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Transgender Employment Discrimination
There is a growing body of evidence that transgender individuals frequently experience some type of discrimination during the employment process in the United States today. Although there are only a few high-profile cases, there are a significant number of employment claims being asserted. In terms of numbers, the high was reached in 1994 when almost 92,000 discrimination charges were filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Since that time, the number of discrimination cases has ranged between 75,000 and 87,000 per year. Even more significant, the number of employment discrimination lawsuits filed in federal court almost tripled between 1990 and 2000. Although not as well documented, constitutional claims against public sector employers also have increased dramatically in recent years. These employment-related claims -- raising such important issues as privacy and equal protection rights -- have forced human resource management generalists to become minor constitutional scholars as they…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Condrey, S.E. (2005). Handbook of human resources management in government.
Christensen, J. (2008, December 2). Sex. gender. Employment discrimination: One woman's successful lawsuit against the Library of Congress could spell more legal victories for transgender employees across the country. The Advocate, 1020, 21.
Department of Health, Education and Welfare. "Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs and Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance." 45 CFR §84.1 et seq.
The following dependent variables are proposed by the researcher based on information gathered from the previous research: marital status (Swan & Mazur, 2002), feelings, socioeconomic status (ACPA, 1995; Sanlo, 1998), self-esteem (Armino, 1993), and birth gender.
American College Personnel Association. (1995-Sept). Domestic partners project research. ichmond, VA: ACPA Standing Committee for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Awareness.
Armino, J. (1993). acial identity as development theory: Considerations for designing leadership programs. Campus Activities Programming, 25(8):40-6.
Eisner, E.W. (1991). The enlightened eye: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Healy, M. & Perry, C. (2000). Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm. Qualitative Market esearch, 3(3): 118.
Landau, J. (2005). "Soft immutability" and "imputed gay identity" - ecent developments in the transgender and sexual-orientation based asylum law. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 32(2):237.
Sanlo, .I. (1998). Working with lesbian, gay, bisexual,…
American College Personnel Association. (1995-Sept). Domestic partners project research. Richmond, VA: ACPA Standing Committee for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual Awareness.
Armino, J. (1993). Racial identity as development theory: Considerations for designing leadership programs. Campus Activities Programming, 25(8):40-6.
Eisner, E.W. (1991). The enlightened eye: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Healy, M. & Perry, C. (2000). Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm. Qualitative Market Research, 3(3): 118.
Transgender- The Behaviors and Acts Leading up to a Transition
Transgender, as a terminology, alludes to individuals whose sense of their gender is different from what would be anticipated based on the sex individualities that they are naturally born with. A transgender individual may identify as a trans woman, which means a person who has a self-concept that is female, with the endeavor to or has transitioned to living as a woman after being born with male genitalia. On the other hand, an individual who identifies as a trans man implies having a male self-concept despite being born with female genitalia. Furthermore, an individual who is non-binary does not identify stringently as a woman or a man (Sangganjanavanich, 2016).
Starting as early as a child, a transgender individual may have continuous and perpetual feelings of gender dysphoria. This refers to a detachment between the individual's primary as well as…
Gender Norms in South Park
In the first episode of South Park's 19th season last fall, the person of Caitlyn Jenner was satirized in a move that reinforced traditional gender norms. However, at the same time, the character of Caitlyn was embraced by Mr. Garrison -- the show's 4th grade elementary teacher, who (like Caitlyn in real life) had a sex change (twice -- from man to woman and then back from woman to man again) several seasons ago. While Mr. Garrison is often portrayed as a crotchety, no-nonsense anti-gay mouthpiece, his own homosexual tendencies are at the same time used for laughs. In this first episode of season 19, entitled "Stunning and Brave," a new principal comes to the town of South Park to take over South Park Elementary. His name is PC Principal and he is a young, PC warrior fresh from college. He is aggressive and well-trained…
Dealing with Transgender Children
Many children who are transgender identify themselves as such at a young age. Thanks to increasing awareness of the issue in the media, parents of transgender children are becoming more supportive of their child's choice to live as the gender the child believes is correct, whether the child regards him or herself as a boy or a girl. But although awareness is increasing amongst the general public, there is still profound resistance in many quarters to the concept. In this instance, a first grade child is identifying as male, even though he was originally registered in the school as a girl and under a female name. The teacher must find a way to support the child while still tackling the resistance of other parents who might not view the child's self-image in as positive a fashion and children who have adopted their parents' attitudes.
George, A. (2014). How teachers can support transgender students. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2014/oct/29/transgender-supporting-students-school-lgbt
Oswald, M. (2016). How to support transgender students in the classroom. Edudemic. Retrieved From: http://www.edudemic.com/support-transgender-students-classroom/
In fact, the argument could easily be made that individuals with transgender tendencies who do not pursue gender reassignment procedures are more prone to chronic depression and to other natural consequences of their repressed feelings about their true identities that could potentially affect their ability to fulfill their vocational obligations optimally (O'Neil, et al. 2008). Conversely, the evidence strongly supports the conclusion that transgender individuals who undergo the sex reassignment transition are fully capable of leading happy fulfilled lives and of performing at work without any detrimental effects directly attributable to their transgenderism (Nuttbrock, et al. 2008).
To the extent transgenderism is associated with psychological trauma and negative consequences that affect an employee's ability to perform at work, it is largely attributable to the negative attitudes, harassment, social exclusion, ridicule they often encounter from coworkers. Naturally, the same is true, perhaps even more so, to the extent transgenders' families reject…
American Civil Liberties Union (2006) Federal Court Rules Transgender Discrimination Lawsuit Against Library of Congress Can Proceed. Retrieved July 3, 2008, at http://www.aclu.org/lgbt/transgender/24851prs20060331.html
Friedman, L. (2005) a History of American Law 3rd ed. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Discrimination Against Transgendered People
Gender & Sexuality
In many wester societies and cultures, the gender and sexual spectrums are narrow. One can be male or female, not neither, not both, and not something in between. One can be masculine or feminine, not neither, not both, and not something in between. These are typically the mainstream beliefs regarding sexual and gender identity. The fact is, in more countries around the world, people are coming to terms with and gaining awareness about the fact that the gender and sexual spectrums are far more dynamic than we have been taught to believe. There are intersexed people, formally called hermaphrodites, who are born with female and male genitalia. There are transsexuals and homosexuals, and there are transgender people. There are even types of heterosexual people who exist that do not fall within the very narrow acceptable forms of gender and sexual identities. There are…
Almeida, J., Johnson, R.M., Corliss, H.L., Molnar, B.E., & Azrael, D. (2009). Emotional Distress Among LGBT Youth: The Influence of Perceived Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 38, 1001 -- 101.
Dietert, M., & Dentice, D. (2009) Gender Identity Issues and Workplace Discrimination: The Transgernder Experience. Journal of Workplace Rights, 14(1), 121 -- 140.
Storrow, R.F. (2002). Gender Typing in Stereo: The Transgender Dilemma in Employment Discrimination. Maine Law Review, 55(1), 118 -- 157.
In their second survey, the authors found that the majority of students felt that POJECT 10 had been positive and beneficial - not merely for LGBT students, but for the overall educational environment.
This resonates with one of the conclusions reached by Sedgwick (1993) when she offered her first class in gay and lesbian studies at Amherst College in 1986. While she initially designed the course for the five to six students she believed would show up, she was quite shocked when, on the first day of class, sixty-five students showed up, most of whom identified as straight. While Sedgwick is writing as a literary scholar, rather than a social scientist, her comments on pedagogy, as one of the most important proponents of queer theory since its emergence in the academy in the 1980s, are pertinent here. Sedgwick notes that it is fairly common in the United States for teachers…
Ball, a.F. (2000). "Empowering Pedagogies that Enhance the Learning of Multicultural
Students." Teachers College Record, Vol. 102, No. 6, 1006-1034.
Bandura, a. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Big Five Personality Dimensions and Transgenderism
The Big Five of Five-Factor personality theory which classifies the human character according to dimensions of openness, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism is one of the most popular personality theories still in circulation today. Of course, the question immediately arises -- why these five? Why are these characteristics considered particularly important and of interest? The five factors have been determined to be cross-cultural in nature, at least according to its advocates, and relatively stable over the duration of an individual's lifespan (Acton 2006). They have a partly but not exclusively genetic dimension and have been useful in various ways to the survival of the species for many, many centuries.
The factors are conceived of along a continuum, "with most people falling in between the extremes ... and knowing one's placement on the factors is useful for insight and improvement through therapy" (Acton 2006). Along…
Acton, S. (2006). Five-Factor Model. Great Ideas in Personality. Retrieved from:
Popkins, N. (1998). The Five-Factor Model: Emergence of a taxonomic model for personality psychology. Great Ideas in Personality. Retrieved from: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/popkins.html
Scutti, S. (2015). The big five personality traits: Take the test to know yourself and your future health. Medical Daily. http://www.medicaldaily.com/big-five-personality-traits-take-test-know-yourself-and-your-future-health-328022
The topic of intersexuality naturally raises the issue of whether gender should be rigidly defined or whether gender should rather be viewed on a continuum. Thus, Gorman and Cole work to dispel the prevalent social myth that all individuals must be assigned a clear, unequivocal gender status. Examining the collective phenomena of intersexuality can also help people to contemplate gender roles and social norms in society. For example, Gorman and Cole chose to include a telling quote from Kelli. Although she now primarily cultivates a female identity, she claims that she might elect to be a "male carpenter" because she would be "taken more seriously," (58).
The most important information contained in "Between the Sexes" therefore regards the perception of gender, gender identity, and gender flexibility. This information is far more significant and has more of an impact on readers than the scientific and biological reasons for intersexuality that the…
Gorman, Christine and Cole, Wendy. "Between the Sexes." Time.
child sexuality or intersex become especially difficult to discuss. These readings all ask us to question why those taboos are in place, while at the same time trying to show how important research in human sexuality can be. Sexuality is a major part of the human experience, and a fully understanding of psychology and sociology is not possible without open explorations into issues surrounding sexuality. Added to the complex issues surrounding human sexuality is gender. Gender is totally different from, but certainly related to, sexuality. On the one hand, one's concept of gender will have a strong bearing on one's perception of oneself as a sexual being, will impact issues related to self-awareness, self-esteem, and self-confidence. On the other hand, gender is only slightly implicated in things like sexual attraction. Both gender and sexual attraction are remarkably fluid, as Diamond points out. They may even be fluid across the course…
Diamond, Milton. "A Critical Evaluation of the Ontogeny of Human Sexual Behavior." The Quarterly Review of Biology, Volume 40, No. 2, June 1965
Money, John. "Childhood: The Last Frontier in Sex Research."
Sex: Unknown. Nova [Film].
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
Geena Rocero is a model with a purpose. Rocero was born and raised in the Philippines, and recently returned to her homeland to help victims of Typhoon Haiyan. In the midst of a busy schedule, Rocero spends time in her first interview because she feels that sharing her life story is one of the first steps toward helping others. "e're all in this journey together," Rocero exclaims.
Coincidentally, the interview falls on Transgender Day of Remembrance, which commemorates all transmen and transwomen who lost their lives because of targeted attacks. "Transwomen of color are the most marginalized," Rocero reminds us. "70% of hate crime in the LGBT community is committed against transwomen of color. I want this to change. I need this to change. I get so emotional about this and I'm reminded how privileged I am," she says with tears in her eyes.
Rocero works as a model…
When she was a young girl, Rocero knew she was female. Her dream was to become a model. She borrowed her sister's clothes, wore her mom's lipstick, entered local beauty pageants, and eventually self-medicated with hormones. Her parents, especially her mom, supported Geena and helped her to enter beauty pageants. When she was 17, Rocero moved to the United States. She was able to work in the United States and save enough money for the gender reassignment surgery, which she had done at age 19. In fact, while on her upcoming trip to Thailand, Rocero is meeting her surgeon to "thank him for giving me a wonderful vagina."
After her sexual reassignment surgery, Geena pursued her dream of modeling. She moved to New York City in 2005 and while working as a bar hostess, met a photographer who helped her develop a portfolio. That same year, Rocero signed with her first modeling agency. Currently, Rocero is signed with NEXT Model Management. In addition to modeling, Geena has worked as a makeup artist with Benefit Cosmetics, a manager at Inc. Magazine, and a sales representative for First Go Green biodegradable products. Rocero has also worked with the Summit Series, an entrepreneurial organization, to learn how to collaborate with partners on achieving mutual goals. It was because of her broad working experience and her networking with Summit Series contacts that Rocero has been able to develop a plan for promoting her public policy initiatives around the world. Rocero's ultimate goal is to transform public policy at the trans-national level. Her vision is to serve as an ambassador for transgender issues with the United Nations.
Rocero knows she has led a privileged life because of supportive friends, supportive family members, and a supportive spiritual community in both her native Philippines and in the United States. Rocero wants to ensure that the underprivileged people of the world also have access to the support systems and resources needed to live a healthy life. Referring to brutal assaults on transwomen around the world, Geena states, "People are dying. I need to do something."
sexual relationships figure in the construction of a transgendered person?
Sexual relationships or sexual preferences tend to be the elements that are usually accepted as defining factors in the sexual and social identity of an individual. This means that sexual relationships are often seen to be the determining factors that constitute the very psychological and social identity of the person. This view of sexuality presents a number of problems -- particularly with regard to the transgendered person. Firstly, as the following definitions of transgender will make clear, there are many variations and ambiguities to the term transgendered, which can be confusing. Secondly and more importantly, there is an ongoing debate which revolves around opposing views of what constitutes sexual identity. One point-of-view sees sexual relationships and identity as innate or "naturally" constituted. This view is opposed by the social construction theory which sees sexual identity as a "construction" engineered by…
Bockting, W.O. 1999. Accessed August 9, 2005. (SIECUS Report, 1999. 28(1), 3-7.) http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3781/is_199910/ai_n8875386#continue
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Foucault: Sex, Power and the Politics of Identity." Interview by Bob Gallagher and Alexander Wilson. In Foucault Live: Collected Interviews 1961-1984, ed. Sylvere Lotringer. New York: Semiotext (e), pp. 382-390. Originally published in The Advocate, No. 400, August 7, 1984. Interview conducted in June, 1982.
Groenewald, D. The Man Question: Foucault and the Politics of Male Sexuality. August 9, 2005. http://www.newcastle.edu.au/discipline/sociol-anthrop/staff/kibbymarj/foucault.html
hat is gender? Is it a biological condition or a social construction? In today's modern world, it appears that it can be one or the other or even a mixture of both. Transgender people like Caitlyn Jenner (formerly Bruce Jenner, an Olympian) have raised awareness about the issue of gender, and so have others, like the achowski siblings, famous Hollywood directors, who have brought attention to the issue through their exploration of sexual and gender identity issues. Researchers have also added to the debate about what is gender identity by performing both qualitative and quantitative studies about it, ranging from discussions of the difference between sex and gender to neurobiological brain scans of brain wave patterns in men, women, straight and transgender. Results, findings and conclusions remain contested and controversial, suggesting that even today little is known about why gender identity is an issue for some and not…
Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:
Routledge, 1990. Print.
cross-cultural values and mores to identify the author's interactions with gay, lesbian, and transgendered individuals, Latinas and individuals with disabilities. Further, this paper integrates the case study analyses provided in "Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy" and relevant Social Justice Counseling issues to support the discussions. In addition, for each of these three cultures, a discussion concerning what factors should be kept in mind during interfaces with each so that all parties are honored to facilitate work with them as a therapist, colleague, social acquaintance, partner, and neighbor. Finally, an analysis concerning what was especially easy and fun and what was challenging to understand about these cultures given the author's unique worldview is followed by a summary of the research and important findings about these three cultures and cross-cultural values and mores in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgendered Individuals
With growing numbers of states legalizing…
Beam, C. (2014). Is Hispanic the same thing as Latina? Slate. Retrieved from http://www.
Beecher, M.E. & Rabe, R.A. (2007, Spring). Practical guidelines for counseling students with disabilities. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 83-87.
Bess, J.A. & Stabb, S.D. (2009, July). The experiences of transgendered persons in psychotherapy: Voices and recommendations. Journal of Mental Health Counseling,
Firstly, males tend to base their self-worth on what they have accomplished as individuals. This is an "independent self-concept." Females on the other hand, tend to judge themselves more in terms of an "interconnected self-concept," meaning that they assess themselves in terms of how they interact with other people. esearch has also demonstrated however that in countries like the United States, which are considered to be relatively individualistic, the independent self-concept prevails. However in countries in which community is valued higher than individualism, such as it is in numerous countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the interconnected self-concept is much more prominent. This demonstrates that socialization plays a major role in a person's concept of self because if these concepts were innate, then males and females in all cultures would view themselves by inherently devised standards as opposed to socially determined ones.
It is generally accepted that gender socialization…
Cross, S.E., & Madson, L. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5 -- 37
Good, G.E., Dell, D.M., & Mintz, L.B. (1989). Male role and gender role conflict: Relations to help seeking in men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 295-300.
Sanchez, F.J. & Vilain, E. (2009) Collective self-esteem as a coping resource for male-to- female transsexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 202-209
Sharpe, M.J., & Heppner, P. P (1991). Gender role, gender role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(3), 323-330
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Geertz and Common Sense
Geertz: Analysis Common Sense
I have come to agree with Geertz in his conclusion that common sense is shaped by the society and culture we live in. Geertz describes common sense as "a relatively organized body of considered thought" (p. 75). Throughout Local Knowledge, he refers to common sense as being based in history and personal experiences. He offers that myth and accepted generalizations in a society for the foundation of what we call common sense. I particularly agree with Geertz in his assessment of the way intersexuality confuses the biological science scene and communities because common sense generally places sexuality into two categories: "maleness and femaleness." There is no room for an in-between.
Common sense, as Geertz defines it, is more than the "matter-of-fact apprehension of reality" (pp. 75-76). Common sense can be viewed as a cultural system because it is a loosely organized body…
Geertz, Clifford. "Common Sense as a Cultural System." Local Knowledge (2003): 73-93.
Following on the heels of Michel Foucault, Butler situates the dichotomous conceptualization of gender as a product of discourse, just as Foucault (1990) realized that homo- and heterosexuality were both discursive products. The maintenance of coherent norms in the realm of gender through cultural discourse is intertwined with the positing of heterosexuality as the norm. This is why, for example, when a young boy "dresses up" as a girl and/or plays with dolls, his parents frequently express concern that this is a sign of burgeoning homosexuality and punish the child.
Butler would interpret the child's act as a "performance" and the parents' intervention as a means of correcting that performance in order to condition the child towards "acting the right way" - that is, enacting the role of maleness as it is rigidly codified by the heterosexual norms upon which our society is based:
The notion that there might…
Bornstein, K. (1995). Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us. New York: Vintage.
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge.
Clausen, J. (1999). Apples and Oranges: My Journey to Sexual Identity. New York: Houghton
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
.....individual's level of sexual identity development relates to their level of job satisfaction depends on numerous variables -- such as the confidence with which one identifies their sexuality, the degree to which that identity is accepted among peers, and the extent to which that identity places one as a minority. As the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (n.d.) indicates, "Minorities also tend to be at a disadvantage in terms of job rewards, which no doubt has an impact on their job satisfaction as well as career advancement in the long run" (p. 62). The issue therefore is one of whether the individual's sexual identity is a cause of tension or stress both for the individual and for colleagues. To the extent that it is an issue, the individual's job satisfaction is likely to be comparably impacted.
The functions of heterosexual privilege are 1) to enable heterosexuals to maintain a high…
This may be responsible for gender identity misidentification when factors other than apparent external genital structure conflict with other elements. For this reason, Fausto-Sterling argues that infants born with ambiguous genitalia should not receive surgery until later in life when they begin to express their natural gender identity.
Sex Hormones vs. Steroid Hormones:
Faustino-Sterling also objects to the very definition of human steroid hormones as "sex hormones" because they exert many more effects on the developing human body than merely those related to determining gender and sexuality. The author traces the history of traditional views about the role of human hormones and gender back to experiments on rodents before World War II through the Organizational/Activational Model of hormone activity (p214) based on the effects of exposure to specific types (and levels) of hormones during human gestation that dictate gender-specific behaviors in puberty.
The author suggests that the more accurate view…
(2000) Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Basic Books.
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
Any diversion from that norm is considered deviance.
Gender Awareness Week should seek to accomplish several goals. First, the week of seminars and workshops will inspire all of us to think more cogently about gender. What does gender mean to us and to our identity? How has gender identity affected our behaviors, our relationships, our reactions to external events? How has our gender identity affected the way others relate to us? I would encourage all students to become more aware of gender in their daily lives. We need to pay attention to instances in which gender is particularly salient. For example, do males react differently to a woman wearing a skirt and heels than to a woman wearing jeans and Doc Martins?
Second, Gender Awareness Week should stimulate more media literacy. The media promotes and reinforces gender norms. For example, a recent Victoria's Secret lingerie fashion show included brief biographies…
While it used to be primarily the face, the breasts and more visible parts of the body that people chose to have cosmetic surgery on, today they are taking things a step further. According to Davis (2002) one of the most popular "new sex surgeries" is the "designer vagina." These surgeries are supposed to improve the aesthetics of the vagina as well as make them 'tighter'.
Clearly, people are becoming bolder and surgeries are becoming more invasive. For many people, the effect these surgeries have on their relationships with their bodies is improved self-esteem and confidence. But for many others, it becomes just one part of an endless and futile attempt to attain perfection.
Davis, S.W. (2002, March 22) Loose lips sink ships, Feminist Studies
oyster, F. (2005, July 28) Hee hee: Michael Jackson and the transgendered erotics of…
Davis, S.W. (2002, March 22) Loose lips sink ships, Feminist Studies
Royster, F. (2005, July 28) Hee hee: Michael Jackson and the transgendered erotics of voice, National Sexuality Resource Center
John Brown applied for a job as a grounds worker at a federal facility and was denied employment because of his sexual orientation. He asks you to explain the law relevant to his situation. What if the same thing happened at Boston University?
Unfortunately title VII does not prohibit discrimination because of an individual's sexual orientation. Though Title VII prohibits discrimination because of sex, the word sex is interpreted gender. However, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), is a proposed U.S. federal law that would prohibit discrimination against employees on the basis of sexual orientation. If it happened at Boston University, the University would pursue affirmative action and adherence to state and federal laws.
Six months after Harry was hired as a part-time retail clerk, twenty hours a week, he called in sick on a Wednesday morning..At first, his mother told the store manager that Harry had the flu and would…
Safe Schools for Lesbian and Gay Students
It is important that all children feel safe in the school environment. The majority of waking hours are spent at school, so it must be ensured that students feel comfortable, safe, secure, and supported while at school. This is especially the case for lesbian and gay students, who face several challenges in regards to discrimination, self-esteem, and fitting in with other students. It is the responsibility of teachers and school administrators to address this issue and devise strategies for ensuring that lesbian and gay students are appropriately supported in the school environment.
Lesbian and gay students often feel isolated, alienated, and left out at school (Youth Pride, 1997). These feelings of isolation result in several troubling outcomes. Suicide rates among lesbian and gay students are high, with studies indicating that gay and lesbian students are up to three times more likely to attempt…
Bullying.org (2011). Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://www.bullying.org .
Lambda Legal (2010). Getting down to basics: tools to support LGBTQ youth in care. Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://lambdalegal.org/take-action/tool-kits/getting-down-to-basics .
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (2011). Public policy and government affairs. Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://www.ngltf.org/our_work/public_policy .
Schwartz, R. (2011). GLSEN lauds bipartisan introduction of safe schools improvement act (S.506) in senate. Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. Retrieved 22 October, 2011 from http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2702.html?state=policy&type=policy .
(Transsexualism: A Primer)
Among the important discussions in the field of medical science is whether transgenderism is really a 'biological' or rather an 'invented' disorder. The medical notion of transsexualism is "an illusion" or a falsehood whose explanation must thus be looked forward to in terms other than the putative thing itself. Because of this, medical doctors are worried with whether they must treat the transgender subject by assisting them make adjustments to their present body, or if they should adjust to their current body, or if they must adjust the current body to fit the person's self. (How Heterosexism Impacts Healthcare of Transgendered)
It has been observed that transition has been the single greatest concern faced by transsexual. It implies bringing one's whole life into conformity with that of his/her internal perception. For transsexual, it implies settling comfortably into ones' new life and waking up one morning…
Baker, Howard. J. Transsexualism- Problems in Treatment. American Institute of Psychiatry.
Vol. 125, no. 3, April 1969, pp: 1412-1418.
Dwyer, Lisa. How Heterosexism Impacts Healthcare of Transgendered. http://www.mun.ca/the/research/transhealth.html
N.A.A Primer on Transsexuality. http://transsexual.org/aprimer.html
Elder's (2016) "Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy" is a qualitative study of gender identity in an elder population. The research focuses exclusively on elder transgender and also gender nonconforming elders in their experiences of psychotherapy. The goal of the study is to trace any differences between psychotherapeutic experiences across the life span, to see if there have been changes in the field of psychology and also changes in the perceptions of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals. Elder (2016) argues that relatively few studies have examined the experiences of transgender individuals in psychotherapy at all, and this research seeks to fill that gap in the literature too.
The author approaches the subject from a transaffirmative model, which validate and support the individual's self-determined gender identity without leading to pathologies like gender dysmorphia. There are several established theoretical viewpoints mentioned in the research including Lev's transgender emergence…
Elder, A.B. (2016). Experiences of Older Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Adults in Psychotherapy: A Qualitative Study. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity 3(2): 180-186.
LBGTQ RightsLBGTQ is a society that does not fall in either the male or female gender norms of the society. This is due to the embodiment of the characteristics related to both sexes that differentiate them explicitly but do not take into consideration if either one of them is missing or both are present. This paper aims at explaining the aspects mentioned about the LBGTQ rights and the contemporary issues that are still faced by this community despite the modernization of the society. The thoughts and standpoints would be thoroughly scrutinized in the light of authentic readings that would support explaining the phenomenon. The contemporary issue that has taken the news by storm is Joe Bidens decision to grant an educational environment free from discrimination of sex, even including sexual orientation or gender individuality (Executive Order on Guaranteeing). American society has been striving to set an example for the world…
Butler, Judith. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Feminist Local and Global Theory Perspectives Reader, edited by Carole R. McCann and Seung-Kyung Kim, Routledge, 2017, pp. 481-491.
Executive Order on Guaranteeing an Educational Environment Free from Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, Including Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity. The White House, 8 Mar. 2021, https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2021/03/08/executive-order-on-guaranteeing-an-educational-environment-free-from-discrimination-on-the-basis-of-sex-including-sexual-orientation-or-gender-identity/
Felluga, Dino. Modules on Butler: On Gender and Sex. Introduction Guide to Critical Theory, n.a., https://cla.purdue.edu/academic/english/theory/genderandsex/modules/butlergendersex.html
Hopkins, Patrick. Gender Treachery: Homophobia, Masculinity, and Threatened Identities. Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality: The Big Questions, edited by Naomi Zack, Laurie Shrage and Crispin Sartwell, 1998, pp. 168-186.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People: Building a Foundation for Better Understanding. National Academic Press, 2011, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64810/
Little, William. Introduction to Sociology. 2nd ed., BC Campus, 2016, https://opentextbc.ca/introductiontosociology/chapter/chapter12-gender-sex-and-sexuality/
Lorde, Audre. Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women Redefining Difference. Sister Outsider, 1984, https://www.colorado.edu/odece/sites/default/files/attached-files/rba09-sb4converted_8.pdf
Ma Vie En Rose. Groucho Reviews, n.a., http://grouchoreviews.com/reviews/4659
Annabel by Kathleen inter
Many people use the terms gender and sex interchangeably. Sociologists have made it clear that these are, in fact, two very different concepts. Sex is the physical difference between men and women. Gender is the sociological difference that society places on male and female based on attributes that have been historically applied to one sex over the other. There is a clear delineation between gender and sex. This distinction is the subject of the novel Annabel by Kathleen inter. A young person is born without a clear distinction over what his or her physical sex is and thus the physical cannot determine if the begin is man or woman. Therefore, the only way that the person is labeled with regard to these categories is by the gender imposition of his or her mother and father who are clearly physically and sociologically male and female. Annabel artistically…
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. (2009). The Developing Person. Worth "David Reimer: The Boy Who Lived as a Girl." (2004). CBC News.
Walker, Jesse. (2004). "The Death of David Reimer." Reason Magazine.
"What is Intersex" (2008). ISNA. http://www.isna.org/faq/what_is_intersex
Winter, Kathleen. (2011). Annabel. Randhom House: New York.
moral panic, especially with regard to those who are transgender in the society.
The Moral Panic of Transgender
The Grassroots Model describes moral panic as that which arises from a society's spontaneous reaction to what the society perceived to be morally deviant behavior. The deviance is perceived to be a danger to the society's moral fiber and this creates a lot of stress, which can lead to anger. This stress may not have an avenue to be expressed directly (Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs, n.d.). When the displacement of these anxieties happens, there may be direction of the same to the social deviants as they are regarded as the cause of all this. Kai Erickson, in her book 'the Wayward Puritans', demonstrates this when she relates how the people of Massachusetts Bay Colony went back to witch-hunting as a way to direct the anxiety that arose from social deviance.
Abowd-Chicago, M. (2013, November 5). Futurity: Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from http://www.futurity.org/transgender-news-can-spark-gender-panic/
Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs Document (n. d.)
U.S. PDF Document (n. d.).
Bending gender, ending gender…" is extremely well written and astutely organized. Callahan's article functions as a critique of Burdge's article of the same name. Callahan structures her article in a straight forward fashion -- she begins by stating Burdge's purpose in writing the article, provides essential background information and clarifies a few terms, then denotes the article's strengths and weaknesses. To Callahan's credit, she largely refrains from issuing opinions and buttresses her viewpoint with a ready supply of quotations from Burdge's work. As such, the reader is able to ascribe a degree of validity and reliability to Callahan's article, which definitely makes it one worth reading.
One of the really useful points about Callahan's article is the fact that it was unequivocally written for a scholarly audience. She makes clear points, her logic and arguments are cogent, and the paper is fairly cohesive. There is also a fair amount of…
Callahan, Rebecca. (2009). Bending Gender, Ending Gender: Theoretical Foundations for Social Work Practice with the Transgender Community.
Social Work, Jan 2009. Vol. 54, Issue, Number 1, p. 88-90. Available at
If they repent and mend their ways, then let them be, and there is no mention of the punishment and the negativity is not so strong and in other cases of deviant behavior from the religion which result in death."
To understand the propensities of the people therefore it is also necessary to observe the orientation of the population and it is claimed that generally Turkish men, as observed by Lynn a. Levine (2010) express more public affection with men rather than with women and today gayness is becoming open. There are local resources in Turkey today for same sex couples. There is also a magazine run exclusively for gays called the Kaos GL.
This shows that the community has finally accepted the gay culture though not on equal terms. Tolerance seems to have crept in for the larger part of Turkey which is now modernized with European contact. There…
Ayliffe, Rosie. The rough guide to Turkey.
Rough Guides, 2003.
Birch, Nicholas. Was Ahmet Yildiz the victim of Turkey's first gay honor killing? the
Independent, July 19, 2008.
Matthew Shepad Stoy," diected by Roge Spottiswoode, is a 2002 Canadian-Ameican television film highlighting the tue stoy of 21-yea-old gay youth, Matthew Shepad. The film scenaio witten by Jacob Kuege and John Wieick, stas Stockad Channing as Judy Shepad, Sam Wateson as Dennis Shepad, and Shane Meie as Matthew Shepad. The poduces of the film wee Alliance Atlantis Communications and the film pemieed Mach 16, 2002 on NBC and CTV. "The Laamie Poject," a simila film, aied the same day on HBO.
The film "The Matthew Shepad Stoy" depicts the violent hate cime committed by a pai of men who beat and ob Matthew one night in Octobe 1998 in Wyoming. Matthew was left to die, while the two men sped off in the ca. The fist scene in the movie goes staight to the violence, showing the two men tying up, beating Matthew, and taking off his shoes. The…
references and Gender Identities Worldwide. edudivers. Retrieved 12 February 2015, from http://www.edudivers.nl/doc/peters_publicaties/Dankmeijer-LGBT_to_be_or_not_to_be_2012.pdf
Henshaw, A. (2014). Geographies of Tolerance: Human Development, Heteronormativity, and Religion. Sexuality & Culture, 18(4), 959-976. doi:10.1007/s12119-014-9231-8
Kuyper, L., Iedema, J., & Keuzenkamp, S. (2013). Towards tolerance. Exploring changes and explaining differences in attitudes towards homosexuality in Europe. Sociaal En Cultureel Planbureau. Retrieved from http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/handle/1871/49778
Shcherbak, A. (2012). Does Culture Matter? The Impact of Tolerance on Economic Modernization in a Comparative Perspective. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2009177
As previously mentioned, Crisp is openly homosexual and his exhibitionist impulses and self-destructive behavior motivates the struggle within his life vs. unoriginal heroic desire. Similarly to Dil who lives his life, at times showing self-destruction as she guns down Jude and ties up Fergus, by her own rules, choosing to be a woman amidst a time when being transgendered was severely frowned upon. The journey for both Crisp and Dil though hard, ultimately led to a strong sense of gender identity and an awakening of both sexuality and eroticism as they found their way through gender and sex.
The journey for Crisp began after leaving his parent's home and venturing off into various jobs like a tap dance instructor and commercial artist. Although he met some initial success in these jobs, he ends up one of the few places that allows openly gay men. And even with constant ridicule from…
Isabelle and Therese from the 1968 movie Therese and Isabelle is a story about two lesbian women who defy convention by having a love affair in their boarding school. Their love is very intimate with scenes of conformity as Therese has sexual intercourse with a boy as an attempt to normafy herself as Goffman states on page 12 of his book, Stigma. Scenes in the beginning of Therese's mother preparing her for marriage put pressure on the young woman to adhere to the gender identity and sexuality society predetermined for her. The scenes are sweet and innocent laced with a tinge of fear as they are become fearful of someone coming into the room to find them making love. A scene in Isabelle's room gets interrupted by a noise the couple hear from outside the hallway. Their relationship ends much like that of Maurice and Clive.
In the novel, Maurice, Maurice and Clive are two college friends who engage in a homosexual relationship. Unlike with Isabelle and Therese, they are not as intimate and the relationship lasts longer, for two years. Similarly however, Clive like Therese wishes to conform and be normal and decides to marry leaving Maurice alone. The story however continues and Maurice finds solace and connection in Alec. However Alec blackmails him and in his attempt to cure what Dr. Larken terms, "congenital homosexuality" tries hypnosis. Eventually his desire to rebel against society's norms and be with Alec lead him and Alec to relinquish leading closeted gay lives for a happy life with each other.
Overall movies and films tend to show the world a different or unique perspective. The characters of Crisp, Dil, Isabelle, Therese, Clive, and Maurice offer a rare look into the life of a homosexual and in the case of Dil, a transgender/transsexual. These people like any other people struggle to conform, to meet the expectations of society, but also lead their own lives and fulfill their gender identity and sexual orientation. After all, sexuality is a large part of a person.
sexual orientation and proclivity, the times are definitely changing. Once, tolerance was something that people simply talked about and did not actually have to practice. Today, tolerance is something that people need to simply keep pace with a number of developments that have impacted various members of the gay, lesbian, and transgender community. Gay pride has become more and more common; there are specific time periods dedicated to this sort of pride. Personally, I have mixed feelings about these developments. There are some scientific and sociological aspects of this phenomenon that seem unsettling, although there are also some noteworthy advancements related to tolerance for which this movement deserves commendation.
One of the most notable aspects of the changes that have affected the lesbian, gay and transgender community pertains to the military. Once, homosexuals were not allowed in the military. It was not uncommon for those who did infiltrate the ranks…
As a result Cuypere et al. conducted a study which evaluated the physical and sexual health of individuals that received reassignment surgery. The participants were 107 Dutch speaking participants that had the surgery between 1986 and 2001 (Cuypere et al. 2005).
The results demonstrate that those participants going form Female-to-males had more problems establishing a secure relationship following the transition (Cuypere et al. 2005). In fact the study found that a third of the female-to-males did not have a sexual partner following the surgery even though their sexual drives were intact (Cuypere et al. 2005). The results also found that in spite of the fact that participants had masculine presentations and sex organs, many of them steered clear of a relationship with a potential partner. This avoidance was present because he participants were not yet confident in their maleness (Cuypere et al. 2005). The study also found that when transsexual…
Bartlett N.H., Bukowski W.M., Vasey P.L. (2002) Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder? Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Page Number: 753.
Bodlund, O., & Kullgren, G. (1996). Transsexualism -- General outcome and prognostic factors: A five-year follow-up study of nineteen transsexuals in the process of changing sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 303-316.
Carroll L. & Gilroy P.J.(2002) Transgender issues in Counselor preparation.
Cuypere G.D., Beerten R., Sutter P.D., Hoebeke P., Monstrey S., Rubens R., Selvaggi G., T'Sjoen G., Vansteenwegen Al. (2005) - Sexual and Physical Health after Sex Reassignment Surgery. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume: 34. Issue: 6. Page Number: 679.
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…
ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine. http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466, http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html
Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
Alternative Sexuality in Mainstream Media
Representations of transgender individuals have traditionally been highly stereotypical in mainstream media. According to Mocarski (et al. 2013), this is why the inclusion of Chaz Bono in the popular reality television show Dancing With the Stars was viewed as particularly radical, given that Bono is an openly transgender man. Bono participated in the competition as a male dancer, just like any other male involved in the show. But ballroom dance, the authors argue, is an inherently transgressive practice. On one hand, it reaffirms gender given that male and female roles are quite rigidly defined within the context of a dance. On the other hand, the costumes, sequins, and theatricality of dance, even for males, can be quite gender-disturbing. It is not uncommon to hear jokes about the sexual orientation of male dancers as a result.
On the other hand, some argued that as a white…
Ancient ome openly accepted male-to-female transsexuals, allowing them to assume female identities without negative social repercussions, obviously long before the science existed for them to have gender-reassignment surgery (eitz, 1998). Modern Indian society has Hijiras, transsexuals that, while not always treated with respect, are accorded their own gender identity and not relegated to male or female (eitz, 1998). The Dine/Navajos recognized three sexes: male, female, and Nadles. The Nadles could be intersexed people or transsexual people of either gender (eitz, 1998). The Sioux referred to transsexuals as Winkte, and allowed them to completely assume their preferred gender. "Physical females lived as male warriors, and had wives, while physical males lived their lives completely as women. In Sioux society no special magic was associated with this, it was just considered a way of correcting a mistake of nature" (eitz, 1998). What these examples make clear is that, in a different society,…
NNDB. (2010). David Reimer. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from NNDB
Peirce, K. (1999). Boys Don't Cry. Fox Searchlight Films.
Reitz, J.D. (1998). What is transsexuality? Retrieved February 23, 2010 from Transsexuality.org Website: http://www.transsexual.org/What.html
, Marais, C. And Wellbeloved, J.R.
The authors provide a clear image of the challenges faced by transgender individuals in general, and the particular challenges they face within societies that are less open-minded than some Western nations. Even in more liberal and open-minded societies, transgender individuals are frequently misunderstood. They are assumed to be part of the homosexual community by mainstream culture but often do not fit within that population either. Alternatively, they are viewed as recreational fetishists like transvestites who enjoy cross-dressing.
One of the most difficult aspects of life as transgender individual is that many of them are heterosexual but have an undeniable feeling that they are locked into the body of the wrong gender. It is rarely a matter of choice for them, since they typically have felt that way since early childhood. Moreover, in most cases, their compulsion to identify with the physical aspects of their…
Does that make her a lesbian? The movie ignores an in-depth consideration of this issue, which is unusual. After all, Brandon's murder is motivated, at least in part, because of his homosexuality and refusal to comply with gender norms that would dictate he be attracted to males. Lana is neither murdered nor raped; clearly, the characters in the movie see a difference between Lana and Brandon, even if both of them were, at least by any plain definition of the word, lesbians. as Lana rewarded for being feminine, even if she was a lesbian? Does this suggest that the filmmaker was saying that females can express alternative sexualities as long as they do so in a way that is perceived as somehow non-threatening to dominant male heterosexuality? Or is the difference in how Lana and Brandon were treated simply due to the fact that Lana was known to Brandon's assailants,…
Noble, Jean Bobby. "Chapter Four: Boys do Cry: Hilary Swank and the Politics of a Pronoun."
Masculinities without Men? Female Masculinity in Twentieth-Century Fictions. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2004. 142-154.
Cyber Feminism, Gender and Technology
Cyberfeminism, Gender and Technology
Feminist movement found on the internet is known as Cyberfeminism. In recent times, the term has gained controversial status. Cyberfeminism, a fundamental issue from the feminist perspective, is mostly ignored by researchers and academics. It concentrates on empowerment of women through the cyberspace. Furthermore, it deals with female enlightenment and concentrates on creating awareness on how the digital technologies can influence the rights and social status of women. The digital technologies act as a medium of re-embodying the issue of racism and gender. Internet is the new medium used to erase the identity of women; that is; women are the erased race. However, the internet has played a significant role in promoting Cyberfeminism by pointing out that several feminist studies and internet activities are done by the online media. It cannot be denied that technology plays an important role in promoting…
1. Chon, Margaret. Erasing Race? A Critical Race Feminist View of Internet Identity Shifting, 1999.
2. Nakamura, Lisa. Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures of the Internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008.
3. Nakamura, Lisa. Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet. London: Routledge, 2002.
4. Wilding, Faith. Where is Feminism in Cyberfeminism?. 28 March 2006. Cyberfeminist International. 4 June 2011.
Ariel Schrag is a cartoonist, television writer, and novelist. Schrag is perhaps best known through her television work, on the groundbreaking lesbian-themed Showtime series "The L Word" (for which she wrote over two seasons in 2006-7) and the HBO series "How to Make It In America" in 2011. Schrag first came to prominence, however, in the cartooning scene, with her series of autobiographical graphic novels in the late 1990s about being a lesbian in high school in Berkeley, California -- where she indeed grew up, attended high school, and started publishing these cartoon chronicles of her teenage lesbian adventures. Shrag graduated from high school in Berkeley in 1998 and attended Columbia University: she has lived in New York City since that time, although she has now moved from Morningside Heights to a more Bohemian spot in Brooklyn. And it was in Brooklyn that Schrag read from her newly-published novel, Adam…
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
1 most effective recruiting incentive for executives and the No. 3 most effective recruiting incentive for managers and line workers. Plus, domestic partner benefits can improve a company's employee retention rate." In other words, it is more effective and less costly to retain an employee by offering them medical insurance for their domestic partners, instead of recruiting and hiring new employees.
Third, and probably most important, the costs of covering medical expenses for domestic partners are minimal upon the company. Several studies have revealed that offering insurance benefits for domestic partners generates cost increase for the company in the amount of one or even less per cent - less that the costs of hiring new employees or facing judiciary trials for discrimination.
The continuous changes in the American life style and family structure have led to changes in the industrial, economic and medical domains. The yesterday irrelevant number…
Human Rights Campaign Foundation, Working for lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgender equal rights, 2004, Why Employers Offer Domestic Partner Benefits
http://www.hrc.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Work_Life/Get_Informed2/The_Issues/Why_Employers_Offer/Why_Employers_Offer.htm , last accessed on December 4, 2006
Alternatives to Marriage Project, 2004, http://www.unmarried.org/statistics.html , last accessed on December 4, 2006
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Cohabitation, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the United States," 2002, Vital Health and Statistics Series 23, Number 22, Department of Health and Human Services
Upon meeting an individual, the first distinction observed is whether the person is male or female. More often than not, this first impression is made from what the individual is wearing, such as a man's suit or a woman's dress. However, sexual gender cannot always be assumed by what one is wearing.
Based on history and culture, people have been conditioned to visually assess whether an individual appears as they are expected, meaning, a woman looks like a woman and a man looks like a man based on how he or she is dressed (Lyons pp). "Dress is the most visible manifestation of gender and status because it provides information about an individual's characteristics and expected role behaviors," thus, establishing an social path for communication (Lyons pp). This process of gender appropriate dress begins at birth, as parents dress their children in "gender-symbolic dress that encourages other to…
Moulton, John L. III; Adams-Price, Carolyn E. "Homosexuality heterosexuality and cross-dressing: perceptions of gender discordant behavior."
Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Sept, 1997; pp.
Dugaw, Dianne. "Transgender Warriors: Making History from Joan of Arc to RuPaul." The Women's Review of Books; 4/1/1997; pp.
life -- relates to how sexual, cultural and religious biases can have a horrible impact on people who are different. In this film, the need for understanding is very strong because Noah is a boy who feels more like a girl. In this class we discussed transgender situations that call for tolerance and fairness towards others who may be quite different. The important concepts discussed in class made a very strong impression on me because before I became a member of this class I have to admit I was not keeping an open mind about people who are very different from me. The film and this class connected me to my own experiences. I admit I was prejudiced against cross-dressers, against men changing themselves sexually into women and females making changes that turned them into men. "Transgender" to me meant someone trying to be something that person really wasn't supposed…
Everywhere Psychology (2012). Middle Sexes: Redefining He and She. Retrieved March 8,
2013, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WWY2MWAmkSM .
Communication -- Gender and Communication
The parameters of gender have undergone a dramatic expansion through the efforts of Science and enlightened feminists such as Nancy Mairs. Their contributions allow a multitude of genders and new definitions that account for the richness of human sexuality. As a result, femininity can be defined in the broadest and richest terms as a set of psychological traits unconstrained by classically masculine and feminine boundaries.
"Femininity" is best defined as sensitivity and awareness, a firm set of psychological traits that is not reflected in behavior. Actions are not masculine or feminine, but approaches to them are masculine or feminine. The classically oppressive confinement of "normal" gender to male and female is no longer viable, for humanity exists in a far greater array of sexual characteristics than genitals can distinguish or dictate. Anne Fausto-Sterling offers many examples of Science's growing acceptance of broad gender range, reaching…
Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). The five sexes: Why male and female are not enough. Retrieved on February 19, 2013 from www.uta.edu Web site: http://www.uta.edu/english/timothyr/Fausto-Sterling.pdf
Mairs, N. (1986). Plaintext essays by Nancy Mairs. Tucson, AZ: University of Airzona Press.
A Deconstruct of the movie "Paris is Burning" as it relates to 6 Chapters in our textbook
Paris Is Burning is a provocative and controversial documentary film released in the year 1990. The direction was done by Jennie Livingston who focused on filming the drag ball culture and society that existed in the city of New York during the 1980s. The film focuses on three primary topics: race, homosexuality and prejudice towards a social stereotype. Hence the movie focuses on not just the culture of the whites in the American urban society but also the lifestyles of the African-Americans, Latinos and gays within the communities while also shedding light on the lives of the transsexual and sex workers in the city.
The significance of the movie is not only on the thought-provoking topics it covers, but also in its style of filming and the fact that it perhaps…
Clarkson, J. (2008). The limitations of the discourse of norms: Gay visibility and degrees of transgression. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 32(4), 368-382. Published by Sage Publications, Inc.
Green, J. (1993). "Paris Has Burned." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE0DF143DF93BA25757C0A965958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all . Retrieved August 9th, 2011
Merskin, D. (2007). Three faces of Eva: Perpetuation of the hot-Latina stereotype in Desperate Housewives. Howard Journal of Communications, 18, 133-151. Reprinted by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Moore, C. (2008). Resisting, reiterating and dancing through: the swinging closet doors of Ellen DeGeneres's televised personalities. In R. Beirne (Ed.), Televising queer women: A reader (pp. 17-31). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sexuality and Stigma in Cinema: Gay and Transgender Representation
According to the sociological theorist Erving Goffman, to bear a 'stigma' is to viewed by society as abnormal. "Stigmatized people are those that do not have full social acceptance and are constantly striving to adjust their social identities: physically deformed people, mental patients, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc." (Crossman 1). Until relatively recently, people in estern society who possessed same-sex desire were stigmatized as 'homosexuals' and deemed to be deviant. The films Maurice and the Naked Civil Servant show two different responses to stigmatization: in Maurice, the hero appears to do all he can to avoid living under such a stigmatized status while in Naked Civil Servant, the hero Quentin Crisp quite blatantly and proudly uses his stigmatized identity as a badge of honor. However, both men ultimately strive to reconfigure society's stigmatized attitude into something more positive and it may be…
Crossman, Ashley. "Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity."
Sociology.about.com. [12 Mar 2014]
The Crying Game. Directed by Neil Jordan, 1982.
Often children must withhold information from people who could help them as public awareness of their homelessness would likely end in separation from loved ones as for children a greater number of programs exist to help them independently than collectively with their parents. Homeless youth are also a significant social issue and their numbers are hard to even estimate, though there are clear indications that the numbers are growing. "Novac, Serge, Eberle, and Brown (2002) identified four important trends among homeless youth: 1) the incidence is increasing; 2) an increasing number are chronically homeless; 3) the age at which youth become homeless is decreasing, especially for females; and 4) more identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered." (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005, p. 54) the issue, like with that of other homeless populations is developing systems that build transitions to more stable and permanent housing. (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005,…
Calhoun, J. (2006). Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(1), 19.
Canada, G. (2001). The Best Way We Know How. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(1), 54.
Conderman, G., Heimerl, a.M., & Ketterhagen, B.L. (2001). Longing for a Father. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(3), 140.
Craig, T.K.J. Hodson, S. (1998) Homeless youth in London: I. Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine. 28:1379-1388.
Indeed, we live in a system with a long history of treating homosexuals as deviants, criminals, outcasts, and just plain unworthy of familial love and acceptance.
In sum, there are several lessons which the critical thinker and the civil rights advocate can take from these three texts. First, it must be admitted that gays, lesbians, and transgender individuals are not treated equally in this society as well as in societies around the world. Second, there is a rich pattern of historical persecution of homosexuals and in order to eradicate and move forward, we must understand the history of gays in America and work toward finding ways that each day, we can move further and further away from the inhumanity of the Justinian Codes as well as the modern-day statutes which forbid marriage between homosexuals.
Amnesty International report reveals alarming and widespread police mistreatment of gays in USA. (2005, September…
Amnesty International report reveals alarming and widespread police mistreatment of gays in USA. (2005, September 22). UK Gay News.
Davies, C. (1982). Sexual taboos and social boundaries. The University of Chicago, 87(5), 1035. Retrieved from JSTOR.org.
Greenberg, D.F. (1988). The construction of homosexuality. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
Grigoryan, M. (2010). ARMENIA: GAYS LIVE WITH THREATS of VIOLENCE, ABUSE. Civil Society. Retrieved from Eurasianet.com.
Effects of social advertising on the American society
Having seen that the society at large is highly dependent on the social media, and it is on these social networks that the social advertising has turned to, it is necessary to look at the extent to which the society today has been affected by the medium of transmission and the content of the social advertising.
The underlying fact about the social advertising is that they want to make a positive impact on the society in general, it is the drive to see a better society that makes the foundation and core business of the organizations involved in social advertisements.
It has been seen that the same techniques used in promoting profitable goods and services can as well be used for information purpose, educate and motivational aspect to the public about the non-profitable issues like HIV / AIDS, the energy conservation, politics…
AAF (2011), About AAF. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.aaf.org/default.asp?id=24
B&T, (2003). Advertising road safety. Retrieved March 1, 2011 from http://www.bandt.com.au/news/advertising-road-safety
Barrie G, et al. (2005). Advertising to children on TV: content, impact, and regulation. (pp 104).
New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Publishers.
sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.
One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…
Walker PL and Cook DC.(1998) Gender and sex: vive la difference. Am J. Phys Anthropol 106: 255 -- 259,.[CrossRef]
Tales of the City
Mary Ann in the City
Early on in Armistead Maupin's Tales of the City, Connie tells Mary Ann, "Relax hon… Give it time. This city loosens people up." (6) The message being that the setting of San Francisco in the 1970s and 80s was a place of loose social and cultural standards. An analysis of the city, even in retrospect supports the idea that many aspects of San Francisco are in fact associated with free thought and action, especially with regard to sexuality and homosexuality. Mary Ann as a character realizes in many ways the reality of this early statement, of a loosening of character, as her traditional cultural standards are stretched by countless happenings in Maupin's fabled City.
Maupin's Tales of the City, in many ways, was an opening to the broader world the context of the 1960s, 70s and 80s ideal San Francisco, where…
Billingham, Peter, Sensing the City through Television: Urban Identities in Fictional Drama. Portland, OR: Intellect Books, 2003.
Grunenberg, Christoph & Jonathan Harris. Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960s. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 2005.
Maupin, Armistead, Tales of the City New York, NY: Harper Collins 1996.
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
individual with a communicable disease that is a disability is other wise qualified for the job?
Individuals with disease can be judged for qualifications in the same way as any other individual applying for a job. Communicable or infectious diseases are considered to constitute a disability when the disease is impairing to such a degree that it "limits one or more major life activities" (Human Resources UNC). In these cases, individuals with communicable disease should be treated like any other disability. When judging whether a disabled individual is qualified for a job, it must be determined if they can perform the specific job with reasonable accomodations. If a communicable disease does not result in disability, then the individual should be judged as a nondisabled person. Additionally, law generally "permits an employer to fail to hire, transfer, promote, or to discharge a disabled person if the person has a communicable disease…
Choose Charity. "How to Run a Business Without Hiding Your Faith." http://choosecharity.org/titlevii_information.htm#_edn1
Cohen, Michael. "As Freely As Everyone Else" Human Rights Campaign. http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Home& ; CONTENTID=25218& TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm
Human Resources UNC. "Summary of Applicable Laws and Policy Guidelines." Human Resources University of North Carolina. http://hr.unc.edu/Data/SPA/employeerelations/summary-of-laws
Rochelle, Dudley. "Ten Tips for Employers to Avoid Religious Discrimination" Marketplace Leaders. http://marketplaceleaders.org/articles_view.asp?articleid=5623& ; columnid=743