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"In war you lose your sense of the definite, hence your sense of truth itself, and therefore it's safe to say that in a true war story nothing is ever absolutely true. Often in a true war story there is not even a point, or else the point doesn't hit you until at least 20 years later, in your sleep, and you wake up and shake your wife and start telling the story to her, except when you've gotten to the end you've forgotten the point again" (O'Brien, 276). This quotation illustrates the fact that the idiosyncrasy that has replaced the void created within the author's identity is one of distortion, in which truth and clarity are replaced by uncertainty and ambiguity. This point is also underscored by Stout's essay, as the following quotation in which Seth emphasizes his inability to relate to people due to his disassociation, largely suggests.…
Trauma is considered as 'Mental Agony', distress due to problems internal or personal to the patient's/victim's, undergone by a person during a given period. Even physical or mental distress undergone can also be considered as Trauma.. Trauma means 'injury' and derives from the Greek word meaning 'wound'. Trauma is any physical or mental shock or injury, specifically a serious wound or injury caused by some physical action, as an automobile accident, violent assault and so on. It is also psychological damage or an experience that inflicts such damage. Trauma is physical, or psychological or both. It may refer to the injury done, or to the condition which results. Profound emotional shock, Physical injury, Physical shock syndrome is also defined as Trauma.
Traumatic experiences shake the foundation of our beliefs about safety and shatter our assumptions of trust. These events and experiences provoke reactions that are strange and crazy. These reactions…
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, (1992) World Health Organisation, Geneva, Tenth Revised Edition pg: 344
Laughlin, Henry P. (1963) "Neuroses Following Trauma" Volume 6 - edited by Paul David Cantor Butterworths, Washington, USA, pg: 76-125
Cattell, James P. (1963) "Personality and Behavior Changes Following Trauma" Volume 8 - edited by Paul David Cantor Butterworths, Washington, USA, pg: 251 to 261
Dunbar F (1948) "Mind and Body" - first edition published by Random House, Newyork, USA, pg:32 to 40
'the processing of traumatic experience is highly individualistic, and cannot easily be captured with simple diagnostic labels" (McFarlane and Van der
Kolk, 1996: 562).
Traumatic experiences vary significantly from person to person, the result of many different social and cultural factors as well as individual preferences and physiological factors. One can't simply ascribe a common treatment protocol to all patients undergoing a traumatic experience, because there have not been developed any specific tools that are successful in treating traumatic experiences for every person. ather, the successful treatment of traumatic events begins with close exploration of the nature of trauma including its symptomology and pathology as well as examination of its psychiatric impact on patients.
For the most part trauma is often associated with post traumatic stress disorder. Though this is a far reaching consequence of traumatic experience affecting a majority of patients, it is not the only factor that…
Ditrich, Anne M., Baranowsky, Anna B., Devich-Navarro, M., Gentry, J.E., Harris, C.J.,
Figley, C.R. (2000). "A Review of Alternative Approaches to the Treatment of Post Traumatic Sequelae." Traumatology. Volume VI, Issue 4, Article 2. [online] October 22, 2004: http://www.fsu.edu/~trauma/v6i4/v6i4a2.htm
Christianson, S.A. (1992). "Emotional stress and eyewitness memory: A critical review."
Psychological Bulletin, 112, 284-309.
Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Clusters, And Physical Health Symptoms in Postabused Women
Stephanie J. Woods and N. Margaret Wineman
The purpose of this research is to evaluate PTSD symptom clusters (avoidance of the situation, hyper-arousal, and intrusions) to physical health symptoms in women who have suffered abuse. The researchers are also interested in how lifetime trauma is related to the PTSD symptom clusters and physical health symptoms. The researchers make a fair case for the aims of the current study by pointing out that the majority of previous research investigating these relationships has been performed on male combat veterans (although they do discuss research with female veterans) and that a significant proportion of women in abusive relationships suffer from PTSD. Here you might be tempted to draw the conclusion that if PTSD war veterans experience health symptoms so should abused women, but this might not follow. Moreover, they do…
This change in report helps clinicians to determine the significant changes that are occurring in the patient's behavior over time.
Ease of Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation
The instrument is ideal for administering to individuals and groups. It is easy for the clinician and patient for the response item list on the 4-point scale is entered on the top page of the booklet. The booklet is carbonless, such that item responses are transferred to the scoring sheet underneath it automatically. This allows for easy administration and scoring by hand. It is also easy to interpret the scores since the graphic profiles convert raw scores to sex- and age-appropriate T scores and graphical representations.
The advantage of the Trauma Symptom Inventory test is its ability to assess a broad range of symptoms including those related to acute stress disorder and posttraumatic disorder. This is because the test has a ten clinical scale…
Briere, J. (1995). Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Ghetti, S., Edelstein, R.S., Goodman, G.S., Cordon, I.,M., & al, e. (2006). What can subjective forgetting tell us about memory for childhood trauma? Memory & Cognition (Pre-2011), 34(5), 1011-25.
Norris, F.H., & Raid, J.K. (1997). Standardized self-report measures of civilian trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. In J.P. Wilson and T.M Keane (Eds.) Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press: New York.
Purves, D.G., & Erwin, P.G. (2004). Post-traumatic stress and self-disclosure. The Journal of Psychology, 138(1), 23-33.
The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta Georgia describe a trauma center as a kind of medical facility, usually a hospital, that has "…resources and equipment needed to help care for severely injured patients" (CDC). There are several levels to trauma centers, beginning with Level I and going up to Level IV. The Level I trauma center is the provider of the "highest level of trauma care" and Level IV only provide "initial trauma care" and patients that are first served at Level IV trauma centers are transferred after initial care to higher level centers (CDC).
The CDC is actively involved in a program to raise the level of awareness that the public has about both access to and locations of trauma centers. The United States Congress passed a bill in 2007 to attempt to ensure that Americans would have sufficient numbers of trauma centers, because clearly questions…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Access to Trauma Care. Retrieved August
7, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/traumacare/access_trauma.html .
Hartmann, Elizabeth H., Creel, Nathan, Lepard, Jacob, and Maxwell, Robert A. (2012). Mass
Casualty Following Unprecedented Tornadic Events in the Southeast: Natural Disaster
Substance Abuse Treatment as it Is elated to Trauma
esearch indicates that there is a strong correlation between people who have experienced trauma (whether in childhood or in adulthood) and substance abuse or dependency. Because patients who suffer from substance abuse are also highly likely to have experienced trauma in their lives, a trauma-focused care approach can be the best method of treating substance abuse patients because it emphasizes the underlying cause of the patient's stress, depression, and compulsion to abuse or develop a dependency upon harmful substances. Since attempting to treat patients with a substance use dependency can be include a range of interventions, it depends upon the therapist or counselor's training and preferred approach to counseling as to whether or not the patient receives the appropriate or most effective care. This study examines the research related to the issue of trauma and substance abuse treatment and concludes that…
Boden, M., Kimerling, R., Jacobs-Lentz, J. et al. (2011). Seeking Safety treatment for male veterans with a substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Addiction, 107: 578-586.
Ekinci, S., Kandemir, H. (2015). Childhood trauma in the lives of substance dependent
patients: The relationship between depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Nord Journal Psychiatry, 69(4): 249-253.
Gifford, E., Tavakoli, S., Wang, R. et al. (2013). Tobacco dependence diagnosis and treatment in Veterans Health Administration residential substance use disorder treatment programs. Addiction, 108: 1127-1135.
functional casebook and extensively approved text provides valuable, inventive approaches for aiding children who experienced traumatic life situations like parental divorce or death, neglect and abuse, natural calamities and violence at school or in the community. Inter-personal aggression suffered during childhood has often been proven to be linked to negative psychosocial effects; risk of negative effects increases with increase in exposures (Felitti et al., 1998; Teicher, Samson, Polcari and McGreenery, 2006). Also, unfortunately, it is not uncommon for children to come across one or more kinds of indirect or direct victimization before they turn eighteen. In fact, one study discovered that kids who report to being victims of sexual abuse very likely experienced other forms of victimization, too (Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, & Hamby, 2005).
The article "Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Child Sexual Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence" reveals the likely impacts of child exposure to domestic and sexual abuse,…
Felitti, V.J., Anda, R.F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D.F., Spitz, A.M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245-258.
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., Turner, H., & Hamby, S.L. (2005). The victimization of children and youth: A comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment, 1-0(1), 5- 25.
Neubauer, F., Deblinger, E. & Sieger, K. (2007). Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Child Sexual Abuse and Exposure to Domestic Violence. In: n. b. webb, ed. Play Therapy with Children in Crisis: Individual, Group, and Family Treatment. New York: Guilford Publications, Inc., pp. 107-131.
Teiche. M, Samson. J, Polcari. A, & McGreenery. C. (2006). Sticks, Stones, and Hurtful Words: Relative Effects of Various of Childhood maltreatment. American Journal of psychiatry, 163. 993-1000
health care problem is the first and most critical step in curriculum development, only after which it is possible to outline core elements of the curriculum and how to address the identified problems (Bass, n.d.). In this case, medical trauma management is the critical area of concern. Planning will be the focus, following a general needs assessment, but coordination of all curricular elements will also be important for effective and cost-effective delivery.
esources required for the curriculum include personnel, time, and facilities. In this case, four or five Physician Assistants and an equal number of Nurse Practitioners will need to coordinate their contributions in accordance with the timeline and budget goals of the curriculum. Facilities will initially include simulated Emergency Departments, to prevent problems between training and actual interventions, yet will also include hands-on delivery in actual Emergency Departments to promote the goals of the curriculum. Long-range goals include improving…
Allen, W.C. (2006). Overview and evolution of the ADDIE training system. Advances in Developing Human Resources 8(4): 430-441.
Bass, E.B. (n.d.). Step 1: Problem identification and general needs assessment.
Swanson, R.A. & Holton, E.F. (2009). Training and development practices. Chapter 12 in Foundations of Human Resource Development.
Signs and Symptoms (10%)
In no more than one page, list the signs and symptoms of the client
• Very negative attitude
• Does not complete work assigned
• Very disrupted in class
• Has had to be sent to time out many times
• Does not share details about life when asked
• Does not follow rules
• Dares teacher to "make him" behave
• Also tends to just glare at teacher when told to do something
• Will not share how he's feeling
• Other children avoid him
• Has persisted with at least two teachers (same problem in third grade)
• Violent outbursts (slams fist on table, etc.)
• Will not take blame for actions just completed
Differential Diagnoses (25%)
In no more than three pages:
A) List three differential diagnoses
a. Anti-social personality disorder
Hostility & irritability iii. Being consistently irresponsible and failing to…
Mayo Clinic. (2016). Symptoms and causes - Antisocial personality disorder - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 4 December 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/antisocial-personality-disorder/symptoms-causes/dxc-20198978
Theravive. (2016). Borderline Personality Disorder DSM-5 301.83 (F60.3) - Therapedia. theravive.com. Retrieved 4 December 2016, from http://www.theravive.com/therapedia/Borderline-Personality-Disorder-DSM -- 5-301.83-(F60.3)
WebMD. (2016). Borderline Personality Disorder-Topic Overview. Webmd. Retrieved 4 December 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/tc/borderline-personality-disorder-topic-overview
WebMD. (2016). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Webmd. Retrieved 4 December 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder
The experience or perception of trauma has an indelible effect on the individual. Self-concept and self-esteem are often impacted by trauma. A trauma survivor may completely alter self-perception and self-image. Trauma can also alter worldviews or cause existential angst. Moreover, survivors of trauma may develop psychological disorders such as depression. In a study by David, Ceschi, Billieux & Van der Linden (2008), the researchers found that the depression experienced by trauma victims is in fact qualitatively and symptomatically different from depression in those unaffected by trauma.
Therefore, trauma is linked to clusters of symptoms that are related to but distinct from their counterparts occurring in the general population. A trauma survivor with psychological and/or physical injuries requires specific interventions. These interventions need to address self-esteem, existential meaning, and identity. For example, Crossley (2000) recommends a process of narrative psychology to help the trauma survivor reconstruct and strengthen identity. The…
Crossley, M.L. (2000). Narrative Psychology, Trauma and the Study of Self/Identity. Theory Psychology August 2000 vol. 10 no. 4 527-546
David, M., Ceschi, G., Billieux, J. & Van der Linden, M. (2008). Depressive symptoms after trauma: is self-esteem a mediating factor? J. Nerv Ment Dis 196(10): 735-42.
Hemenover, S.H. (2003). The Good, the Bad, and the Healthy: Impacts of Emotional Disclosure of Trauma on Resilient Self-Concept and Psychological Distress. Pers Soc Psychol Bull October 2003 vol. 29 no. 10, 1236-1244
Life Trauma and Nursing Home esidents
When a person loses their ability to live independently and is forced to enter a nursing home, the experience can be a difficult one. But not all of the problems arise because of current influences, past traumas, which occurred in early-life, can sometimes arise in a resident's later years to cause trouble. Keith Anderson, and his colleagues at the College of Social Work at Ohio State University recently published an article which examined the impact of early-life trauma on older nursing home residents. After discussing how early-life traumas can influence how an elderly person reacts to certain aspects of assisted care, the authors then provide a hypothetical case where a patient has a difficult time adjusting to life in the nursing home. In this hypothetical case, social workers did not discover an early-life trauma which resulted in both the resident and the…
Anderson, Keith, Noelle Fields, and Lynn Dobb. (2011). "Understanding the Impact of Early-Life Trauma in Nursing Home Residents." Journal of Gerontological
Social Work, 54: 755-767. Retrieved from
Ethnicity and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
It is a natural human response to suffer long-term emotional consequences from exposure to a traumatic event or sustained traumatic experiences. However, the incarnations of these long-term consequences exist on a widely variant spectrum. Among the wide array of factors that might be used to predict these consequences, ethnicity is among the most highly debated. So shows the article by Perilla et al. (2002), which addresses the concepts of differential exposure and differential vulnerability in illuminating the subject.
Perilla et al. indicate that one possible explanation for differing levels of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) according to ethnicity is the relationship between ethnicity and other sociological factors that might contribute to a comparatively more severe experience within the scope of a similar trauma. Particularly, the authors examine Hurricane Andrew's effects on a wide variance of populations in achieving a definition of…
Loo, C.M. (2007). PTSD Among Ethnic Minority Veterans. United States Department of Veterans Affairs.
Perilla, J.L.; Norris, F.H. & Lavizzo, E.A. (2002). Ethnicity, Culture, and Disaster Response: Identifying and Explaining Ethnic Differences in PTSD Six Months After Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 20-45.
Tull, M. (2008). Ethnic and Racial Differences in PTSD. About Post Traumatic Stress (PTSD).
non-violen experiences of war / errorism
2. Hypohesis (Wha do you expec he research o show?)
expecaions of his research is ha children exposed o more inensive experiences of errorism and war will more likely experience he kind of response described by (Pine e al., 2005), namely causing child o disrus he very underpinnings of civilian life and reacing by afflicing himself wih erroriss, forming gangs, or imiaing he violen behavior of hose around him.
3. Sample and sample size
I will es wo populaions of children living in Israel. One populaion will be children of a Jewish communiy living in Hebron ha see violen aacks and errorism on a regular scale. The oher will be children of a Jewish communiy who live near o an E. Jerusalem Arab populaion, possibly in he Old Ciy, where unres (alhough no violen aacks) is experienced regularly. Children will be aged 6-16 of…
to Violent and Nonviolent War Experiences J. AM. ACAD. CHILD ADOLESC. PSYCHIATRY, 41:4
Pine, D et al. (2005). Trauma, Proximity, and Developmental Psychopathology:
The Effects of War and Terrorism on Children Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 1781 -- 1792
Loss, Trauma, and Human esilience
The article focuses on the people who are resilient in the face of loss or potentially traumatic events. The articles notes that almost everyone experiences some type of traumatic event at some point of their life, and then notes that some people deal with these problems effectively and experience very little upheaval. Bonanno notes that resilience is generally seen in children and that most of the adult studies deal with individuals who have developed significant psychological problems. Based on this, resilience in adults is often considered as something rare. Bonanno argues against this, stating that resilience is more common than expected and that there are multiple pathways to resilience.
The next section of the article describes the difference between resilience and recovery. Bonanno notes that recovery is a process where normal functioning gives way to symptoms of depression as the individual deals with the trauma.…
Bonanno, G.A. (2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59.1, 20-28.
If the temperature is taken miles away, or if the insect that was found and studied was not exactly the same as one that had been studied before, only similar perhaps, the defense attorney will also often argue that the entomologist's testimony is only guesswork, and therefore that it is not valid and should not be admitted as evidence (Sachs, 1998). Judges have taken different approaches about whether to allow this kind of evidence, but the trend appears to be toward allowing the prosecution to admit this kind of evidence, which indicates that forensic entomology in general is becoming more accepted by law enforcement and by the court system across the country.
The way that forensic entomology is becoming worthwhile in the court system is a trial by fire, but many entomologists say that they welcome this because they know that this ensures that, when their evidence is finally accepted…
Adler, P.A. & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles in field research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Becker, H.S. (1996). The epistemology of qualitative research. University of Chicago Press, 53-71.
Benecke, M., Barksdale, L., Sundermeier, J., Reibe, S., & Ratcliffe, B.C. (2000). Forensic entomology in a murder case: blood spatter artifacts caused by flies, and determination of post mortem interval (PMI) by use of blowfly maggots. Zoology, Analysis of Complex Systems 103: 106.
Boas, F. (1943). Recent anthropology. Science, 98, 311-314, 334-337.
Psychology of Trauma
Developmental and Lifespan Trauma
People who are strong, intelligent and suffering no physical illness may suffer from traumatic stress, and oni and her family are a typical example. It is evident that it is impossible to totally shield one's self from an experience that is traumatic. oni was exposed to trauma while in her teens and she still suffers as a result of this exposure. The fact that oni is suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is not strange as it is accepted that about 8% of the population will suffer PTSD at some point in life.
The problems that oni is experiencing are not strange as the symptoms she is exhibiting are those that are normal for anyone who has been exposed to a situation that is traumatic. It cannot be labeled crazy because it is a normal human response to being exposed to events that are…
Adult health is compromised by several different pathways. (n.d.). Retrieved January 14, 2016, from http://www.asca.org.au/WHAT-WE-DO/Resources/General-Information/Pathways-which-may-compromise-adult-health
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of affective disorders, 82(2), 217-225.
Erikson (1963) E. Childhood and society.2nd Ed. New York: Norton.
Ogle, C. M., Rubin, D. C., & Siegler, I. C. (2013). The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning Among Older Adults. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 10.1037/a0031985. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0031985
Psychology of Trauma
PTSD: Diagnosis and Treatment
The PTSD diagnostic criteria of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association was revised. The criteria for diagnosis for PTSD include exposure history to traumas that are qualified by specified stipulations and signs from a cluster of four: negative alterations, avoidance, intrusion, mood, changes are arousal creativity and alterations in cognitions. The sixth edition contains the time span the symptoms, the seventh one is concerned with the functioning, the eight states clearly states the symptoms that are not attributable to substances or a medical condition that occurs at the same time (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
Effective diagnosis of PTSD requires observation of several criteria. The clinician should establish that the patient was, indeed exposed to a traumatic experience and manifest symptoms of that can be linked to trauma from the cluster of…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (5th ed.). Washington.
Courtois, C.A. & Ford, J.D. (2013). Treatment of Complex Trauma: A Sequenced,
Margolies, L. (2010). Understanding the effects of trauma: Post-traumatic stress disorder
PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder)
PTSD (Post-traumatic stress disorder) refers to a mental health condition that is set off by a horrifying event; through either witnessing or encountering it. Some of the symptoms are nightmares, flashbacks and severe nervousness together with unmanageable thoughts regarding the horrific event. Just like in Anthony's case, several individuals who experience traumatic events find it difficult to adjust and cope for a while, but that does not imply that they have PTSD; with proper self-care and time they normally get better. However, if the symptoms worsen or persist for months or years and impede one's functioning, one might have PTSD. Obtaining effective treatment following the development of the PTSD symptoms could be important in minimizing symptoms and improving function. PTSD symptoms might begin showing within three months of a traumatic experience, however, at times the symptoms might not show until some years after the event. These…
Clinic Staff, M. (2014, April 15). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Retrieved January 14,
2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20022540
Courtois, C. A. (2015). Treatment of complex trauma. S.l.: Guilford.
Ford, J. D. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder: Scientific and professional dimensions.
Disaster and Trauma
In detail please explain the disaster to the class.
September 11, 2001 is remembered for the unforgettable incident of suicide attacks against different targets in the United States carried out by 19 militants of Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda by hijacking four airliners. Two airliners crashed into the towers of World Trade Center, a third one hit the Pentagon, while a fourth one rammed into a field in Pennsylvania. The attacks, often referred to as 9/11 in American date format, resulted in extensive death and damage, which generated major U.S. wits to contest terrorism and define the presidency of George Bush. Around 3,000 people, including more than 400 firefighters and police officers, were killed in these attacks (History.com Staff, 2010). esidents of 78 countries lost their lives at the site. The following day, President Bush stated, "Freedom and democracy are under attack," (p. 1) while, leaders from around…
Bassett, R. L. (ed.). (Summer 2009). Therapy After Terror: 9/11, Psychotherapists, and Mental Health. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(2), 187-188. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/237252276?pq-origsite=summon
Boss, P., Beaulieu, L., LaCruz, S., Wieling, E. & Turner, W. (Oct. 2003). Healing Loss, Ambiguity, And Trauma: A Community-Based Intervention with Families of Union Workers Missing After the 9/11 Attack in New York City. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 29(4), 455-467. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/220968324/fulltextPDF/55712565864E41B2PQ/1?accountid=28844
Burkeman, O. (Sept. 2011). Living with 9/11: The Therapist. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/sep/05/living-with-911-the-therapist
Corrigan, P. & Lee, E. J. (2013). Recovery and Stigma in People with Psychiatric Disabilities. In J. Rosenberg & S. J. Rosenberg (2nd Ed.), Community Mental Health (n. p.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Emergency Management and Disaster Readiness of Trauma Centers in Washington, DC
Effective and immediate response of health care providers during emergency situations is very critical to meet the need of the affected population during the man-made and natural disasters (mith, 2009). However, delivery of effective and efficient healthcare service is becoming extremely complex during the emergency situation such as tornado, volcanic explosion, and earthquake events. Preparedness of health care providers has become apparent after the collapse of Minneapolis bridge collapse in 2007, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in eptember 11 in 2001 and eattle windstorm in 2006, Colorado's blizzards in 2006, Hurricanes Katrina in 2005, and the Northeast Blackout in2003 (Ross et al., 2007). Major disaster events in the United tates have led to the substantial growth of healthcare providers to deliver quality health care during emergency situations.
The establishment of efficient and effective procedures as well as…
Specifically describe how this research will advance scientific knowledge in your specialization area by answering all of these 3 questions using bullet points and in-text citations.
Advancing the Scientific Knowledge Base
Studies have evaluated the level of preparedness of trauma centers across the United States to respond to mass casualty events (Corrigan, et al. 2012, Gomez, et al. 2011, Amy,
As Caruth explains, certain wounds represent "…events experienced too soon, too unexpectedly to be fully known and is therefore not available to the consciousness until it imposes itself again, repeatedly in the nightmares and repetitive actions of the survivor" (4). This description appears to allude indirectly to common symptoms and signs of PTSD. This perspective also shows how what the mind cannot process will still create a ripple effect in the actions of the human being and in the dreams of the unconscious mind. Thus, the wound still needs to be properly dealt with or else the symptoms of PTSD will persist, particularly with individuals from such a group who've lived through such a disturbing event as the Holocaust. If events are not properly dealt with, there's always the danger of becoming re-traumatized, something which Holocaust victims today are potentially dealing with.
As one researcher illuminates, "Most survivors alive today…
Apa.org, "Psychological Pain of Holocaust Still Haunts Survivors." Apa.org. APA, 20 Sep
2010. Web. 11 Jun 2013.
Childhood Trauma and Risk for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Association with Neuroendocrine Dysfunction." Heim, C., Nater, U.M., Maloney, E., Boneva, R., Jones, J.F., & Reeves, .C.
hat did the researchers want the study to determine?
The researchers wanted to determine if there was a correlation between childhood trauma and the eventual development of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) by examining neuroscience and looking for evidence related to the pathophysiology of the disease.
Health Outcome of Interest: hat health condition did the researchers study?
The researchers studied chronic fatigue syndrome.
Exposure(s) of Interest: hat factors did the researchers investigate to determine an association with the outcome listed above? There may be more than one.
Researchers looked at patients with childhood trauma and those with CFS. They looked at the neuroendocrine system including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other neurodendocrine dysfunctions.
5. Participants: hom did the researchers study? How many?
113 patients with CFS and…
Heim, C., Nater, U.M., Maloney, E., Boneva, R., Jones, J.F., & Reeves, W.C. (2009). Childhood
trauma and risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: association with neuroendocrine dysfunction. Archives of General Psychiatry. 66(1), 72-80. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/pqdweb?index=1&did=1638100591&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1259947230&clientId=70192
Vainionpaa, A., Korpelainen, R., Vaananen, H., Haapalahti, J., Jamsa, T., & Leppaluoto, J.
(2009). Effect of impact exercise on bone metabolism. Osteoporosis International, 20(10), 1725 -- 1733. Retrieved from: http://proquest.umi.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/pqdweb?did=1853287521&sid=15&Fmt=6&clientId=70192&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Disaster and Trauma
Nature of the disaster and include any historical and relevant information.
Towards the end of August 2005, Hurricane Katrina, an overwhelming category 4 hurricane hit the Mexican Gulf as well a certain Southern regions of the United States, resulting into some of the greatest damages in the history of that nation approximated at around one hundred billion dollars. The well-known New Orleans city together with its surrounding regions were worst hit as nearly all of it is some six feet below sea level. City defenses, just designed for category 3 kind of hurricanes, gave away, resulting to massive flooding and related damage, death and displacement of approximately 100,000 individuals that either chose to say the course, or simply could not afford to escape (Shah, 2005).
Hurricane Katrina is considered as the most destructive natural calamity in the history of the United States. The destruction created by Hurricane…
Brennan, M., Cantrell, R., Spranger, M., & Kumaran, M. (2014). Effective Community Response to Disaster: A Community Approach to Disaster Preparedness and Response. Family Youth and Community Sciences Department.
Cantrell, R., & Stafford, A. (2013). The Introduction and Development of the Community-flow Measurement Instrument. Journal of Community Development. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/yajxtqwKGgKWQ22Y5wmK/full
Cantrell, R., Nahmens, I., Peavey, J., Bryant, K., & Stair, M. (2012). Strategy for Establishing Housing Production Facilities Outside Disaster Areas. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy Development & Research and the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/portal/publications/pre_disasterplanning.html
Cohen, R. E. (2002). Mental health services for victims of disasters. World Psychiatry, 1(3), 149-152.
Disorders within the category
Behavioral criteria for the category
Some of the major forms of the disorders include social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias and generalized anxiety disorder
Excessive worry or anxiety and difficulty in controlling the worry. The worry is associated with at least three of the following:
Lack of concentration, restlessness, fatigue, muscle tension, irritability, and sleep disturbance
May be caused by challenges related to one's brain function
Caused by changes in the brain structure in the areas that control anxiety
Possible causes are a combination of factors like environmental stress and changes in the brain
These disorders are the most common mental disorders in America affecting approximately 40 million people aged 18 and above (20% of the national population).
Occur as early as childhood.
Likely to occur more women than in men
Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
This is a new…
The article by Costa (2017) explains how trauma sensitive schools can help traumatized students by being aware of triggers and preventing trauma from re-occurring again and again. The article explains how children have to develop cognitively, socially and emotionally just to be able to keep up with the demands of the classroom and the expectations of the teacher. Traumatized children cannot do this and teachers have to be aware of that lest they place undue burdens on their already negatively impacted minds. Costa identifies REWIRE as a practice framework that can be used to promote trauma sensitive instruction.
The article does a good job of explaining traumatized students’ situations and why teachers have to be better prepared to handle them. It explains how a proper and effective approach is needed and why REWIRE is such an approach. The one weakness of the article is that it does not provide any…
Costa, D. A. (2017). Transforming Traumatised Children Within NSW Department of Education Schools: One School Counsellor's Model for Practise–REWIRE. Children Australia, 42(2), 113-126.
Plumb, J. L., Bush, K. A., & Kersevich, S. E. (2016). Trauma-sensitive schools: An evidence-based approach. School Social Work Journal, 40(2), 37-60.
Statman-Weil, K. (2015). Creating trauma sensitive classrooms. Young Children, 70(2), 72-79.
Trauma-informed care is an approach in mental health care and nursing practice that recognises the existence of trauma in the life of patients receiving mental health care, irrespective of whether or not the trauma is known to exist (Isobel & Edwards 2017). Clinicians who employ this approach acknowledge the complexity of trauma, and integrate the principles of safety, trustworthiness, choice, collaboration, and empowerment in care delivery (Qadara, 2013). Using this approach can result in better patient outcomes as well as more effective and fulfilling clinical practice. This essay discusses how trauma-informed care informs the provision of mental health care in Australia at a policy level and for consumers. Also, the essay highlights how this approach will influence the author’s mental health nursing practice.
Before progressive further, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of what trauma-informed care entails. Trauma-informed care involves recognising the existence of traumatic experiences in mental…
trauma? How is trauma acquired?
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), trauma denotes an individual's emotional response to a tremendously negative event. Trauma may be considered a very natural reaction to any awful occurrence, but its impacts may be so serious that the person's ability of leading a normal, happy life is hampered. Trauma may be brought about by a devastatingly negative experience, which leaves a long-term or lifelong impact on a person's emotional and mental stability. Although a large number of causes for trauma involve physical violence, others may have psychological elements involved. Trauma is most commonly caused by:
• Domestic violence
• Acute injury or sickness
• Natural disasters
• Witnessing violence
• A family member's or close friend's demise
Usually, trauma is linked to a victim's presence at the place where the traumatic incident occurred. This, however, is not always the case. A victim…
Paquette, D., & Ryan, J. (2001) Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory. Retrieved August 1, 2016, from http://dropoutprevention.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/paquetteryanwebquest_20091110.pdf
PsychGuides. (n.d). Trauma symptoms, causes and effects. Retrieved August 1, 2016, from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/trauma-symptoms-causes-and-effects/
Roundy, L. (2003). Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory of development: Definition & examples - video & lesson transcript Retrieved from http://study.com/academy/lesson/bronfenbrenners-ecological-systems-theory-of-development-definition-examples.html
Tousley M, M. (n.d). Different grief patterns. Retrieved August 1, 2016, from http://www.griefhealing.com/column-different-grief-patterns.htm
However, through a review of the clinical history and the semantic debate over the relationship between trauma -- especially sexual abuse -- during childhood and the surfacing of psychologically distressing consequences in adulthood, it is evident that the diagnosis of repression is often misapplied. "The term 'dissociative." As applied to these disorders, is better construed as a descriptive label (referring to loss of conscious access to memory) than any pathological process instigated by trauma." (Kilstrom, 36) This means that the 'amnesia' triggered by such events can accurately be regarded as the involuntary mode of memory loss rather than the intentional psychological conditioning to 'block out' negative experiences. To an extent, this verifies the claim that amnesia may be caused by emotional trauma, even though this is empirically elusive in a case by case basis.
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith,…
Barrett, J. (2002). Amnesia. Health, a to Z. Online at http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/amnesia.jsp
Gleaves, DH, Smith, S.M.,Butler, L.D., & Spiegel, D. (2004). False and recovered memories in the laboratory and clinical: A review of experimental evidence. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 3-28.
Kilstrom, J.F. (2004). An unbalanced balancing act: Blocked, recovered and false memories in the laboratory and clinic. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 34-41.
LEF. (2003). Amnesia: Online Reference. Life Extension. Online at
Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency esuscitation
This is an article that reviews military use of tranexamic acid in cases of resuscitation in the instance of a trauma emergency.
Scular disturbance with concomitant bleeding is one of the main death causes in military and civilian trauma. Experience from Afghanistan and Iraq wars has caused developments in resuscitation of hemorrhage victims, with the use of optimum blood component ratio identification (Morrison, et.al, 2012). The new approaches involved balanced and early delivery of packed BCs (red blood cells), FFP (fresh frozen plasma), cryoprecipitate and platelets to restore clotting factor 6 and circulating volume. Notwithstanding these developments, the usefulness of a treatment to reduce hemorrhagic shock related mortality is yet to be established.
As a result of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, there has been a need to find advances towards revitalization for hemorrhagic shock. Optimal blood ratio components…
Morrison, J., Dubose, J., Rasmussen, T., & Midwinter, M. (2012). Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) Study. Achieves of Surgery, 147(2). Retrieved, from http://126.96.36.199:8088/2161431/Article_2.pdf
marked increase in "cumulative trauma disorders throughout the United States" (Lalumandier and McPhee, 2001, p. 130). Moreover, the article explicitly denotes that of these types of disorders, there is a growing number of laborers who are experiencing carpal tunnel syndrome. In fact, this issue is highly prevalent among dental hygienists, and even represents a significant occupation hazard as such.
The abstract actually does highlight the research methodology that was deployed for this article. The principle aspect of this methodology was a survey of over 5,000 people who worked in the field of dentistry for the U.S. army. However, the research methodology is not elucidated in great detail in the abstract. The article could be improved by the authors explicating more of their methodology in this section. Instead of doing so, the authors allude to the results in part of the section in the abstract in which they should have focused…
Psychological Efficacy of Debriefing for Trauma & Stress
Author's Note with contact information and more details of collegiate affiliation, etc.
The paper will describe what debriefing is. The paper will discuss the nature and prevalence of trauma in American life and culture. The paper will go on to estimate what psychologists are doing to combat this epic rise in traumatic experience, which can lead to stress disorders affecting the daily lives of many. Thus, not only are people victims of trauma, but also, with improper or no treatment, these people can fall victim again to a trauma related disorder. The paper will talk about why and how psychologists are dealing with all these instances of trauma. The paper will summarize two scholarly articles that offer perspective on the issue of trauma and debriefing as treatment. After providing concise summaries of the articles, the paper will provide a comparative analysis of…
Raphael, B., Meldrum, L., & McFarlane, A.C. (June 10, 1995) Does debriefing after psychological trauma work?: Time for randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal. 310(1). 1479 -- 1480.
Rose, S.C., Bisson, J., & Wessely, S. (2009) Psychological debriefing for preventing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Cochrane Collaboration. The Cochrane Library, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1(1). 1 -- 46.
The Effect of Trauma on the Brain
In John Rigg’s talk on the effect of trauma on the brain and how it impacts our behaviors, I learned that when we talk about the human brain we are actually talking about two brains—the intelligent brain and the animal brain. The intelligent brain is what allows us to reason, think and essentially “rule the world” as Rigg (2017) puts it. The animal part of the brain, which is smaller, but is still very much a part of the brain, is what reacts to the environment and controls the body’s response. So, in the example Rigg uses, if he were to challenge us to run across the street but to keep our hearts from beating, we would not be able to do it—and the reason is that our animal brain is in control of that function for us. It is not something that…
You drove him to kill himself; and now he will be buried like a dog...
" This statement shows that the once great leader is nothing in the eyes of the white colonists. This has a trickle-down affect on those around him. When Okonkwo gave in to the struggle, those around him lost their final hope of every overcoming the colonialists.
Through an examination of two African historical novels, one can see many similarities in the psychology of change between colonialism and change management in corporate take-overs. Change begins slowly and there are always some that will readily accept the new regime and others that will put up a resistance. The reasons for resistance to change are similar to corporate change.
One can find examples of the same psychological reactions in both novels. The resistance becomes more violent as it loses ground and the total change and loss of familiar…
Achebe, C. Things Fall Apart. New York, NY: Anchor Books.
Ngugi, wa Thiong'o. Petals of Blood. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Sdiffgy-krenke, I. Coping Styles: Does intervention change anything? Eurpoean Journal of Developmental Psychology. 1 (4): 367-382.
Winn, G.A Change in employee attitude IS possible! Change Management, Retrieved April 11,
Reavey, P. (010). Spatial markings: Memory, agency and child sexual abuse. Memory Studies.
According to Reavey (010), a critical component of recovery from childhood sexual abuse is reasserting the victim's sense of agency and control over her own life. All too often it is common when treating survivors to encourage them to see themselves as passive victims. The focus of Reavey's text is the spatial component of memory: women experience the trauma of abuse again and again because of the parallels between their current physical situation and that of their past, abusive histories. Reavey suggests that viewing the self as constantly in flux and changing and creating a new narrative linking past and present in a more positive way is a far more helpful concept to instill over the course of therapy. One of the challenges many women experience in dealing with abuse is that it takes place in a…
2011 4: 23.
According to Burton (2011), although pain is undeniably a 'real' thing, memories of pain can cause the actual, somatic trauma to linger long after the physical condition has passed. She cites one woman who was 'tricked' using a mirror to realize that she no longer was experiencing pain in one of her hands due to repetitive stress injury. "Mirror therapy illustrates the radical account of corporeal memory that is now current in the biomedical sciences, in which the body is a complex amalgam of fleshy reality and cerebral projection -- images and reality have merged, and the brain has the capacity to 're-member' its physiological attitudes" (Burton 2011: 30). Although Burton acknowledges that there is often a great deal of mistrust of biological sciences as reductive amongst humanities scholars, she suggests that the treatment of chronic pain can be useful as a study of the intersection of personal experience and medicine. Chronic pain is ill-understood by the medical community and often notoriously difficult to treat. Analyzing how memory can cause pain to be stored in the body and how tricking one's memory can release it shows how humanities-based understandings of medicine can prove useful for the biological sciences.
Pain is all too often negated or dismissed: rather Burton suggests an empathetic understanding of its causality and a holistic approach to pain treatment. Burton's article provides a starting point for many other treatments which try to address the intersection of pain and memory. Massage, yoga, and other forms of general exercise all encourage participants to construct a new concept of themselves through the reengineering of the body and a reconfiguration of the relationship of the individual to his or her physicality in the past, present, and future.
Trauma centers, whether they are stand-alone facilities or a part of a hospital or other healthcare facility, play key roles in ensuring that people get proper healthcare when there is a man-made or natural disaster (Premier, 2012. Because trauma centers are so vital, they have to become well-established in the community (Trunkey & Potter, 2006). That can allow them to be prepared for almost anything, and they can work with the community once a disaster has occurred. This reduces the number of casualties from a disaster as much as possible, but no trauma center will be perfect or will be prepared to handle any eventuality. There is always room for improvement. Studies have shown that many of the trauma centers throughout the country are really not adequately prepared for a major disaster (Premier, 2012). That lack of preparedness will cost lives, but the funding is not available for new and…
Hillier, F.S., & Lieberman, G.J. (2005). Introduction to operations research. NY: McGraw-Hill: Boston MA; 8th. (International) Edition
Pidd, M. (2003). Tools for thinking: Modeling in management science. NY: J. Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2nd. Edition
Premier (2012). Emergency preparedness for healthcare facilities. Premier: Transforming Healthcare Together. Retrieved July 12, 2012, from https://www.premierinc.com/safety/topics/disaster_readiness/#top
Trunkey, D.D., & Potter, C.J. (2006). U.S. trauma center preparedness for a terrorist attack in the community. National Foundation for Trauma care, 1-43
Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf
Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066
Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.
Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.
Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.
Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
psychological trauma, and how does she relate it to repression? What evidence does she supply in support of her claim? Do you agree with her stance on this basic issue?
Slater, in her usual creative style, believes the current methods of dealing with psychological trauma to be ineffective in regards to the identifying a root cause. In fact, Slater believes the act of talking about a traumatic occurrence in an individual's life actually exacerbates the problem. Recollecting past events through constant conversation, Slater believes, does nothing to address the root cause of the problem. Further, by talking incessantly about this traumatic experience, patients may actually become more ill than they otherwise were. This is particularly important when patient are asks to revisit controversial areas in their lives in order to rid themselves of the traumatic event altogether. Slater is very quick to point out that conversation actually, emblazon fear within…
Furthermore, in environments that are highly conducive to trauma, such as war or a paramilitary educational institution that is predominantly filled with Caucasian males who are permitted to attack one another during a certain period in their careers, conventional morals can also become distorted .The differences of right and wrong that apply to the outside world, the world that was inhabited by people before they left it to take place in an environment highly dissimilar to the one that reality largely takes place in no longer apply. The following quotation from Mitchell in which he is describing this aspect of Vietnam demonstrates this fact. "The old rules riles are no longer binding, the old truths no longer true. Right spills over into wrong" (O'Brien, 276). Although O'Brien is making this statement about war, it applies into other realms conducive to trauma such as the Citadel, a traditionally all-male institution in…
(ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)
Statement of Problem
There is a growing problem in the ability of individuals and communities to receive care, according to the American College of Surgeons, as the changing face of emergency care and medical care in general is putting patients at risk. The ACS and the AMA have both recently conducted professional surveys that indicate that the source of the problem is a lack of specialized surgical providers to cover existing trauma centers and a lack of those same staff members to help to establish new centers of care in areas, with the lowest numbers of provider services. (ACS Publication June 2006 A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care at (http://www.facs.org/ahp/emergcarecrisis.pdf)
The ACS Publication A Growing Crisis In Patient Access to Emergency Surgical Care stresses that the existing system is not…
Resources for Health 2006, 4:12 at http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/4/1/12
Fishman P.E. MD, Shofer, F.S. PhD, Robey J.L RN, BSN, Zogby, K.E. RN, BSN, Reilly, P.M. MD, Branas, C.C. MS, PhD, Pines, J.M. MD MBA, Hollander, J.E. MD. (October 2006), "The Impact of Trauma Activations on the Care of Emergency Department Patients With Potential Acute Coronary Syndromes" Annals of Emergency Medicine, 48: 4, pp. 347-353
Hofman, Primack, Keusch, & Hrynknow (Jan. 2005), "Addressing the growing burden of trauma and injury in low- and middle-income countries" American Journal of Public Health 95: 1 at http://hestia.unm.edu.libproxy.unm.edu/search/i0090%2D0036/i00900036/1,1,1,B/l856~b1044007&FF=i00900036&1,1,1,0/startreferer//search/i0090%2D0036/i00900036/1,1,1,B/frameset&FF=i00900036&1,1,/endreferer/
Hospital Survey Sheds New Light on Diversions" (July 2004) Emergency Medical Services, at http://hestia.unm.edu/search/temergency+Medical+/temergency+medical/1,25,31,B/l856~b1044565&FF=temergency+medical+services&1,2,1,0
Mock, C.M. & Jurkovich, G.J. (1999) "Trauma System development in the United States," Trauma Quarterly 14:3 pp. 197-209.
During her reorganization phase, her personality and the emotional support from other social units played a vital role. As a person, she was a survivor. She appeared to posses a character which made her endure the pain yet live through the moment. It was her resilience that made her go to public authorities even after she lost her case the first time. Alice always wanted to be somebody whose presence could be felt. This is the reason why she wanted to be Ethel Merman (2009, p.87). She was an actress and a singer whom according to her mother, had no talent but she managed draw the attention of audience solely on herself. Her personality made an exceptional role in letting her cope up with the trauma and also with getting her culprit punished in the later phase.
Another important factor which played a key role in her retaliation was her…
Boeschen, L.E., Sales, B.D.,&Koss, M.P. (1998). Rape trauma experts in the courtroom. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, pp. 414-432.
Burgess, a.W. & Holmstrom, L.L. (1974), Rape trauma syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, pp.981-986.
Sebold, a. (2009), Lucky, Pan Macmillion Inc.
Raitt, F.E. & Zeedyk, S.Z. (1997), Rape trauma syndrome: Its corroborative and educational roles. Journal of Law and Society, 24(4), pp.552-568.
Tori J. is a 12-year-old girl who was removed from her family at the age of 8, when she was placed with a foster family. Although her foster mother discussed some episodes of violence and defiance in the home, Tori was not initially violent or defiant in school. However, she frequently failed to complete her assignments, instead spending hours simply looking into space. She also spoke frequently to social workers and school counselors about problems in her foster home including allegations that she was not being fed sufficiently, that they would not purchase school supplies for her, and that there was emotional and physical abuse in their current home. These allegations were reported and determined to be unsubstantiated, but allegations of emotional and physical abuse and neglect in her family home were substantiated. The children were removed because of physical abuse and neglect. Interviews with Tori J.'s older brother reported…
AllPsych. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
AllPsych. (2013). Borderline personality disorder. Retrieved July 2, 2013 from:
Germans, Post World War 2
Evil, German attitudes through the Twentieth Century, and humanity
The Second World War has had a terrible impact on society as a whole and it is safe to say that it shaped the way that people perceived the idea of being human and of life in general. Michael Hanake's 2009 motion picture The White Ribbon discusses with regard to a series of events happening in a fictional German village during the era leading to the First World War. While the film discusses ideas that apparently have nothing to do with the Second World War or with the National Socialist ideology, an in-depth analysis would make it possible for someone to find parallels between many of the concepts it contains and values promoted in Nazi Germany.
Haneke's film provides viewers with the image of an apparently perfectly organized village in which everyone is well-acquainted with…
Schwab, Gabriele. Haunting Legacies: Violent Histories and Transgenerational Trauma. ( Columbia University Press, 13 Aug 2013)
Dir. Michael Haneke, The White Ribbon. Filmladen (Austria) X Verleih AG (Germany), 2009.
Medical trauma triage management requires skillful curriculum development, which in turn depends on an assessment of needs and an anticipation of potential barriers to implementation. The initial needs assessment has revealed required resources of about four or five medical services providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners. Support personnel may be provided, but an additional challenge will arise when implementing the curriculum in a real world setting such as a trauma center, emergency room, or intensive care unit. Adequate space and time must be carved out for the curriculum implementation, without disturbing standard operating procedures. At the same time, improving trauma triage management will ultimately facilitate patient service delivery and maximize care outcomes, goals that should continually be communicated to the institutional administration as well as all participants in the program.
Each phase of the ADDIE model, an industry benchmark for curriculum development, "requires constant evaluation," (Allen, 2006, p.…
Allen, W.C. (2006). Overview and evolution of the ADDIE training system. Advances in Developing Human Resources 8(4): 430-441.
Bass, E.B. (n.d.). Step 1: Problem identification and general needs assessment.
Swanson, R.A. & Holton, E.F. (2009). Training and development practices. Chapter 12 in Foundations of Human Resource Development.
treatment of any victim of trauma can be circuitous and nebulous at times due to the many factors, implications and issues involved. Even with that being the case, there are ways to do it, with time and directed effort being the key item to focus on. hen it comes to the subject of children, however, a good amount of care, diligence and alternative methods, at least as compared to adults, is necessary to heal and address the aftereffects and results of trauma. hat follows in this document is a summary of fifteen different sources that all focus on cognitive therapy for children after the latter has been exposed and subjected to trauma, whether it be acute or prolonged.
Chae, Y., Goodman, G. S., Eisen, M. L., & Qin, J. (2011). Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive
Functioning. Journal Of Experimental Child…
Walker, D. F., Reese, J. B., Hughes, J. P., & Troskie, M. J. (2010). Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 41(2), 174-180.
• One thing that becomes when working in counseling, psychology and with treatment of children is that adherence to procedure and guidelines is important. Even if there is the need for variation and customization along the way, it is still also important to follow the proper patterns and steps. Indeed, there is a step-by-step guideline for the treatment of children that have faced trauma and this absolutely pertains to cognitive behavioral therapy in particular. There are differing cultural and other cues that can be part of the process and one of those things is religion and spirituality. In some cases, the abuse itself centers on religion for one reason or another, such as when a clergy person is the abuser. Even when that is the case, a focus on and use of the pre-existing religious and/or spiritual facets of the child's psyche can be used to assist in recover and treatment in a cognitive behavioral realm.
The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:
• Demographic facts
• Employment history
• Medical history
• Educational history
• Social history and • Several specific facts.
Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:
• Trauma nature and level of exposure
• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms
• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms
• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior
• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment
• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…
Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/
Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.
Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
Compassion Fatigue and Secondary Trauma
It is now six months after the attack on the nuclear power facility and low level radiation release. The critical incident stress management plan has been an affect and long-term intervention strategies are now in place. However, it is now time to consider the effects of long-term stress from managing those that have stress related to the critical incident. This research will consider the effects of compassion fatigue on staff and secondary stress on those who have to treat first responders and in their families.
Symptoms of Secondary Trauma Among Family Members and Staff
The issue of secondary trauma among family members was addressed previously in the overall critical incident stress management plan. Family members were offered services when requested by them. At the time of the incident, supervisors were requested to schedule workers on rotating shifts with adequate time off for rest and stress…
Figley, C. (1995). Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress. Routledge,
Clair, M. (2006, August). The Relationship between Critical Incidents, Hostility, and PTSD
Symptoms in Police Officers. Retrieved from http://idea.library.drexel.edu/bitstream/1860/1118/1/Clair_Mary.pdf
Faulkner masterfully weaves lives in and out of this fabric, demonstrating the importance of self-identity as well as social acceptance. Light in August, however, draws more attention to how the conflicts and differences between race, gender, and social constraints are destructive forces.
The birth of Lena's child "holds out the promise of a new age that transcends the social contradictions that Joe's violent tale bears witness to" (Lutz), according to Lutz. Furthermore, Faulkner looks toward the future with the birth of this child to this meek woman. Lena is comfortable with herself and she copes well hen others choose to judge her by her unwed status. This is a striking contrast to how Joe chooses to deal with how others perceive him. Lena may not be able to see the future but she is confident she can unearth some hope in it somewhere. Mrs. Hines response to the child suggests…
Faulkner, William. Light in August. New York: The Modern Library. Print. 1950.
LUTZ, JOHN. "Faulkner's Parable of the Cave: Ideology and Social Criticism in Light in August." The Mississippi Quarterly 52.3.1999.459. Gale Literature Resource Center.
Web. 1 Sept. 2010. http://go.galegroup.com
Perkins, Wendy. "Critical Essay on 'Light in August.'" Novels for Students. Ed. 2007. Gale
mass shooting could have been prevented. The key to knowing what to do in the future is to understand how to recognize signs of mental illness and stability. In this case, the gunman "had been expelled, possibly for behavioral problems." It is clear the school understood that this student had problems. Yet even after the expulsion, the school did not do enough to ensure Goh's mental stability. The issue was not necessarily bullying, as the headline suggests. Students might have been teasing Goh in a good-natured way. After all, a large number of Americans speak English as a second language and it would be odd for someone to get maliciously teased for it. Goh reacted in an extreme way because he was mentally unstable. He had suffered trauma (after the unresolved death of his brother) and had a history of behavioral problems. Students like him need monitoring, counseling and intervention…
"Japan tsunami reconstruction money 'misspent'," (2012). BBC. Oct 31, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-20150364
"Oikos University Shooting: Suspect In Deadly Attack Was Upset About Being Teased Over Poor English Skills, Police Say." Huffington Post. April 4, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/04/03/oikos-university-shooting-teased-english-skills_n_1399680.html
Sensitive Issues in Nursing -- Loss of Pregnancy
At least 2.5 single spaced pages. Do not double space. Put answers in boxes. Each answer at least one solid paragraph, make boxes longer if necessary.
Format for Research Article Critique Name:
Directions: The purpose of this assignment is to review a research article and determine how it impacts nursing practice. Use this form to analyze the relevance of the research to nursing practice. APA format for the research critiques are required only for the citation for the article. The answers to the questions do not have to be written in APA format, but do need to be in complete sentences.
Caelli, PhD, K., Downie, PhD, J., & Letendre, A. (2002). Parent's experiences of midwife-managed care following the loss of a baby in a previous pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(2), 127 -- 136.
Read the article. Write a one paragraph…
As the sessions proceeded, the therapist debriefed the client with the aim of de-escalating her psychologically. This enabled the client to explore and express a feeling of guilt and perception that she had failed to give her best to maintain her job. During the debriefing process, it was evident that the client believed that she was responsible for her job loss. She had been experiencing notable difficulties maintaining concentration and sleeping. Ultimately, this led to significant distress in social function.
After a week, the client reported to the therapist that she felt that she was not alone in the first time. As a result, she reported that she no longer needed the sedative medication, but remained compliant to the prescribed medication. After a while, the client related her belief in her ability to apply for new job opportunities. It is evident that the client's experience achieved the diagnostic criteria for…
Hillman, J.L. (2012). Crisis intervention and trauma counseling: New approaches to evidence-based practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Wainrib, B.R., & Bloch, E.L. (2008). Crisis intervention and trauma response: Theory and practice. New York: Springer.
Ziegler, S.M. (2010). Theory-directed nursing practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co.
Professionals should treat African-American females with PTSD with utmost support and therapy that is beneficial to the victim. Further, the issue of substance abuse must be addressed in a manner that is acceptable to the victim.
Treatment of problems associated with substance abuse and PTSD must be designed in a consistent way that provides a solution to both substance abuse and PTSD altogether. Although the professionals are required to focus more on treating PTSD, they must incorporate treatment of alcohol and substance abuse.
Prevention for relapses is of utter importance because they prepare the victim to enter state of soberness and cope with symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms have been reported to become worse as African-American females attempt to abstain from substance abuse.
For many African-American females with PTSD and substance abuse disorder, it is recommended that they consult the membership directories. This is an international society for PTSD that…
Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2005). Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites and African-Americans. Washington, DC: Human Kinetics.
Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2006). Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster.
Virginia: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Alcantara, C. & Gone J. (2007). Reviewing suicide in Native American communities. California:
Psychological & Cultural Experience of the Victims of Japanese Internment
Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 ordering all Japanese-Americans and Americans of Japanese descent out of the Western United States and into "internment" camps in the Central region of the United States.
A public law was subsequently passed by Congress ratifying the Executive Order; Congress did not even deliberate on the passage of the law.
One hundred and twenty thousand people were ultimately incarcerated in ten internment camps without due process of law.
There, they were locked up behind barbed wire and lived in shacks unfit for human living. They were fed only at a sustenance level, and had no idea when or if they would return home.
They lost their jobs, their homes, their possessions, their pets, and their liberty -- not because of the hostile actions of a foreign power, but due…
December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/index.html .
Ina, Satsuki Dr. "Symposium Comments: Tule Lake Reunion Symposium."
Internment History." PBS: Children of the Camps. PBS Organization. December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/remarks.html .
emergency centers, I expect to find the response performance of trauma centers in Connecticut to be well intentioned in their endeavor to rapidly and effectually reach out to survivors, but to be incapacitated by a host of hindrances. I, further, expect these hindrances to consist of inappropriate and delayed response to emergency situations I also expect to witness the inability to effectively manage, control, and supervise multiple processes. Most significantly, it is quite likely that delivery service will be distracted from focusing on patient and be diverted by the enormous complexity of tasks and responsibilities that are involved in their service.
Superb emergency preparedness necessitates an interdisciplinary approach to knowledge so that all parts of the service can be effectively accomplished: not only duties that focus on prevention but also decision-making, and a commitment to improving the life of the survivors. It is more than likely, given my research and…
Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.
Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
The widespread occurrence of Military Sexual Trauma requires an educational program to eliminate MSTs and deal with the difficulties created by MSTs that have or will occur. Some aspects of the victim, extended family, neighborhood and the Military itself can efficiently establish and enhance this educational program. Simultaneously, other aspects of the victim, extended family, neighborhood and the Military itself pose problems for this educational program. An effective educational program must therefore use and empower those positives while overcoming the negatives and acknowledging the existential realities that cannot be changed.
Approach to Health Education Program
A health education program for military victims of "unwelcome sexual attention including gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, unwanted sexual attention, sexual coercion, sexual assault, and rape" (Street, Stafford, Mahan, & Hendricks, 2008, p. 409) should include the victim, extended family and neighborhood. It is not enough to simply work with a victim within…
Cater, J., & Leach, J. (2011). Veterans, military sexual trauma and PTSD: Rehabilitation planning implications. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 42(2), 33-40. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from Proquest at http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=2388951171&sid=6&Fmt=6&clientId=29440&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Hyun, J., Pavao, J., & Klinerling, R. (2009). Military sexual trauma. PTSD Research Quarterly, 20(2), 13.
Rape Crisis Information Pathfinder. (n.d.). Coping skills. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from Street, A., Stafford, J., Mahan, C., & Hendricks, A. (2008). Sexual harassment and assault experienced by reservists during military service: Prevalence and health correlates. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 45, 409-420. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://www.rehab.research.va.gov/jour/08/45/3/pdf/Street.pdf
U.S. Department of Defense. (2010, March). Department of Defense fiscal year 2009 annual report on sexual assault in the military. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from U.S. Department of Defense Web site: http://www.sapr.mil/media/pdf/reports/fy09_annual_report.pdf
It is a hotly contested idea that just one war-themed book can adequately discuss the topic of Vietnam, and this idea is properly portrayed in this book. Fellow authors like Renny Christopher have condemned Tim O'Brien's story for paying more attention to the misery of the American soldiers and less interest in the Vietnamese. However, the core of "The Things They Carried," O'Brien's work is distinct. Another author, Heberle, who wrote "A Trauma Artist," based his work on how aggression has impacted on American politics, society and culture. Similarly, O'Brien's work also focuses on the distressing experiences endured by the American soldiers. "The Things They Carried" is popularly seen as one of the best written books on American life after the sufferings of the war (M. Heberle). However, what exactly makes the Vietnam War distinct compared to other wars which America fought in? What brought about an American victory in…
What is key about both of these quotations is the loss of identity that is endemic to both of them. The cadets who have survived the fourth-class system and who inflict ritualistic violence in the form of hazing on others have lost something of their true "selves," something that was stripped away to lead them to believe that they could rightfully engage in this sort of behavior to inflict pain upon others. Therefore, the cadets who are guilty of said violence are perpetuating it because they have lost their own identities through disassociation -- in much the same way that Seth lost most of the moments of his life to this same phenomenon.
In conclusion, several of Stout's ideas about disassociation both apply to and help explain the tradition of obedience in the violent, misogynistic rituals that take place at the Citadel. The similarities between the effects of disassociation and…
Anna Segherss's memoir "The Outing of the Dead Schoolgirls" begins in Mexico, where the author reminisces about a defining incident in her life. Her memory is triggered by two symbols, the first of which is an innkeeper who was "staring motionless at the one thing that presented him with vast, insoluble problems: complete emptiness," (Seghers 614). Then, she hears someone call her by a name she had not heard since she was a schoolgirl. The memory thus triggered, Seghers delves into a traumatic past with courageous detail.
Seghers's narrative style is full of bitterness and tension that are appropriate for rendering the traumatic events described in the story. Repetition is one of the cornerstones of Seghers's writing style, as the author frequently alludes to Marianne's immanent betrayal of Leni: the central event of the story. Yet it is not just Marianne's betrayal of Leni that Seghers talks about. Marianne's…
Seghers, Anna. "The Outing of the Dead Schoolgirls." The Kenyon Review. Vol. 31, No. 5, p. 613-642.