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.." And were "the largest consumers of wood and coal in the United States...by the late nineteenth-century." (yrne, 2006) yrne relates that once the railroads were in operation the trains "...caused forests to fall and the earth to be ripped open." (2006) the Transcontinental railroads "...changed this society by stitching it together ever more tightly, by amplifying dramatically the number of commercial, social and communications exchanges that could take place over broad distances." (yrne, 2006) When the Transcontinental Railroad was complete it stretched across the vast expanse of land between California and the Missouri River and a journey of between four and six months in length was cut to a mere six days. In fact, "With such an increase in the speed of travel, the states became more united and the world felt smaller. The telegraph lines that were strung up alongside the railroad added to this feeling by enabling…
Nosotro, Rit (2007) Transcontinental and Trans-Siberian Railroads. Hyper History. Online available at http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw24transrailroads32101525.htm#4end
Van Ophem, Marieke (2003) the Iron Horse: The Impact of the Railroads on 19th Century American society. Colonizing the West: Railroad Towns.
Byrne, Margaret (2006) Transcontinental Railroads; Compressing Time and Space. History Now Issue 10, December 2006. Online available at http://www.historynow.org/12_2006/historian3.html
People and Events: The Impact of the Transcontinental Railroad." Online available at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tcrr/peopleevents/e_impact.html . in: Nosotro, R. (2007) Transcontinental and Trans-Siberian Railroads. Comparative Essay
railroad industrialized America, a Track That Unified a Nation
How the railroad industrialized America
In the nineteenth century, the railroad system of the United States of America came to life. The systems' sole purpose was to transport people and goods across the country. Railroad system in the country began on the East and moved westwards. The move to the west resulted in development of towns, which further made the system branch to meet other regions in the state. These resulted in a web like rail system over the country. These had an impact on the life, culture and the way of life for the people of America. The railroad system in America in the nineteenth century interconnected various societies. The railroad systems at that time decreased work time since people were able to travel easier. People were able to travel great distances with the invention of the railroad system.
William Thomas, 2011 . "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads.unl.edu.
John F. Stover, 1997. "American railroads.," Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press
Albro Martin., 1992. "Railroads triumphant: the growth, rejection, and rebirth of a vital American force." New York: Oxford University Press.
H. Roger Grant and Charles W. Bohi., 1978. "The Country Railroad Station in America."
Union Pacific ailroad Logistics
The Union Pacific ailroad is the largest railroad in the nation, and it serves 23 western states, with agreements with other railroads to link it to the East Coast. It was one of the first railroads to operate in the West, it participated in the building of the transcontinental railroad, and it continues to make history today. It has participated in a variety of new technologies, and it is one of the largest logistic and intermodal companies in the country. It operates several different logistical operations, including Union Pacific Intermodal, and it operates many different terminals around the country with state-of-the-art technologies.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of transportation. Specifically it will discuss the different types of transportation modes the Union Pacific railroad is involved in throughout the country. Union Pacific is one of the country's most historic…
Arbona, J. (2005). Union Pacific railroad opens new $100 million international container facility to handle future growth. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site:
Berman, J. (2009). Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific launch intermodal reefer service. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Logistics Management Web site:
At first, Young was ambivalent towards the Methodist -- or any other -- Church. He "held back from joining the Methodists" like his brothers had because of an "independent, deliberate personality" that rejected belief under pressure (8). Methodist revival meetings also turned Young off because of their "loud, crowded, and hyperactive" qualities," (8). Yet while living in the Auburn-Port Byron area, during an economic depression, he was "swept up by religious enthusiasm" and joined the Methodist Church in 1824 (13). The conversion turned out to be integral to Young's "program of self-improvement," (14). The Church prompted Young to give up swearing, one of his self-admitted habits. He experimented with vegetarianism, too, in an attempt to live an overall cleaner and healthier lifestyle. The religion also helped him to overcome his shyness and fear of public speaking (14). In addition to helping him on his personal path, the Methodist…
5. The Gold Rush altered the course of westward expansion, driving increasing numbers of non-Mormons to western lands and especially to California. The Gold Rush was therefore instrumental in preventing Young from entertaining the idea of moving the Mormon camp to California. Young feared a "renewed Mormon/non-Mormon conflict," (94). Mormon Samuel Brannan struck gold and was later excommunicated because he refused to tithe on his huge fortune (94-95). A large number of fortune-seeking trailblazers had made the path to the Great Salt Lake basin easier, which solidified the decision to settle in what is now Salt Lake City (95). Therefore, the Gold Rush had a huge impact on the geography of Mormon settlement. The Gold Rush also directly benefitted the Mormons economically, as gold seekers would stop in Salt Lake City en route to California.
6. By the 1850s, Salt Lake City's Mormon businesses were prospering due to trade with gold seekers. Young encouraged economic self-sufficiency and diversification from what could have easily been an agriculture-dependent economy. Young and the Mormons had brought "to the Great Basin 75 to 100 black slaves," a fact that Young "tried to conceal from federal officials" due to the brewing controversy over slavery in the new territories (104). In spite of this, Young was ambivalent about the Civil War because it represented for him the spiritual end times. When it became apparent that the North was headed for victory, Young took an opportunistic stance of supporting the Union but for strategic reasons only. Young remained staunchly pro-slavery. In 1850 also, Young encouraged the development of an "Iron Mission" that would take advantage of the wealth of raw materials like iron in the region (108). By the end of the 1850s, Young was involved in three "broad categories" of business: first, deals involving partnership with the Mormon Church; second, those involving partnerships with other businessmen; and third, those in which Young was the sole investor (149).
7. Although the Transcontinental Railroad did not pass directly through Salt Lake City, it benefitted the Mormon economy. At the same time, Young feared the large numbers of non-Mormons it would bring to the territory (179). Young agreed with the prevailing patriarchal view that men have dominion over women; that women were inherently inferior to men; and were also less intelligent (192). Moreover, women represented sin, temptation, and spiritual corruption. The United Order was "a system of economic cooperation that called upon selected Mormon communities to pool their equipment, their property, and their energy and work together," (199). It was therefore a system of socialist cooperatives. Variations depended on different levels of economic commitment to the cooperative.
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).
IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…
The Aztecs had a well-structured and highly codified government, led by a very powerful emperor (Birklid 2010). He strictly required taxes from those he conquered. Then distributed land to his people, especially the warriors. The Aztecs became the largest empire in Mexico by 1473 through conquest of neighboring tribes. The capital, Tehnochtitlan, was described as a beautiful city, consisting of pyramids, long floating roads, aqueducts, brisk marketplaces and about a hundred thousand residents (Birklid).
The Aztecs used a 365-day calendar, similar to the one used by the Mayans (Birklid 2010). They used symbols to write and create sentences. Their most important god was white-faced Quetzacuatl, the god of intelligence and creation (Birklid).
They engaged in regional politics and entered into alliances with neighboring tribes, who were also expanding (Birklid 2010). These allies were the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, northwest of Tenochtitlan. They had skilled warriors and skilled diplomats. In 1428, they
The warfare was also psychological because the looting of southern homes and the pillaging of southern farms greatly diminished the resources of the confederate army. The confederate army was running out of options. In addition to the use of psychological warfare, Sherman also used traditional warfare tactics to bring about surrender and ultimately victory.
Sherman's strategies during the Civil ar also had an influence upon the manner in which the Indian ars were conducted. Again the general utilized a combination of traditional and psychological warfare tactics. The Indian wars were a series of conflicts between the Colonists and Native American tribes. The Indian ars lasted foor several decades.
According to Hughes (2001) the 1840's saw a rise in negative attitudes towards colonists by Native Americans and vice versa. Native American's believed that hite men were taking over their native territories and pushing them off of the land where they had…
Dunkelman, Mark H. American History; Aug2002, Vol. 37 Issue 3, p28, 8p, 4 color
Fellman, Michael. Lincoln. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 1995. p 125
Hanson, Victor Davis. "Sherman's War." American Heritage; Nov99, Vol. 50 Issue 7, p58, 8p, 3 bw
Hughes, Howard. American Indian Wars. Harpenden,, GBR: Pocket Essentials, 2001. p 7.
American history as a radical and revolutionary society. Specifically, it will discuss the works of "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair, and "Coming of Age in Mississippi," by Anne Moody. Radical reform and revolutionary ideas are at the very foundation of our freedom in America, and this tradition of freedom of speech and rebellion has continued from 1865 onward in our society. There has always been dissention and disagreement in our history, however, our freedom gives us the right to disagree, rebel, revolt, and share our radical ideas - which often lead to reform, understanding, and a better life for all Americans.
In 1865, the nation had just lived through a Civil ar that divided the nation, families, and races. Now, America was ready to move on, but there were still issues dividing the nation - issues that would continue to foster revolution and radicalism, and bring out the…
Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1968.
Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906.
Petroleum, the source of gasoline, became especially important after the automobile came into widespread use in the early 1900's.
Improved communications also contributed to economic expansion. The railroad improved mail delivery, replacing the stagecoach. The invention of the telephone and the telegraph afforded the rapid communication essential to business operations. This business boom triggered a sharp increase in investments in the stocks and bonds market. As businesses prospered, persons eager to share in the profits invested heavily, providing capital needed to for expansion. Banks also contributed to the nation's economic growth by making loans to businesses.
The expansion of industry had a profound effect on American life. As new businesses sprouted in cities metropolitan populations reached unprecedented numbers. During this period many Americans amassed huge fortunes from the business boom, while others lived in extreme poverty. The sharp contrast between the rich and the poor and other features of American…
Immigration, Spatial, And Cultural Aspects of the Canadian Pacific Railway
At the turn of the 19th century, Chinese emigration began in Canada. The Chinese saw Canada as a place for new and prosperous opportunities in order to send money and goods back to their relatives in China. Voyagers from Hong Kong to Canada would take three weeks on water. Often they left China after being poverty or destitution.
From the 1880's up till the 1920's the kind of labor the Chinese were involved in was the raw work of a beginning industrial economy. The Chinese workers were either semiskilled or skilled and worked in the British Columbia salmon canneries and sawmills. hile some worked in the factories and sawmills, still others worked farming, clearing land, or becoming shopkeepers, peddlers, or even restaurateurs. The Chinese immigrants who were unskilled, typically found work in the laundry trade.
Before the 1920's however, Chinese…
Cleveland, Jennifer, and Brittany Dewar. Connecting Canada: a History of the Railway through Rogers Pass from 1865 to 1916. British Columbia: University of Victoria, BC, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. .
Downey, Jack C. "The Chinese in Canada - The Good, The Bad and the Ugly by Jack CD Downey AKA The Gallopping Geezer." Canadian Culture- Canada's Number 1 Supportive Networking Directory - Find yourself here Canada. N.p., 2012. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. .
FCCRWC. "The Ties that Bind." MHSO - Multicultural History Society of Ontario. MHSO, 2010. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. .
"History of the Chinese in Canada." Welcome to Mysteries of Canada. Debates of the Senate (Hansard) 1st Session, 36th Parliament, Vol. 137, 2 Feb. 1999. Web. 23 Nov. 2013. .
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
"The 'White' race was obeying the 'divine command, to subdue and replenish the earth,' as it searched for new and distant lands."
They were proud of their progress.
They believed they were bringing civilization to races and people who would otherwise be primitive heathens. If they couldn't convert them, they killed them. They were destroying "savagery." Houses replaced wigwams. White women replaced Indian squaws. And all of it was done in the name of God. They were really doing it for money, but rationalized the evil of it by calling it progress. This attitude, that whites were a civilizing influence, extended toward the yellow races also.
A chose this section because it is another example of how capitalism lacks a social conscience. The Chinese were brought here for cheap labor and were exploited for profits.
To paraphrase: Annexing California led to bringing Asian workers here to build a transcontinental railroad.…
Union General William Tecumseh Sherman, commander of the western armies that took Atlanta in 1864. Specifically, it will look at how his capture of Atlanta and eventual March to the Sea eventually ended the Civil War.
GENEAL WILLIAM T. SHEMAN AND ATLANTA
You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it...War is hell" (William T. Sherman).
William Tecumseh Sherman is one of the most well-known and notorious generals of the Union Army in the Civil War. The people of Georgia still speak his name with contempt if they speak it at all, due to his infamous burning of Atlanta and his March to the Sea, which eventually helped bring the South to their knees, winning the war for the North. During his military career, he was hailed as a savior, called "crazy," and demoted; yet, he became one of the best-known…
Bengston, Wayne C. "William Tecumseh Sherman." About North Georgia. 2002. 20 Oct. 2002. http://ngeorgia.com/people/shermanwt.html
Howard, W.P. "Dec. 1864 Account of Destruction of Atlanta." Carl Vinson Institute of Government. 15 Oct. 1999. 20 Oct. 2002. http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/atldestr.htm
Sherman, William T. Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1876.
To the Mayor and Councilmen of Atlanta." Nebulae.net. 2002. 20 Oct. 2002. http://www.nebulae.net/calypso/letter-to-atlanta.htm
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
Panic of 1857
"In the life of a nation, every year has its failures and disappointments, but 1857 had more than its share." ~ Kenneth M. Stampp[footnoteRef:1] [1: Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857 a Nation on the Brink. New York: Oxford UP, 1990. Print.]
There have been many times in American history where the people of the country gave into fear and paranoia and subsequently made what could have been a minor difficulty into a crisis of epic proportions. During the middle of the 19th century, several incidents occurred which had a decidedly negative effect on the American economy and the nation's moral overall. The economic setbacks followed by the discovery that several executives in charge of government finance were corrupted caused American citizens to turn against the nation's authority figures. This feeling of distrust, accompanied by the panic of an unstable economy laid the groundwork for the American…
Ayers, Edward L. American Passages a History of the United States. New York [u.a.:
Wadsworth, 2007. Print.
Huston, James L. The Panic of 1857 and the Coming of the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana
State UP, 1987. Print.
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
Indeed, the North-South divide presented a challenge to the newly independent nation. With this increasing divide and conflict came the development of distinct cultures that came to characterize each region. North is characterized by its diversity and liberal views towards human rights and equality, being a "melting pot" of different nationalities, ethnicities and cultures. South, meanwhile, is most popular by its agricultural industry, specifically its cotton fields, its subsistence to the black slavery system, and conservative culture and social environment. Geographical difference resulted to different economies in the region, and ultimately, determined the cultures cultivated and that characterized its states (Beard, 2008:133).
Harper (2003) argued that indeed, the North's decision to adopt the abolitionist stance is more a function of its economy: it was easier for the North to go against black slavery because it is not dependent on the system unlike the South. The South depended on agriculture for…
Ayers, E. (1993). The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. NY: Oxford University Press.
Beard, C. (2008). History of the United States. Forgotten Books.
Harper, D. (2003). "Slavery in the North." Available at: http://www.slavenorth.com/
1). While modern observers may relate the role played in the history of the United States only on his presidency of the Confederate states, in reality, a more balanced view of the man would also include the fact that Davis had a significant role in the development of the early nation and his contributions were responsible for increasing both the size and the character of the country. In this regard, Cooper emphasizes that, "Davis's notability does not come solely from his crucial role in the Civil War. Born on the Kentucky frontier in the first decade of the 19th century, he witnessed and participated in epochal transformation of the United States from a fledgling country to a strong nation spanning the continent" (2003, p. 1).
As noted above, as a graduate of West Point, Davis served as a junior officer in the U.S. Army in the southwestern United States and…
Brick-Turin, a.S. (2004). Jefferson Davis, Confederate president. The Historian, 66(3), 585-
Cooper, W.J. (2003). Jefferson Davis: The essential writings. New York: The Modern Library.
Davis, J. (1881, 1971 reprint). The rise and fall of the Confederate government. New York: Da
This represented a sharp turn in public beliefs, and it represented a new type of America that no longer welcomed immigrants with open arms, and that has continued unchecked to the present day.
This shift in public thought and government legislation resulted in the first immigration law to exclude immigrants because of their race and class, and laws continued to tighten until after World War II ended in 1945. Potential immigrants were screened for health problems, but they were also interviewed, tracked, and monitored, something new to immigrants in the country. They began being treated as if they were second-class citizens, and they started settling in specific areas of a city or town, and keeping to themselves, attempting to hold on to their culture and way of life for as long as possible (Lee). This regulation resulted in many more laws governing who could immigrate and why, and led to…
Katzenstein, Krissy A. "Reinventing American Immigration Policy for the 21st Century." Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 41.1 (2008): 269+.
Lee, Erika. "Echoes of the Chinese Exclusion Era in Post-9/11 America." Chinese America: History and Perspectives (2005): 1+..
Part of the impact of this book is the lush illustrations, maps, and photos that illustrate the text. They make it more interesting, help set the different periods in time in the reader's mind, and they help make the entire book more entertaining and relevant to the reader. The rush comes alive because of all the illustrations, documents, and other elements of the book's design, and it makes the book more complete and fulfilling, somehow. The author often quotes from primary documents like letters, journals, newspapers, and diaries, and that helps make the book more real to the reader, too. It is possible to actually feel what the pioneers were feeling as they crossed the desert on the last leg of their journey to California, and it helps make the hardships and their determination more real, as well.
The book also ties in other areas where California influenced history and…
Holliday, J.S. Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1999.
On the other hand, most businessmen found new opportunities in the South and tried to benefit from the political and economic vacuum. This orientation however, created new tensions between the Northerners and the Southerners, the latter feeling an increased aversion especially towards the economic initiatives of the former. Even so, the Northern part of the country was considered to be more prosperous and to represent the future of a modern nation.
The West was the least explored part of the country up to the Civil War. The expansion towards west provided businessmen and farmers alike with an immense availability of land, as that territory had been very little explored, a possibility which catered for the needs of the American nation to populate remote areas in the West. This was encouraged by legislative acts such as the Homestead Act which encouraged people to move west. Meanwhile, the Gold Rush had drawn…
Franklin, John Hope. "A century of Civil War Observance." The Journal of Negro History. Vol 47, no. 2. 1962. Accessed 8 November, 2007, at http://www.jstor.org/view/00222992/dm990511/99p0197y/0?currentResult=00222992%2bdm990511%2b99p0197y%2b0%2cFF0F&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3DA%2Bcentury%2Bof%2BCivil%2BWar%2BObservance%26wc%3Don
Hesseltine, William B. The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: George Braziller, 1962.
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…
Economy in the Civil War. (2014). The Civil War. Shmoop.
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History 47(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War: Ft. Sumter to Perryville. NY: Random House.
Industrialization After the Civil War
The United States economy grew to unprecedented levels and very quickly, after the American Civil War. This economic and industrial growth comprised of a number of causative factors such as technological innovation, westward expansion, and immigration to the United States that have witnessed tremendous development over the years. American economic and industrial growth was a kind of mixed blessing; but at the same time, it raised the living standard of some Americans, made certain goods easily accessible, and equally helped the United States become world military and economic power. These same forces, on the other hand and at the same time, increased the gap between the rich and the poor, enhanced and reduced political corruption at different levels of government, and also created some lasting legacy for environmental destruction (Shultz, 2014).
This paper contends to most effect, that industrialization was nothing more than a mere…
Campbell, B.C. (1999). Understanding Economic Changes in the Gilded Age. OAH Magazine of History.
Hofstadter, R. (1989). The American Political Tradition. New York: Vintage.
Karson, M. (1958). American Labor Unions and Politics, 1900-1918. Carbondale: Southern
Oshinsky, D. (1997). Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow
Civil War and Its Meaning
The Civil War defined Americans because it was the war fought over the Constitution as it was written. It was the war of States' ights and the War of Northern Aggression. It was the war that brought about the totalitarian drive of the central state, where the President assumed for himself authoritarian powers. There were actually many facets to it: the election of Lincoln, the low tariffs set by Southern Congressmen, which upset Northern Industrial magnates, the Homestead Act and the rise of the transcontinental railroad -- both of which could be seen as maneuvers by Northern states to take over the Midwest in a move to block out Southern influence and expansion to the West (Egnal, 2001, p. 30); and the issue of slavery (flamed to inferno-like levels by men like the radical abolitionist John Brown).
The South regretted surrendering because they didn't just…
Egnal, M. (2001). The Beards Were Right: Parties in the North, 1840-1860. Civil War
History, 41(1): 30-56.
Foote, S. (1958). The Civil War. NY: Random House.
Gettysburg Casualties. (2015). History.net. Retrieved from http://www.historynet.com/gettysburg-casualties
S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).
One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…
Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.
De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/
Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.
Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm .
House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the ise of Modern Finance, by Edwin P. Hoyt, Jr. Specifically, it will discuss the three most significant things and/or people in this book. The significance could be judged at the time of the events/persons in question or perhaps better, be seen through hindsight, i.e. its/their effect on modern finance. While there are many significant and important people and events depicted in "The House of Morgan," three stand out as the most influential and significant as the book progresses. These three things are Miles Morgan and his immigration to America, Junius Spencer Morgan and his rise in financial banking, leaving his legacy to his son, J. Pierpont Morgan, and finally, the railroad in America, which neatly cemented the family's success and rise to domination of American and worldwide finance and investment.
THE HOUSE OF MOGAN
The House of Morgan" tells the story…
Author not Available. "Milestones in J.P. Morgan History." AP Online, 13 Sept. 2000.
Hoyt, Edwin P. Jr. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1966.
There he exhibited 125 of his large Pacific coast views and had more than a thousand images accessible for view through stereoscopes. During these years, he traveled further afield in search of new subjects: he sailed to the barren Farallon Islands, twenty-six miles off the California coast; he photographed the geysers of Sonoma County; he traveled to Mount Shasta in the northern part of the state; and he documented the massive hydraulic gold mining operations in the Sierra Nevada foothills (Watkins' Life and Works, 2010).
Watkins received support in his travels from his friend Collis Huntington, a principal in the Central Pacific ailroad, who offered him a flatcar to carry his van filled with photographic materials. By 1869 the Central Pacific line had pressed through the Sierra Nevada Mountains, allowing Watkins to take photographs of the wilderness landscapes that could now be seen by railroad travelers. Throughout the final years…
Friedel, Megan K. (2010). Carleton Emmons Watkins (1829-1916). Retrieved July 31, 2010,
from The Oregon Encyclopedia Web site:
Hill, Eric. (2004). Carleton E. Watkins. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from Web site:
Shady American Elections of 1876
The most corruption ridden, heinous and questionable presidential election in American history had only just begun. During the presidential campaign, Rutherford was blasted by Tilden's opposition labeling him thief, briber and a drunkard. Eyebrows were raised in states controlled by Republican about voting fraud; armed and dangerous bigoted white democrats had enveloped the South thwarting blacks from voting in elections. Hence in the aftermath, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida were judged too close to call. With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of 185 as written in the constitution to win an election. Hayes captured 165 electoral votes; now he just needed 20 electoral votes to win from these mentioned three states to attain the president's seat. The crisis began slowly leading up to the threat of a civil war which finally concluded behind the curtain deal, popularly known as…
Harmon, Mark D. "The New York Time sand the Theft of the 1876 Presidential Election." Journal of American Culture (2004): 35-41. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1987.1002_35.x/abstract
History. n.d. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/compromise-of-1877
Holt, Michael F. Gilder Lehrman. n.d. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/reconstruction/essays/contentious-election-1876
King, Gilbert. Smithsonian Mag. 07 September 2012. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-ugliest-most-contentious-presidential-election-ever-28429530/?no-ist
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).
By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase…
The National Park Service. (2002, March). Retrieved October 2010, from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1605.html
National Park Services Almanac. (2008). Washington, DC: National Parks Service, GPO.
Blackburn, S. (2007). Plato's Republic. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Brown and Pozner. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Develpment, 68(2), 274-80.
istory from 1865 to te present day. To focus te researc, select six subtopics (specific events or developments related to te topic, separated in time); tree from before 1930 and tree from after.
Tere are more tan 50 million immigrants (legal and illegal) and teir U.S.-born cildren (under 18) in te United States as of August 2012. As of te last decade, most immigrants come from te following countries: Honduras (85%), India (74%), Guatemala (73%), Peru (54%), El Salvador (49%), Ecuador (48%), and Cina (43%). Approximately, 28% of tese immigrants are in te country illegally. Rougly alf of Mexican and Central American and one-tird of Sout American immigrants are ere illegally.
Te Center for Immigration Studies (Rigt Side news) finds tat immigration as dramatically increased te population of low-income individuals in te United States, altoug many immigrants, te longer tey live in te country, make significant progress. However, immigrants…
Pula, James S. "American Immigration Policy and the Dillingham Commission," Polish-American Studies (1980) 37#1 pp 5-31
Yakushko, O et al. (2008) Stress and Coping in the Lives of Recent Immigrants and Refugees: Considerations for Counseling International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 30, 3, 167-178
Value Creation Frontier
The value creation frontier "represents the maximum amount of value that the products of different companies inside an industry can give customers at any one time by using different business models" (Hill & Jones, 2008). FedEx focuses on quality and excellence, as well as responsiveness to customer, as the core elements of its business model. eliability and efficiency are also facets of business on which FedEx focuses. What this means is that FedEx can and should offer higher prices, because its business has higher costs. FedEx is basically offering a premium service within the package delivery business, in the express division. FedEx Ground is more reliability and efficiency, which implies that division should offer a lower price and move more towards cost leadership.
To maintain above-average productivity, FedEx needs to continually innovate. The company has been an innovator in the past, first when it was the…
Gross, D. (2004). Ground war. Slate Magazine. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2004/01/ground_war.html
Hill, C. & Jones, G. (2008). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach. Cengage.
ICAO (2003). The impact of low cost carriers in Europe. International Civil Aviation Organization. Retrieved November 13, 2014 from http://www.icao.int/sustainability/CaseStudies/StatesReplies/Europe_LowCost_En.pdf
Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.
A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…
Deviance. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Deviance.php
Ethnocentrism. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Ethnocentrism.php
Urban sociological theory. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-sociological-theories.php