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Organizational Structure of the Sdpd
Police Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure of the San Diego Police Department
Organizational Structure of the San Diego Police Department
Although the most recent organizational chart for the San Diego Police Department (SDPD) was created in 2012, William M. Lansdowne is no longer the Chief of Police for the City of San Diego. The current Chief of Police is Shelly Zimmerman (City of San Diego, 2014). Chief Zimmerman does not report directly to the mayor, but to Scott Chadwick, Chief Operating Officer for the city government. Directly under the police chief is the Executive Assistant Chief (EAC) within the Department of Operations, through which Patrol Operations, Special Operations, Centralized Investigations, and Neighborhood Policing are controlled. The Criminal Intelligence Unit (CIU) is an independent unit, whose commander reports directly to the Chief of Police. The CIU collects intelligence related to organized crime for investigations and prosecutors and…
City of San Diego. (2014). City Organizational Chart. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2014 from http://www.sandiego.gov/orgchart/pdf/allcity.pdf .
Peterson, M. (2005). Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture. Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2014 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/210681.pdf .
SDPD. (2011). Budget. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2014 from http://www.sandiego.gov/fm/annual/pdf/fy11/55v2police.pdf .
SDPD. (2012). San Diego Police Department. Retrieved 18 Mar. 2014 from https://www.sandiego.gov/police/pdf/orgchart.pdf .
Just a strict surveillance or acting upon people's calls and reporting of crimes might help people feel more secure and they might trust the police to help keep them safer. This way crime may be able to be controlled without even installing more policemen. The punishments for catching the criminal activities should also be strict enough for people to think twice before committing an act. According to the classical sociologists, criminals are very rational in making their decisions about committing crime. They weigh out what they will gain from the act and how much trouble they will call upon themselves if they get caught. Hence, one way in which to reduce the crime rates would be to enforce strict actions and rules that are actually implemented.
Some sociological researchers have also evaluated that some police forces are highly discriminating and biased in their fight against crime. They may discriminate on…
Boydstun, John. "The effects of hotspot policing on crime." The annuals of American Political and Social Sciences (1975): 104-125.
Chamlin, Mitchell. "The police, crime and economic theory." American Journal of Criminal Justice (1996): 165-182.
Hesseling, Rene. Displacement: A review of the emperical literature. New York: Criminal Justice Press, 1994.
Maguire, Edward. Have changes in policing reduced violent crime? New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Policing Policies Analysis
This study seeks to strengthen the practice of policing by demonstrating the effectiveness of the problem-oriented policing. The information provided herein is useful to practitioners as it compares problem-oriented policing against community-oriented policing. Practitioners will be able to create much robust policing intervention when addressing real life situations within the field by grasping the theoretical mechanisms (Hess & Orthmann, 2011). In addition, by linking academic theories to policing, this review helps theoretical criminologists ponder about the most useful concepts for practical police level.
Zero tolerance Policing
Zero-tolerance policing lacks a specific definition; it can be understood in various ways. The recent definition entails non-discretional and strict enforcement of law regardless of the magnitude or circumstances of the crime. While this approach involves positive police actions, it does not equate to automatic arrests of trivial crimes. This is the most aggressive policing approach and cannot be equated to…
Wakefield, A., & Fleming, J. (2008). The SAGE Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage Publications.
Palmiotto, M. (2009). Community policing: A policing strategy for the 21st century. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen.
Do-lling, D. (2013). Community policing: Comparative aspects of community oriented police work. Holzkirchen/Obb: Felix.
Ikerd, T.E. (2007). Examining the institutionalization of problem-oriented policing: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg police department as a case study.
Challenges to policing in the 21st century
Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…
Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html.
Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
This model provided for a hierarchical chain of command based on rank but there are many experts who argue that such system is out-dated. New systems where command is much less centralized and individual police are allowed autonomy in their specific neighborhoods and areas. This is an attempt to integrate the police more heavily into their neighborhood and to develop the idea that police work is a community challenge and not the work of the police alone. The long-range goal of this type of policing is to have the public view policing as a service and the public as customers. Eventually this will result in the effectiveness being measured by public satisfaction and not by harsh statistics such as the number of crimes occurring and the number of arrests being made.
Whatever changes are eventually implemented in regard to policing in America such changes will not be easy. Police agencies,…
Butterfield, R. (2005). The New Public Management and Managerial Roles: the case of the Police Sergeant. British Journal of Management, 329-341.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Investigations & Operations Support. Retrieved from the FBI.
Gau, J.M. (2010). Procedural Justice and Order Maintenance Policing: A Study of Inner-City Young Men's Perceptions of Police Legitimacy. Justice Quarterly, 255-279.
Grabosky, P.N. (2007). Private Sponsorship of Public Policing. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, 5-16.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Traditional Crime Policy
Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)
However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)
As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…
"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012
Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…
Caldero, M.A. & Crank, J.P. (2011). Police ethics: The corruption of noble cause. Burlington, MA: Anderson Publishing.
Terwilliger, G.J., Cooperstein, S.G., Blumenthal, D., & Parker, R. (2005, February 15). The war on terrorism: Law enforcement or national security? Retrieved April 27, 2011 from http://www.fed-soc.org/publications/detail/the-war-on-terrorism-law-enforcement-or-national-security
At this time there is no uniform consensus about what agencies have authority in the Middle East. The Dubai police are working with agencies including the Department of Homeland Security to establish a more democratic policing system. Despite their best efforts however, there still exist many groups within the Middle East that adopt radical approaches to policing. Not every agency agrees on uniform democracy, and some still prefer an authoritarian approach to policing (Exum, 2006, p. 1). This can and often does lead to greater violence within the region, with in many cases people living within the regions of the Middle East still lacking freedom of expression and living in fear of violent punishment for any crimes committed.
As Exum (2006) noted in his overview of policing in the Middle East, a bus driver was at one point withdrawn from his vehicle and beaten as well as sodomized as a…
Exum, Andrew. (2006). "Hizballah at War: A Military Assessment." The Washington
Institute for Near/East Policy, Accessed 3, May 2007: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2574
Institute of Race Relations. (2007). "The politics of fear: Civil society and the security state." Institute of Race Relations, Accessed 3, May 2007:
The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…
Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal
Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.
Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media
Age." Routledge: New York.
Just like every other institution in the country, American policing system went through a long period of evolution to finally achieve the shape that it has today. And similar to other laws and institutions in America, even police recruitment methods were heavily borrowed from Britain. In the 19th century or at least for most part of it, American police was shaped after the British policing laws (O'Keefe, 2004). However the one important difference lied in the separation of national and local police bodies. Since in most western countries, police was under the direct control of the national government, it was easier to manage them from one central location and their development was also almost simultaneous. However that was not the case in the United States where every county and state had its own local police department, which is why development of sporadic and departments were created at different…
1) Miller, Wilbur R. (1999) Cops and Bobbies: Police Authority in New York and London, 1830-1870. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
2) Wadman, Robert C. And William Thomas Allison (2004) To Protect And Serve: A History Of Police In America. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey
3) James O'Keefe. (2004) Protecting the Republic: The education and training of American police officers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Police Systems and Practices Question Set
Discuss how temperament can impair communication?
The ability control one's temperament at all times while working as a police officer is crucial to the performance of daily duties, because there are many instances when law enforcement personnel may be provoked to reaction in a purposeful manner. If an officer is unable to refrain from responding to insults in kind, or begins to yell or otherwise express anger, the course of an investigation or civilian interaction will become irrevocably altered. Simply put, ordinary people are less willing to cooperate with police officers and other authority figures who are openly frustrated, angry, spiteful, impatient, or otherwise perturbed -- so it is imperative that maintaining an even-keeled temperament become both a departmental and personal priority.
Discuss how failure of supervisors to act can impede future communication from subordinates.
A police officer's locker room is like any other…
Traditional Organized Crime Groups
The task at hand is to report upon the organized criminal activities of the Italian mafia that is partially transplanted from Italy and its islands, as well as the mafia culture that is indigenous to the United States. The mafia is somewhat of an open secret. People know and believe that it exists, yet it is not a topic that people often discuss publically, and for good reason. Secrecy and discretion is key to the existence of the traditional organized crime group of the Italian O.C., also known as La Costra Nostra. The mafia, like the media, the government, the prison system, and education, is an industry. As the world changes, the mafia diversifies its activities to keep up with the times, creating as many streams of revenue from as many directions as possible. The Italian mafia has long since been a group that…
ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/la-cosa-nostra.htm . 2013 May 04. Web.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia . 2013 May 04. Web.
Even landscape plantings and pavement designs can "develop a sense of territorial control while potential offenders, perceiving this control, are discouraged" (Otterstatter 2008).
A well-maintained area can create a sense that the potential criminal is being 'watched' and that the property is not friendly to criminal activity. Visible monitoring devices, such as 'blue lights' on college campuses, which enable people who are assaulted to quickly summon the police, and the presence of electronic visual monitoring devices in open areas and in public places such as shopping malls can also decrease crime. Even if officers can not be present at every lonely corner, or even if these devices cannot be monitored 24/7, the visual reminder that some form of watchfulness is likely can be a criminal deterrent. So can what CPTED criminologists call "natural access control," or "a design concept directed primarily at decreasing crime opportunity by denying access to crime…
O'Connor, T. (7 Aug 2007). "Informants, surveillance, and undercover operations."
MegaLinks in Criminal Justice. Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/3220/3220lect02c.htm
Otterstatter, Robert (6 Jun 2008). "CPTED Crime Prevention." CPTED Watch
Retrieved 6 Jun 2008 at http://www.cpted-watch.com
Police Mentally Ill
Policing and Mentally Ill Individuals
There is a significantly higher proportion of mentally ill individuals in the criminal justice system than compared to the same proportion of the United States in the society in general. It is estimated that a mentally ill individual is about eight times more likely to enter into the criminal justice system than they are a mental hospital. These individuals, as the video and the interview illustrates, have special challenges that make them difficult to deal with. Often they hear voices and are paranoid schizophrenics that require a host of special medications to allow them the possibility of being stable. However, many of these individuals face specific challenges that make it difficult for them to access and maintain an effective treatment regimen. This paper will provide a brief overview of how this situation arose and what implications it has for modern police forces.…
CIT International. (N.d.). Mephis Model. Retrieved from CIT International: http://www.citinternational.org/training-overview/163-memphis-model.html
Conan, N. (2012, April 2). A Patient's Perspective: Police and the Mentally Ill. Retrieved from NPR: http://www.npr.org/2012/04/02/149857042/a-patients-perspective-police-and-the-mentally-ill
PBS. (2009, April 28). The Released. Retrieved from Frontline: http://video.pbs.org/video/1114528522/
Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.
One of the major things that management can do is increase traffic control. From the Department of Motor Vehicles, which screens people before issuing identification, to officers in routine traffic stops and roadblocks that look for suspected terrorist activity, management can change policies in a manner aimed at increasing detection. (Riebling, p.8). The more routine contact that the police have with members of society; the more likely they are to uncover possible terrorist activity.
Finally, the community at large faces new challenges in the wake of 9-11. Americans have a tremendous amount of civil rights, which generally exceed those that have received constitutional protection. Prior to 9-11, the majority of community members who avoided criminal activity would be able to avoid interactions with the police. However, now that law enforcement has had to broaden its emphasis and take a closer look at the community, the average citizen can anticipate greater…
Connors, Timothy and Georgia Pellegrini, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: Policing Terrorism in the United States. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.
Riebling, Mark, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: The New Paradigm- Merging Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism Strategies. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.
Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).
In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam
Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
departments, police officer a generalist. Discuss inconsistent Max Weber's theory division labor? 2) Police departments written protocols including general orders procedures.
Max Weber promotes the idea of specialized division of labor, thus meaning that his theories are against instances such as a police officer taking on generalist roles. By carrying out specialized roles, individuals are more likely to assist the community as a whole in achieving positive results. This would also make it possible for the system to be better organized and for the idea of hierarchy to be less problematic.
Police departments need to encourage officers to take on open minded attitudes in spite of the fact that their role is to enforce laws whenever this is required. Officer discretion involves a law enforcement agent being able to properly understand the situation that he or she is in. Decision space is the information concerning the options that he or…
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?
Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).
12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?
The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
The History and Concept of Community Policing in the U.S.
Community Policing Origins
Community Policing Philosophy
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services
Community policing is as much a philosophy as it is a practice. At the heart of the concept lies a deep level of collaboration between the community and the police. However, to form such a relationship many intermediary goals must first be achieved. Most likely, one of the primary values that must be established is a sense of trust between both the community and the police force. If the community perceives the police force as corrupt or ineffective then will generally remain apathetic to the goals of community policing. At the same time, if the police force is not fully engaged with the public then are not likely to benefit from the communities assistance. Therefore, to establish effective community policing efforts a balance between…
AA County Police. (2007, July 7). POLICE DISCRETION & ALTERNATIVES TO ARREST. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Police Rules and Regulations: http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections01-06/0105.2DiscretionAlternArrest.pdf
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994, August). Understanding Community Policing. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from U.S. Department of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
COPS. (2011). Community Policing Defined. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Community Oriented Policing Services: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
Sherman, L. (1990). POLICING FOR CRIME PREVENTION. American Journal of Police, 43-74.
Community policing arose from dissatisfaction with traditional policing. According to Brogden (1999), traditional police work focuses primarily on fighting serious crime. Proponents of community policing claim that this framework of policing has failed to serve the needs of the community and that traditional police work ignores the factors that most communities regard as priority. Fleming (2005) adds that traditional crime control methods failed to adequately address crime. Brogden (1999) explains that traditional policing "has been faced with several inter-linked crises -- of operations (policing practices are highly ineffective at dealing with crime): of efficiency in crime prevention, especially in the failure to enlist the potential of citizens and communities in this process of crime prevention, and in dealing with the symptoms rather than the causes of crime; of professionalism (the lack of relations between higher police pay, codes of conduct, and effectiveness); and of accountability" (p. 173). Fleming (2005) adds…
Alldredge, P. (2009). The Contradictions of Neighborhood Watch: The Growth and Success of a Failed Crime Prevention Strategy. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association, 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2006). Does neighborhood watch reduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 437-458. doi:10.1007/s11292-006-9018-5
Brogden, M.M. (1999). CHAPTER 10: Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In, Policing Across the World (pp. 167-186). Taylor & Francis Ltd. / Books. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Community policing. Office of Justice Programs: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=81#terms_def
Protecting Police & Engaging Citizens
he nature of police work must ensure that is as adaptable, sophisticated, networked, and transnational as the criminals and terrorists it fights. A modern approach to policing must contain elements of traditional, mainstream efforts to fight crime along with a set of tools for carrying out an effective community policing approach. his paper provides a brief discussion about what such a hybrid model looks like in practice and touches on elements of complexity of police work in an increasingly global arena.
Addressing Escalated hreat Levels.
Some dynamics of society seem inevitably linked, moving in tandem as though some invisible lynch-pin had been driven through their respective cores. Poverty and crime. Violence and counter-violence. Wealth and indifference. Frustration and destruction. Fanaticism and irrationality. Naturally, there are exceptions. Some Buddhists live in poverty but are peaceful and law-abiding. Where culture or religion calls for acceptance of one's…
There is an inherent tension between a retreat from the tenets of community policing and policing strategies intended to keep a safety buffer between the police and the community they serve and protect. The research includes work from authors who believe that a shift toward policing that could be characterized by paramilitarism occurred prior to September 11 (McCulloch, 2001a, Weber, 1999, p.2). Describing how community policing works in the Australian environment, McCulloch (2001b, p. 4) referred to an "iron fist" covered by a "velvet glove." Murray (2005) presented a comparison between the transitions that have occurred with regard to traditional policing and community policing. His work also includes a comparison of the cultures of both approaches to policing. Murray's conclusion is that the two orientations to policing are not incompatible; he proposes a hybrid model of policing that would enable both approaches to coexist.
Murray suggests that community policing continues to be the best way to prevent crime and to prevent acts of terrorism. He bases this conclusion on the enhanced capacity of a community to effectively communicate concerns and observations when there is a basic level of trust between citizens and the police in the community. The issue is that it is increasingly difficult to distinguish those with malevolent intent from those who must be protected from malevolence. When community members see themselves as partners in the efforts of the police to keep them safe in their own communities, the efficacy of community policing is both possible and enhanced.
The pressure on a police force that currently operates in a community policing mode to transition back to a traditional policing model is substantive. This pressure comes from the citizens -- who desire to see evidence that the country is taking effective steps to fight the war on terror, and from politicians for whom crime fighting and homeland security issues are "election sensitive." Paramilitary approaches to national security can readily be seen in other countries, as discussed, and it may be difficult for the
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
Proactive vs. Reactive Policing
One of the biggest differences between the services offered by traditional police forces and private security forces stems from the fact that police work is generally reactive, while private security forces are proactive. This fundamentally different approach to policing and security results in different emphases on prevention, investigation, and the relationship with the broader community. As a reactive force, police tend to deal with crime after the fact, whereas private security forces are designed to prevent crime via a system of risk management and proactive investigation.
Before seeing how this difference in emphasis affects the delivery of services, it will be useful to define the terms "reactive" and "proactive" a little more clearly, especially as they relate to police work. Reactive police work is that which responds to crime after the fact, so that the majority of the time police are only found at "scenes where…
Culbertson, HM. (2000). A key step in police-community relations: identify the divisive issues.
Public Relations Quarterly, 45(1), 13-17.
Ponsaers, P. (2001). Reading about "community (oriented) policing" and police models. Policing,24(14), 470-496.
Peel's Metropolitan Police were the first modern police force (Grant & Terry, 2012).
Modern police forces were established in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s. As in England, the old system of law enforcement broke down due to urbanization, industrialization, and immigration. Americans borrowed most of the features of modern policing from London: the mission of crime prevention, the strategy of visible patrol over fixed beats, and the quasi-military organizational structure (Walker & Katz, 2011).
The terrorist attacks of 9/11 have resulted in some police agencies becoming involved in matters related to homeland security. Since these attacks police departments have been expanding into new areas of investigation and working more closely with federal law enforcement, intelligence agencies, and the military. Additionally, departments have increased their levels of surveillance over their communities, and are paying more attention to the safety of critical infrastructure (Walker & Katz, 2011).
Grant, H.B. & Terry, K.J. (2012). Law enforcement in the 21st century, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Walker, S. & Katz, C.M. (2011). The police in America, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Community policing comes from the service-oriented policing school. The focus of community policing is to have police in the community, an active presence with a storefront, so that people in the community can interact more directly with police. The traditional policing model is more a situation where there is a headquarters, and police fan out through the city or their districts from a handful of such headquarters. They are detached from specific neighborhoods and communities will find it generally more difficult to interact with police in a traditional policing model.
There are three different components to community policing: community partnership, organizational transformation and problem solving (COPS, no date). The first, partnerships, reflects that community policing involves forming partnerships with different stakeholders within the community. This can be business groups, homeowner groups or other stakeholders. The community has a better sense of what is going on in its neighborhood, and that…
COPS (no date). Community policing defined. U.S. Department of Justice. . Retrieved March 12, 2016 from http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p157-pub.pdf
(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)
The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.
Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…
About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://www.communitypolicing.org/about2.html
BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/bja/fs000267.txt
COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7
Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from, http://www.wsurcpi.org/resources/citizen_invol/Community-Oriented%20Policing%20Blessing%20or%20Curse.htm
police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?
Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…
Anderson, R 1994, "Intelligence-led policing: A British perspective," in A Smith(ed) Intelligence-led policing: International perspective on policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement intelligence Analyst.
Anderson, R 1997, "Intelligence-led policing: A British Perspective," In Intelligence-led policing: International Perspective on policing in the 21st Century: Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst.
Bennett, T 1994, 'Community policing on the ground: developments in Britain,' in D.P. Rosenbaum(ed) The challenge of community policing: Testing the promises, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
Carter, DL and Carter, JG 2009, "Intelligence-Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy," Criminal Justice Policy Review 20, no. 3: 310-325
Role of Leadership in Police Management
Police organizations have historically emphasized the use of authoritarian types of administration and Machiavellian leadership practices. Even today, many police organizations have behavioral orientations reflective of dominance, individual achievement and masculinity.
However, recent challenges such as developing community-oriented policing and transforming a traditional police culture that typically emphasized operational "efficiencies," to one that promotes team collaboration, innovation, and "effective" processes suggest the need for new leadership patterns within law enforcement agencies.
In all organizations, effective leadership is necessary, as a lack of it can be detrimental to an organization's success. In many cases, organizations faced with bankruptcy have turned their businesses around by replacing ineffective administrations with efficient, dynamic leadership. In addition, military leaders have used various leadership styles to turn ineffective military units into highly effective and motivated teams.
While the importance of good leadership is not a new one, it is one…
Blake, Robert. (1964). Mouton, Jane. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing.
Bucqueroux, Bonnie. (2002). Leadership vs. Management. Policing.com. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.policing.com/articl/lead.html.
Hansen, Paul. (2002). Developing Police Leadership. Rochester, New York: Irondequoit Police Department.
Hersey, Paul. (1984). The Situational Leader. New York, New York: Warner Books.
Community Oriented Policing
Today's society is characterized by a drastic increase in gangs, crime, and drugs. Studies focusing on crime detective and rapid response are now criticizing the effectiveness of traditional policing practices. The perception that the core police function involves arresting law violators and combating crime has been slowly fading. These studies have convinced the American police unit to re-examine traditional policing practices considered as unsuccessful. This has led to the birth of community policing, which is currently making a significant contribution to the United States policing strategy.
Components of community policing
Community-oriented policing (COP) consists of two essential components. They include problem-solving and community partnership. Community partnerships are created through developing positive relations with the community (The United States & Community Policing Consortium, 1994). This requires the police to involve community members in the pursuit of better crime prevention and integrate their resources with existing community resources to…
The United States & Community Policing Consortium (1994). Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Washington, D.C: The Bureau.
Order maintenance policing (OMP), community-oriented policing (COP) and reactive policing are three different models of policing that are used within law enforcement agencies in the U.S. This paper will compare these three models of policing. It will also discuss which models would benefit the most from effective crime analysis.
OMP is a model of policing that stems from the theory of “broken windows” defined by Wilson and Kelling (1982). The broken windows theory states that if a community allows itself to be physically neglected, it will attract crime. Graffiti, litter, abandoned buildings and broken windows are all signs that a community is negligent and therefore will not put forward much effort to oppose a criminal element in its midst. First, the crime will be small—acts of vandalism and theft; then it will escalate to drug dealing and violence. In order to prevent communities from falling to this type of environment,…
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers
Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.
According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…
Indiana State Police (ISP). (2009). State Troopers. In.gov.
Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC). (2010). How To Become a Police Officer in Your State. Passthepolicetest.com.
Learning Express Editors (LEE). (2010). Becoming a Police Officer: The Selection Process. Education.com.
Subsequently, the primary focus of this editorial is to urge Police Magazine, individual law enforcement offices across the country, as well as law enforcement officers themselves, to implement these type of measures (which allowed for such a coordinated response from these disparate entities) across the country. The benefits of implementing programs such as the Metropolitan Medical Response System in cities and states throughout the U.S. would certainly be manifold, as it would dramatically assist in the work efforts of the aforementioned departments were they previously familiarized with working together in the face of adversity.
I do realize, of course, that the coordination of this type of municipal cooperation would require a substantial amount of training for the various employees involved, which would ideally be an addition to the training necessary for the respective jobs in these organizations. I am also aware that such organization would require a significant amount of…
sold to law enforcement as a way to implement stringent policing structure while at the same time ensuring that community safety is maintained at minimal cost to the department and without job loss or reductions in force due to economical policing practices. In addition the plan should be sold as a way for the police department to re-build it's reputation among community members, and strengthen its reputation for working in a productive and collaborative manner. The cost savings benefits of building a stronger community with less crime in an efficient manner should also be emphasized as a primary benefit of the program.
There are many opportunities existing that lend support for the plan. For example, the report notes that a number of juvenile gangs are evolving within the community, a problem that is new for a community that had been relatively stable in the past. The police department can gain…
"Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D. & Klofas, J. (2003). "Radical Approach Plan." Criminal
Justice Organizations, Wadsworth: Thomson.
If the worst case scenarios should ever unfold and terrorists have released materials into the air that are radioactive, the SOD works with the New York City's Department of Health so that officers have proper training in the use of air-monitoring "meters" (Holden, p. 5).
New York City's Department of Health has in place a program called "Biowatch" that is designed to alert the SOD when any calls come in reporting the presence of a biological substance. As mentioned previously in this paper, during the crisis of September 11, 2001, one of the major obstacles to effective first responder action was the breakdown in communication technologies and in lines of authority. However the NYPD's Operations Division (OD) is now trained to be the communications link between the executive command and the police officer on the street. The OD coordinates all personnel specifics and directions; in fact the OD is referred…
Dunn, Vincent. (2004). Three Years Later -- What Has Changed Since 9/11/01. Retrieved July
8, 2010, from http://www.vincentdunn.com/Changes-9-11-04.pdf .
Finley, Bruce. (2005). Alerts Go Out, Statewide System Falls in Line. The Denver Post.
Retrieved July 9, 2010, from General OneFile / Galegroup.com.
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
This alternative essentially redistributes some of the power within the department in order to facilitate more successful service in individual communities. This clearly makes discretion appropriate based on the individual needs of the community. Police Chiefs need to develop "new concepts to better satisfy the demands and needs of the citizens they serve," and as such, may have to use discretion in how the approach and interact with unique communities as they encounter them (Meese, 1993, p 1). Discretion on behalf of a police chief allows for greater success in implementing community policing methods.
Police chiefs also find themselves using various types of administrative discretion as well in regards to how they operate their police department and the officers in the field under them. A police chief's administrative discretion could even influence the discretionary actions of other officers in the field. For example, in 2010, a police chief in the…
Daily Mail Reporter. (2010). Police chief tells officers: Don't follow the rules…use your common sense! Mail Online. Web. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1297074/Police-chief-tells-officers-Dont-follow-rules -- use-common-sense.html
Diamond, Drew & Mead Weiss, Deirdre. (2005). Community Policing: Looking to Tomorrow. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e050920207-CommPolicing_Looking2Tomorrow.pdf
Fridell, Lorie & Wycott, Mary Ann. (2004). Community Policing: The Past, Present, and Future. Police Executive Research Forum.
Kelling, George L. (1999). Broken Windows and Police Discretion: National Institute of Justice Research Report. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://petermoskos.com/readings/Kelling_1999-Broken_Windows_and_police_discretion.pdf
Describe the different views of communities utilized within "traditional" police-community relations and "contemporary" police-community relations.
When it comes to the proper scope, method, depth and breadth of community policing and how it should be done, there are a number of answers that should be provided and defined. The first question to be answered is the difference between "traditional" police/community relations and what is different about this relationship when it is modernized and made more current. The former is probably best defined by a laser focus on "catching the bad guy" and being suspect of everyone and everything, to a large degree. A more modern approach is to remain vigilant and ready to do the job but at the same time become approachable, willing to be warm and kind to people unless/until there is a specific reason not to and so forth (RAND).
What is police-community relations as described…
These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
1. Jerry W. Kilgore - "DNA Samples Prove to Be Effective in Solving Crimes." Magazine Title: Corrections Today. Volume: 65. Issue: 4. July 2003. 28.
2. "DNA Money." Newspaper Title: The Washington Times. March 12, 2003. A06.
3. Richard S. Julie - "High-Tech Surveillance Tools and the Fourth Amendment: Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in the Technological Age." Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 37. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2000. Page Number: 127
4. News Story: Camera detects concealed weapons in real-time. [ http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/463051 ] Accessed Aug 21, 2005
September 11, local law enforcement like Javier's department became more responsible for participating in and ensuring homeland security. While the role of police in homeland security might seem natural or obvious, diverting the attention and resources of police towards the federal concerns of homeland security can have some detrimental outcomes. One of the most important changes Javier noticed was the breakdown in the community policing model that the department had worked so hard to establish. Focusing more on counterterrorism efforts than on building relationships with community members damages the relationships between police and members of the community in serious ways. Police officers are expected to become keen observers of human behavior, to the point where they revert to the antagonistic role in the community. Instead of interacting positively with members of the community, police were being viewed increasingly with suspicion. Javier and his fellow officers had also been responding more…
Annotated Literature Review
Carlitz, R. (2013). Improving transparency and accountability in the budget process: An assessment of recent initiatives. Development Policy Review, 31(1), S49-S67.
The author of this article is a political science professor at the University of California, an exemplification of his mastery and knowledge of the subject. The article emphasizes the importance of transparency and accountability in the budget process. With reference to empirical literature, the author points out that though there is no universally accepted methodology for ensuring transparency and accountability in public budget management, there are four important ingredients of success: the production of valid information, alliances between stakeholders, legal empowerment, and international support. Enhancing transparency and accountability in the budget process is vital for ensuring efficiency in the allocation of public finances, promoting fiscal discipline, minimizing corruption and embezzlement of public funds, and most importantly, increasing public confidence in public institutions. The element of stakeholder…
politically and practically feasible for state police to partner with non-State actors (policing) so as to extend access to justice and security.
State Police Partnership with Non-State Actors in Policing
Justice and security matter to citizens in fragile states. Insecurity in the world today is the greatest setback to the development of nations. According to a report presented by the World Bank in the year 2005, security and justice matters most to women and children. These groups of individuals in a society face security challenges because of bad policing, corrupt justice systems and weak penal and justice systems (Baker and Scheye, 2007). Consequently, they are likely not able to access government services. Crimes have made it necessary for police to find ways of policing rather than its end. There has been a paradigm shift of police operations from the incentive-driven or the reactive approach to the partnership approach.
Abrahamsen, R., and Williams. 2007. "Securing the city: private security companies and non-
state authority in global governance." International relations, 21 (2) Pp: 237-253.
Baker, B., and Scheye, E. 2007. "Multi-layered justice and security delivery in post-conflict and fragile states: Analysis." Conflict, Security & Development, 7 (4) Pp: 503-528.
Bush, G., W. 2009. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Morgan James Pub.
In reviewing some of the studies done on the impact of community policing on officers' attitudes, Lurigio and Rosenbaum (1994) isolated many of the specific techniques used in community policing programs. These programs are generally marked by the use of foot patrols to engage with citizens and establish a tangible presence, storefront police stations providing visibility and accessibility to the public, and the use of targeted police units designed to develop roots and tailor themselves to the specific communities they serve.
Like problem-oriented policing, community policing often requires a fundamental change in both the attitude and organization of police departments. As Dennis Nowicki (1997) points out, these changes are often difficult to implement consistently. The empowerment need by individual officers to adapt to individual situations within their community "clearly runs counter to the paramilitary structure of police agencies" (Nowicki, 1997, p. 365). In addition, the establishment of close ties between…
How, then, does zero-tolerance policing compare to these other approaches? It depends largely on how zero-tolerance policing is practiced and what end it serves. Some see zero-tolerance as "zero thinking" and diametrically opposed to both the spirit and practice of problem-oriented approaches (Nowicki, 1997, p. 366). Its law-based focus and its rigidity do seem to run counter to the openness and flexibility necessary to problem-oriented and community policing. However, others see zero-tolerance as essentially a problem-oriented approach in that it was designed with a problem-solving end in mind and not just as a theoretical approach (Kelling & Bratton, 1998).
Even if zero-tolerance policing is used in the service of problem-solving, however, its organizational structure prevents it from being a true problem-oriented or community approach. Problem-oriented and community centered policing must be characterized by active and vibrant partnerships between citizens and police. As Judith Greene put it in her argument against zero-tolerance, problem-oriented and community approaches seek to join "community policing and community participation" in a way that zero-tolerance policing cannot allow (Greene, 1999, p. 326).
Each of these methods of policing has its strengths and weaknesses. Zero-tolerance can be very effective, as seen in the case of the NYPD, and its clearly-delineated goals and strategies make it relatively easy to implement consistently. Problem-oriented policing benefits from its broadness of approach and its commitment to creating long-lasting solutions, but its definition as a "state of mind" does not give clear guidelines on how to put this commitment into practice. Community policing has the problem-solving approach but seeks to create specific techniques for implementing these approaches into the communities. Perhaps the ideal type of policing incorporates the best of all three approaches, and is still waiting to be developed.
The decree also requires a negotiation with the police union and representation by attorney. (Simmons, 2008) Thus there are problems and countermeasures that could effectively bring down the power of investigating complaints.
(d) Critique the effectiveness of citizen oversight as a police management tool, and early warning device:
The tracking system essentially consists of identifying personnel who are exhibiting chronic misconduct patterns. This system could check the unconstitutional violations both with the citizens and within the department as a whole. The intervention systems are good in managing the police and are based on the principle of preventing misconduct by monitoring the police. It was as stated by the Christopher Commission's analysis of one thousand eight hundred Los Angeles police officers showed that the top five percent of the officers were involved in 20% of complaints and the top 10% accounted for 33%. (Simmons, 2008)
Following that the early warning system…
Alexander, Arthur. (2005) "Panel Polishes Police Oversight System"
The Register-Guard, p. d1.
Fielding, Nigel. (1995) "Community Policing."
Clarendon Press: Oxford.
COPs and POPs
Community- and problem-oriented policing have been touted by some as representing the biggest changes to policing implemented at the end of the 20th century (reviewed by Maguire and King, 2004). However, as Maguire and King point out, defining these policing innovations is not a straightforward task since there may be as many variations as there are police agencies. This essay will define and contrast these two policing strategies in an attempt to better understand how crime control strategies have changed.
Department of Justice's website devoted to community-oriented policing (COPs) defines community policing as having three components: community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). Under this definition, community not only includes residents, but also other government agencies, groups, nonprofits, service providers, businesses, and the media. Proper implementation of community policing requires police organizational transformation that may impact every corner of the…
Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/CrimeAnalysis60Steps.pdf.
Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36 .
Goldstein, Herman. (2001). What is POP? Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop .
Lombardo, Robert M., Olson, David, and Staton, Monte. (2010). The Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy: A reassessment of the CAPS program. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 33(4), 586-606.
In addition, research shows that arrests actually dropped in San Diego after implementing COP policies, and even more dramatic, citizen complaints against police officers dropped, as well. Thus, COP activities seem to be more citizen-friendly than zero-tolerance policies, and they seem to bring dramatic drops in crime, as well.
Problem-oriented policing targets specific problem areas of crime, such as drug-trafficking neighborhoods or youth-oriented crimes. This type of policing strives to understand why crimes are occurring, and get to the root of the crime problem in specific areas. In Boston in the 1990s, youth-oriented homicide was a growing problem, and the city developed a POP program to address it. Called the "Boston Gun Project," the project targeted youth aged 24 and under, and it researched why there was a gun problem with youth in Boston, and then developed intervention and evaluating the impact of the intervention. It involved many different law…
Braga, a.A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J. And Piehl, a.M. (2001). Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston's operation ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 38 No. 3, 195-225.
Eck, J.E. And Spelman, W. (1987). Who ya gonna call? The police as problem-busters. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 33, No. 1, 31-52.
Greene, J.A., Kelling, G.L. And Bratton, W.J. (1998). Should zero-tolerance/broken windows policing be encouraged? Issue 16. 306-328.
Lurigio, a.J. And Rosenbaum, D.P. (?) the impact of community policing on police personnel. Police Organizational Reform. 149-153.
Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing
The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…
Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse
Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website: http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf
Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/
Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
It is however also a challenge that cannot be ignored in the light of not only cultural change, but also political issues. Establishing trust within the police department itself, as well as between the police and its public is vitally important for current and future security issues.
With the targeted psychological support and counseling for all police officers, as well as a restructured reward and promotion program, I believe it is possible to encourage and effectively recruit all sectors of society to this profession. It is clear that there is no lack of talent, power or skill, but that problems occur mainly as a result of social and cultural values amongst existing police officers. The police force would however be more effective if it were more representative of the society of the 21st century. False beliefs regarding racial minorities or women no longer have a place in the United States.…
Bouza, Chief Anthony V. The Police Mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime and the criminal justice system. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
Couper, David C. "Seven seeds for policing." In the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1994.
Polombo, Bernadette Jones (Assisted by Nancy Demarais). "Attitudes, training, performance and retention of female and minority police officers." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
Trostle, Lawrence C. "Recruitment, hiring, and promotion of women and racial minorities in law enforcement." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
ole of Education in Police Management
The police force in any country has a vital role to play in terms of achieving its intended mission of crime prevention, protection of life and property and apprehending violators of peace. The police force, therefore, are the upholders of justice and peace, and to that extent, it is they, more than anyone else who need to practice an underlying code of ethics that is true to the spirit of democracy: "...the mission 'to protect and serve' is not so simple...require distinct and separate skills artistry of police work lies in the ability to handle explosive situations without resorting to force." (Delattre, 1989, p. 25-26) The practice of justice in police work does not only involve overt criminal acts but various types of community service including assisting the sick and injured or defusing domestic tension and violence. Now, the fact is, even if the…
Delattre, E.J. (1989). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Washington D.C.
Morn, Frank. (1995). Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education.
Thibault, E.A., Lynch, L.M. & McBride, R.B. (1995). Proactive Police Management.
New Directions for Police Psychology
Community policing entails a value system that permeates the police department where the primary goal is working with individual citizens, citizen groups as well as public and private organizations in a cooperative way in order to identify and resolve problems which affect lives in specific neighborhoods, or the entire city. This discourse will look at two articles; one that highlights a successful collaboration between the police and the community they serve whereby community oriented policing and principles are well exemplified while the other will highlight how the police procedures, policy or decisions of individual officers work against the community policing models.
The first article by U.S. Department of Justice (2011) is an example of a success story of community policing. The Macon, Georgia police department has increased its community policing efforts so as to ensure that there is public safety within the down town area…
Kolodziej, M.(2013). Local Immigration Enforcement Harms Community Policing and Public Safety. Retrieved March 4, 2014 from http://immigrationimpact.com/2013/09/13/local-immigration-enforcement-harms-community-policing-and-public-safety/
US. Department of Justice. (2011). Community Policing Success Story: Macon, Georgia, Police Department. Retrieved March 4, 2014 from http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/07-2011/macon.asp
One of the paramedics was Latina, and she translated; the female (Ms. Garcia) was married to the suspect but says she divorced him last year due to his violent episodes and his drinking and drug use, according to the translation from the Paramedic.
"A neighbor in a nearby apartment knocked on the door and said she had witnessed the female being harmed by the suspect more than once. The witness, Alice Mercado, 27, bilingual and employed as a maid in a nearby motel, said she had heard fighting coming from the apartment in the past on many occasions. Sometimes she was afraid to come to see what was happening because the suspect was unpredictable and explosively violent when under the influence of alcohol and crack cocaine, she said. She told this officer that she once had a relationship with the suspect prior to his marriage to her neighbor.…
The complete selection process consists of a written examination, on which a candidate must score above a certain percentile and be ranked accordingly, a physical and psychological evaluation, a background investigation and polygraph rest, and a medical examination ("Selection Process," NYSP Recruitment Center, 2008).
The training process
The basic school of training for New York State Troopers is 26 weeks of residential training, cumulating 1,095 hours of training. Classes are given to recruits in a number of areas, including police skills, police science, operations and public interaction relations. The areas of education span a wide array of issues, to include firearm training, first responder and emergency vehicle operations, criminology, DI enforcement, domestic violence enforcement, department policy on sexual harassment, how to make an arrest, and penal and constitutional law, amongst other topics. Some of the areas of instruction are expected and traditional, such as how to minimize the use of…
Basic School Curriculum." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/curriculum.cfm
Field Training." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/field_training.cfm
NYSP Division of Police: History." NYSP. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.troopers.state.ny.us/Introduction/History/
Qualifications for New York State Trooper." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/qualifications.cfm
In addition, gang activity and association is a big problem in many schools today, and many school systems are turning to local law enforcement agencies to help them combat school violence on a number of levels.
One of the activities that is being utilized across the country is the COPS is Schools (CIS) program, which helps local agencies hire school resource officers (SOs) to work inside the schools and develop community oriented programs that reach out to students, educators, and parents to identify and address violence issues in their particular schools. This can help the law enforcement agencies to identify the biggest problem schools in their area and address these schools with distinct problem oriented policing techniques geared to control the specific issues at a specific school, whether it is gang activity, truancy, or vandalism.
These SOs can also develop student programs that help students understand how they can help…
Editors. "Gangs." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=1593
Editors. "School Safety." Center for Problem Oriented Policing. 2007. 8 Nov. 2007. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=106
Women in Policing
women's initial police work followed work in prisons
Estelle B. Freedman's book, Their Sister's Keepers: Women's Prison eform in America, 1830-1930, focuses not on women emerging as police officers, but rather on women in prisons, and women who were employed by prisons to work with female inmates. On page 19, Freedman explains that in the late 19th Century, "sexual ideology began to suggest that purity came naturally to women, in contrast to men, who had to struggle to control their innate lust." It was argued by "influential Victorian authorities" that women did not have an appetite for sex, but rather they just went through the motions to have children. This attitude laid the groundwork for the vicious hatred society had for "impure women" who had the capacity "to unleash not just male sperm, but more importantly, the social disintegration that sexuality symbolized" (20).
And so, the "fallen…
Freedman, Estelle B. (1981). Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830-1930. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Schulz, Dorothy Moses. (1995). From Social Worker to Crimefighter: Women in United States Municipal Policing. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
Segrave, Kerry. (1995). Policewomen: A History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland
The NY Police department has a regular CompStat meeting so that policing actions are relevant and make use of the most current data (What is CompStat, 2013, University of Maryland). "Contrary to the reactive policing model, the CompStat model strives to deploy resources to where there is a crime problem now, as a means of heading off the problem before it continues or escalates. As such, the tactics should be deployed in a timely manner" (What is CompStat, 2013, University of Maryland).
Feedback: Another important reason for frequent meetings is that they provide consistent feedback as to whether the tactics have been effective. CompStat is a self-critical, not a self-congratulatory model. "Problem-focused strategies are normally judged a success by a reduction in or absence of the initial crime problem. This success or lack thereof, provides knowledge of how to improve current and future planning and deployment of resources" (What is…
What is CompStat? (2013). University of Maryland. Retrieved:
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Local Police Response to Terrorism
The Council of State Governments
The council of State Governments is a body of representatives of all states, Territories within the ambit of the U.S. And Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It is an organization that provides vital data and statistics towards excellence in running the matters of the state. It seeks to enable the three apex institutions, viz., legislature, judiciary and the executive with intellectual inputs with a national perspective, innovative technological tools grooming effective and quality leadership and maintaining the autonomy of the states at the same time. It provides as a base for resolution of intra and inter-sate conflicts and mutually beneficial action plans.
Terrorism is an illegal act of force or violence to exact on any public domain to put the government under duress and thereby extract social or political mileage and seek objectives for a particular community or group. Terrorism,…
Chapman, R., Baker, S., Bezdikian, V., Cammarata, P., Cohen, D., Ph.D., Leach, N., Schaprio, A., Scheider, M., Varano, R., Boba, R. (2002). Local Law Enforcement Responds to Terrorism Lessons in Prevention and Preparednes. The Police Foundation, Washington D.C.
Ed. Harris, (2001). (Director of emergency communications, Austin Police Department).Telephone Interview.
Flynn, Edward, (2001). (Chief of Police, Arlington County Police Dept.)Letter.Washington Post.
Gene Voegtlin and Jennifer Boyter. Legislative Alert -- State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs Face Cuts. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2014 from http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=233&issue_id=32004