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Individual Literature eview
Change theories have long been used to address leadership styles in education and other positions of power and respect. One of the theories to which educational leaders widely subscribe is transformational theory. This theory involves the study and understanding of leadership as a process by which one individual engages with another (Wolinski, 2010). From that engagement a connection is formed. It is believed that connection will create stronger morality and better motivation in both the leader and the followers (Anderson, 2010). Transformational leadership is sometimes likened to other, similar styles such as charismatic leadership and servant leadership (Wolinski, 2010). All of these leadership theories discuss leaders as having specific qualities like extroversion, confidence, and values that are strong and clearly stated (Anderson, 2010). Leaders who have those things are better at motivating followers, overall, than leaders who follow styles where there is little connection with…
Anderson, D. (2010). Organization development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Burke, W. (2008). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kezar, A.J. (2001). Understanding and facilitating change in the 21st Century: Vol 28. ASHE-ERIC. Higher Education Report. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Wagner, T., & Kegan, R. (2006). Change leadership: A practical guide to transforming our schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The ole of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation and Success
Purpose Statement / Problem Statement
Effects of theory
Limitations of the theory
Innovation and Organizational Success
Leadership Style and Innovation
Leadership Styles and Organizational Success
Instruments for assessing leadership style
Vll. Type of Study
This study will attempt to identify which leadership style is best suited for organizational innovation and success. There are a large range of factors to be considered. Among them, leadership style has been recognized as one of the most important of the various considerations. Leadership style correlates to positive transformation as well as influences organizational innovation and often diffusion of innovation. A few studies have empirically examined and found the links between leadership style and innovation at the organizational level and even connection between style of diffusion of innovation and success. Leadership style has been…
6, P. And Bellamy, C. (2012). Principles of methodology. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Amani Ashlubolagh, M., Ameri Shahrabi, M., Eftekhari, J., Kazemi Ashlaghi, A., Safdari, S. And Abdolmaleki, S. (2013). A study on the effect of manager's leadership style to create innovation among employees. 10.5267/j.msl, pp.2201-2206.
Boga, I. And Ensari, N. (2009). The role of transformational leadership and organizational change on perceived organizational success. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 12(4), pp.235-251.
Brooker, P. (2010). Leadership in democracy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Transformational Women's Leadership
The website for Changing Minds.org describes transformational leadership in the standard way, as charismatic leaders with vision and imagination who inspire followers to achieve radical change in an organization or society. Transformational leaders are passionate and exciting and they care about their followers. They make people believe that their ideals can be achieved through their own commitment, enthusiasm and drive. In the process, their followers are also transformed and empowered to do things that they would never have believed possible. This website also points out some of the dangers of transformational leadership in that when such leaders are wrong they can lead "the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm." They may also "wear out" their followers with constant demands for high energy and commitment, especially if those at the lower levels really do not desire change (Transformational Leadership 2002-11)
Legacee.com has a very…
Goodman, D., ed. (2003). Marie Antoinette: Writings on the Body of a Queen. Routledge.
Lever, E. (2000). The Last Queen of France. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Plain, N. (2002). Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French Revolution. Marshall Cavendish.
Price, M. (2004). The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy. NY: St. Martin's.
Dangers linger in any relationship where one party holds power and the other party gives it. Any student of leadership, must recognize that tripwire, and assiduously avoid it through correctly recognizing the dangers that abuse of power can bring.
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and omen. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Pedler, M., Burgoyne, J., & Boydell, T. (1944). A Manager's Guide To Self-Development 4th ed. London: McGraw-Hill.
Ulrich, D., Zenger, J., Smallwood, N., & . (1953; CR 1999). Results-Based…
Bass, B., Atwater, L., & Avolio, B. (2008). The Transformational and Transactional Leadership of Men and Women. Applied Psychology, 5-34.
Beverly Alimo-MetcalfAlban-Metcalfe, J., Bradley, M., Mariathasan, J., & Samele, C. (2008). The impact of engaging leadership on performance, attitudes to work and well-being at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 586-598.
Beyer, J. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 307-330.
Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (1991). Reframing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]
Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
Event in Health Care Organization
In order to run health care organizations such that they are always viable, when it comes to both economic and health results, health care leaders frequently feel attracted to a practical managerial point-of-view with insistence on the daily production pressures together with its need to react to both large and smaller issues. This tendency could restrict their capability of engaging on visionary leadership practices, that assist in changing their organizations for the futures. For instance, the present event in the health care of Kenya is that health care employees' need encounter a rising multitude of job demands: cost efficiency, patient care and administration as well as optimal employment, and might be less efficient in both secondary and primary role liabilities. Thus, leadership skills are required in assisting both providers and managers in making consistent and thoughtful choices amid values in competition. This matter…
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row
Guzman, Oscar. (n.d.) Organizational Leadership Theories, retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-leadership-theories-284.html
Leroy H., Anseel F, Gardner W.L. and Sels L., (2012), Authentic Leadership, Authentic
Followership, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Work Role Performance: A Cross-Level Study, Journal of Management published online DOI: 10.1177/0149206312457822 accessed at http://fanseel.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Leroy-Anseel-Gardner-Sels-in-press-JOM.pdf
Organizational ole as a Nurse Leader
A nurse leader is an individual engaged in direct patient care and who regularly enhances the care given to patients through influencing the treatment provision delivered by others. This implies that leadership is not merely a matter of skills but an attitude which informs behavior. This essay develops a detailed leader profile based on the transformational theory, as this is the most relevant theory for this leader. Moreover, the essay will analyze the leader's role and philosophy as a nurse administrator. The final section will present the role of nursing leadership.
Leader's Profile: Lee Moldowsky
Lee Moldowsky started off as a volunteer EMT in the early 70s since then nursing has struck interest. In 1983 he joined the army at age 25 and became a sergeant in charge of operating services. Moldowsky went to Farmingdale and also worked in a burn unit at Nassau…
Ledlow, G. R., & Coppola, M. N. (2011). Leadership for Health Professionals: Theory, Skills, and Applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones And Bartlett.
O'Brien, M. E. (2011). Servant Leadership in Nursing: Spirituality and Practice in Contemporary Health Care. Sudbury, Mass: Jones And Bartlett Publishers.
Work and Management
The objective of this study is to compare House's Path-Goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model. This study will make provision of an example or application of the two theories utilizing the writer's work situation.
This study will describe the leadership styled utilized by the writer's boss or other CEO or high level personnel in the work organization. For part two of this study examined is how causes of conflict can be found in the organizational and personal characteristics of those involved in the conflict.
This study will answer as to the similar organizational and personal factors and provide examples using the organization the writer is most familiar with.
For part three of this study, Chapter 17 on Career Management will be examined and the following questions answered: (1) What aspects of9 the New vs. Old Career Paradigms can you relate to your…
Free Personality Test (2014) 16 Personalities. Retrieved from: http://www.16personalities.com/free-personality-test Basu, C. (2014) Difference Between Situational Leadership & Path Leadership Theories. Small Business Chronicle. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/difference-between-situational-leadership-path-leadership-theories-33446.html
Chapter 17: Career Management (pp. 278-0) Career Management: Chapter Objectives, 2007 Cengage Learning Inc.
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…
Barker, A. (1992). Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future. New York NY: Jones & Bartlett Company.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Addressing New Challenges Facing Nursing Education. The Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/nacnep/reports/eighthreport.pdf
Early, G. (2005). Leadership Expectations: How Executive Expectations are Created and Used in a Non-Profit Setting. London, UK: OCMS Publishers.
Edmonson, C. (2010). Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), Manuscript 5.
Desirable Leadership Approach
My Leadership Approach, Case study Apple Mac Legal Center
The quality of organizational culture and output depends on the nature leadership approach instituted by the leader. Ideally, a good leadership approach that seeks to energize various departments with intent steer a collective productivity. I realized these things during my stay at the Apple Mac Legal Center. During my pursuit for a desired organization culture, I realized that the Apple Mac Legal Center was facing two core problems, one related to communication and the other on sustainability. While developing a leadership approach, I realized that there were decisive considerations one position, charisma, influence, and situation. This reflection will attempt to prove that my leadership approach would mitigate Apple Mac Legal Center organizational culture problems.
My Leadership Approaches
When it comes to leadership schemes, position is a crucial element since this negotiates the control. During my stay…
Grieves, J. (2010). Organizational change: Themes & issues. New York: Oxford University
Laasch, O., Conaway, R. (2014).Principles of Responsible Management: Global Sustainability,
Responsibility, and Ethics. New York: Cengage Learning
Diagnosing Change at Toyota Company
The organization chosen is the Toyota automobile company. Toyota Company is a global company operating in more than 100 countries in the world. Its market share is approximated to be the second largest, with the company itself being the second largest automobile company in the world. It has an employee base of over two million people, most of which are professional automobile engineers and marketers (Frakes, 2004). . The growth of the company has been attributed to its design of the brand that has met the preference of many beverage-drinking clients in the global market. As a global brand, it has managed to move its products and services from the small local outlets to many other global outlets that aid in distributing the brand in all parts of the world.
At Toyota Company, H is a critical docket that goes all the way to determining…
Burke, W. W. (2010). Organization Change: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Frakes, D. (2004). Mac OS X Power Tools. San Francisco [Calif.: Sybex.
Magee, D. (2008). How Toyota Became #1: Leadership Lessons From The World's Greatest Car Company. New York: Portfolio.
Compare and contrast at least three views on what constitutes a theory. Distinguish the related concepts of theories, such as hypothesis, paradigm, model and concept.
Differentiating between hypothesis and theory
The word hypothesis is a description of various phenomenon occurring. In most cases, it's not a confirm statement. In other cases, it can be well-developed, designed and explained to follow through the workings and mechanisms of certain phenomenon. According to one definition, it states particularly that it's a precursor to a conditional proposition. A hypothesis is an unconfirmed theory. One can develop a hypothesis while the observation is being tested, that could be unconfirmed too. By an observation, one can simply have a window of opportunity to verify a hypothesis. A hypothesis can be detailed and inclusive of details. This permits lucid testing. Apart from that, it is the distinguishing factor from a theory (Harris, 2001).
The word theory…
Ardichvili, A., & Gasparishvili, A. (2001). Leadership profiles of managers in post-communist countries: A comparative study. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(2): 62-75.
Ashkanasy, N.M., Trevor-Roberts, E., & Earnshaw, L. (2002). The Anglo cluster: Legacy of the British Empire. Journal of World Business, 37, 28-39.
Bakacsi, G., Sandor, T., Andra, K., & Viktor, I. (2002). Eastern European cluster: Tradition and transition. Journal of World Business, 37, 69-80.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. (3rd Edition.). New York: Free Press.
Transformational and Transactional Leadership
The global market place that is today's business environment is highly competitive, and organizational survival is increasingly perceived as being dependent upon the efficiency and effectiveness of its leadership. Changes such as the online markets and workforce, alteration of ethical and legal issues, demographic and social trends (global 'graying' of the populace), technological advances and increased globalization mean that leaders of businesses must re-evaluate and alter their styles as necessary to bring about and maintain success. Competitive advantage is the predominant goal of most business strategies - how to sustain it once achieved, and how to achieve it in the first place. Thus, understanding the effect(s) of leadership, its role in an organization, and how leadership style impacts an organization is fundamentally important. As stated by Ekuma (2014) the manner in which a company is directed affects its internal and external ethics as well as the…
Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 270-283.
Derr, C. (2012). Ethics & Leadership. Journal of Leadership, 9(6).
Du, S., Swaen, V., Lindgreen, A., & Sen, S. (2013). The Roles of Leadership Styles in Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 155-169.
Ekuma, K. (2014). Transformational Leadership: Implications for Organizational Competitive Advantage. Macrothink Institute, 4(1), 276-281.
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Bune's constuctivist theoy and the conceptual paadigms of Kolb's Expeiential Leaning theoy dawing on the associated theoies ae Kinesthetic and Embodied Leaning. As also noted in the intoductoy chapte, the guiding eseach question fo this study was, "What ae the caee paths fo teaching atists seeking to deploy into the field of community at and development?" To develop timely and infomed answes to this eseach question, this chapte povides a eview of the elevant pee-eviewed and scholaly liteatue concening these theoetical famewoks to investigate the diffeent caee paths teaching atists seek to deploy into the field of community at and development, including ceative community building and adult community centes such as woking with Alzheime's Disease and stoke victims.
Adult Leaning Theoies
Kolb's Expeiential Leaning Theoy. Thee ae a wide aay of theoetical models that can be used to identify and bette undestand teaching and leaning pefeences by educatos and students,…
references to improve coaching and athletic performance: Are your players or students kinesthetic learners? The Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(3), 30-34.
Fowler, J. (2013, March). Art rescue in a troubled world. Arts & Activities, 153(2), 36-39.
Kerka, S. (2002). Somatic/embodied learning and adult education: Trends and issues alert. ERIC
Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connection, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
From that vantage point it is clear that EP systems may not be able to provide the depth and breath of unification that is possible with more advanced approaches to using it systems.
Another drawback or con of using EP systems has the catalyst of creating a more unified socio-technical system is the fact that they are often implemented and measured on a department or functional basis first. Interpolating their performance to strategic initiatives has never been particularly easy; using them to unify a sociotechnical system could be daunting. Underscoring these aspects is the need for creating a more effective approach to change management so that equilibrium is attained in each subsystem of a socio-technical system (Manz, Stewart, 1997). Finally, EP systems are often extremely difficult to customize and upgrade over time, which has made many obsolete, delivering just 60% of the total value of information they are capable of.…
Amrit, C., & Van Hillegersberg, J. (2010). Exploring the impact of socio-technical core-periphery structures in open source software development. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 216-229
Appelbaum, S.H. (1997). Socio-technical systems theory: An intervention strategy for organizational development. Management Decision, 35(6), 452-463.
Bloomfield, B.P., & Vurdubakis, T. (1994). Re-presenting technology: IT consultancy reports as textual reality constructions. Sociology: The Journal of the British Sociological Association, 28(2), 455-455.
Carlsson, S.A., Henningsson, S., Hrastinski, S., & Keller, C. (2011). Socio-technical IS design science research: Developing design theory for IS integration management. Information Systems and eBusiness Management, 9(1), 109-131.
Contingency Theories Leadership • Situational Approach (chapter 5) • Contingency Theory (chapter 6) • Path-Goal Theory (chapter 7) Behavioral Learning Objectives: Students explore contingency theories leadership identify theory employ .
Contingency Theories of Leadership
Leadership is the process in which a person influences others towards achievement of a common goal. It is a social influence process and can only exist where there is a leader and some followers Waldman et al. 823
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
Leadership theories have been developed to explain some of the concepts and practice of leadership. Some of the early theories focused on behaviors and characteristics of successful leaders while the later theories consider the role of the followers and the nature of leadership.
Situational Leadership approach
Situational approach sees leadership as being specific to the situation at hand. Some situations may lead to an autocratic leadership style while others require a participative approach. Situational…
Elenkov, Detelin S., William Judge, and Peter Wright. "Strategic Leadership and Executive Innovation Influence: An International Multi-Cluster Comparative Study." Strategic Management Journal 26.7 (2005): 665-82. Print.
Herold, D.M., et al. "The Effects of Transformational and Change Leadership on Employees' Commitment to a Change: A Multilevel Study." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.1 (2008): 346-57. Print.
Hill, Linda. Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. New York: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 2003. Print.
Northouse, P.G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2009. Print.
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
The concept of leadership is one that has for along time dominated the discussion and literature in the fields of organizational science and management .In the last couples of decades however, leadership as a concept has found its way into educational and school improvement literature and discussions (Bennett et al., 2003; Coleman and Earley, 2005). More specifically, there is an interest in the role that strategic leadership plays in the running of oerganizations. The main focus however is the role of teachers and managers in the communication of organization vision to the stakeholders as well as the alignment of organizational vision with strategy (Davies & Ellison,2003). In this paper, I present a reflective account of my experience and views when it comes to the development of an effective leadership system within the transformational leadership framework.
The definition of leadership
The concept of leadership has no exact or definite definition.…
Different Ways of Organizing in Supervision and Management
Organizing constitutes a crucial management function. It is essentially concerned with task allocation, division of labor, chain of command, lines of authority and communication, delegation, span of control, as well as supervision and coordination (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016). The manner in which these processes are organized significantly influences organizational effectiveness and efficiency. It determines how quick or slow decisions are made and implemented. This is particularly important in a constantly evolving environment, in which agility is a crucial parameter of competitive advantage (Felin & Powell, 2016). Organizational structure also shapes relationships between superiors and subordinates (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016).
There are different ways through which the organizing function may be executed. For instance, organizational structure may adopt either the centralized or decentralized form. The former entails concentrating decision-making authority in top organizational positions, while that latter involves distributing…
prescriptive aspects of LMX theory. Cite the source IN TEXT. (create a section of the paper for each of these aspects AND USE THE QUESTIONS AS HEADINGS)
LMX theory can be viewed from both a descriptive and prescriptive vantage points and in each case there is a dyadic relationship between the leader and their followers (Northouse, 2010). There can be both in-group and out-group relationships between the leader and their subordinates that represents a descriptive use of the concept. The in-group members are willing to do extra work and are more dedicated than the out-group type of subordinates. Because of this it is common for leaders to give this type of followers more of an empowered role in which they have more responsibility and can do more without being micromanaged. By contrast the out-group type of employee will need to be monitored more closely and will work more along the…
Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership Theory & Practice. Sage Publishing.
Integrating Learing Theories
Integrating Learning Theories
In adult education, there are number of theories utilized to influence the tools educators are using to connect with students. To fully understand them requires looking at the different ones. This will be accomplished by focusing on simulating the ideal teaching philosophy, current research in adult theory, comparing / contrasting them and analyzing those which integrate with our personal teaching philosophy. Together, these elements will highlight the best techniques for reaching out to adult learners.
Simulate the ideal teaching philosophy
The ideal teaching philosophy is one that connects to individuals using their unique learning styles and has a way of reinforcing them. This involves having a combination of active classroom discussion, group work and hands on training. During this process, they will utilize technology to enhance their understanding of key concepts and focus on meeting important objectives in the course. When this happens, the…
Davis, D. (2011). The Adult Learner's Companion. Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
Jacobs, F. (2010). The Adult Learner's Guide. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Robert, P. (2013). Adult Education. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ross, J. (2011). Research on Adult Learners. Peer Review, 31 (1), 53- 61.
As in the model of Likert, progressively the concern for people increases as we move down the line from 'Exploitative authoritarian' to 'Benevolent authoritarian' to 'Consultative' to finally 'Participative', similarly in the Blake's Managerial Grid the mapping of high concern for people and low concern for production is seen as the score comes to be 1,9. On the other hand a close comparison of G2 stage of the Vroom-Yetton model and the Participative management of Likert model it is seen that both of them bear similarities. In G2 stage of Vroom-Yetton model, the leader shares the crisis and difficulties with the subordinates of his group and based on a consensus all the parties build and evaluate alternatives and try to arrive at a consensus on a solution.
oughly the same idea is conveyed in the Participative model of Likert wherein the management looks forward to build groups of employees who…
Conger, Jay a; Kanungo, Rabindra N. (1988) "Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness." Jossey-Bass Publishers. Retrieved at http://www.coastwiseconsulting.com/Charismatic%20Leadership%20-%20OCRed.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005 del Val, Manuela Pardo; Rodr'guez, Sonia Das'; "Participative management and organizational culture." Retrieved at http://www.sses.com/public/events/euram/complete_tracks/managing_cultures_identities/pardo-del-val_perez_rodriguez.pdf . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Inman, Mark Lee. (01 Jun 2000) "The relevance of traditional management theories to the 21st Century" Retrieved at http://www.accaglobal.com/publications/studentaccountant/32495Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Leadership Model and Theories" Retrieved at http://www.cda-acd.forces.gc.ca/CFLI/engraph/research/pdf/12.pdf. Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Likert's leadership styles" Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/likert_style.htm . Accessed on 10 February, 2005
Motivational Theories / Teamwork
Recommendation to the Director of Highlands on potentially feasible leadership styles: Visionary Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory of Leadership.
The Visionary Leadership Theory is based partly on Max Weber's ideas of charisma and transformational leadership. This theory -- when implemented successfully -- creates trust in the leader, a "high commitment to the leader," high levels of "performance among followers," and a high "overall organizational performance" (Kirkpatrick, 2011). The visionary leader must have acute insight into the needs and values of his/her staff. The vision of the leader positively influences and motivates the followers. The visionary leader must have a "long-range vision of what his or her organization should become in ten, twenty, or more years in the future" (Kirkpatrick, p. 1616).
The leader must not only have charisma but also be able to "engage in several rhetorical techniques" that will motivate followers. Those techniques include…
Dyer, W. Gibb, Dyer, Jeffrey H., and Dyer, William G. 2013. Team Building: Proven Strategies for Improving Team Performance. John Wiley & Sons: Santa Barbara, CA.
House, Robert J. 1996. 'Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory.' Leadership Quarterly, vol. 7, 323-353.
Kirkpatrick, Shelly A. 2011. 'Visionary Leadership Theory', Encyclopedia of Leadership. SAGE Publications. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://knowledge.sagepub.com .
Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. 2006. Essentials of Management. Tata McGraw-Hill Education: Mumbai, India.
Principles and Theories
Stark (2004) discussed the transformational elements present in the state of leadership in his article. This article attempted to strike a balance by understanding leadership as more of a state of mind than a state of action. Five major conclusions were highlighted in this reading. The first suggests that strong and positive organizations are direct reflections of the collective state of the workers of that organization. The next suggests that leadership is not related to power and is a state of being. The third conclusion the author discussed that the fundamental state of leadership is results driven. The fourth conclusion mandated that leaders need to experience deep and serious change to enter a state of fundamental leadership. The fifth conclusion suggested that change is contingent upon the leadership's ability to accept and engage in change.
Lawler & n Golden's (2003) article embraced the idea of…
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
It is possible then to figure out what the national Power Distance Index is by evaluating the tolerance or lack of it for civil assembly and protest.
Second Question: At your job does your supervisor consider everyone's feedback and promote open brainstorming or is there the expectation that there is only one best way to do a job and the supervisor knows it, so don't question him?
This second question will also say much about how Low or High Power Distance Index influences the working relationships within the companies in the region. The greater the level of egalitarian and collaborative approaches to sharing responsibility for solutions with subordinates the lower the Power Distance. Conversely if there is a definite attitude of the manager or supervisor being the only one capable of defining an acceptable solution, the company and the culture it is within is most likely High Power Distance. This…
Geert Hofstede. "Attitudes, values and organizational culture: Disentangling the concepts. " Organization Studies 19.3 (1998): 477-493.
Hofstede, Geert, Neuijen, Bram, Ohayv, Denise Daval, and Sanders, Geert. "Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Across Twenty Cases " Administrative Science Quarterly 35.2 (1990): 286-316.
Knowledge, Theory, And Practice: Epistemology
Epistemology, or the nature of knowledge, is often different for each person, from the standpoint of perspective. In other words, each person sees knowledge differently, and that can make what is "true" for one person not "true" for someone else. James Frederick Ferrier, a Scottish philosopher, was the one who coined the term "epistemology." It is a term that not only relates to the nature and the field of knowledge, but it is also used to determine how people know the things that they know (Moser & Vander Nat, 2001). What makes knowledge real and true are not easily understood concept, because what a person knows is always able to be challenged. One could then make the argument that the "knowing" would be a belief, rather than actual knowledge. Getting to the nature of what is really true when it comes to knowledge begs answers…
Bachman, J.E. & Fuqua, R.W. (1983) Management of inappropriate behaviors of trainable mentally impaired students using antecedent exercise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 477-484.
Cohen, L. & Manion, L. (1989) Research methods in education. Third Edition. London: Routledge.
Cooper, D.E. (Ed),(1999) Epistemology. The Classic reading. Malden: MBA Blackwell
Evans, W.H. (1981) The effects on selected classroom behavior of emotionally handicapped adolescents. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 2610A.
Implanting Total Quality Management in healthcare: The critical leadership traits" by Nwabueze (2011), TQM is an increasingly critical part of ensuring cost-effective management of healthcare in the modern economic environment. However, there are often substantial institutional and personal obstacles to realizing its benefits. "TQM leadership is therefore about presence, and a process carried out within an organizational role that assumes responsibility for the needs and rights of employees who choose to follow the leader in achieving results" (Nwabueze, 2011, p.331). In the article, leadership in general is conceptualized as motivating people to do what you want them to do of their own free will without constant supervision and coercion and TQM in particular is a values-based system (Nwabueze, 2011, p.332). The concept of zero defects and continuous improvement must be instilled within all employees on a consistent basis throughout the organization and this requires a transformation of past ways of…
Antonakis, J., Fenley, M. & Liecht, S. (2011). Can charisma be taught? Tests of two
Interventions. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10 (3) 374-396.
Baker, J. (2014). Leadership: A concise conceptual overview. Center for International Education
Faculty Publications, 18.
Role of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation
Andre Alexandre, Jr.
Dr. Amy Burkman
Revised prospectus outline
The Role of Leadership Styles in Organizational Innovation and Success
The study will research the role of leadership styles in organizational innovation and success. A number of studies have shown that transformational leadership positively influences organizational innovation. However, there is a lack of studies examining the contextual conditions under which this effect occurs or enhance organizational success.
Purpose Statement / Problem Statement
The purpose of this study is to explore and provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational innovation.
It is not known to what extent leadership styles impact innovation and enhances organizational success. Therefore, this study will investigate to provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between leadership styles and organizational innovation and success.
III. Literature Review
a) Theory: Transformational Leadership Theory. This study aims to investigate the…
Noam Chomsky and His Theory of Universal Grammar
Noam Chomsky name is not unknown to the world. Though he is not a psychologist or a psychiatrist but his contributions in the fields of psychology and linguistics has a great impact. His theory of generative grammar has been regarded as one of the most considerable contributions to the field of theoretical linguistics (Berger, 2005).
As a Person
Noam Chomsky, a well-known politician and an exceptional linguist, was born on December 7, 1928 in the state of Philadelphia in the home of a Hebrew scholar (Berger, 2005). He got his early education in Philadelphia while he went to study linguistics, mathematics and philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. There, he also achieved his PhD degree though he completed most of his PhD work at Harvard University during early 1950s. Chomsky has been associated with Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1955. He…
Berger, V. (2005). Famous Psychologist: Noam Chomsky. Retrieved January 2, 2012 from http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/famous_psychologist_and_psychologists/psychologist_famous_noam_chomsky.htm
Cowie, F. (1999). What's Within?: Nativism Reconsidered. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 2, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54457478
Lechte, J. (1994). Fifty Key Contemporary Thinkers: From Structuralism to Postmodernity. London: Routledge. Retrieved January 1, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103622027
Language Acquisition. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved January 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117028793
Use of Transformational Leadership Traits in Emergency Service Oversight
In the context of emergency service oversight, each of the four components of transformational leadership are critical in that each much be orchestrated with the other to ensure accurate, responsive and thorough support. The emergency service oversight areas of training and development, leadership and measuring results, all must resonate with these core values if employees and associates are to see value in their contributions. In emergency oversight, employees must see value in their contribution and take a very high level of task ownership in their jobs. They must be led to have an extremely high level of accountability and pride in performance. Only by combining the aspects of transformational leadership can the foundation be created to provide these employees with the opportunity to attain their own personal goals while delivering exceptional service to others. As the emergency service aspects of performance…
Millissa F.Y. Cheung, & Chi-Sum Wong. (2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(7), 656-672.
Brian T. Gregory, K. Nathan Moates, & Sean T. Gregory. (2011). An exploration of perspective taking as an antecedent of transformational leadership behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(8), 807-816.
Northouse, E.G. (2009). Leadership, theory and practice. Sage Publications, Inc. pp. 171 -- 201.
Jens Rowold. (2011). Relationship between leadership behaviors and performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(6), 628-647.
For any company or organization to function smoothly, there must be some elaborate management system in place. This is crucial as proper leadership would focus on guiding the company or organization through teamwork projects and is needed to keep everyone in the team motivated and willing to keep working no matter what. Understanding the leadership concepts and the different leadership theories makes those in charge better leaders. Some of these notable theories include:
The Leadership Exchange (LMX) theory
This theory focuses on the building of individual one on one relationship between the leader and every employee in the team rather than leading the team as a whole (Lunenburg, 2010). Since each relationship is bound to vary in quality, the leader will always have a good relationship with majority of the team regardless of the few bad relationships. These relationships (commonly referred to as dyads) give the leader a better…
Komives, S., & Dugan, J. (2010). Contemporary Leadership Theories (pp. 111-119). Sage Publications.
Lunenburg, F. (2010).Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 13(1), 2-4.
Malloch, K. (2014). Beyond Transformational Leadership to Greater Engagement. Inspiring Innovation in Complex Organizations, 60-62.
Russell, E. (2011). Leadership Theories and Style: A Transitional Approach. Military Leadership Writing Competition.
Social Work Leadership Theories and Areas of Application
Leadership Theories - Servant
The philosophy and collection of practices constituting the 'servant leadership' style enrich people's lives, improve organizations and, eventually, foster a kinder and fairer world. While the concept is ageless, the coining of the term "servant leadership" is attributed to obert K. Greenleaf, who cites it in his 1970 essay, The Servant as Leader. In his paper, Greenleaf states that servant-leaders are, first, servants. Leadership starts with one's inherent wish to serve. Subsequently, conscious choice generates the aspiration to lead. Such an individual sharply differs from the person who is, first, a leader, probably because of the latter's desire to procure material wealth or satisfy an abnormal power drive. Therefore, servant-first and leader-first types are positioned at two extremities of the continuum of leadership styles. Between the two, an endless assortment exists, forming part of human nature's infinite variety.…
212 books. (2012, December 7). An Introduction to Organizational Communication. Retrieved from 212 Books: http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-organizational-communication/s09-01-approaches-to-leadership.html
Bal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., & Meddings, K. (n.d.). The Role of Power in Effective Leadership. Center for Creative Leadership.
Chuang, S.-F. (2013). Essential Skills For Leadership Effectiveness In Diverse Workplace Development. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1).
Cowles, T. B. (2015, December 7). Ten Strategies for Enhancing Multicultural Competency in Evaluation. Retrieved from Harvard Family Research Project: http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation/the-evaluation-exchange/issue-archive/evaluation-methodology/ten-strategies-for-enhancing-multicultural-competency-in-evaluation
Performance Effects of Transformational Leadership in Public Administration," Doina Popescu Ljungholm examines a number of components of job performance for those in public administrator positions that work with the government. The focus of the study examined in the article is on how individual perceptions help explain employee behavior, leadership within the context of democratic governance, public administrators within their context of democratic governance, and leadership policies in public sector settings (Ljungholm, 2014). The author's goal was to build upon prior research that suggested that there was a moral component to transformational leadership, the impact of that leadership on public service motivation, how leadership can promote the moral values that promote public service, and what relationship exists between leadership and team performance (Ljungholm, 2014).
Ljungholm examines the concept of mission valence. Mission valence is not directly impacted by transformational leadership, but refers to an employee's perceptions of how the company impacts…
Ljungholm, D.P. (2014). The performance effects of transformational leadership in public administration. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 6(1), 110-115.
The primary theoretical models of conflict include the cooperative model, principled negotiation, human needs model, conflict transformation, and conflict transmutation (Dixit, 2004). Theoretical bases for conflict resolution include both macro-level and micro-level frameworks that guide understanding of human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually beneficial solutions (Burton, 1990). The goal of conflict resolution will be to attain win-win outcomes, which may ironically require both personal humility and the offering of concessions.
Although human needs…
Business Psychology/consulting/Industrial Psychology
Business Psychology/consulting/industrial Psycholog
Transformational leadership plan is a process moving leadership positions from one person to another or from one generation to another. Two major theories in relation to leadership transition plan are contingency theory and behavioral theory. Contingency theory emphasizes that there is no leadership style, which can stand alone as a proper leadership style. From the internal and external environmental factors, a leader should adapt to any given situation because leading has no redefined path. Behavioral theory emphasizes that great leaders are not born but made. The theory states that any leader can be more effective through teaching, experience, and observation. The theories can be applied in case of a sudden departure, for strategic leadership succession, and a possible planned departure (Ismail & Yusuf, 2011).
Merger transition plan is a process where two or more companies joined such that they can benefit on large capitals,…
Bass, M.B. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Leaning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics. Volume 18, Issue 3: 19 -- 31
Cohen, A. & Golan R. (2007). Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes: An empirical examination of female employees in long-term nursing care facilities. Career Development International, Vol. 12 Iss: 5, pp.416 -- 432
De Dreu, C.K. W & Weingart, L.R. (2003). Task vs. relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 88(4), Aug 2003, 741-749. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741
Emery, M. (2010). When the Cure is the Cause: the Turnover and Absenteeism Problems. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 15(1), Article 6: 1-17
Of the many theories and frameworks of entrepreneurial leadership, those from Jim Kouzes and Peter Drucker have over time proven most applicable to a broad range of situations and leadership challenges. Noted entrepreneurs including Steve Case, co-founder and CEO of America Online has often said that the key to succeeding as an entrepreneur is combining the best possible people, being passionate about a vision, and having a strong sense of perseverance (Gendron, 2004). Clearly, Dr. Kouzes and Peter Drucker have influenced Steve Cases' mindset about what it takes to succeed when launching a new business. The common elements of Steve Case, Jim Kouzes and Peter Drucker are analyzed in this paper, as is a discussion of the leadership style aspired to. An assessment of how best to use the Small Business Administration and SCOE services is also discussed in this analysis. Finally, my personal principles of leadership are…
Darling, J., & Leffel, A. (2010). Developing the Leadership Team in an Entrepreneurial Venture: A Case Focusing on the Importance of Styles. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 23(3), 355-371,481.
Drucker, Peter F. (1985). Entrepreneurial Strategies. California Management Review (pre-1986), 27(000002), 9.
George Gendron. (2004). Practitioners' Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Education: An Interview With Steve Case, Matt Goldman, Tom Golisano, Geraldine Laybourne, Jeff Taylor, and Alan Webber. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(3), 302-314.
James M. Kouzes. (1999). Getting to the heart of leadership. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 22(5), 64.
Multicultural Theories of Psychology
Multicultural Theories of Psychotherapy
Diagnosis, treatment and care of patient and their conditions are greatly influenced by cultural considerations. These actors determine beliefs and values related to health. Yet, these widespread claims about the real value of cultural role in healthcare do not come with sufficient research basis. Psychotherapists have, for a long time emphasized the need to provide multicultural psychotherapy so as to manage and reduce the ethnic and racial disparities in dealing with mental health issues. How multicultural competencies relate with other clinical process measures and treatment results has demonstrated heterogeneity it effect, though (Karen W. Tao & Jesse Owen, 2015). A famous quote by Slavoj Zizek on multi-culturalism deserves a mention here. "For the multiculturalist, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants are prohibited, Italians and Irish get a little respect, blacks are good, native Americans are even better. The further away we go, the more they…
FIVE IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCIES. (2014, July 29). Retrieved from Delaware Valley University: http://www.delval.edu/blog/five-important-aspects-of-multicultural-counseling-competencies
Jairo N. Fuertes, Peggy Brady-Amoon, Navneet Thind, & Tiffany Chang. (2015). The Therapy Relationship in Multicultural Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Bulletin.
Jesse Owen, Mark M. Leach, & Bruce Wampold. (2011). Multicultural Approaches in Psychotherapy: A Rejoinder. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22-26.
Karen W. Tao, & Jesse Owen. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of Multicultural Competencies and Psychotherapy Process and Outcome. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 337-350.
log 1: Theories and Models of Leadership and Management
An organization is a collection of multidimensional components and there are complex equations between all of these components. It encompasses various individuals, business practices, visions, missions, goals, performance standards, an organizational culture, ethical frameworks, hierarchies based on command and control, working methods, management styles along with relevant theories and models and a considerable number of other factors. Different organizations perform their operations under the influence of distinguished and diverse rules, conditions, circumstances, goals and factors (Cherry n.d.). Since the modus operandi and culture associated with every organization are tailored to its requirements, therefore, the models and theories allied with management style of an organization can also be also distinctive, unique and different from what accomplishes favorable outcomes for another organization.
Ibarra and Hansen (2011, p.p.71) reveals a research-based fact that has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better…
1. Kotter, JP (2007), Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business Review.
2. Studzinski, J (2010), BVO - World class CEOs master the art of listening. Available from < http://bvo.com/topics/communication-skills-for-leaders/programmes/john-studzinskiworld-class-ceos-master-the-art-of-listening. > [16 July 2012]
3. Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011), 'Are You a Collaborative Leader?' Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74.
4. Kent, S (2005, November), Better behavior, PM Network, 19(11), 4+.
Consumer Involvement Theory
Consumer involvement theory is the idea that products and services differ in terms of the amount of time and energy that a consumer puts into the purchase decision (McNamara, 2014). There are different levels of involvement, but for marketers it is important to know what level a given product is. For the most part, involvement level reflects the category of product, rather than the individual product itself - there is not much difference between one car and another in terms of involvement, but there is a big difference between the level of involvement between a car and a pack of gum. While involvement is on a continuum, it can roughly be divided between low, medium and high involvement products.
A low involvement product is an impulse purchase, one to which is given very little thought. These are typically products with low differentiation between attributes and low…
Brisoux, J. & Laroche, M. (1981) Evoked Set Formation and Composition: an Empirical Investigation Under a Routinized Response Behavior Situation. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 8 (1981) 357-361.
Business Week. (2011). Preventing analysis paralysis. Business Week. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.businessweek.com/management/preventing-analysis-paralysis-12202011.html
McNamara, S. (2014). Consumer involvement theory. Ad Cracker. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.adcracker.com/involvement/Consumer_Involvement_Theory.htm
Riley, G. (2012). Buyer behaviour -- the decision-making process. Tutor2U.net. Retrieved June 10, 2014 from http://www.tutor2u.net/business/marketing/buying_decision_process.asp
Diffusion of Innovation
The change process that takes place within a system is not so different from the change process that takes place within a patient or client on a behavioral level. There are fundamental variables that are needed for change in both individuals and systems (Anderson & Anderson, 2001). While those variables are different from one another, the way in which they work and what they offer to the individual or system as the change occurs are not that different (Anderson & Anderson, 2001). Consider the idea that a person must change one small piece at a time. This is why things like New Years' resolutions rarely work. A person promises to, essentially, get up the next day and be someone different. However, people do not work that way, in the vast majority of cases. While some people are able to make large changes overnight, most people need time…
Anderson, D. & Anderson, L.A. (2001). Beyond change management: Advanced strategies for today's transformational leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer
Marshak, R.J. (2005). Contemporary challenges to the philosophy and practice of organization development. In Bradford, D.L. & Burke, W.W. Reinventing organization development: New approaches to change in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer
2 Brief History and Organization Background
2 Proctor & Gamble History
5 Situation Analysis
5 External Environment
5 Internal Sociotechnical Systems
6 Problem Diagnosis & Definition
7 Great Man Theory
7 Trait Theory
8 the Managerial Grid
8 theory X and Theory Y
9 Participative Leadership (Lewin's leadership styles)
9 Situational Leadership
9 Contingency Theory
10 Transactional Leadership
10 Transformational Leadership
10 Organizational Leadership Discussion
14 Practitioner Recommendations
15 Overall Research Approach
16 Site and Population Selection
24 Identifications and Evaluation of Alternative Interventions
25 Action Planning
26 Follow-up and Evaluation
28 ork Cited
An Analysis of Leadership Styles Utilized by Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive and their Role in Contributing to Effective Practices and Profitability
This research proposal will focus on two major competitors in the national and international market, Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive, and the types of leadership…
Ang, S. (2006). Personality Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence. Group &Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decades in research and development in transformational leadership.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Leadership Style & Theories, Self-Assessment
esources: Leadership in Organizations, Organizational Behavior
To be understood and be believed as fully accountable, any individual must convincingly convey an affective as well as truly influential vision of the future for the organization, or subdivision / sub-directive of this organization, to project that needed charisma. When the subject in question can align his or her behavior alongside the principles of these values as a charismatic leader, then, is the first step to conquer in being believed to live up to the depiction projected. This individual must display a character for everyone in the room to befriend; must draw the imagery of that charismatic personality that everyone will both want to resemble or simulate in style, as well as assist in the here-and-now.
Compare and contrast leadership theories in the textbooks to gain understanding of relevant theories to your leadership approach:
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637-647.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1988). Charismatic leadership. The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1992). Perceived behavioral attributes of charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 24, 86-102.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations - Perceived behavioral-attributes and their measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 439-452.
leadership style is one of the most important factors that determine cross functional teams' success. Research and practice in the field have revealed several types of leadership theories, such as trait, behavioral, situational contingency, participative, transactional, and transformational theories. Each of these leadership theories introduces several types of leadership styles, amongst which the most frequently met in private and public organizations are autocratic or authoritative leadership, democratic or participative styles, transformational leadership, and others (Ricketts, 20). It is difficult to determine which of these leadership styles is the most efficient, as the need for a certain style depends on each situation. The table below compares and contrasts three key variables found in these theories.
Table . Leadership Theories Analysis
Key variable / theory
Situational contingency theories
Characteristics of leader
Cognitive abilities, social intelligence
Informing, clarifying, monitoring
. Derue, S.et al. (2011). Trait and Behavioral Leadership Theories. Personnel Psychology. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://php.scripts.psu.edu/faculty/s/e/seh25/DeRueNahrgangWellmanHumphrey2011.pdf .
12. Seyranian, V. (2009). Contingency Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://www.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference6.1.pdf .
Company Expanding and estructuring
Many organizations nowadays are undergoing revolutionary and unprecedented change (obbins & Judge, 2007). With this in mind, it is always advisable for the leaders in the company to change their leadership style (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, & Ghoshal, 2003). This is because the old style may not be flexible with the current form of the company.
According to Yuki (2006), leadership refers to the process of influencing other peoples in order to understand and agree about what the requirement to be done as well as how to do it. In addition, it involves the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts for the purpose of accomplishing shared objectives. Leadership as a process influences the followers either positively or negatively depending on the leader (Yuki, 2006). Leadership involves influencing others (obbins & Judge, 2007). A leader must have the ability to influence his or her subordinates, peers or…
Mintzberg, H, Lampel J, Quinn, J, Ghoshal (2003). The Strategy Process: Concepts, contexts, cases. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T. (2007). Organzational behavior, (14th ed). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Yuki, G (2006), Leadership in Organizations (7th ed) Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
My personal leadership development plan is based my intention to use transformational leadership theory to promote healthcare-eldercare advocacy in my organizational behavior. As Shanks and Buchbinder (2012) show, “leadership development includes both formal and informal efforts” (p. 279). Completing courses online or at a university are formal ways to develop one’s leadership skills, while informal efforts can include anything from mentoring others to coaching and guiding staff members in new tasks or cross-discipline work. No matter the method employed, a personal leadership development plan should utilize a strategy for maximizing leadership effectiveness by implementing an appropriate theoretical support for the plan, recognizing one’s leadership strengths, correcting one’s leadership weaknesses, and identifying action items that will help close gaps between being the leader one is now and being the leader one seeks to become.
Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that can be applied in virtually any…
As the world becomes more populous, busy, and interconnected, the need for good leadership will grow. Furthermore, this leadership will be needed in a number of different social and cultural contexts. (Gibson & McDaniel, 2010, 451-452). Fortunately, we are undergoing a renaissance in the study of leadership and our notions of leadership are becoming more diverse and, at the same time, more fundamental.
Leaders are produced by their environment, which includes their personality, their experiences, and their organizations. Leaders tend to grow out of organizations in which they embody the core values and ambitions shared by the organization.
The Traditional Models of Leadership
The traditional view of a leader is someone who is dominant, competitive, and authoritarian. (Medina, et. al., 2008, p.249). Although most leaders do exhibit these qualities, that does not mean that a leader must have such qualities. The reason these types of leaders are prevalent is…
Bell, A.H., & Smith, D.M. (2010). Developing leadership abilities. Boston: Pearson.
Cheung, M.F.Y., & Wong, C.-S. (September 28, 2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32, 7, 656-672
Medina, F., Munduate, L., & Guerra, J. (January 01, 2008). Power and conflict in cooperative and competitive contexts. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 3, 349-362.
Gibson, C., & McDaniel, D. (January 01, 2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 4, 450-462.
Leadership ehavior for Effective Decision Making
Effective decision making in the competitive business environment is closely linked with leadership skills. Managing change in existing organizations can often be extremely difficult, as it requires changing the organizational culture, the very roots that bind its members. This paper analyses the characteristics of a successful leader, illustrated with a practical example. Contrary to popular understanding, there is no unique style of leadership for all situations and the leader needs to be flexible and change his approach depending on case to case basis. The analysis takes into account the various theories on leadership - behavioral, contingency and transformational and evaluates the response of the leader to various situations in a typical organization operating in a fiercely competitive environment.
From the analysis, it is observed that the leader exhibited varying leadership styles and behavior to address and resolve various issues. The leader is found to…
Bennis, W. (1994) 'Visionary Leadership', in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) - 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.32-34
Gardner, H. (2001) 'Leading Minds' (ed) Manrik, J - 'Writers on Leadership', London: Penguin, pp. 73-76
Hampden-Turner, C. (1994) 'Charting the Corporate Mind' in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.110-114
Jacobson, R. (2000) 'Leading for a Change: How to master the Five Challenges faced by every leader', MA: Butterwoth-Heinmann, pp.135-138
In my opinion, finding a problem in such a case study is strictly related to whether you agree with the LMX theory or not. In this sense, stimulating a certain part of your personnel may be considered efficient or less efficient, in which case there may be a problem.
However, there several issues that should be discussing when referring to the way Jim is applying the LMX theory. First of all, the permanent and main reason for which he is using the in-group personnel is that he "doesn't have to do it himself" or because he is reticent about stepping up front. This doesn't seem to me to be a leader-like attitude. Using in-group people for certain jobs should be directed towards increasing the overall efficiency rather than covering up for yourself as leader.
The second thing that should be discussed is related to compensation and…
This section has used some of the explanations presented at
In my opinion, leaders should be an example for their team regarding work. They should promote increased enthusiasm towards work, in order for their example to be followed by other members of their group.
However, when assessing an individual's leadership potential it is necessary to take into consideration its emotional intelligence level. People's emotional intelligence refers to their ability of understanding motions and feelings and their attitudes and reactions in different situations (Chapman, 2009). The emotional intelligence level reveals how we read people, how we tend to use our emotions, how we understand and manage these emotions, and impressions.
The results of my EIQ 16 test have revealed interesting aspects about myself that I was not really aware of. For example, on the reading people aspect I rated level 3, which means that I am competent in this field. This means that I am normally aware of my feelings and…
1. Bolden, R. et al. (2003). A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Center for Leadership Studies. Retrieved February 2, 2011.
2. Guardian Portrait of the Supervisor (2010). Keirsey. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.keirsey.com/4temps/supervisor.asp .
3. Chapman, a. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved February 3, 2011 from http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm .
Leadership / Leadership: What? So What? Now What?
Wart (2014) defines leadership as the ability to instill in others the drive to pursue a collective vision so that the pursuit of this vision is a joint effort that leads to joint success. Influencing others in this way can be in terms of social influence. It does not use power which can be viewed as autocratic. It inspires to even those who do not directly report to the leader to accomplish much. olfe's model of reflection will be adopted in this essay and its attributes which include, what, so what and now what will be explored (olfe, et al. 2001).
Leadership as a concept and as a practice has many theories that seek to explain it. Each of these highlight specific attributes. Understanding these attributes is key to attaining goals. Some of these theories are highlighted below as they relate…
Bass, B.M., & Avolio, B.J. 1994, Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. USA: SAGE Publications.
Bass, B.M., & Riggio, R.E. 2006, Transformational Leadership. USA: Psychology Press.
Brayman A. 1992, Charisma and Leadership in Organizations. London: Sage.
Chemers, M. 2014, An Integrative Theory of Leadership. New York: Psychology Press.
21st Century Leadership
What does leadership mean today? The 21st Century environment presents totally different challenges and needs from the previous centuries with regards to leadership. Studies have shown that emotional and social intelligence are two big areas that pertain to 21st century leadership, as they relate to how well leaders can effectively establish positive relationships with followers (Boyatzis, 2008; Den, Deanne, Belschak, 2012; Higgs, 2013; Schyns, Schilling, 2013). There are, nonetheless, many styles and theories of leadership that are discussed by both professionals and researchers today. These styles and theories range from servant leadership to authoritarian leadership. Yet as Higgs (2013) shows, in the 21st century, a "sense making" paradigm is needed in order for an appropriate model of leadership to be implemented that "is relevant to the context of complexity and change facing organizations in the early twenty-first century" (p.273). This sense making paradigm is actually a throw-back…
1. Description of your leadership philosophy
a. Fundamental leadership concept
The main emphasis emerging from the transformational leadership concept is for nursing leaders to produce not just constructive but also valuation challenges for their subordinates and followers for the realization of the established organizational objectives. Based on Damirch, Rahimi, and Seyyedi (2011), the famous James MacGregor Burns created this design when researching governmental leaders; nevertheless, its good effect traversed to other fields and areas. In my situation, the importance given to the transformational leadership idea is related to its development of a higher-performing, dedicated personnel when used in health-care institutions. In medical centers as well as other treatment institutions, transformational leadership could be carried out within any institutional system or department like worker groups, divisions, sectors, as well as at the top leadership (Choi, Goh, Adam, And Tan, 2016). Essentially, this idea improves not just the inspiration but the overall…
There are two aspects to the answer. In the first instance, as Mezirow states, the individual is connected in the context of transformational learning and education to the larger society. There are many examples of this connection, such as social norms and ideals that affect the issue of individual transformation. As referred to above, learning takes place in a social environment, which implies an intimate link between the individual and society.
However, at the same time it can be argued that individual transformation is personal in nature and has little in essence to do with transformation in the larger society. This refers to the psychological process of internal cognizance and awareness within the individual. As Mezirow states of personal transformation, "...personalized transformation does not guarantee social action." (Mezirow, 1994) This in essence exemplifies the difference between individual and social transformation.
In this light, Spenser also distinguishes between critical theory and…
References from readings
Mezirow. (1994) Understanding Transformation Theory.
Adult Education Quarterly. 44(4).
Successful and Unsuccessful Leaders
Coach K. and John Stumpf are leaders that have used differing styles of leadership. On one hand, Coach K. uses a transformational leadership style whilst Stumpf uses an authoritative style of leadership. Stumpf employed a controlling and intimidating technique whilst Coach K. uses a more interactive and relational approach. Coach K. has been a successful mentor and coach over the years by having good and healthy relation with his subordinates. Employees in Wells Fargo had a poor relation to John Stumpf as he failed to consider the perspectives of the employees. John Stumpf utilized his power and influence within Wells Fargo to change the behavior of personnel to conform to his controlling and authoritative culture. Coach K. uses his influence to not only be a leadership teacher and also coach, but also in people development. Taking these aspects into consideration, Mr. Stumpf is considered to be…
Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2009). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. Simon and Schuster.
Davis, S. (2015). How did Mike Krzyzewski reach 1,000 wins? With a million small steps. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved from: http://www.si.com/college-basketball/2015/01/25/mike-krzyzewski-duke-blue-devils-1000-wins
Duran, D. (2015). Lessons from Duke's Coach K: 3 keys to leading an exceptional team. Investment News. Retrieved from: http://www.investmentnews.com/article/20150513/BLOG16/150519966/lessons-from-dukes-coach-k-3-keys-to-leading-an-exceptional-team
Egan, M. (2016). 5,300 Wells Fargo employees fired over 2 million phony accounts. CNN Money. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/2016/09/08/investing/wells-fargo-created-phony-accounts-bank-fees/
Management & Leadership in Health Care
Characteristics Which Distinguish "Leadership" From "Management
The main difference that exists between leaders and managers is that leaders have individuals who follow them, whereas managers have individuals who work for them. Getting individuals to understand and believe in your ideas in addition to working with you in order to achieve your goals is leadership, while managing is more of heading and ensuring daily activities run as usual (go2 Tourism H Society, 2015).
Management and leadership are both vital for good health care delivery services. While the two are alike in some aspects, they incorporate different behaviors, skills and outlook. Good managers should do their best to be better leaders, and good leaders require management techniques to be efficient. So as to realize a vision, leaders will have a vision of what is attainable and then communicate it with others and develop strategies to achieve…
Al-Sawai, A. (2013). Leadership of Healthcare Professionals: Where Do We Stand? Oman Med J., 285-287.
Burke, R., & Barron, S. (2014). Project Management Leadership: Building Creative Teams. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
Buttell, P., Hendler, R., & Daley, J. (2008). Quality in Healthcare: Concepts and Practice. In K. H. Cohn, & D. E. Hough, The Business of Healthcare (pp. 61-91). Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care. Department of Health and Human Services.