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, Target Stores Inc. And Mattel Inc., are growing increasingly nervous about open threats of a work stoppage by dock workers at the Ports of Los Angeles (Greenberg, 2002). They actually turned to congress in hopes of preventing a strike. There appears to be a constant struggle between shipping companies and employees. Again in 2008 there were heated debates brewing. ith 14 weeks to go before the agreement expired, contract talks between the International Longshore and arehouse Union and the Pacific Maritime Assn began in hopes of preventing another disruption in port activities (hite, 2008). This marked the earliest beginning of talks between the two groups in the history of there negotiations.
Though a port owner doesn't have a considerable amount of control over what the union demands, it seems evident that it is of vital importance to recruit and train top notch employees. To stand the greatest chance of…
Babcock, M. (1984, January 31). Policy Analysis. Retrieved September 3, 2010, from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa033.html
Dilger, R. (2003). Amtrak: Its Struggle for Survival and Respect. In R. Dilger, American Transportation Policy. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Global Security. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2010, from Port Security: http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/systems/ports.htm
Greenberg, D. (2002, June 10). Importers want federal action in port labor fight. Retrieved September 3, 2010, from The Free Library: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Importers+want+federal+action+in+port+labor+fight.+ (Up+Front)-a091213461
By federal law, all passenger airliners now feature cockpit doors that are locked by the pilots from inside the cockpit. Likewise, pilot training now includes the specific instructions not to open the door in response to any occurrence or emergency in the passenger cabin; instead, pilots are under instructions to land the aircraft immediately in response to any perceived emergency that would have previously been cause to investigate beyond the flight deck (Sperry 2003).
Fortunately, by itself, this single set of rules has effectively ended any realistic threat of terrorists (or anybody else) ever hijacking a passenger airliner or otherwise gaining access to the flight controls for the purposes of commandeering it. In fact, it is now virtually impossible for anyone to hijack an American airliner again. Unfortunately, all of the subsequent passenger restrictions and billions of dollars in expenditures for sophisticated screening equipment is largely considered a complete waste…
Allison, G. (2004) Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt
Bulzomi, M. (2007) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Search Incident to Arrest in the Age of Personal Electronics. Vol. 76 No. 9.
Clarke, R. (2004) Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terror.
New York: Simon & Schuster
A look at transportation technology would not be complete without a glimpse at some of the failures, such as blimps, poor aircraft designs, and some early automobiles. The Stanley Steamer, for instance, seemed like a sound innovation, but it simply could not compete with the internal combustion engine. The blimp is still used, but more for observation and advertising, rather than transportation for large groups. All of these failures in technology helped lead innovators to other solutions and ideas, and so, they may not have truly been failures at all.
Finally, a look at technology and transportation should look to the future, as well. Will supersonic flight ever really exist for a majority of people? What will cars of the future look like? Will we ever break our dependence on fossil fuels and create alternative forms of energy to fuel our transportation needs of the future? Innovation has always existed…
Transportation Mode Choice i
Transportation Mode Choice
Transportation Mode Choice in the Internet Classroom
Stella ose Foster
Dr. Lee Gremillion
esearchers have often attempted to quantify transportation mode choice for different characteristics like age, urban density or gender. We were interested in the characteristics a specific population of Internet-education consumers would display, since that specific population seems as yet not to have been described in the literature. We reviewed other studies, composed and tested various possible questions on qualitative and quantitative polling instruments, deployed an ex-post, pre-experimental study and tabulated results. While the sample size was too small to derive inference to the wider population or universe, the survey was successful in indicating where a more controlled, random sampling might probe for potential hypotheses about correlations between demographic characteristics and transportation mode choice.
Our research was modeled on Gatersleben and Uzzell (2007), an "exploratory" study based on…
Black, T. (1999). Doing quantitative research in the social sciences. 2nd ed. London:
Sage publications. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=AxBQwQtkOFMC&pg=PA634&dq=Black,+T.+R.+%281999%29.+Doing+quantitative+research+in+the+social+sciences:+An+integrated+approach+to+research+design,+measurment+and+statistics.&hl=en&ei=aO8hTvWkJYjniAKM3oW7Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Gatersleben, Birgitta and Uzzell, David, (2007).Affective Appraisals of the Daily
Commute: Comparing Perceptions of Drivers, Cyclists, Walkers, and Users of Public Transport. Environment and Behavior 39, 416-431. Retrieved from:
This is because most of the time, these pipelines run through underground where they are rarely disturbed (Office of Technology Assessment, n.d). Secondly, pipeline transportation is characterized by absence of freight loss in transit and since it operates in all weather and is therefore reliable. Loading and unloading labor and costs are mechanized and thus lowered. Packaging is not usually done in pipeline transportation and therefore packaging costs are recovered as well. The pipes run through known isolated locations and it is therefore a safe, continuous method of transportation that ensures maximum space utilization and low energy consumption. It is economical and dependable particularly to the strategic areas and also provides a long-term infrastructural option. Due to the continuous nature of this transportation, large amounts of chemicals can be transported within a short time an in the process, difficulties of handling large amount of goods by rail can be solved…
Krishnamurthy, B. (2008), Environmental Management, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., Delhi.
Monczka, R.M.et al. (2010), Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, Cengage Learning EMEA, Chelmsford.
Office of Technology Assessment, (n.d), Transportation of hazardous materials, DIANE Publishing, Pennsylvania.
Raven, P. (2011), Environment, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
' But as the economy wavers and technology enables businessmen and women to use virtual, rather than face-to-face meetings, focusing on either a low-end or high-end strategy is problematic. Southwest can generate fewer cost savings as fuel costs rise and the numbers of vacationers plummet. More airlines are adopting its 'nuts only' service, diluting the image of its unique brand. However, luxury service is less in demand, given the still-shaky nature of the economic recovery.
Q4: "Traditionally, the effects of tax policy on firms' demand for investment are summarized in estimates of the 'user cost of capital.' The user cost of a capital investment is the minimum return a firm needs to cover depreciation, taxes, and the opportunity costs of the funds used to finance the project. Lower user costs typically translate into higher investment levels," thus reducing taxes can stimulate investment by reducing the user cost of capital (Gale…
Amadeo, Kimberly. (2009, December 20). Facts about NAFTA. About.com.
Retrieved April 21, 2010 at http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradepolicy/tp/NAFTA_Facts.htm
Capital assets and depreciation. (2003). Complete Tax. Retrieved April 21, 2010 at http://taxguide.completetax.com/text/Q14_2900.asp
Gale, William G. (2010). Deficits, interest rates, and the user cost of capital: A reconsideration of the effects of tax policy on investment. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved April 21, 2010 at http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2005/07taxes_gale.aspx
("Transportation in the 19th Century," 2009)
Roads would have a major impact upon how quickly various regions would develop from: areas of wilderness into cities and states. This is because, the use of roads served as a way of connecting the different cities and other parts of the country together. At which point, both individuals and businesses could use them, to support their transportation needs as well improve commerce. This was important to the economic growth of the United States, by providing everyone with an alternative choice in: transporting themselves or different merchandise (from point a to point b). As this increased the number of choices that were available, which kept the underlying costs low. At the same time, the expansion of different roads would mean, that numerous areas of the country that were once in accessible were open to new settlers. This fueled the continuing westward expansion, by providing…
Transportation in the 19th Century. (2009). Study World. Retrieved from: http://www.studyworld.com/newsite/reportessay/History/American%5CTransportation_In_the_19th_Century-32139.htm
Transportation and Logistics Management
Adding value to the end of the transport and logistics chain
Taking into account the globalization of almost all the services provided, the transport sector will not be left behind. There is a changing perspective and arising needs within the transport sector and the moving of material and solutions will continue facing a myriad of new approaches hence only the easily adaptable and flexible companies will continue expanding their niches. This change in the demand patterns in moving of material and solutions therefore means there will be need for transport and logistics companies to reinvent themselves and add value to the end of the current transport chain.
My thesis statement is; Bearing the continued diversification of the client needs and integration prompted by globalization, there is immediate need to add value to the existing transport and logistics chain particularly on the side of the receiving clients.…
Eastern Asia Society for Transport Studies, (2005). The Role of Transportation in Logistics Chain. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1659. Retrieved June 7, 2013 from http://www.siam.org/journals/plagiary/1657.pdf
In cases involving continued discrimination, disability lawyers have made the point that freedom of movement is essential in making sure that such individuals are gainfully employed. Access to public transportation can abrogate the need for continued public assistance in financial terms.
Legislators, too, have recognized access to transportation as a necessary prerequisite to obtaining work. A Harris poll cited by Senator Durenberger noted that, "three of ten disabled persons stated that lack of transportation was a reason why they had no employment. Transportation, he concluded, was 'essential if a person is to seek and maintain a job.'"
The Public orks and Transportation Committee of the United States House of Representatives further concluded with the observation that work contributed to individuals' sense of self-esteem and belonging through, "most of all, taking pride in a job well done."
Unfortunately, as studies have shown compliance with the Act's high ideals has not always…
Attard, Lauren. "A Price on Volunteerism: The Public Has a Higher Duty to Accommodate Volunteers." Fordham Urban Law Journal 34.3 (2007): 1089+.
Bagenstos, Samuel R. "The Americans with Disabilities Act as Welfare Reform." William and Mary Law Review 44.3 (2003): 921+.
Many industry professionals like Mr. Greenstein (2009) also agree that building a broadband network would have huge economic and employment payoffs.
This network is also another excellent example of a potential user fee generator. Once the network is established and jobs are being saved and created, the entire system will be relatively self-supportive based upon user fees collected from people wishing to use the broadband network. The construction of a "smart grid" electricity delivery network could also help to maximize the efficiency of the delivery of the nation's power. Currently, nearly 40% of the nation's generated electricity is either wasted in grid inefficiencies or used to help deliver said electricity (Cajina, et. al., 2009). This number is higher in some parts of the country where the power grid has not been touched for nearly 50 years. This "smart grid" will also help to compliment other infrastructure projects, specifically the development…
Baker, Dean. (2009). "Issues in Trade and Protectionism." Center for Economic and Policy
Cajina, Ana; Hess Pace, Kate; Patterson, Anika; and C.J. Randall. (2009). "How Local Policies
Can Support Development of Green Jobs." Working Papers: Economic Development. Dec. 28, 2009.
Regulation vs. Deregulation
Transportation regulation has always been an important aspect of business logistics and supply chain management. In the 19th century, the railroads introduced a new mode of transportation that businesses could take advantage of, and in the beginning there was very little regulation of the railroads. Today, regulation exists for all modes of transportation. This paper will compare and contrast how regulation versus deregulation has impacted transportation and discuss some of the major influences on both regulating and deregulating the transportation industry. It will also describe the effects that globalization has had on regulations and show that consumers can benefit from both regulation and deregulation.
Regulation has impacted transportation in a number of different ways. It has enabled monopolies to be broken up, made the industry safer, and given leverage to laborers and unions. The first regulation of the railroads went into effect with the Interstate Commerce Act…
Gilligan, T. W., Marshall, W. J., & Weingast, B. R. (1989). Regulation and the theory of legislative choice: The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Journal of Law and Economics, 32(1), 35-61.
Grennes, T. (2017). Does the Jones Act Endanger American Seamen. Regulation, 40, 2-4.
Kahn, A. E. (2002). The deregulatory tar baby: The precarious balance between regulation and deregulation, 1970–2000 and henceforward. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 21(1), 35-56.
Riles, A. (2014). Managing regulatory arbitrage: A conflict of laws approach. Cornell Int\\'l LJ, 47, 63.
Thoms, W. E. (1983). Rollin\\'on... to a free market motor carrier regulation 1935-1980. Transp. LJ, 13, 43.
a. NAAQS were established for six principal pollutants. Describe each and give examples of each applicable pollutant. (10 points)
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were established in order to cope with six principal pollutants. The pollutants can be described as follows:
1. Carbon Monoxide (CO) – This is a pollutant that is in the form of an urban smog. It is more often perceived in different regions such as California and also in Lake Michigan
2. Nitrogen Dioxide – this is an emission that comes from engines
3. Particulate Matter – this is a pollutant that is usually found in smoke, soot, dust, and soil
4. Lead – Despite the fact that this is of the six principle pollutants, lead has been discontinued and reduced by the EPA from the 80s period. An example of lead includes lead that is found in gasoline and also in products such…
Sinha, K., & Labi, S. (2007). Transportation decision making principles of project evaluation and programming. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley.
Intermodal transportation in Europe and the United States has experienced tremendous growth and expansion over the years. One of the major factors that have impacted the growth of intermodal transportation is regulation/deregulation of the industry. The regulation and deregulation of intermodal transportation in Europe and the United States started in the late 19th Century at a time when the industry had relatively no competition from other transportation modes. The regulation and deregulation of the industry can be traced back to 1887 when the Interstate Commerce Commission was established as a regulatory board to handle various issues relating to intermodal transportation (Slack, n.d.). Since then, regulation and deregulation has had both positive and negative impacts on the growth and/or continued growth of intermodal transportation in Europe and the United States.
Impact of Regulation/Deregulation on Intermodal Transportation
As previously indicated, the regulation/deregulation of intermodal transportation has had positive and negative…
Association of American Railroads. (2017, June 4). How Deregulation Saved the Freight Rail Industry. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/brand-connect/wp/enterprise/how-deregulation-saved-the-freight-rail-industry/
Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (n.d.). Chapter 2: Growth, Deregulation, and Intermodalism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Transportation website: https://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/publications/the_changing_face_of_transportation/html/chapter_02.html
Henstra et al. (1999, October). Deregulation and Transport in an Enlarged European Union. Retrieved October 10, 2017, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/stoa/webdav/shared/3_activities/transport/regulatory/europe/ipts_en.pdf
Slack, B. (n.d.). Rail Deregulation in the United States. Retrieved from Hofstra University website: https://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch9en/appl9en/ch9a1en.html
This discourse explores various land use factors that affect transportation including density, roadway connectivity, mix, regional accessibility, and density. The information derived from this study will be helpful in informing smart growth, land access management, urbanization, and assist in the realization of progressive land planning objectives like the reduction of emissions, conservation of energy, and customer savings.
Land use can also be referred to as spatial planning, urban geography, urban form, community design, and development (Litman, 2011). These terms essentially refer to the manner in which the surface of the earth is used including design, type, and location of the human development. The patterns of land use can have profound environmental, social, and economic impacts. An example is where some patterns of land use make it more accessible therefore requiring little physical movement in order to get to common land destinations (Litman, 2011). With accessibility the…
Litman, T. (2018). Land Use Impacts on Transport: How Land Use Factors Affect Travel Behavior. Victoria Transport Policy Institute (pp. 1–85). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54876-5
Litman, T. (2011). Land Use Impacts on Transport. Management, (August), 1–76. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54876-5
Litman, T. A. (2009). Evaluating Transportation Land Use Impacts: Considering the Impacts, Benefits and Costs of Different Land Use Development Patterns. World Transport Policy & Practice (Vol. 1, pp. 9–16). https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20046
Toxic Contaminations from Transportation
One of the most dangerous perils of global transportation that remain unknown to many is toxic contaminations from the various modes of transportation. Rail, sea, road, air and pipeline transportation are wellsprings that discharge toxic contaminations as gases and particulate issues producing harm to nature and human wellbeing. The modes of transportation discharge toxic contaminations through emissions of greenhouse gases that are harmful to the world’s ecosystem and the environment. According to Awadallah & Fini (2013), global transportation accounts for a significant portion of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions despite the steady decline of these emissions in the past two decades. Based on recent surveys, transportation is the fastest growing source of these gases in the United States.
Rail, sea, road, air and pipeline transportation emit greenhouse gases through the burning of fossil fuels that in turn increase in the release of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s…
American Physical Society (2017). Transportation and Energy Issues. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://www.aps.org/policy/reports/popa-reports/energy/transportation.cfm
Awadallah, F., & Fini, E. H. (2013). Transportation Global Environmental Impact. Institute of Transportation, 83(9), 43-46. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/1435644121?accountid=8289
Bomford, A. (2013, April 11). How environmentally friendly are electric cars? - BBC News. Retrieved September 19, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-22001356
Gough, C., O’Keefe, L., & Mander, S. (2014). Public Perceptions of CO2 Transportation in Pipelines. Energy Policy, 70, 106-114. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2014.03.039
LeBeau, P. (2014, January 2). Ford Develops Solar Powered Car for Everyday Use. CNBC. Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://www.cnbc.com/2014/01/02/ford-develops-solar-powered-car-for-everyday-use.html
Méline, J., Hulst, A. V., Thomas, F., & Chaix, B. (2015). Road, Rail, and Air Transportation Noise in Residential and Workplace Neighborhoods and Blood Pressure (RECORD study). Noise & Health, 17(78), 308-319. doi:10.4103/1463-1741.165054
Rodrigue, J.-P, Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2006). The Geography of Transport Systems. Retrieved from https://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/gallery/Geography%20of%20Transport%20Systems_1ed.pdf
Schwanen, T. (2016). Geographies of Transport I. Progress in Human Geography, 40(1), 126-137. doi:10.1177/0309132514565725
Transportation represents a highly salient component of daily life, influencing an individual’s livelihood and activities he/ she can accomplish (Trafas, 2015). The County of Los Angeles has been facing its third big transport crisis within the span of a hundred years. That is, it is the third time in this period that transportation issues have topped the county’s agenda. The crisis has been viewed as a matter of great urgency by concerned authorities and has been experiencing a very high degree of public concern and awareness. Also, whilst the factors contributing to the present traffic crisis have been deemed as akin to past crises’ contributing factors, the reactions of current public policy making authorities differ from the responses of previous policy makers in the sense that, currently, traffic congestion is being dealt with using other means besides major highway expansions (Wachs, 1993).
Ever since the past four decades, traffic growth…
Downs, A. (2004). Traffic: Why it’s getting worse, what government can do. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/traffic-why-its-getting-worse-what-government-can-do/
Eidlin, E. (2010). What density doesn’t tell us about sprawl. Access 37, 2–9.
LADCP. (2014). Mobility plan 2035. Retrieved from https://planning.lacity.org/Cwd/GnlPln/MobiltyElement/Text/MobilityPlan_2035.pdf
Newton, D. (2010). Density, car ownership, and what it means for the future of Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://la.streetsblog.org/2010/12/13/density-car-ownership-and-what-it-means-for-the-futureof-los-angeles/
Trafas, V. (2015). An analysis of the Los Angeles metropolitan transportation authority ’s ability to achieve sustainability as defined by the transportation index for sustainable places. (Master’s Thesis, University of San Francisco). Retrieved from https://repository.usfca.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1144&context=capstone
Wachs, M. (1993). Learning from Los Angeles: Transport, urban form and air quality. (Working Paper, University of California at Los Angeles). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.294.1982&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Congestion and Infrastructure
The term ‘congestion’ is used to denote the movement of a large crowd of individuals (without or with goods) either by walking or by utilizing the many transport media such as cycles, buses, automobiles, etc., and movement of goods (which includes freight movement) across a road toll, ports, bridges, and other forms of infrastructure without delaying other goods and individuals in transit. Congestion typically leads to motor traffic and human hold-ups on urban (i.e., within -town or -city) roads or those connecting different urban cities; (for instance, when a lengthy line of automobiles or individuals are held up due to traffic jams for any duration, causing delayed movements owing to limited passage ways). This commonly happens in urban areas (Dixon, 1996). Urban areas, within the context of this paper, are defined as towns or cities characterized by a large population density as well as several infrastructural facilities…
Dixon, L. B. (1996). Bicycle and pedestrian level-of-service performance measures and standards for congestion management systems. Transportation Research Record, 1538(1), 1-9.
Hernandez, H. (2012). Temporal variations for monitoring traffic in urban areas.
Thobani, M. (1999). Private infrastructure, public risk. Finance and development, 36(1), 50.
(Attention: Because I do not have the full citation information for the 3 articles provided, I have referred to them as follows in the text. Powerpoint, Japan PDF and Carbon PDF. You will need to insert the correct citation and add a Works Cited page, if that is required.)
As the global supply chain evolves and matures, there are several considerations to take into account in the areas of transportation and distribution. The global economy is in full swing, and exports are outpaced world GDP significantly. This high demand food goods has resulted in an increased need for more international shipping options, especially maritime transport -- moving materials by ship. Changing to a more international system is not without consequences, however, including the quite serious possibilities of piracy, terrorism and a substantial negative effect on the environment. For managers in charge of logistics and supply chain management, the "right…
Private companies, however, must begin to take more of this burden on themselves in order to streamline procedures at these points of entry; the more prepared and well-documented each vessel is, the less time (and therefore money) they will have to spend at the various points of entry proving their compliance and security reliability (Lake 2004).
In the ever-changing world of the twenty-first century, corporations and other business entities must begin to shoulder more of the burden of both world and personal security, as their resources far outstrip those of even some of the largest governments, especially when it comes to the ability to deal with their own specific products, vessels, and issues. This new security paradigm does not eliminate the need for government intervention in security -- far from it, in fact -- but it does require a greater deal of planning and cooperation with business entities.
Intergraph (2009). "Transportation: Secure, manage, and maintain your transportation network." Accessed 24 October 2009. http://www.intergraph.com/transportation/default.aspx
Lake, J. (2004). 'Border and Transportation Security: Overview of Congressional Issues." Congressional research service. Accessed 24 October 2009. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL32705.pdf
Puget Sound Business Journal (PSBJ) (2009). "Logistics & transportation news." Accessed 24 October 2009. http://seattle.bizjournals.com/seattle/industries/logistics_transportation/general
The significance of exact transport actions and infrastructure can therefore be assessed for each division of the economy (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation connects together the aspects of production in a multifaceted web of associations between producers and consumers. The result is usually a more competent division of production by a utilization of geographical relative advantages, as well as the means to develop financial systems of degree and range. The output of space, capital and labor is consequently improved with the competence of distribution and personal mobility. It is accepted that economic growth is more and more connected with transport expansions, namely infrastructures but in addition managerial knowledge is crucial for logistics (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation growths that have taken place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been associated with mounting economic opportunities. At each phase of human societal development, a meticulous transport mode has been developed or modified. On the…
Aboard Transportation. (2006).Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
Chavis, Jason. (2011). Different Types of Air Transportation. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site: http://www.ehow.com/about_4813389_different-types-air-transportation.html
Importance of Transportation to Society. (2009). Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
Transportation Improvements and Accountability in San Francisco Bay Area
The process has been much more painful and has taken much longer than anyone anticipated, but today, by any measure, San Francisco is a world-class city. The Bay Area in particular is poised to become one of the most livable regions in the entire nation as the result of progressive and far-sighted transportation projects and investments in civic infrastructure. To determine how recent transportation improvements and the related issues of accountability have played out in recent years in the San Francisco area, this paper provides an overview of recent transportation initiatives in the region, followed by an assessment of what accountability issues emerged as a result. A summary of the research and salient findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Recent Transportation Initiatives and Improvements in San Francisco Bay Area. Perhaps the most well-known and visible of San Francisco's…
Buhl, Soren, Bent Flyvbjerg and Mette Skamris Holm. (2002). "Underestimating Costs in Public Works Projects: Error or Lie?" Journal of the American Planning Association,
Ellis, John. (2002, January). "View from San Francisco: San Francisco May Be Suffering
Because of the Collapse of the E-Industry, but Its Ambitious Infrastructure Projects Are a Fair Bid to Make It the Most Civilized City on the U.S. Pacific Coast. The Architectural
This is because congestion has become a problem and they want to discourage them from utilizing this form of transportation. Over the long-term, this will create a change in habits by making public transportation and other alternatives economically viable. (Davenport) (osenthal)
In the U.S., vehicles are a center of private transportation. This is because many cities were designed to accommodate cars. If there was a dramatic shift, these challenges could have an adverse impact on the auto industry, parts producers / suppliers and dealers. This would lead to a slowdown and possibly create a recession from a change in policies. (Davenport) (osenthal)
Moreover, the U.S. has not ratified and withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol. This means that they do not have to meet the same standards as Europe. To adjust for the increased amounts of traffic flow, there is a focus on using stop lights to effectively accommodate vehicles. (Davenport)…
Davenport, John. The Ecology of Transportation. New York: Springer, 2006. Print.
Rosenthal, Elisabeth. "Across Europe." NY Times, 2011. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
All of the streets in elmar begin at the Ocean and ends at Shark River. The open trolley cars in summer ran the streets with people hanging from the cars clustered like grapes.
VI. The Train Station in elmar
The train station in elmar was the hub of the entire world one believes after having fully researched the history of elmar's square mile and the surrounding area on the Jersey Coast. Although the railways of New Jersey may not have survived for long in the humanity packed area that comprises New Jersey and the adjacent New York area the "complex social foci" Roper (1978) contained in the element of the railway station is one worth giving consideration to. During the 1920's the average individuals abandoned use of the railway for intercity transportation and this was after dependency on the railways for service for more than 75 years. Pictured below is…
Roper, Grace Trott (1978) "Belmar in Retrospect" [Online} available at http://www.belmar.com/history/begin.,html
Wall Township History [Online] available at http://www.wallnj.com/history1.htm
Project Diana Site 1946 - Marconi Road, Wall, New Jersey [Online] available at http://www.infoage.org/diana.html
Monmouth County and 40 Towns Embark on Smart Growth Regional Planning: Commissioner Levin Announces Smart Future Initiative Support for the Monmouth County Shore Regional Strategic Plan [Online] available at http://www.state.nj.us/dca/news/2003/pr042503.shtml
That means the car does not have to be recharged after going only short distances. The electric motor can also help recharge the batteries if necessary. The gasoline engine recharges the bank of batteries, and the car just keeps going. Most hybrids can get between 55 and 60 mpg on the highway, although some owners do report less.
Most of the cars also use a generator that actually produces the electric power that drives the electric motor, and most use conventional transmissions, although the Toyota Prius uses a new, radically different transmission. The cars also combine a gasoline gas tank with a bank of batteries to power both engines. This is called a "parallel hybrid." Another type of hybrid engine, the "series hybrid" uses the gasoline engine to power a generator that creates the power for the electric engine or can recharge the batteries (Nice).
There's another advantage to hybrid…
Bamber, Taylor. "All about the Hybrid Car." Searchwarp.com. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://searchwarp.com/swa14037.htm
Brotman, Steve. "Hybrid Cars." University of Florida. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://plaza.ufl.edu/triplest/
Nice, Karim. "How Hybrid Cars Work." HowStuffWorks.com. 2005. 30 Sept. 2005. http://www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car.htm
DISASTER RECOVERY AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONTINUITY
The governments of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States all have some form of transportation safety board for disaster response. Their duties are sometimes gathered under one agency and sometimes divided among more than one agency. However, their missions are all focused on transportation security and not on assigning blame to people or groups for accident.
Transportation Safety Boards
Australia has the Australian Transportation Safety Bureau (ATSB), which is an independent statutory agency run by a Commission and kept apart from regulators, policy makers and service providers for transportation. It is designed to increase safety and public confidence transportation by: autonomous examination -- both in Australia and abroad - of accidents and safety incidents; recording, examining and researching safety information; and encouraging safety consciousness, information and behavior (Australian Government, 2016). The ATSB investigates aviation accidents, events and insufficiencies.…
Australian Government. (2016). About ATSB. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/about_atsb/overview/
Australian Government. (2016). Aviation. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/aviation-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Marine. Retrieved from www.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/marine/marine-safety/
Australian Government. (2016). Rail. Retrieved from www.atsb.gov.au: https://www.atsb.gov.au/rail/rail-safety/
VMI is a highly orchestrated process that can drastically reduce the inventory carrying costs of a manufacturer, and is one that 3PL providers rely on public warehouses to attain.
The cost benefits of reverse logistics also contribute to the cost efficiencies of public warehouses (Berglund, Laarhoven, Sharman, Wandel, 1999). everse logistics is a supply chain process that seeks to capture packaging, recyclable components, and potentially toxic materials in products so they can be safely disposed of (Dowlatshahi, 2010). This is extremely expensive for manufacturers to do on their own, and given the compliance regulations globally surrounding electronic goods in particular, 3PL providers and public warehouse are seeing much interest in this specific service (Dowlatshahi, 2010).
Cost eduction and Service Bundling: The New Strategy of Public Warehouses
Historically public warehouses have relied on their variable cost business model, located in regions of the world that are distribution hubs, in addition to…
Magnus Berglund, Peter van Laarhoven, Graham Sharman, & Sten Wandel. (1999). Third-party logistics: Is there a future? International Journal of Logistics Management, 10(1), 59-70.
Dowlatshahi, S.. (2010). The role of transportation in the design and implementation of reverse logistics systems. International Journal of Production Research, 48(14), 4199.
Jayaram, J., & Tan, K.. (2010). Supply chain integration with third-party logistics providers. International Journal of Production Economics, 125(2), 262.
Jenkins, Michael. (1992). Gaining a Financial Foothold Through Public Warehousing. The Journal of Business Strategy, 13(3), 53.
All three areas of demand management, production planning and logistics planning are integral to any enterprise operating its value chain efficiently and profitably. The catalyst that keeps any value chain continually operating and improving begins with understanding the aggregated demand forecasts for specific products, in addition to understanding the nuanced nature of customer's changing requirements and needs (exhausen, Pibernik, Kaiser, 2012). Demand management is crucial for translating forecasts and sales history into a plan that can guide production planning, while also orchestrating with logistics planning as well (Wang, Liu, 2013). Each of these three years fulfills a very unique role in triangulating the performance of a company's value chain to attain profitability and market share growth over time.
Demand Management, Production Planning And Logistics Planning
There are many aspects of demand management that vary by the type of value chain a given company has. For many companies that…
Croxton, K.L., Lambert, D.M., Garcia-Dastugue, S., & Rogers, D.S. (2002). The demand management process. International Journal of Logistics Management, 13(2), 51-66.
Rexhausen, D., Pibernik, R., & Kaiser, G. (2012). Customer-facing supply chain practices - the impact of demand and distribution management on supply chain success. Journal of Operations Management, 30(4), 269.
Wang, C., & Liu, X. (2013). Integrated production planning and control: A multi-objective optimization model. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 6(4), 815.
hile these actions do not seem volatile, vehicles increase the amount of carbon monoxide, or CO2, in the atmosphere. This substance, which is emitted from vehicles' exhaust pipes, is responsible for most of the "man-made greenhouse gasses" associated with increased global warming. In fact, according to a recent study, these emissions are responsible for 15% of all C02 emissions, with the other 85% being linked to manufacturing and industry (Rice).
Regardless of the studies that link transportation and C02 emissions to greenhouse gasses and global warming, the subject of humans' impact on global warming is still controversial. Despite the controversy, however, many are beginning to accept the truth that enormous amounts of transportation across the world are factors in global warming. Because lifestyle changes, such as carpooling or walking, can significantly reduce the amount of C0s emitted, understanding that this activity is a factor leading to global warming can increase…
Rice, Doyle. "Study looks at transportation's effects on global warming." USA Today. 8
January 2008: Weather and Climate Science.
Today, al-Mart is altering the retail landscape in many ways, primarily by parlaying its power as a retail chain into operation as a full-scale distributional company as well.
The attention dedicated to improving the cost and efficiency of its distributional operation underscores the emergent strategy which al-Mart is using to change the retail business altogether. This aspect of its operation has become a major effecter in its relationship to suppliers. For instance, "Coke altered its century-old distribution model to accommodate the world's largest retailer, and in April began delivering its Powerade sports drink to al-Mart warehouses, rather than direct the retailer's stores." (Hoffman, 28) This demonstrates the manner in which al-Mart has come largely to change many of the rules which were once well-established in the retail business. Namely, suppliers have always functioned as the power in the retail industry. By controlling the cost of items, leveraging the available supply…
Hoffman, W. (2006). Wal-Mart Formula. Journal of Commerce.
Johnston, N. & Runningen, R. (2009). Obama Focuses on Small Business to Spur Job Growth. Bloomberg.com.
Transite. (2009). Transportation and Logistics: Integrating Transportation into Your Supply Chain. Transportation Management Solutions.
Transportation systems have become increasingly congested across the globe, which has contributed to the need for growth of transportation infrastructure. Actually, transportation congestion has continued to be a major concern and challenge for big cities in the contemporary first moving world. This challenge is attributed to various factors including the ever-growing increase in services of automobiles and busy work schedules. As this problem continues across major engines, the effect of the challenge continues to spread across users of automobiles. Some of the major effects of transportation congestion include lost opportunities to do other things and contribute to more economic growth. While transportation congestion continues to influence people's choices on where they live and work, it's considered as the single largest threat to economic growth and lifestyle. Therefore, it has become increasingly for firms and governments to adopt appropriate strategies that could help in eradicating this problem. Many transportation…
"Congestion Reduction Strategies." (n.d.). 2008 Status of the Nation's Highways, Bridges, and Transit: Conditions and Performance. Retrieved from Federal Highway Administration -- U.S. Department of Transportation website: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/2008cpr/chap14.htm
"Effective Practices for Congestion Management: Final Report." (2008, November). Cambridge
Systematics, Inc. Retrieved November 8, 2013, from http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/archive/NotesDocs/20-24 (63)_FR.pdf
"National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America's Transportation Network." (2006, May).
As a result, various regulations have already been enacted such as hazardous material regulations, restricted hours of operation, speed limits, and restricted landings and departures. Moreover, various agencies have included compulsory deterrence and detection initiatives in order to further enhance transportation security. These agencies have also implemented practices that are geared towards detecting product tampering and theft. As part of enhancing the detection of transportation security, some of the most common practices that are used today include monitoring devices, surveillance cameras, quick-response capabilities, and satellite tracking.
Since these strategies do not fully prevent security attacks in the global transportation industry, co-operation and coordination with international allies and partners is considered as an appropriate measure for preventing the transportation system from exploitation. Transportation security initiatives must be designed and harmonized globally since unilateral efforts are ineffective in preventing and mitigating security threats (Flynn, 2000). Actually, coordinated efforts promote security improvements in…
Flynn, S.E. (2000, December). Transportation Security -- Agenda for the 21st Century. Retrieved June 24, 2012, from http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/security/sflynn.pdf
Ritter, L., Barrett, J.M. & Wilson, R. (2006, October). Securing Global Transportation
Networks: A Total Security Management Approach. Retrieved June 24, 2012, from http://www.manhattan-institute.org/securing_networks/
Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles
Increase utilization of green technology for vehicles
The horrific traffic situation in Los Angeles is not only detrimental to society in the sense that its immense levels of congestion cost commuters millions of dollars in lost time daily, but also because it can cause physical harm. One study has identified several risk factors that are significantly increased by freeway pollution levels such as cardiovascular problems, respiratory disease, cancer, heart attacks and flat-out premature death (Cronan). It further finds that some brain cells in mice showed inflammation consistent with Alzheimer's disease when exposed to these pollutants.
It would be one thing if the levels of pollutants in the city were consistent with the levels found in other cities; however the levels of air pollution found in Los Angeles are among the highest in the country. In fact, Forbes…
Therefore, Trains are best for freight traveling long distances where loading and unloading efficiency and times are less of a concern. For shorter distances, rail travel is less efficient unless it is incorporated into the transportation network that serves passengers in gridlocked parts of town. In these instances, people can efficiently use light rail as a form of mass transit, and this mode of transport makes sense.
Each mode of transport has its pros and cons, and there is often much overlap between these pros and cons for each mode. The situation in New Jersey calls for a very definitive answer in transport management, and for a high level of understanding relative to cargo and passenger demands and the supply of transport vehicles.
This is a written paper APA style
Provide a two-page response for each of the following questions. Defend your answers with the appropriate citations. (Note: You may…
Rodrigue, Jean-Paull; Comtois, Claude; and Brian Slack. (2009). The Geography of Transport Systems, Second Edition. New York: Routledge.
World Port Source. (2010). "The Port of Callao." World Port Source Homepage.
Accessed via internet on August 11, 2010. .
Toyota Beginning and Emergence
The Market for the Company
The Major Partners and Suppliers
Toyota Supply Chain
Dedicated Transport Service
The Green Supply Chain
Freight Flow of Toyota
The Transport Improvement Plan
Dedicated Transport Service
Integration of services
Division of Duties at the Plant Level for Better Accountability
Mapping logistics flows
The Future of the Transport Improvement Plan
Production by region
Sales by region
Toyota is the biggest single producer and the second biggest producer of cars in the world, after General Motors.
The Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937 by Kiichiro Toyoda. It is headquartered in Toyota city in Japan with regional offices and factories all around the globe. The company primarily manufactures automobiles but also has business interests in robotics, financial services and biotechnology. It employs a huge number of people and is among the top…
Antony, J., Caine, P., & Escamilla, J. (2003). Lean Sigma [production and supply chain management]. Manufacturing Engineer, 82(2), 40-42. doi:10.1049/me:20030203
Automotivelogisticsmagazine.com,. (2015). Automotive Logistics - Toyota's total supply chain vision. Retrieved 25 February 2015, from http://www.automotivelogisticsmagazine.com/interview/total-supply-chain-vision
Chambers, K. (2008). Toyota. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
DALLERY, Y., & LIBEROPOULOS, G. (2000). Extended kanban control system: combining kanban and base stock. IIE Transactions, 32(4), 369-386. doi:10.1080/07408170008963914
Transportation Economics class
Transportation Economics Case Study
The case study is about the relationship between DuPont Engineering Polymers (DEP), the supplier, and Gard Automotive Manufacturing (GARD), the customer. DEP has been supplying polymers to GARD for 15 years. The acquisition process is usually represented by an auction with only DEP being invited, followed by a several years contract. GARD was satisfied with the quality of DEOP's products and saw no reason to negotiate with other suppliers.
This situation changed because GARD assigned a new purchasing agent to negotiate the polymers acquisition. The new purchasing agent is not entirely satisfied with the duration and performance of the delivery process offered by DEP. He only agreed to a one year contract with DEP and intends to evaluate samples from other suppliers also.
How can DEP improve its manufacturing and delivery processes so that it is in line with…
Kappauf, J., Lauterbach, B., & Koch, M. (2011). Logistic Core Operations with SAP: Procurement, Production and Distribution Logistics. Springer Science & Business Media.
Maimon, O., Khmelnitsky, E., & Kogan, K. (1998). "Optimal Flow Control in Manufacturing Systems: Production Planning and Scheduling." Springer Science & Business Media.
Whish, R. & Townley, C. (2012). "New Competition Jurisdictions: Shaping Policies and Building Institutions." Edward Elgar Publishing.
Optimizing Inventory / Transportation
Re: Quarterly Ordering Decisions
Optimal order-quantity technique is one of the sophisticated inventory management systems that our organization can employ to manage our inventories. The traditional inventory management technique we are using is making our company to incur additional costs of operation. The annual inventory holding costs is 4% thereby increasing our costs operation, and reducing our profitability. In the course of this problem, we are required to implement the optimal order-quantity technique to assist our company to lower the costs of managing our inventory thereby increasing our profitability.
Our pricing estimate is based on the markup factor of 140% or 1.4.
There is an estimation of 4% of the annual inventory holding costs.
The quarterly sales forecast of the Kegs of the Imported Beer line is estimated based on the inflation of 100% for the last quarter, which…
There are a number of different modes of transportation, and each mode has different safety considerations. This paper will look at road, rail, sea and air freight in particular. Obviously, there will be some safety issues that can affect any mode of transport -- human error or mechanical breakdown can happen to anything, anytime. But within each mode there will be unique risks, and it is important to understand what those risks are, in order that they be addressed effectively.
ail transport is generally considered to be one of the safer modes, but rail accidents are surprisingly common. The particular issues relating to rail tend to be issues with track maintenance, and trains taking corners too fast, both resulting in derailment. The Federal ailroad Administration provides oversight on railroad safety issues, in order to minimize the number of accidents that occur on the rails. However, derailments still occur,…
FRA (2015). Safety fact sheet. Federal Railroad Administration. Retrieved June 25, 2015 from https://www.fra.dot.gov/Page/P0680
Kristiansen, S. (2013) Maritime transportation: Safety management and risk analysis. Elsevier: Burlington, MA
TANSPOTATION & LOGISTICS FIELD --
Challenges Issues, and Trends in the Logistics and Transportation Field
The complexity of logistics in terms of the split channels, a higher variance in products and demand for customer focused solutions has been on the rise. There have been several trends that indicate that there are many challenges down the line as global trade becomes even more interactive and complex (Editorial Staff, 2013).
Studies point to the following trends.
Emergence of New Technology: Most companies have realized that there is need to make use of new technology. esearch shows that 60% of major companies plan to invest heavily in data analysis tools in the coming five-year period. The tools are meant to enhance a holistic handling and precise and proactive connection of data so as to boost control and planning outcomes (Editorial Staff, 2013).
A Structural Change Freight by Air to Freight by Sea:…
Ciemny, W., Closs, D. J., Costa, O., Davidson, J., Harrington, J., Lafrance, S., Law, A., Neel, W., Norek, C. D., Ravi, P., & Seiersen, N. (2005). Global Transportation Trends. Logistics Quarterly, Vol II, Issue 5, 1-29. Retrieved from www.logisticsquarterly.com
Editorial Staff. (2013, August 9). New Study Reveals Nine Key Trends of Global Logistics. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from Supply and Demand Chain Executive: http://www.sdcexec.com
Nevhagen, P. (2014, June 10). 5 global logistics trends. Retrieved May 10, 2016, from GreenCarrier: www.greencarrier.com
Transportation logistics field has experienced a number of significant changes in recent years due to innovations in technology, and there are a number of emerging concepts that have surfaced over the past 1 to 2 years as a result. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to identify several of these emerging concepts, including a detailed discussion concerning their respective importance in the transportation logistics management (TLM) field. An analysis concerning the direction these emerging trends will take in the future and their potential future impact within the TLM field is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
The concepts that are emerging in the TLM field today may have appeared as so much science fiction just a few years ago, but concepts such as 3D printing, drone deliveries and driverless vehicles…
Frey, T. (2012, December). Creating cars that talk to the roads. Journal of Environmental Health, 75(5), 38-40.
Grace, J. (2014, Fall). The end of post-sale confusion: How consumer 3D printing will diminish the function of trademarks. Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 28(1), 263-271.
Robinson, A. (2015, January 14). The future of logistics: Are 3PL companies ready to adopt these four emerging technologies? Cerasis. Retrieved from http://cerasis.com/2015 / 01/14/future-of-logistics/.
Rule, T. A. (2015, January). Airspace in an age of drones. Boston University Law Review, 95(1), 155-160.
Positive and Negative Influences of Legislation and egulation on Intermodal Transportation
Intermodal transportation is seen where goods, or people, travel across different forms or modes of transport. There are many influences on this type of transportation; the development of containers increased the demand for intermodal transportation, and technology that support longer supply chain has also increase demand. Another influence on the industry has been legislation and regulation, which has had both positive and negative impacts. This paper will look at the general concept in terms of the way regulation may impact both positively and negatively on intermodal transportation, and consider some specific examples of legislation or regulation and their potential influence.
Legislation and/or regulations have impacted directly and indirectly on intermodal transportation. Legislation has included statues to support the development and maintenance of a competitive environment, as well as controls on the movement of goods as standards for…
Carter, M, (2014, Feb 22), Why Whole Foods Market May Have a Big Problem, Motley Fool, accessed 22nd Feb at http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/02/22/why-whole-foods-market-may-have-a-big-problem.aspx
Lambert, T, A, (2008), Four Lessons from the Whole Foods Case, CATO Institute, accessed 22nd Feb at http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/regulation/2008/2/v31n1-4.pdf
MacKey, J; Robb, W, (2013). Letter to Stakeholders, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company%20Info/PDFs/WFM-2013-Letter-to-Stakeholders.pdf
Meador, Don; Britton, Mike; Phillips, Paige; Howery, Andrew, (2007), Case Analysis -- Whole Foods Market, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://pnphillip.asp.radford.edu/whole%20Foods%20Case.pdf
TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION IN THE UNITED STATES ETWEEN 1815 AND 1830?
This paper argues that, even prior to the advent of the railroads, a transportation revolution had taken place in the United States in the early nineteenth century. It argues that two developments were most important: steamboat navigation and the construction of the great canals. In particular, the building of the Erie Canal constituted a revolution in its own right. It was on account of the transportation revolution of the 1815-30 period that the American economy was decisively transformed in a capitalist direction.
In 1800, the United States did not lack a transport infrastructure, but it was a very poor one. With the exception of cities and towns located on the Atlantic coastline or along navigable waterways, there was literally no means of transporting agricultural produce and manufactured items to or from market centers other than country roads. These roads were…
Boyer, Paul S. et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin, [YEAR?]
Cornog, Evan. The Birth of Empire: De Witt Clinton and the American Experience 1769-1828. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Frost, James Arthur. Life on the Upper Susquehanna 1783-1860. New York: King's Crown Press, 1951.
Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Car travel may also pose a threat if gas prices continue to 'idle' or decline as the economy worsens.
Do its customers have special requirements?
In response to consumer demand and a shifting political climate, Bombardier has tried to incorporate sustainability into its business model to a greater degree. Providing rail travel in a way to reduce the planet's and the company's carbon footprint has become a core part of its mission ("Corporate responsibility," Bombardier, 2009)
Bombardier is organized into two separate sections, rail and aerospace, both of which have a presence worldwide.
Current financial analysis
The company's financial performance is strong. On January 31, 2009 Bombardier "showed improvements in revenues, profitability and a robust cash position. Revenues increased by 13% to reach $19.7 billion" and Bombardier Transportation specifically "Bombardier Transportation's revenues totaled $9.8 billion, an increase of 25% over last fiscal year" ("Bombardier, Marketwire, 2009).…
"About us: History." Bombardier. May 16, 2009.
"Bombardier Announces Extended Range Option for Learjet 40 XR Aircraft." Webwire.
May 13, 2009
Logistics Design Alternatives
Intermodal transportation essentially refers to the process of transporting passengers and cargo by means of multiple, inter-linked transportation modes. It capitalizes on the comparative advantage of the individual modes to bring about high productivity at considerably low freight costs. Intermodalism has gained prominence over recent years, and is currently an integral component of international trade and global supply chain management. The U.S. Penal Code (49 USC, Chapter 55, Sec 5501, 1998) presents the government's commitment towards delivering a National International Transportation System that is not only environmentally fit, but also economically efficient and in congruence with ongoing attempts geared at making the U.S. economy more competitive on the global front. According to David Collenette, the former Transport Minister of Canada, intermodal transportation is about efficiency and safety in transportation. Canada and Mexico are among America's leading trade partners; in fact, trade volumes between the three have risen…
Dewitt, W. & Clinger, J. (n.d.). Intermodal Freight Transportation. Committee on Intermodal Freight Transport. Retrieved 15th October 2014 from http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/millennium/00061.pdf
MIT. (2014). The Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Retrieved 15th October 2014 from http://osp.mit.edu/compliance/export-controls/the-export-administration-regulations-ear
Weigel, K.J. & Schwartz, J.M. (2009). International Government Contractor: News and Analysis on International Public Procurement and Export Controls. Thomas Reuters, 6(4), 1-9.
Yevdokimov, Y.V. (n.d.). Measuring Economic / benefits of Intermodal Transportation. Mississippi State University. Retrieved 17th October 2014 from http://ncit.msstate.edu/PDF/7-Measuring-Economic-Benefits-of-IntermodalTransportation.pdf
Evolution of Transportation
Transportation is one of the tools obligatory by civilized man to get order out of disorder. It arrives into each segment and facet of our continuation. Considered as of every point-of-view, economic, political and military, it is indisputably the most significant industry in the world.
You can no more function a grocery store or a brewery than you can win a war devoid of transportation. The more multifaceted life turns out to be, the more essential are the effects that make up our transportation systems (Moulton, 1949).
History Of Transportations
In the sixty years as of the 1790s to the 1840s, the United States acknowledged what has been appropriately phrased a 'transportation revolution'. Revolutionary it in fact was, for the social, economic, as well as political consequences of the alterations in transportation were extensive and transformative.
More often than not historians recognize actions such as the enlargement…
H.G. Moulton, Controlling Factors in Economic Development. The Brookings Institution, 1949, esp. Chapter VIII.
Stanley I. Fischler, Moving Millions. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.
William D. Middleton. The Time of the Trolley. Milwaukee, WI: Kalmbach Press, 1967.
Solomon et al. History of Transit and Innovative Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1971.
September 11th and Transportation Law
On the morning of September 11th, 2011, the United States of America felt the full fury of an enemy which had been lying in wait for decades, planning an attack of spectacularly tragic proportions that would shake the nation to its core. The weapons of choice for Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were not bullets or bombs, but airplanes which were ruthlessly hijacked and flown as missiles into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and fatefully, an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. With the collapse of both of the Twin Towers and the immediate loss of over 3,000 lives, the American aviation industry was suddenly transformed from a once proud symbol of our national strength into a scapegoat for society's shattered complacency. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, with images of smoldering rubble streaming live on television…
H.R. 3110 -- 107th Congress: Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001. (2001). In GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation). Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3110
107th United States Congress, (2001). Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov. 19, 2001: The aviation and transportation security act. Retrieved June 25 from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ71/pdf/PLAW-107publ71.pdf
Key to the concept of intermodal transportation is that this is related to logistics. Firms must be able to move goods around the world. They need to get supplies to production facilities, finished goods to warehouses and then to retail outlets or the end customer. This need for transportation has resulted in the development of a number of different transportation solutions. It is necessary to understand that transportation solutions emerge to solve problems and to take advantage of opportunities. When the railway was built, it was primarily to serve as a means of getting goods across long distances, compared with the alternatives. The same can be said about other forms of transportation that are typically used in cargo shipping.
A mode of transportation is any means of getting a good from one place to another. Over the decades, several modes of transportation have emerged, because each one has specific…
No author (2014). What is intermodal? LoadMatch.com. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://www.loadmatch.com/what_is_intermodal.htm
Investopedia. (2014). Definition of intermodal freight. Investopedia. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/intermodal-freight.asp
Distribution Centers: The elevance of a Good Transportation System
Distribution centers, in basic terms, "are special forms of warehouses that focus on throughput where products from various manufacturers are combined into shipments of precise quantities for distribution according to customer needs" (Wang and Adams, 2010).
A good transportation system helps in the reduction of transportation costs. From the onset, it is important to note that the relevance of cutting down on transportation costs cannot be overstated. One way of cutting transportation costs is optimizing the location of distribution centers. The resulting shorter delivery routes come in handy in cost cutting attempts. As will be discussed elsewhere in this text, using Wal-Mart as an example, an appropriate location and multiple distribution centers mesh together to make the movement of products more efficient. The availability of transportation at warehouse locations, as Wang and Adams (2010) point out, "significantly impacts transportation costs and…
MWPVL. (2014). The Wal-Mart Distribution Center in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.mwpvl.com/html/walmart.html
Wang, B.X. & Adams, T.M. (2010). Warehousing and Distribution Centers. Retrieved from https://ceprofs.civil.tamu.edu/bwang/CVEN672/Warehousing-DC-Chapter-Wang-Adams.pdf
1920s transportation changes. Specifically it will discuss how the growth of the automobile industry in the 1920's changed the world and what positive and negative influences it had on society. By the 1920s, automobiles were much more common, and American society was becoming more accepting of them. They changed the way Americans viewed transportation, and really altered society in many different ways.
The automobile was firmly established by the 1920s. More people could afford them due to mass production and competition between manufacturers, and that meant people had greater freedom and mobility. Previously, the only methods of transportation where horse and buggy or carriage, train, or public transportation like streetcars. However, by the 1920s, this was not the case. Editors at the Smithsonian Institution note, "By the time this photo was taken in the 1920s, automobiles had changed the city streetscape, and the carriage was becoming a rarity" ("America on…
Drowne, Kathleen Morgan and Huber, Patrick The 1920's. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.
Editors. "1920s Automobiles." 1920-30.com. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
Editors. "America on the Move." Smithsonian Institution.edu. 2009. 26 Oct. 2009.
Despite these constraints, China does in fact have an impressive transportation infrastructure already, and China's rankings relative to the rest of the world in various transportation infrastructure categories is provided in Table 1 below.
Current Status of China's Transportation Infrastructure
3,583,715 km (includes 53,913 km of expressways)
110,000 km navigable
Ports and terminals
Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin (see map at Appendix a)
Source: China, 2010
The network of paved highways and roads that extends throughout China, though, is not the same type of national and unified transportation system that exists in the U.S., Japan and Europe that are characterized by uniform standards and regulatory guidelines and many of the roadways are in bad condition . Notwithstanding the current state of the roadways throughout China,…
Bibliography." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65(3):
Tian, R.G. & Wang, C.H. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved from http://www. nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/China.html.
demands being placed on the global transportation industry are creating unprecedented requirements for international commerce during a period when peak oil is being approached and the need for more environmentally responsible alternatives has become especially pronounced. The responses to the varied needs of the global transportation industry have included research and development of alternative energy sources as well as innovative supply chain management approaches that make global transportation more efficient and reduce energy requirements in the process. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a current overview of the global transportation industry and the challenges it faces in the future. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the paper's conclusion.
Global Transportation Challenges
Innovations in telecommunications have contributed to an increase in global transportation needs as international commerce and business-related travel have grown significantly in recent years. At…
Branch, M.C. (1999). Telepower, planning, and society: Crisis in communication. Westport,
CT: Praeger Publishers.
Chan, D. & McMillan, C. (2007, May/June). Global logistics: Are Canadian firms competitive?
Ivey Business Journal Online, 37.
In short, providing transit using the current paradigms and strategies is unsustainble. Transit's success depends on the ability of planners to make the lives of travelers worse off by making it harder to get around, restricting housing choice and type, and subjecting people to all manner of externalities and lifestyles they routinely choose to avoid in the current housing market place (e.g., small homes, urban noise, and air pollution" (Stanley 2007).
Facts and figures publication of the Road Information Program, a Mobility omparison of Investments in Highways and Mass Transit, notes that Despite a 148.8% increase in operating subsidies between 1980 and 1990, mass transit was unable to increase its share of the nation's PMT. In fact, between 1980 and 1990, mass transit's share of the nation's passenger miles of non-marine, surface transportation decreased from 1.43% to 1.27%...total PMT provided by mass transit exceeded 1% of total transportation in only…
From the evidence in this paper, mass transit is important for long-run economic growth and less traffic. This can be shown in many cities where the economic cost of the commuting time is huge. By eliminating issue, it would bring a significant improvement in the economy's efficiency and modern day continence. The economic and military power of a nation has been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation since it provides access to natural resources and promotes trade. A nation can gain wealth and power by increasing the use of mass transit since it allows the movement of soldiers, equipment, and supplies so that a nation can wage war. "Metra ridership grew by about 15% between 1985 and 1995.... Generally, all Metra zones have been experiencing steady growth since 1985.... Ridership in zones a and B (combined) increased by about 800,000 annual riders between 1990 and 1994. These are the zones closest to the CBD. This 14% increase may be due to switching of CTA (Heavy Rail) passengers to Metra to benefit from better fares and a better passenger environment." (Weyrich and Lind). Furthermore, it has become apparent that reliable transportation allows a population to expand throughout a country's territory without being traffic congested.
Promoting the Use of Public Transportation
Public transportation serves numerous purposes: first, it helps to ease congestion in urban areas by decreasing the number of cars on the road at any given time but especially during busy traffic hours; second, it helps people who may not otherwise have means of getting to work obtain these means; third, it can reduce pollution and fuel emissions that can harm the environment. All of these are good reasons for using and promoting public transportation. The problem of how to promote public transportation, however, is one that needs to be solved. In order to solve it, a variety of factors have to be considered: a) who is most likely to use public transportation—i.e., who is the audience to whom the message needs to be communicated; b) where are these individuals most likely to need to go; c) how can the benefits of public…
These sheets contain information regarding a substances hazard class and steps an employee or organization should take if any person is exposed to the hazardous substance in question. Also provided is detailed information regarding the handling and care of hazardous materials.
HAZMAT Training equirements
It is absolutely essential to the livelihood and well being of employees and organizations that anyone involved in transporting hazmat is adequately tested, trained and certified. Training can mean the difference between life and death for individuals working with hazardous materials. Fortunately there are federal and state regulations that currently govern the types of training employers must offer with respect to hazmat. This training is standardized to ensure that ell people handling hazardous materials are adequately informed and trained regarding transportation, handling and any problems they might encounter during daily operations with hazmat materials.
HAZMAT training is any training for employees that operate a motor vehicle…
CDL. (2005). DOL - CDL FAQs." CDL Department of Licensing. 25, Sept 2005:
EHS. (2005). "DOT definition of hazardous material." 26, Sept 2005:
Depending on the airline involved, domestic flights may not use cargo containers for luggage but international flights generally do.
There are two logistical purposes for using the containers. First, packing individual bags into shaped containers saves space because the containers are designed to fit the internal dimensions of the aircraft cargo hold compartment. Second, the use of containers makes moving luggage around much easier than transporting luggage piece by piece, in addition to being less hard on the bags. Once the luggage containers are filled, they are transported by specialized vehicles and conveyed along a belt loading truck into the cargo hold.
There is also a third purpose for using cargo containers within the cargo hold areas: security against terrorism. Specifically, the cargo holds are designed to contain the destructive force of explosive blasts such as where a bomb inside luggage is not detected by other security processes.…
Organizations or corporations enlisted as parties to the investigation report to the NTSB though individuals in legal positions are not permitted to be designated to the investigation.
While the enlisted agencies conduct their own investigations for enforcement, the determination of the actual cause of transportation accidents and incidents remains the sole responsibility of the Safety Board ("What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" n.d.). Through the party system, much of the background technical information is collected to be used in the factual reports by the National Transportation Safety Board. The Safety Board uses its staff to supervise all investigative activities in order to accomplish its objectives. The head of each investigative group or organization basically prepares and documents a factual report upon completion of their respective tasks. Each of the parties in the specific investigative organization or unit is requested to verify the accuracy of the factual report. After the…
"The Investigative Process at NTSB." (n.d.). Accident Investigations. Retrieved from National
Transportation Safety Board website: https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/process.html
"What is the National Transportation Safety Board?" (n.d.). National Transportation Safety
Board. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/metro/documents/whatisntsb0091710.pdf
Sea Cargo and Transportation
Maritime Transportation is the main channel of international trade; however, the share of its weight sustained by the sea is difficult to come across. Increase in population, increasing living standards, quick industrialization, congestion of roads, over-exploitation of local resources, and removal of trade barriers all play a role in the ongoing development in maritime transportation. In nations with passable rivers or long shorelines, or in nations made up of several islands, water transportation might play a vital role in domestic trades, for instance, Japan, Greece, Indonesia, USA, and Norway (UNCTAD, 2004).
The load carrying capacity of the world fleet reached 857 million tons at the conclusion of 2003, which is an increase of 25% over 1890. There was also a rapid growth in the capacity of the container ships fleet with about 727% increase. These substituted the general cargo ships in main liner trades. To…
European Commission, (1997). Green paper on seaports and maritime infrastructure, COM (97) 678 Final, European Commission, Brussels.
Fisenko, A. I. (2013). CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF MARITIME FREIGHT TRANSPORTATIONS IN THE SOUTHERN ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST.Asia-Pacific Journal Of Marine Science & Education, 3(1), 59-65.
Higginson, J. K., & Dumitrascu, T. (2007). Great Lakes Short Sea Shipping and the Domestic Cargo-Carrying Fleet. Transportation Journal (American Society Of Transportation & Logistics Inc.), 46(1), 38-50.
Persson, J.A. & Gothe-Lundgren, M. (2005). Shipment planning at oil refineries using column generation and valid inequalities. European Journal of Operational Research 163, 631-652.
Most state and federal regulations related to the transportation of hazardous materials were first established in 1975 with the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act. The Act broadly defines hazardous materials as anything that “may pose an unreasonable risk to health and safety or property,” (OSHA, 2017). In practice, hazardous materials generally include explosives, hazardous waste, gasses, radioactive material, flammable or combustible materials, and harmful chemicals. However, each state would have its own regulations, which sometimes conflicted with neighboring states or federal regulations. Further complicating the issues related to safe transport of hazardous materials was the fact that a large number of federal, state, and local agencies would have different jurisdictions and subject to different regulations or laws, such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), Federal Railway Administration (FRA), Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) (Federal Motor Carrier…
Professional Medical Transportation:
In order to prepare a Business Plan, it is worthwhile to note that professional medical transportation can be offered both as an emergency as well as non-emergency service. Services offered could be Priority Medical Dispatch, 911 Pre-arrival instructions, Emergency Ambulance Service, Wheelchair service and Scheduled Ambulance Service. Since Priority Medical dispatch will be taking the 911 calls, it has to be ensured that ambulance possessing the most sophisticated equipment and qualified medical experts reach during emergency situations. As regards 911 pre-arrival instructions, the dispatchers will be answering 911 callers, the information they require to tackle an emergency medical situation till arrival of the ambulance. (Services we offer)
Under Emergency Ambulance Service, paramedics and emergency medical specialist have to attend to emergency calls and deal with transfers among health care facilities, round the clock, all seven days in a week. Under Wheelchair service, non-emergency patients using…
Medicaid/Reach up Program. Vermont Public transport Association. Retrieved from http://www.vpta.net/publicservice_medical.html Accessed on 6 February, 2005
Medical Transportation. Prince William Health System. Retrieved from http://www.pwhs.org/patients/transportation / Accessed on 6 February, 2005
Services we offer. Allina Hospitals and clinics. 2004. Retrieved from http://www.allina.com/ahs/transport.nsf/page/AMT_services Accessed on 6 February, 2005
("DEKA: Dean Kamen" 2001, NP) Making many smart business decisions along the way and developing many innovative products, which he rarely fails to patent, have made him a renaissance man for the modern world. To some degree he could be called the Leonardo Davinci of modern science and technology.
The technology of the Segway is dependant upon its ability to balance itself, in much the same way the human body does, using technology that its makers call Dynamic Stabilization. This advance makes the Segway nearly impossible to overturn, while in use, making it extremely safe and practical for use. It also boasts a battery system utilizing lithium ion batteries that hold a charge long enough for an individual to travel up to 24 miles between charges. This advance creates a device that can be used for an entire day or even longer by some people with only very…
DEKA: Dean Kamen, 2001 http://www.dekaresearch.com/aboutDean.html.
Oswald, Ed BetaNews May 31, 2006, http://www.betanews.com/article/Segway_Offers_Financing_to_Push_Sales/1149106883 .
Kemper, Steve. Code Name Ginger: The Story Behind Segway and Dean Kamen's Quest to Invent a New World. Framingham MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2003.
Segway Simply Moving, "Technology Innovations" 2008, http://www.segway.com/about-segway/technology-innovations.php.
Defense Transportation System (DTS)
The DTS represents a central part of USA's overall transportation network. It involves interrelationships, procedures, and resources of a number of federal, Department of Defense (DoD), non- U.S. and commercial activities supporting DoD's transportation requirements (Jankowski, 2003, p. 13). Foreign Military Sales or FMS constitutes a critical tool in the nation's security interests and in the promotion of its foreign policy. In the past ten years, FMS contracts have been steadily growing in number. The overall yearly FMS funding rose from eight to twenty- one billion dollars, between 1997 and 2006 (Yoo, Mallicoat, & Simpson, 2009, p. 307), proving that FMS growth necessitates a better DTS, in order for other countries to be backed through their security supports. This may be achieved through best practice integration into the System.
The business unit "Dynamic Transportation Systems" of the Mobility Department studies traffic system optimization for…
AIT. (2016). AIT Austrian Institute of Technology - Dynamic Transportation Systems. Ait.ac.at. Retrieved from http://www.ait.ac.at/departments/mobility/business-units/dynamic-transportation-systems/?L=1
DTS. (2013). JP 4-01, Joint Doctrine for the Defense Transportation System.Dtic.mil. Retrieved from www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp4_01.pdf
Jamal, S., Omer, A., & Salam Qureshi, A. (2013). Cloud Computing Solution and Services for RFID-Based Supply Chain Management. Advances in Internet of Things, 03(04), 79-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ait.2013.34011