effort to discourage the illegal trafficking of drugs. The primary motivation for this was the way that many states were falling victim to the dynamics of the drugs and terrorism links prevalent in the region. There have many studies conducted that show various authentic connections between the drug business and how a majority of the money it produces is used to fund terrorism and destructive activities.
Throughout the late 19th century, numerous parts of the United States, from time to time, have faced numerous disruptions in their efforts for the peace process because of the growth of the drug industry. The entire debate on war in drugs now revolves around whether or not, certain drugs must be legalized/not legalized and their trafficking and distribution monitored. In a recent article,…
Duzan, M.J. (1994). Death Beat: A Colombian Journalist's Life inside the Cocaine Wars, ed. And trans. By Peter Eisner. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, p. 4.
Ehrenfeld, R. (1990). Narcoterrorism. Basic Books, pp. 31 -- 36.
Falcoff, M. (2000). Colombia: The Problem that Will Not Go Away. AEI Latin American Outlook March 2000: 1, http://www.aei.org/lao/lao11476.htm
Hudson, R.A. (1995). Colombia's Palace of Justice Tragedy Revisited: A Critique of the Conspiracy Theory. Terrorism and Political Violence 7: 100 -- 103, 119 -- 121.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
War in Iraq
Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…
Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/
CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04 http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/
Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html
Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
War of 1812
A mere thirty years after the end of the Revolutionary War -- which saw the American colonies separate from and defeat the British empire -- the fledgling United States found itself once again face-to-face with the world's greatest military power in a struggle to secure for the new nation, a mark of international status. The War of 1812 began with a "secret vote on June 4th, in which House members endorsed going to war 79-49…and a Senate vote on June 17 favoring war 19 to 13" (Langguth, A.J. 2006). How though had the U.S. arrived at this precarious position and what would the confrontation invariably mean for American interests going forward?
Causes of War
America's "second war of independence" (Langguth, A.J. 2006) had three primary causes: the impressment of American sailors, the British trade and embargo and blockade of U.S. ports, and the "incitement of Native American's…
United States Military Performance Against the British in the War of 1812
In June 1812, the U.S. declared a war against the British and their North American allies. The war, according to Smith, was motivated by America's quest to take control of Britain's North American territories, Britain's punitive trade policy, Britain's support for Native Americans, and the forced enrolment of American sailors into the British navy. As a young nation, the U.S. was eager to safeguard its newly acquired independence. Commonly known as the forgotten war (Hickey 1), the war had important lessons for the U.S. This paper briefly evaluates the performance of the U.S. military in the war.
As depicted in the film The War of 1812, the U.S. initially employed an offensive strategy against the British (Public Broadcasting Service). Since the British navy was the strongest worldwide, the U.S. paid attention to land campaigns, especially in Upper and…
" There is a more calm feeling to his description. This is not to say that the author was portraying war as being a patriotic act, but the author was not as graphical in his describing what the soldiers were seeing and going through. The reader is more connected to the actions of the poem and not the fact that someone is dying. He ends his poem by referencing "hell" and the reader is left wondering whether the hell that he is referring to the war that is being left behind, or to dying itself.
3) Rites of Passage Activity
In speaking to my grandmother, I was able to find out what it was that she took when she first left her home. At the age of sixteen, she was married to my grandfather and was getting ready to start her knew life as a wife and very soon, as…
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
Involved people in these illegal transfers take advantage of institutional weaknesses and corruption to achieve their objectives.
One of the constant features found along the research is the weak handling of systematic information by the state authorities, especially from the police bodies. At the same time, the lack of channels that facilitate the free access to information about official proceedings make it difficult for the citizens to take part in solving the problem (ibid.).
The borders' porosity is another risk for democracy because bordering zones are strategic spaces for different illicit traffics which look to be controlled by organized crime. Internationalization of crime and its organization structures represent a problem for national security and for the region's stability.
Illegal traffic of fire arms is associated with other illicit traffics which are complemented mainly with drug traffic. Economic resources generated with those actions at the sideline of law are higher than…
Camacho, Daniel Avila . " Interrelationship between Drug Trafficking and the Illicit Arms Trade."
Unidir.org. Unidir.org, 2012. Web. 9 Apr 2012. .
Cullinan, Jeanna . "Latin American Leaders Demand Action on Illicit Arms Trafficking ."
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
U.S. Involvement in orld ar I & II:
There are several historical details of America's involvement in the First and Second world wars and the critical role that this country played in the two wars. Studies on these historical events have mainly focused on examining the involvement of the United States in the wars, the results of the engagement, and its impact on the country's position nationally and globally. America's involvement in the two wars had a crucial impact on the development of the nation to its current state both from the home front and internationally.
America's Involvement in orld ar I:
America's entrance and involvement in the First orld ar occurred on 6th April 1917, breaking the nation's long isolation tradition. The nation had embraced a policy of isolation and neutrality when war was declared in Europe in 1914. This policy seemed to be the most appropriate approach since…
"45. America in the First World War." U.S. History: Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. U.S. History - Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia. Web. 21 May 2012. .
"World War II Guide: Bibliographical Essay." Digital History. The University of Houston. Web. 21 May 2012. .
China and the Cold War
The term "cold war" is used for explaining the shifting efforts of the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the ending of World War II until 1989 in order to attain supremacy influence and esteem on a global level. If seen from a worldwide magnitude, the conflict can be understood as an ideological clash between communism and capitalist democracy ("cold war," 2012). China occupied an exceptional place in the Cold War for the reason that it was the point of both the affection and aggression of the two main world powers i.e. The United States of America and Soviet Union (Bernstein, 2003, p. 91).
Cold War -- China's ole
The West and the Soviet Union had a long history of joint mistrust and this resistance was every now and then apparent in the Grand Alliance during World War II. After the end of the…
Bernstein, L. (March/April 2003). Mao's China and the Cold War. Military Review, 83(2), Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-348080571/mao-s-china-and-the-cold-war
"Cold War." In (2012). Columbia University Press. Retrieved August 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-coldwar/cold-war
Ross, R.S. (1993). China, the United States, and the Soviet Union: Tripolarity and Policy Making in the Cold War. New York M.E. Sharpe. Retrieved August 3, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/77421052/china-the-united-states-and-the-soviet-union-tripolarity
Barbary Terror: America's 1815 ar against the Pirates of North Africa
During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815…
Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North
Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Military ar or Campaign
The world has existed amidst a set of wars and conflicts that have shaped political systems, governments, and humanitarian associations. Gulf ar is one of the universal and all time conflicts that rocked the world. ith equitable measures and categorical procedures, philosophies, missions, and visions of these wars, this piece of study exemplifies Gulf ar as one of America's participatory wars in the world. The article tries to establish the basement of Gulf ar together with its consequences and responses it received from the United States of America and the world as a whole.
and the Middle East have been on good terms for quite some time. Various wars between the U.S. And countries including Iraq have occurred. In such instances, military deployment by the U.S. government is intense supported by its foreign policies. This study focuses on the 1990/91 Gulf ar. The America's paradoxical love-hate…
Boyne, Walter J. Gulf War: A Comprehensive Guide to People, Places & Weapons. New York: Signet, 1991. Print.
Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris. The Gulf War: Its Origins, History, and Consequences.
London: Methuen London, 1989. Print.
Carlisle, Rodney, and John S. Bowman. Persian Gulf War. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was what allegorically kick-started the First World War. However, there was a lot more to what actually led to the outbreak of war than one political assassination. The assassination of the Archduke was significant in that it represented a growing trend in the geo-political landscape of Europe: nationalism. The Serbian assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand.
Sensing that budding discontent against the Austro-Hungarian regime could be politically costly, the Empire, still under Franz Josef goaded the Serbian nationalists first by issuing an ultimatum. The Austro-Hungarian Empire wanted to gain total control over the entire Balkans: a geographically strategic area. Serbia stood in its way, making it seem like a worthwhile maneuver to enter into war if need be. Serbian nationalists, on the other hand, also believed it worthwhile to push back against the encroachment on…
The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a ussian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)
The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…
Best of Counter terrorism and Security" Counter Terrorism and Security International. Retrieved at http://www.iacsp.com/a4.html . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Clements, Kevin. (2002) "The War on Terrorism and its Aftermath" The Second eSymposium on Conflict Prevention Dialogue Session 2. February. Retrieved at http://www.dwcw.org/e-symposium/cgi/wwwbbs.cgi-Symposium_2&88Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Corera, Gordon. (2004). "War on Terror vanishes from agenda" 24 November. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4034833.stm . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Hanson, Victor Davis. (2005) "Post-Modern War." Free Republic. 10 January. Retrieved at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1317714/postsAccessed on 17 January, 2005
Lloyd George from England, Woodrow Wilson from the U.S., Orlando from Italy, and Clemenceau from France held a meeting in 1919 to discuss the manner through which Germany was to be made to pay for the harm that had been brought about by World War 1. According to Woodrow Wilson, an agreement founded on his 14-point plan was the most appropriate way of bringing peace to Europe. However, Georges Clemenceau wanted payback. He wanted an assurance that Germany would never attempt to begin another war. Lloyd George welcomed Wilson's idea, however, realized that the British public welcomed Clemenceau's idea. He attempted to find some compromise amidst Clemenceau and Wilson (World War Two -- Causes). Germany was anticipating an agreement founded on Wilson's 14 points, and was not pleased with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. Nonetheless, they had no option but to sign the treaty.
The League of Nations…
"Causes of World War 2 - What REALLY caused WW2?" World War Two History Guide -- WW2 Battle Guide. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War Two - Causes -- HistoryOnTheNet." From Ancient Times to the 20th Century -- HistoryOnTheNet. 14 Aug 2014. Web. 9 Oct 2015. .
"World War II: Causes and Outbreak." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help.. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
War against Iraq
War has had a tremendous effect on me and my family as a result of the war which occurred with Iraq. The taxes imposed by the government by way of increased taxation were creating difficulties for my family. My father being the only full-time employed member of the family, the increased taxation was creating financial difficulties for us to bear the costs of running the family. There were Muslim friends of mine who were looked upon with suspicion by the administration and the Police authorities. They had expressed their inability to overcome the problem of the suspicious eyes on their day-to-day activities. As a result war does not give me good memories, being attacked by difficulties in running the family and of having to witness the sufferings of my friends who have to bear the cost. So I felt that I should take up this project of…
nations all over Europe made mutual defense treaties, which would pull them into war. These agreements implied that in case one nation was invaded, associated nations had to protect them. The following alliances existed prior to World War 1 (Kelly):
Japan and Britain
ussia and Serbia
France and ussia
Germany and Austria-Hungary
Britain and France and Belgium
The Triple Alliance was created in 1882 by Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary. These three nations agreed to support one another in case of an attack from either ussia or France. France, in particular, felt intimidated by this alliance. The main aim of the alliance was to support collaboration against Germany's thought threat. After three years, ussia that was scared of the growth of the German Army, united with France and Britain, to create the Triple Entente (Triple Entente). Contrary to the Triple Alliance, the terms of the Entente did not need each nation…
"Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated - Jun 28, 1914 - HISTORY.com." History Canada -- Videos, TV Schedule & Watch Full Episodes Online. Web. 14 Oct 2015. .
"First World War.com - Feature Articles - The Planning of the War." First World War.com - A Multimedia History of World War One. Web. 9 Oct 2015.
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…
Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm
Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: Authorhouse.
Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Lloyd-George, D. (1939). Memoirs of the Peace Conference. CT: Yale University
In April 2nd 1982, the then Argentinian government sent soldiers to take over the disputed Falklands Islands. The reason for this is that the South American country regarded the group of islands as part of its territory. However, the British, who already occupied the islands, also regarded the Falklands as their territory. Over the next one month, both countries made serious attempts to store the conflict from escalating. Alexander Haig, who was the then United States Secretary of State was right in the middle of the diplomatic negotiations to try and stop the conflicting from escalating. He and his team travelled frantically between the London and Buenos Aires to meet and negotiate with the leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom and President Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina. Nevertheless, the countless hours of negotiations and the frantic efforts of the Alexander Haig and his…
War on Terror
Terrorism has always been with society, but since 2001 the elements of how it is handled have changed to some extent. In order to understand how that has taken place, it is vital to look carefully at the historical events of terrorism. These events were significant in that they caused serious harm to a number of people and structures, but they also matter because they provide a timeline of how things have changed and how terrorism -- and the responses to it -- has evolved over the years (Coaty, 12). As the terrorists have focused on doing different things, the people who are trained to respond to terror have also changed their focus. It is both of these sides of the terrorist issue that have to be examined to provide a proper understanding of what terrorism does and how those who combat it and fight against it…
Coaty, P. (2012). Understanding the war on terror (3rd ed.). IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing.
The author mentioned that rather than only tying the drug consumption with unemployment, urban drug culture, and other factors, one needs to view the drug pervasiveness issues in light of distribution channels as well. The author mentioned that South East Asia's Golden Triangle was the hub of opium trade to the world. Thai-Burma border was used by the Yunnan province drug lords to change opium into marijuana and heroin. The long trail from Golden Triangle to New York was managed by Yunnan merchants and they exported the illicit drugs to Thai -- Burma border. After refinement into heroin, the drugs were then carried by the Chiu Chau Chinese drug traders. They transported these drugs to Bangkok, South Asia, America and Europe. ith loose organizational structures, these Chinese networks of drug trade were closely knit clans and fiercely ruthless in their trade practices as were the gangs of Versailles.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's war on drugs: No margin for maneuver." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.1 (2002): 134-148.
Grayson, George W. Mexico: Narco-violence and a failed state? Transaction Books, 2011.
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,