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Traumatic Brain Injury in Children
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the primary public health problems under health concerns over several decades. Health statistics reveal that this problem has been common among the male adolescents, as well as the young adults under the age bracket of 15 to 24 years. Similarly, this disorder is common among the elderly people of both sexes under the age of 75 and above. However, this paper is of high concern about children of ages 5 and below, or 5 to 18 years, who are at high risk of traumatic brain injuries. TBI is among the leading causes of death and acquired disabilities among infants and children.
Traumatic brain injury is an acquired injury to an individual's brain resulting from an external physical force exerted on the head, leading to partial or total disability and/or psychological impairment. This scenario may adversely impact on…
Fenwick, T., Manly, T., Anderson, V. & Robertson, I. (2012). Attentional skills following traumatic brain injury in childhood: A componential analysis. Journal of Brain Injuries,
57(12), 237 -- 249.
Hall, K., & Cope, D. (2007). The benefit of rehabilitation in traumatic brain injury: A literature review. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26 (10), 1 -- 13.
Jennings, M. & Blaskey, J.(2013). Traumatic brain injury: Decision making in pediatric neurologic physical therapy. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
The soldiers who informed that their injury didn't include any altered mental status or the loss of consciousness worked as the reference group for all of the analyses (2008).
Mild TBI was significantly correlated with psychiatric symptoms -- especially PTSD, and the correlation maintained its significance after combat experiences had been controlled for (Hoge et al. 2008). Over 40% of soldiers with injuries linked with loss of consciousness met the standards for PTSD. This information shows that a history of mild TBI in combat scenarios -- especially when related with loss of consciousness -- mirrors exposure to an intense situation that threatens the life of the soldiers and thus makes the chance of PTSD greater (2008).
The study on soldiers returning from Iraq is especially important and, though it used a nonrandom sample from two distinct brigades, it can be considered as being representative of soldiers working ground units in…
Levin, H.S., Gary, H.E., Eisenberg, H.M., Ruff, R.M., Barth, J.T., & Kreutzer J. et al.
(1990). Neurobehavioral outcome 1-year after severe head injury experience of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank. J Neurosurg, 44: 699-709.
Dikmen, S.S., Temkin, N.R., Machamer, J.E., Holubkov, a.L., Fraser, R.T., & Winn,
H.R. (2004) Employment following traumatic head injuries. Archives Neurol, 51:
condition known as Post-traumatic Amnesia. This condition occurs when an individual suffers an acute brain damaging injury. Automobile crashes are said to be the most common origin of such injuries, and thus, the fundamental source of this disorder, in young adults. The condition persists for a few minutes or hours after the accident, or may go on for as long as weeks, months or years. Post-traumatic amnesia is accompanied chiefly by memory loss and other similar impairments.
The paper begins with an introduction to the disorder, followed by a section on the characteristics that help diagnose post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). The third section of the paper is dedicated to neuropsychological testing/evaluation for identifying behavioral or cognitive shortfalls, such as a patient might experience with post-traumatic amnesia. The factors for evaluation described here are: unconsciousness, scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and duration of diagnosed post-traumatic amnesia. Furthermore, treatment techniques for PTA…
Barbosa, R.R., Jawa, R., Watters, J.M., Knight, J.C., Kerwin, A.J., Winston, E.S., Barraco, R.D., Tucker, B., Bardes, J.M. & Rowell, S.E. (2012).Evaluation and management of mild traumatic brain injury: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline, J Trauma Acute Care Surg. Vol. 73, No. 5, Supplement 4
Capehart, B. & Bass, D. (2012). Review: Managing posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans with comorbid traumatic brain injury, JRRD, Volume 49, Number 5.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2010). Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths 2002 -- 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Chung, P. & Khan, F. (2013). Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment. J Neurol Neurophysiol 5: 182. doi:10.4172/2155-9562.1000182
Traumatic rain Injury
Traumatic brain injury, continues to remain an enigma and treatment is elusive, causing death and disability across the globe. Luckily, significant progress has been made in helping improve short-term outcome in victims facing a severe brain injury. Unfortunately, it is still not possible to get back the victims to their normative level of brain functioning. Injuries to the brains caused by forceful impact may cause tissue distortion. Clinically, outcome depends on the mediating the cellular changes and bimolecular changes caused due to the injury. Secondary brain injuries lead to alteration in the functioning of the cell through disruption of homeostasis, excitotoxicity, free radical generation, and depolarization. It may also propagate injury through intracranial hypertension, edema formation, blood- brain barrier disruption and ischemic injury. To help improve the outcome in patients suffering from traumatic injuries, it is necessary to understand evolution of therapies and processes that are…
ACC., (2016). Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Strategy. Retrieved from: http://www.acc.co.nz/for-providers/clinical-best-practice/tbi-strategy/index.htm
ACS. (n.d.). Best practices in the management of traumatic brain injury. American College of Surgeons.
Alban, R., Berry, C., Ley, E., Mirocha, J., Marguilies, D., Tillou, A., et al. (2010). Does Health Care Insurance affect outcomes after Traumatic brain injury? The American Surgeon, 1108-1111.
Arrastia, R., Kochanek, P., Bergold, P., Kenney, K., Marx, C., Grimes, J., et al. (2014). Pharmacotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury: State of the Science and the Road Forward: Report of the Department of Defense Neurotrauma Pharmacology Workgroup. Journal of Neurotrauma, 135-158.
Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans
Traumatic brain injury is an acute injury of the brain, which may or may not be detected at the outset. It can be classified as either mild or severe, depending on whether loss of consciousness lasts less than or more than 30 minutes. As gun shots rank high among its causes, war veterans have high cases of traumatic brain injury. Many organizations have been advocating for the case of TBI among veterans.
The Center for Neuroscience and egenerative Medicine
This is an organization that focuses on the traumatic brain injury that emanates from military injuries. It is a federal program and thus received federal funding. It is an organization that has brought together the efforts of three other organizations, which are the Walter eed National Military Medical Center, the National Institute of Health and the Uniformed Services University. Through their combined efforts, both the members…
AVBI. (2015, November 26). Retrieved from Americans Veterans with Brain Injury: http://www.avbi.org/programs.html
Brainline Military. (2015, Novmeber 26). Retrieved from Brainline Military: http://www.brainlinemilitary.org/
CNRM. (2015, November 25). About CNRM. Retrieved from Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine: http://www.cnrmstudies.org/about#.Vlah3VTnWRQ
DVBIC. (2015, November 26). Retrieved from The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center: www.dvbic.dcoe.mil/
MTBI and Depression
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs as a result of force to the skull or brain. The probability of receiving a TBI is increased if one is participates in a number of sports such as professional football in the National Football League (NFL) and in a number of vocations such being in the military. The results of a TBI include a number of cognitive and emotional symptoms (McCrea, 2008). One of the most common emotional sequale of TBI is depression. This paper argues that depression associated with mild TBI (mTBI) is a public, not personal concern.
Traumatic Brain Injury
A TBI occurs when there is damage to the brain as a result of an application of an external mechanical force (Parikh, Koch, & Naraya, 2007). All TBI's fall under the label of head injury, whereas not all head injuries result in a TBI (McCrea, 2008). The most common…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs (2008). Traumatic brain injury task force. Retrieved on July 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/icd9/Sep08TBI.pdf .
Finkel, A.G., Yerry, J., Scher, J. & Choi, Y.S. (2012). Headaches in soldiers with mild traumatic brain injury: findings and phenomenologic descriptions. Headache 52(6), 957- 965.
manifestations of types of traumatic brain injury (focal, diffuse) and hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid)?
Focal TBI occurs as a result of some mechanical force acting on the skull (and hence the brain) or penetrating injury to the brain. The manifestations of focal TBI will depend on the particular area of the brain that is damaged (Granacher, 2007). For example, damage to the posterior portion of the left frontal lobe will typically result in problems with expressive language and executive functions, whereas damage to the posterior portion of the left temporal lobe is more likely to result in receptive language problems, naming problems, and problems with verbal memory (Granacher, 2007).
The manifestations of diffuse TBI can be quite varied such is the case of the diffuse axonal injury caused by sharing of the axons in the brain. These can range from global effects on cognition, movement, sensation and perception, to more…
Brivet, F.G., Ducuing, S., Jacobs, F., Chary, I., Pompier, R., Prat, D., ... & Nordmann, P. (2005).
Accuracy of clinical presentation for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis in adults: A multivariate approach. Intensive Care Medicine, 31(12), 1654-1660.
Engel, J. (2013). Seizures and epilepsy (Vol. 83). New York: Oxford University Press.
Granacher, R.P. (2007). Traumatic brain injury: Methods for clinical & forensic neuropsychiatric assessment second edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
The diagnostic criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury as indicated in the DSM-5 begins with cognitive problems meaning that the patient must have a diagnosis of a mild neurocognitive disorder. There must be evidence of a traumatic brain injury that might have occurred due to a head injury. This head injury must result in the patient losing consciousness, posttraumatic amnesia, disorientation and confusion, and neurological signs (Cooper et al., 2015). Lastly, the mild neurological disorder presents immediately after the patient has experienced the traumatic brain injury or after the patient regains consciousness and it lasts past the acute post-injury period.
Mild neurocognitive disorders usually do not require any treatment other than the patient taking enough rest and over-the-counter pain relievers mostly for treating the headache. However, the patient should be monitored for any persistent, worsening, or new symptoms (Writer & Schillerstrom, 2009). Treatment for the head…
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.
The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…
Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560
Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.
-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.
Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,
Anthropologist working with the VA
Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues
Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area
The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement
ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles
Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters
Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.
Relevant Laws and Regulations
Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public
Other helpful information you think about on your own
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…
Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.
2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012
2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency.
Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male and females. These changes can be caused by injury to specific brain structures in charge of producing and regulating specific hormone levels.
Changes in hormone levels can also be caused by the various medications prescribed to traumatic brain injury patients. "H2-antihistamines and stereotonegic agonists were found to decrease libido," according to Aloni and Katz in their 1999 work, "A Review of the Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response," (Aloni & Katz, p. 276). Only female experienced…
Aloni, Ronit and Katz, Shlome. "A Review of the Effect o Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response." Brain Injury. Vol. 3. Number 4. p. 269-280. 1999.
Bianci-Demichel, Francesco and Ortigue, Stephanie. "Toward an Understanding of the Cerebral Substrates of a Woman's Orgasm." Neuropsychologia. Vol 45. Number 12. P. 2645-2659. 2007.
Blumer, D and Waler, a.E. "The Neural Basis of Sexual Behavoir." Psychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease. P. 199-216. 1974.
Elliott, Mike Laurel. "Head Injury." Brain Injury. October 1996.
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…
Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354
Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218
Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) has considerable impacts on the normal functioning or operation of the brain. In most cases, brain injuries damage nerve cells to an extent that these cells no longer transmit information to each other in the ordinary manner. Brain injuries are usually divided into three major categories i.e. mild, moderate and severe depending on the extent of neurological damage that takes place. Given their impact on neurological functioning, brain injuries have impact on one's cognitive ability levels. Some of these impacts include cognitive disabilities, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and effect on life roles at different development stages and ages. Therefore, the extent with which brain injuries affect a person's cognitive ability levels is an important topic of study. Is there a direct link between brain injuries…
Juengst, S.B., Adams, L. M., Bogner, J.A., Arenth, P.M., O'Neil-Pirozzi, T.M., Dreer, L.E., & Wagner, A.K. (2015, November). Trajectories of Life Satisfaction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Influence of Life Roles, Age, Cognitive Disability, and Depressive Symptoms. Rehabilitation Psychology, 60(4), 353-364. Doi: 10.1037/rep0000056
Massy. J. S., Meares, S., Batchelor, J., & Bryant, R.A. (2015, July). An Exploratory Study of the Association of Acute Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Pain to Cognitive Functioning in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Neuropsychology, 29(4), 530-542. Doi: 10.1037/meu000192
McDonald, S., Gowland, A., Randall, R., Fisher, A., Osborne-Crowley, K., & Honan, C. (2014, September). Cognitive Factors Underpinning Poor Expressive Communication Skills after Traumatic Brain Injury: Theory of Mind or Execution Function? Neuropsychology, 28(5), 801-811. Doi: 10.1037/neu0000089
Meyers. N. M., Chapman, J.C., Gunthert, K.C., & Weissbrod, C.S. (2016, January). The Effect of Masculinity on Community Reintegration Following TBI in Military Veterans. Military Psychology, 28(1), 14-24. Doi:10.1037/mil0000097
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
Introduction and Theory
Cognitive psychology is an area of scientific research that explores the human mental processes and their impact on human behavior. Using cognitive psychology, researchers can study a variety of subjects including how people perceive the world, how those perceptions impact behavior, and how both emotions and thoughts influence behavior. The article "Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury" uses a cognitive psychology perspective to study behavioral responses and changes in persons who have experienced a traumatic brain injury.
Traumatic brain injury is associated with social isolation and withdrawal, which in turn leads to depression and other serious mental health issues. For this reason, it is important to study ways to mitigate the tendency toward social withdrawal. Because Facebook can be used to connect with people in a non-threatening way, from the safety of one's own home, the…
Tsaousides, T., Matsuzawa, Y. & Lebowitz, M. (2011). Familiarity and prevalence of Facebook use for social networking among individuals with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 25(12): 1155-1162.
(Walls, Hendricks, Dowler, Hirsch, Orslene and Fullmer, 2002). The animal will serve as a vital link between John Q. And the world around him, helping to be independent and to have quality time to himself and allow him to travel on his own.
There is a need, too, to emphasize that services are available to the family as individuals, and in a group setting, to confront and work through the issues that upcoming months, perhaps even years of hardship as a result of John Q's physical injuries will mean to them as a family and as individuals. The focus must be a positive one, for research has shown that positive and hopeful attitudes impact an individual's ability to recover faster and more fully (Schmidt, Vickery, Cotugna, and Snider, 2005).
esearching the conditions and needs of a family and individual as cited above, created a sense of caring and…
Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.). (1994). Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755753
(1994). CHAPTER TWO Pharmacological Treatments for Brain-Injury Repair: Progress and Prognosis. In Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives, Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.) (pp. 17-33). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755811
(2003). Conversation and Brain Damage (C. Goodwin, Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104810903 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009630086
The field of music therapy is an emerging one in medical practice. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of research to support the use of music therapy in a wide range of instances, one of which includes patients who are suffering from brain injury. This paper will review some of the literature on the subject in an attempt to understand how music affects the brain and is therefore useful in therapy.
The idea of music therapy is ancient, and was extolled by the likes of Plato. The Roman god Apollo was god of music and medicine, further cementing the link between the two in estern civilization. Non-estern cultures were also known to use music to attempt to heal people. Certain forms of music could drive out evil spirits or demons, according to the lore of many cultures. It is from these myriad traditions that the modern use…
Bradt, J., Magee, W., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. & McGilloway, E. (2010). Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Wiley. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from http://ssh.snvtest.com/wp-content/uploads/articles/06_Music_Therapy_For_Brain_Injury.pdf
Formisano, R., Vinicola, V., Penta, F., Matteis, M., Brunelli, S. & Weckel, J. (2001). Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe brain injured patients during coma recovery. Annals of the Instituto Superiore di Sanita. Vol. 37 (4) 627-630.
Hamilton, L., Cross, J. & Kennelly, J. (2001). The interface of music therapy and speech pathology in the rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury. Australian Journal of Music Therapy. Vol. 12 (2001) 13-20.
Thaut, M.H., Gardiner, J.C., Holmberg, D., Horwitz, J., Kent, L., Andrews, G., Donelan, B. And McIntosh, G.R. (2009) Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Vol. 1169, 406-416.
g., when there are deaths of several soldiers or emergency workers of a unit). Combat is a stressor that is associated with a relatively high risk of PTSD, and those interventions that can potentially diminish this risk are very important. But what is not clear in the above is how much the debriefing provided is more a form of stress management for the ?critical incidents? that are very much part of warfare, as opposed to interventions for those psycho- logically traumatized and at risk of PTSD. People in the military are exposed to stressors other than combat, and these may be traumatic (Atwater, 2009). eports of soldiers who were involved in body recovery in the Gulf War provide important insights. This is a high-stress situation, linked to vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity.
Asnis, et al. (2004) reported that soldiers of one group who had been debriefed were compared with another, which,…
Army News Service. (2007). Army launches chain teaching program for PTSD, TBI education.
Atwater, Alison. (2009). When is a Combat Veteran? The Evidentiary Stumbling Block for Veterans Seeking PTSD Disability Benefits, 41 ARIZ. St.
Asnis, G.M., Kohn, S.R., Henderson, M., & Brown, N.L. (2004). SSRIs vs. non-SSRIs in post traumatic stress disorder: an update with recommendations. Drugs, 64(4), 383-404.
Bergfeld, C. (2006). A dose of virtual reality: Doctors are drawing on video-game technology to treat post-traumatic stress disorder among Iraq war veterans. Business Week.
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.
Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.
Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and isk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans
According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning from Vietnam have a twenty to thirty percent rate. Past studies have confirmed that PTSD is linked to increased health care consumption and an augmented danger of developing a variety of other medical conditions among veterans such as dementia. The risk factors that link PTSD to increased rates of dementia include head injuries, depression or medical comorbidities.
This work highlights the findings of the study carried out by Yaffe et al. (2010). The project specifically focuses on the conclusions…
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Deurenberg, R. (2009). A practical guide to Pubmed/Druk 1/ING. London: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
Gerrish, K., & Lacy, A. (2013). The research process in nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Glasziou, P.G., Mar, C.D. & Salisbury, J. (2009). Evidence-Based Practice Workbook. John Wiley & Sons.
ectopic/heterotopic brain tissue. Extracranial brain tissue without direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect that is usually located on the occipital or parietal area of the scalp. Most of the time these are harmless and can be removed. These often are called heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain tissue or (CEB).
ECTOPIC OR HETEROTOPIC BRAIN TISSUE
Extracranial brain tissue that is directly connected to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneious embryonic defect. These are usually located on the occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. They are often called heteropic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB) (Janniger 1). Most of the time these are simple defective tissue that can easily be removed from the scalp. However, there are several different types of ectopic brain tissues and some of these can be signs of underlying central nervous system problems. Each of…
Aplasia Cutis Congenita" Available Online at http://www.keratin.com/af/af006.shtml
Drolet, Beth Ann & Clowry, Lawrence. "The Hair Collar Sign: Marker for Cranial Dysraphism" Pediatrics Aug 1995 Part 1 of 2 Vol. 96 Issue 2 p. 309
Drolet BA, Clowry L. Jr., McTigue MK, Esterly NB. "The Hair Collar sign: Marker for Cranial Dysraphism" Pediatrics 1995 Aug 1996 (2 pt 1): 309-13
Fuloria, Mamta M.D. & Kreiter, Shelly M.D. "The Newborn Examination: Part I" American Family Physician Jan 1, 2002 Vol. 65 No. 1 www.aafp.org/afp
The complex issue of providing adequate care and preventative testing to a population that is increasingly unable to afford the rising expenses associated with such care remains a substantial problem in the United States, and directly impacts care provided for cases of head traumas in rural areas. The Canadian CT Head Rule (CCHR) and the New Orleans Criteria (NOC) are two clinical decision making methods for determining when the expense of a CT scan is warranted following a head trauma, though indications for the use of either testing procedure differ. Despite widespread and successful use elsewhere, the CCHR is not widely used in the United States and is especially under-utilized in rural areas, leading to rising expenses and the mistreatment of traumatic head injuries. Equipment shortages and other facility limitations in rural hospitals and clinics further complicates treatment for head injuries, and sheer geographic distance to facilities means that…
Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.
Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).
Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…
Anderson. (1995). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Bjork & Bjork. (1992). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…
Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.
Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.
DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.
Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.
These are just some of the expenses. Treating this man for free, more so, may open the door for more 'deserving cases', and then where does one draw the line. And a further ethical dilemma: if the care system agrees to treat the man for free, its debt may be so steep that it will be the paying customers who will, eventually, have to pay the price.
Identified alternative courses of action and explained expected consequences.
The health care system could return the man to Mexico and to his family, but this would aggravate the man's station. In terms of traumatic brain injury, any lapse in treatment spells crucial damage to the patient's brain.
Another option is that once danger to life is over, the patient could be moved to an ordinary hospital ward where his care would be less expensive and he could spend time recuperating. This, nonetheless, would…
Hardman, J.M., & Manoukian, a. (2002). Pathology of head trauma. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 12, 175 -- 87.
Saatman, K.E, & Duhaime, a.C. (2008). Classification of traumatic brain injuries for targeted therapies. Journal of Neurotrauma, 25, 719 -- 38.
WGBH Educational Foundation. (n.d.). The Hippocratic Oath: Modern version. Doctors' Diaries. Retrieved on January 30, 2011 from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/doctors/oath_modern.html
Holder, S. (2008). Traumatic brain injury -- the medical insurance maze. Head and brain injuries. Retrieved on January 30, 2011 from: http://www.headbraininjuries.com/brain-injury-medical-insurance
For example, because different etiologies require corresponding therapeutic designs and mechanisms (Spector, 2000; Steefel, 2002), specific support group makeup must consider the need to develop different strategies and methodologies for the following types of patients at a minimum if support groups are to provide equal benefit to all patients:
Elderly Patients and Lifelong Laborers - This group typically presents with psychological issues in the realm of a direct link between their sense of purpose and self-worth and their ability to continue to function productively in their community. Their need for acute medical and ancillary services, particularly in the Longview/East Texas community are often precipitated by chronic physical deterioration from a lifetime of relatively hard labor. Therefore, support group rehabilitation services must address the issues of self-esteem as a function of vocational productivity and lifestyle changes necessitated by medical conditions.
Prime-of-Life Victims of Traumatic Injury - This group typically presents with…
Clark, C., Robinson, T. (2000). "Multiculturalism as a Concept in Nursing" Journal of the Black Nurses Association, 11(2), 39-43.
Spector, R. (2000). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Stanhope, M., Lancaster, J. (2004). Community and Public Health Nursing (6th ed.)
St. Louis: Mosby.
Stroke is widely regarded one of the leading causes of deaths in the U.S. Indeed, recent statistical figures paint a grim picture with regard to the number of people who suffer a stroke in the U.S. each year. In basic terms, strokes are triggered by an interruption of blood flow into the brain. In this text, I concern myself with the physiological processes associated with stroke. In so doing, I will amongst other things define the disease and the body systems it affects, its causes, manifestation, and complications. Further, I will also discuss the hereditary or familial factors commonly associated with stroke.
Stroke: An Overview
In basic terms, stroke is said to be "an abrupt onset of neurological functions caused by a sudden reduction of cerebral blood flow, which is due in turn to either an ischemic occlusion or a hemorrhagic episode" (Gulini, Gianelli, Quaglia, and Marrucci, 2000, p. 239).…
Eisenberg, M.G., Glueckauf, R.L. & Zaretsky, H.H. (Eds.). (1999). Medical Aspects of Disability: A Handbook for the Rehabilitation Professional (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Gulini, M., Gianelli, M., Quaglia, W. & Marrucci, G. (Eds.). (2000). Receptor Chemistry Towards the Third Millennium. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Huether, S.E. & Mccance, K. (2012). Understanding Pathophysiology (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Science.
Mohr, J.P., Grotta, J.C., Wolf, P.A., Maskowitz, M.A., Mayberg, M.R. And Kummer, R.V. (2011). Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
The Returning of Soldiers from Combat in America
Although Earnest Hemmingway's, "Soldiers Home" (187) was written in 1925, and the war at that time was different, there are several things in the story that still ring true today for servicemen. In "Soldiers Home" (187) Krebs, the main character in the story goes through some changes while he is away fighting in the Marine Corps. Krebs was a young man from Kansas who is in college at the time that he is drafted into the Marine Corps. So he leaves his friends and family to go overseas to fight for his country, as do the young men and women of todays armed forces. As told by the author Krebs fights in some of the toughest battles that were ever fought, "Belau ood, Soissons, Champagne St. Mihiel, and The Argonne Forrest" (187), he feels out of place when…
With Krebs not really trusting his parents, and his loss of love as well the author shows the reader several issues that can affect a soldier returning home from combat. Along with the loss of interest in relationships, and not having a reason to interact with the towns people or even listen to his parents, they all show some of the struggles facing returning servicemen and women then and today, and that they have faced upon their return from foreign places where they have been busily waging war for the entire twentieth century (Associated Content)
The problems with the American soldier returning home from combat are worse than people may think. They go a lot deeper than people may think. They can range from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, hearing loss, anxiety, depression, and even isolation. These are the problems that are unseen by society and have been written about since at least 1925. Hemingway's story is not prescient or "ahead of its tie" because it recognized and described the issues of coming home from war in ways that can be identified with modern diagnoses and that reflect modern experiences. Instead, it is the simple commonality of the experiences of warfare that existed in the First World War and that still exist in today's military conflicts that makes this work still relevant. The fact that Hemingway so accurately describes a case of post Traumatic Stress Disorder doesn't matter nearly as much as the fact that this disorder still exists, and for the same reasons it existed nearly a hundred years ago. Until mankind learns to end warfare, traumas like those experienced by Krebs and by real soldiers in ongoing wars will continue to lead to the development f psychological disorders like PTSD as described in "Soldier's Home" and by countless servicemen and servicewomen that have served honorably in places of combat today.
As Krebs returns home from war in 1919, he is faced with issues of being back in the civilian society. Whether a soldier fought in World War I, World War II, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Somalia, or Iraq and Afghanistan, the problems of the returning veteran are handled the same then as they are now personally, within the soldier and with the general public.
Making available recovery program treatment besides collaborating with partnership to leverage resources and knowledge is a role that I perform in efforts of helping clients access care. I am also involved in continual community-based quality improvement programs that are designed to support care access and quality.
B. Veteran Centered Care
With respect to centered care, I normally assist with provision of alternatives to inpatient care for mental health linked problems. Additionally, I make CVT available for weekend and evening hours. As a MHICM practitioner, I perform various administrative and clinical functions for clients and my team. Clinical tasks entail stress and crisis management, group therapy, advocacy and treatment planning. I also ensure that patient preferences with respect to appointments and mental health care providers are maintained.
C. Performance Measures
I offer administrative and clinical supervision for my team besides facilitating cohesiveness communication, education programs and systems concerning community-based services. Given…
Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation initiative on the future of nursing.(2011). The future of nursing: Leading change, advancing health. New York: National Academies Press
Daniels, R., & Nicoll, L.(2011). Contemporary medical-surgical nursing, Volume 1. New York: Cengage Learning.
Sullivan-Marx, E.(2010). Nurse practitioners: The evolution and future of advanced practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Thonicroft, G. (2011). Oxford textbook of community mental health. London: Oxford University Press.
The RN really became a part of the educational team, tailoring her assistance to the child to the classroom environment. In fact, because much of the education seemed tailored towards teaching the students basic life-skills information, such as the weather, the nurse was able to really interact with the child's education.
The best part of the experience was observing the inherent joy in children. From an outsider's perspective, the children in this school had very few reasons to express joy or feel happiness. Almost all of them had significant physical challenges in addition to mental retardation. None of these children has a childhood even approximating normalcy. However, many of the children seemed happy. In fact, it was seeing the joy that a small action could bring to these children was very uplifting. In fact, one particular child seemed especially joyful. Because of privacy concerns, I was not able to access…
Incontinence is another condition not frequently intimated to their doctor. Less than a third of them actually report falls despite the availability of initiatives and measures, which can address falls. These include home-based exercises, home environment assessment, cataract surgery, medication review and Vitamin D and calcium supplements (CFA).
Falls Prevention Intervention
Studies reveal the importance of physical activity in preventing or reducing the risk of falls among older persons in the community and at home (Rose 2007). There is, however, limited evidence at present that physical activity benefits very weak ones in care facilities. Physical activity promises benefit to healthy older adults against the risk of falls. Those at moderate risk, on the other hand, will gain more from structured exercise programs aimed at risk factors, which can be manipulated or changed. They can be adjusted to progress according to the individual's capabilities and earlier physical activity experience. And those…
Cripps, R. 2001, 'Deaths from falls in the elderly top 1,000-year,' Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [Online] Available at http://www.aihw.gov.au/media-release=detail/?id=6442464404
CFA 2011, 'Fall rates need to fall further,' Continence Foundation of Australia [Online]
Available at http://www.continence.org.au/news.php/38/fall-rates-need-to-fall-further
Ory, M.G. et al. 2009, 'Implementing and disseminating on evidence-based program to prevent falls in older adults, Texas, 2007-2009,' Preventing Chronic Disease [Online]
Combat and Substance Abuse
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as a consequence of combat experience, is believed to be a significant risk factor for substance abuse. This theory has been undermined to some extent by recent findings which suggest mental illness, apart from PTSD, may be a stronger predictor. Although combat-related PTSD may significantly contribute to the prevalence of substance abuse among veterans, the dominant substance abuse risks are the same for both civilians and combat veterans. This conclusion suggests than combat may represent a minor risk factor for substance abuse.
The Association between Combat and Substance Abuse
Veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are faced with many of the same problems that previous combat veterans have had to face, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). While most veterans suffering from these conditions will successfully cope with the challenges they face through treatment and social…
Adamou, Marios C. And Hale, Anthony S. (2003). PTSD and the law of psychiatric injury and England and Wales: Finally coming closer? Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry Law, 31, 327-332.
Bagalman, Erin. (2011). Suicide, PTSD, and substance use among OEF/OIF veterans using VA Health Care: Facts and figures. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41921.pdf .
National Center for PTSD. (2011). PTSD and substance abuse in veterans. PTSD.VA.gov. Retrieved 10 Jan. 2013 from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/ptsd_substance_abuse_veterans.asp .
Nooner, Kate B., Linares, L. Oriana., Batinjane, Jessica, Kramer, Rachel A., Silva, Raul., and Cloitre, Marylene. (2012). Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 13(3), 153-166.
It is also thought to be the process responsible for the observation that blind individuals (for one example) tend to develop exceptional abilities in their other senses to compensate for the additional burdens on cognition.
Cross model reassignment refers to the full-scale replacement of certain types of sensory input for entirely different types. The process by which the blind learn to read Braille provides an example of cross model reassignment whereby it is believed that unused regions of the brain normally dedicated to receiving and processing visual stimuli are transformed into neurological structures capable of processing sensory input from the fingertips.
The ole of Neuroplasticity in Memory and Learning:
Generally, neuroplasticity lies at the root of all human cognitive processes and learning. It is precisely the ability of neurons to form complex interconnected pathways and networks consisting of large numbers of linked neurons that allows the brain to incorporate experiences…
Schwartz, J., Begley, S. (2002). The Mind & The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
iPads for PTSD
There is a high incidence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among veterans of the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The United States' all-volunteer forces have been engaged in combat for ten years and many military members have completed multiple tours. Some individuals are more susceptible than others (Corbett, 2002). Although sufferers of PTSD are in the minority of those returning from war zones, numbers are still sufficiently high to tax the military's health care system. There are simply not enough mental health professionals to meet the need.
Online counseling and special PTSD apps for smart phones and tablet computers have been demonstrated as effective solutions, at least in part. Military officials stress that neither online counseling nor apps replace one-on-one treatment in a clinical care setting. However, they can be beneficial to sufferers and provide some intermediate relief until actual treatment can be provided.
Corbett, A. (2002). Some brains more vulnerable to war trauma. Science Now 10/15/2002.
Retrieved 1 October 2011 from Academic Search Premier.
Gravely, A. A, Cutting A., Nugent, S., Grill, J., Carlson, K., and Spoont, M. (2011). Validity of PTSD diagnoses in VA administrative data: Comparison of VA administrative PTSD diagnoses to self-reported PTSD checklist. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 48(1), pp. 21-30. DOI: 10.1682/JRRD.2009.08.0116.
Hayes, J., Wakefield, B., Andresen, E., Scherrer, J., Traylor, L., Wiegmann, P., Denmark, T.,
Solomon, N., McKee, A. And Garcia-Barry, S. (2001). Intensive voice treatment and respiration treatment for hypokinetic-spastic dysarthria after traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. (10) 51-64.
What was the problem or question the authors were asking?
A young man who had sustained massive brain trauma was examined to see which method would help him to breath and speak properly again.
What research or background information was described?
The efficacy of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) was explored and tested in terms of a patient twenty months after the sustainment of a major injury. LSVT is "an intensive 4-week program that focuses on increased vocal effort" (Solomon 2001,-page 51). It has proven to be successful in helping patients with Parkinson's.
c. Therefore, what was the purpose of the present article?
To see whether or not the LSVT would help a young man with traumatic brain injury (tbi) and…
Currently affiliated with Courage Center, Minneapolis, MN
Submitted on February 18, 2000
Accepted on November 20, 2000
.....neuroscience is one of the most common scientific field of study that basically involves study of the nervous system. Most of the jobs in neuroscience involves dealing with some problems that do not necessarily involve working in the lab. An example of such jobs that interests me is neuropsychology, which is an area in neuroscience that focuses on the science of brain-behavior relationships. I find clinical neuropsychology as an interesting field of neuroscience since it combines concepts of psychology in the study of the nervous system, particularly brain-behavior relationships. Given the combination of neuroscience and psychology, clinical neuropsychology will enable me to feel empathy for my patients/clients when addressing their issues (Ogden, 2012). In light of my passion for this field, brain functions and neuroscience that I find interesting are neurobiological theories that explain dysfunctions in language, behavior networks, vision, memory, and emotion. These brain functions and neuroscience are interesting…
measures wanted assess? Missing research - research? Avoid critical questions elements made argument clear? Elements research extremely poignant offered validity claims? Claims broad research size? Claims understated? Limitations research? leap erroneous conclusions opinion - addressed concerns claims? researchers biased-based study, funders, connections, specialities? research questions research bring merit research investigation? reasons claims made?
DeJong, Gerben, Ching-Hui Hsieh, Koen Putman, andall J. Smout, Susan D. Horn, & Wenqiang Tian. (2010). Physical therapy activities in stroke, knee arthroplasty, and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Their variation, similarities, and association with functional outcomes. Physical Therapy, 91(12) 1826-1837.
Physical therapy is prescribed for a variety of conditions, spanning from knee surgery to traumatic brain injury. However, although the patient populations subjected to PT may vary, there is a certain uniformity of treatment prescription and goals of outcome. According to DeJong (et al., 2010) "certain rehabilitation principles" are thought to "generalize across populations. For example, we…
DeJong, Gerben, Ching-Hui Hsieh, Koen Putman, Randall J. Smout, Susan D. Horn, & Wenqiang Tian. (2010). Physical therapy activities in stroke, knee arthroplasty, and traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Their variation, similarities, and association with functional outcomes. Physical Therapy, 91(12) 1826-1837.
Sergeant Lost ithin," author Daniel Bergner (2008) explains the situation of an American soldier who received brain damage while on active duty serving in the Marine Corps. The man has lost the ability to speak and can only communicate to others with grunts and with the movement of his eyes following his devastating injury in Iraq. Shuvon Phillip was in a Humvee when an anti-tank mine exploded. Although Phillip did not receive any injury from shrapnel, his brain within the skull was jarred to the point where irreparable damage occurred to his brain tissue. Phillip is not a unique case. According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, around 900 soldiers have returned from Iraq with these kinds of brain injuries (Bergner 2008). Each of these cases of traumatic brain injury (T.B.I.) is different and the degree to which the brain has been impaired is also unique. Some are…
Bergner, D. (2008). The sergeant lost within. The New York Times.
Huffman, K. (2012). Neuroscience and biological foundations. Psychology in Action, 10th
Edition. John Wiley & Sons. 51-92.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine and CISM in Diverse Populations
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as often referred to as integrated medicine. This term refers to therapies used to enhance health that fall outside the realm of conventional or "western" medical therapies. Southern Medical therapies are often limited to pharmaceutical drugs, surgery, and other interventions that directly affect the body. CAM therapies can simply refer to culturally-based medical practices that are not part of mainstream medicine in the United States. ecently, the trend is toward using CAM therapies along with evidence-based Western medical practices. This research will explore CAM interventions for diverse populations within the scope of the CISM plan.
CAM Interventions for prevention of Stress and esilience
One of the most widely accepted areas for the use of CAM interventions is in the area of stress reduction, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and other conditions that are common symptoms…
Ahn, A., Ngo-Metzger, Q., & Legedza, A. et al. (2006). Complementary and Alternative Medical
Therapy Use Among Chinese and Vietnamese Americans: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Effects of Patient -- Clinician Communication. American Journal of Public Health. 96 (2), 647-653.
GoodTherapy.org (2011). Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Retrieved from http://www.goodtherapy.org/complementary-alternative-medicine.html
Kutch, M. (2010). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Treating Mental Health Disorders. Retrieved from http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/6044/1/etd.pdf
Deployment on Military Families
Cause (Deployment) Effect (Stress on Families / Children)
The stress on military families when the father or mother is deployed -- whether the deployment is to a war zone or to another place -- can be very intense and psychologically stressful. There is a great deal of literature on what military families experience before, during, and after deployment, and this paper provides several peer-reviewed articles that discuss and assess the situations that military families must deal with during deployment. Thesis: families left at home when a military parent is deployed face social and psychological issues that do not necessarily end when that parent returns from deployment; however, there are strategies to reduce the stress once the parent returns home from the deployment.
The Literature -- Psychological Adjustment for Children
The psychological adjustments that children must make -- especially children with "…preexisting psychological conditions" such as depression…
Hinojosa, Ramon, Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna, and Hognas, Robin S. "Problems with Veteran-
Family Communication During Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom
Military Deployment." Military Medicine, 177.2 (2012): 191-197.
Lincoln, Alan, Swift, Erika, and Shorteno-Fraser, Mia. "Psychological Adjustment and Treatment of Children and Families With Parents Deployed in Military Combat." Journal
Psychological aspects of combat
Extreme high-stress incidents can trigger a number of possible experiences and responses including intrusive thoughts slow-motion time, sharper focus, dissociation, visual clarity and temporary paralysis. The occurrence of 'dissociation,' which is a disconnection from emotional and physical reality, might be a sign of danger for the start of post traumatic disorder or PTSD. One of the common and seldom discussed matters is the loss of bowel and bladder control that occurs during intense moments and it's also used as an exemplification by Grossman of the reluctance that people feel in talking about their natural reaction towards the fight against their condition (Grossman and Christensen, 2007).
According to some studies, there were far number of psychiatric calamities as compared to the physical casualties during the Second World War. 98 per cent of the individuals participating in the war would emotionally breakdown after no more than 60 continuous…
Grossman, D. And Christensen, L.W. (2007). On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. 2nd ed. PPCT Research Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/grossman-on-combat
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer S.C., McGurk, D. Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa040603#t=articleTop
Litz, B.T. (2006). A Brief Primer on the Mental Health Impact of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/pdfs/impact-of-the-wars-in-afghanistan-iraq.pdf
Williamson, V. And Mulhall, E. (2009). Invisible Wounds: Psychological and Neurological Injuries Confront a New Generation of Veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans of America. Retrieved from: http://iava.org/files/IAVA_invisible_wounds_0.pdf
These problems can stem from genetic factors, but can also come about with other events of abuse, neglect, and violence in young children. Diseases, such as ADHD, Autism, as well as others can also bring about these problems that cause low performance and the child needs special services to learn appropriate functioning. oys with low neuropsychological performance and family adversity showed four times the aggression levels of boys with only one of the factors, accounting for 70.2% of all violence committed by the cohort of the study (Raine, 2002).
For example, a child with ADHD can be extremely hyper, depending on the degree of ADHD that causes problems with how the hyper activity is handled. It is easy for a parent who does not know how to handle the hyper child to become frustrated. If there are other environmental factors, such as alcohol and drugs, the problems can become worse…
Brain injury rate high for young delinquents. (2008). Crime Times, 14(4).
Raine, a. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311-2-6.
First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…
.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from http://mrgrg-ms.org/
Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.
Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.
Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
As human beings we have an "idea" or concept of who we are and what we really should be, hence we create an Ideal Self that we constantly strive for, often in vain. If the perceived self, our own self-image, is not aligned with the actual self, how we really are, there will always be personality problems and dysfunction as one relates to one's self and the rest of the world. (Kail & Wicks 1993) In Carl's case this is certainly exacerbated by his TBI.
In some sense if a human being grows in a very healthy and psychological and socially secure and protected environment, congruence should naturally be achieved. If he or she has felt the unconditional positive reinforcement that ogers advocates, than congruence should be an outcome of certainty. (Vander Zanden 2003) However, even with the best of growth comes change and the self you are today may…
Demorest, Amy. 2005. Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped Professional Ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kail, RV, & Wicks-Nelson, R. 1993. Developmental Psychology. 5th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Vander Zanden, James W. 2003. Human Development. Crandell, L.T. & C.H. Crandell & Thomas L., Eds.. New York: McGraw Hill.
communications in a business setting compromise the work of that business, a solution must be found for the benefit of the company and of all who work there. Problems can arise when employees whose tasks require written communications skills are deficient in those skills. Problems can arise also when employees are expected to both understand and explain matters verbally and nonverbally.
The cure for the first problem could be as simple as sending the employee in question for writing instruction.
The cure for the second is, however, much less straightforward. The problem might arise because of the use, or misuse, of strategic ambiguity either by the employee exhibiting the problem, or by managers and colleagues who deal with her. Or it might be caused by an unrecognized personal problem of the employee, for example, a drinking/drugs problem or a cognitive disability of short or long duration. This paper looks at…
Ames, Genevieve M., Joel W. Grube, and Roland S. Moore. 'The relationship of drinking and hangovers to workplace problems: an empirical study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 58, no. 1 (1997): 37+.
Cooper, Lynn O. "Listening competency in the workplace: a model for training." Business Communication Quarterly 60, no. 4 (1997): 75+.
Crombie, Winifred, and Helen Samujh. "Negative messages as strategic communication: a case study of a New Zealand company's annual executive letter." The Journal of Business Communication 36, no. 3 (1999): 229.
Krider, Diane S., and Peter G. Ross. "The experiences of women in a public relations firm: a phenomenological explication." The Journal of Business Communication 34, no. 4 (1997): 437+.
individual health history and examination of a 61-year-old American male Vietnam veteran, "Mr. John Veteran" using the SBAR approach. Mr. Veteran is married, with two adult children and three grandsons, aged 4, 7 and 12 years by his older daughter who is a registered nurse in an intensive care unit; his younger daughter is a senior in college majoring in business administration (she received a full scholarship to a private college). Mr. Veteran earned his bachelor's degree in organizational leadership at a small midwestern university. Although Mr. Veteran continues to work full time as a paralegal, he advises that he intends to "semi-retire" when he turns 62 years next year and becomes eligible for Social Security payments. Mr. Veteran smokes two packs of cigarettes a day and drinks beer on occasion, but does not take drugs, even for severe pain, because he is worried about becoming addicted to them.
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
PATHOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES
The skull is hard, resilient and provides excellent protection to the brain (Heller, 2012; Khan, 2013). ut a severe head injury caused by a blow or impact can fracture the skull and even injure the brain. Damage to the brain can be in the form of damage to the nervous system tissue and bleeding. It can also be in the form of blood clots under the skull that can press against brain tissue. A simple fracture breaks the bone without damaging the skin. A break on the cranial bone, which resembles a thin line, without splinters, depression or distortion is called a linear skull fracture. A break with a depression towards the brain is called a depressed skull fracture. And a break in the bone with splinters or loss of skin is called a compound fracture. Causes of all these fractures are head trauma, falls,…
Best Practice (2011). Skull fractures. BMJ Evidence Centre: BMJ Publishing Group,
Limited. Retrieved on September 25, 2013 from http://www.bestpractice.bmj.com/best_practice/monograph/398/treatment/step-by-step.html
Heller, J.L. (2012). Skull fractures. MedlinePlus: Adam, Inc. Retrieved on September 26,
2013 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000060.htm
It is something that has to be addressed and dealt with, especially with troops coming back from overseas with all kinds of brain injuries and other problems. The Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) is one of the best places to get the job guidance and assessment that a person with a brain injury needs so that person can go on to be a more productive member of society. A correlation study was utilized in this particular article so that the assessments and other concerns could be addressed and it could be determined which of them had something to do with how easily a person could be employed and how much that person made, and which ones did not. Although some of the variables were more significant than others when it came to whether a person could be gainfully employed and perform at a level equal to those without a brain injury,…
Do not sit on the bottom of the tub, this causes too much bending of the hip. Use liquid soap to avoid dropping the bar of soap. A long-handles bath sponge will help in bathing below the knees."
The necessary precautions for the post-operative housekeeping process, according to the Center for Patient and Community Education (2009), "sit for rest breaks as needed. Slide objects along the countertop rather than carrying then. Use a utility cart with wheels to transfer items to and from the table. Attach a bag or basket to your walker or wear a fanny pack to carry small items. Use a long-handled reacher to reach objects on the floor. emove all throw rugs and long electrical cords to avoid tripping in your home. Watch out for slippery/wet areas on the floor." (Center for Patient and Community Education, 2009) Certainly watch out for slippery floors if pets are…
Case-Smith, J. (2003). Outcomes in hand rehabilitation using occupational therapy services. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57, 409-506
(2009) Center for Patient and Community Education in association with the Department of Outcomes Management and the Communications & Marketing Department at California Pacific Medical Center. http://www.cpmc.org/learning/documents/rg-thr-home.html
Cipriano, L.E., Chesworth, B.M., Anderson, C.K., & Zaric, G.S. (2007). Predicting joint replacement waiting times. Health Care Management Science, 10(2), 195. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/227985557?accountid=13044
Cleveland Clinic (2011) Total Hip Replacement. http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/hip_replacement/or_overview.aspx
Next, estwood explains how educators must compartmentalize lesson plans as to minimize the amount of information the student must cognitively digest. The smaller the lesson plans, the greater chance that child has at retaining that information. It is large lesson plans filled with complex amounts of information which provides an environment which the memory challenged child will undoubtedly fail.
Another key method for improving learning abilities in children with memory issues is the use of visual material to help aid recall. Visual cues are one of the most efficient ways to improve recall in children with memory loss. By relating necessary information to a picture or object which is less likely to be forgotten, the child will be able to associate the two and therefore remember one with the other. Teachers must also encourage their students to associate information with visual cues which are most familiar with each individual student,…
Westwood, Peter. (2003). Students with physical disabilities and sensory impairments.
Commonsense Methodology for Children with Special Needs: Strategies for Regular Classrooms. RoutledgeFalmer. New York. Pp. 36-54.
careers, many social workers will encounter individuals who are veterans of active duty military service. Like other client populations, veterans may experience issues with their day-to-day living requirements that require assistance, but these individuals may also experience a wide range of problems that are unique to service in the armed forces. This paper reviews the relevant literature to determine how current social work policies in the United States address issues of inequality, oppression or social justice for military veterans, the social work staff's ability to provide quality social work services, and ethical issues that affect social work values and practice in this area. An analysis concerning alternative approaches that social work and others could advocate or organize on behalf of veterans is followed by an assessment of which models of advocacy (Jannson or Hayes & Mickelson) are currently being used with this client population. Finally, a summary of the research…
Adams, C. (2013, March 13). Millions went to war in Iraq, Afghanistan, leaving many with lifelong scars. McClatchy Newspapers. Retrieved from http://www.mcclatchydc.com/
Franklin, E. (2009, August). The emerging needs of veterans: A call to action for the social work profession. Health and Social Work, 34(3), 163-169.
Haynes, K.S. & Mickelson, J.S. (2000). The debate. In Affecting social change: Social workers in the political arena (pp. 23 -- 39). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
violence and aggression. First, different aspects of violence, such as diversity and culture, gender and psychosocial aspects are discussed. And, the ethical and legal dimensions of mandatory reporting of child and elder abuse are looked into. The emerging technologies in the field of psychology are also discussed in relation to the topic of violence and other forms of deviant behavior. Lastly, correlations of the causality and violence prevention interventions are given.
MFT: Psychology of Violence
The history of the world is mired with incidences of violence. Violence traces its origins back to prehistory, and there is barely a community, society or individual that has never experienced or witnessed some form of violence. A single incidence of violence can be powerful and unbearable whether it is terrorism, war, suicide, homicide or even systemic injustices (structural violence -- whereby there are access barriers to health care, social justice, or some other type…
Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2002). Human Aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-51.
Duxbury, J., & Wright, K. (2011, March 7). Should nurses restrain violent and aggressive patients? Retrieved from Nursing Times: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/specialisms/mental-health/-should-nurses-restrain-violent-and-aggressive-patients/5026793.article
EIGE. (2015). What is gender-based violence. Retrieved from European Institute for Gender Equality: http://eige.europa.eu/gender-based-violence/what-is-gender-based-violence
Felson, R., Deane, G., & Armstrong, D. (2008). Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency. Social Science Research, 624-641.
This report analyzes the case between Bryan Stow v. Los Angeles Dodgers revealing the detailed information about the incident, the trial, and verdict. The report also examines the party that is wrong in the case.
Fact: On 31 March, 2011, Bryan Stow, aged 42, a paramedic from Santa Cruz, California, who was the plaintiff in this case, traveled with his three fellow paramedics to the Dodger Stadium to watch the opening day game between the San Francisco Giants, and the Los Angeles Dodgers. Stow, who was the fan of SA Giants was walking in the parking lot of the stadium following the 2-1 Dodger victory. Suddenly, Louie Sanchez punched him on the head provoking Stow to lay flat on the ground. While Stow laid on the ground, Sanchez, and his friend named Marvin Norwood subsequently kicked Stow on the head making him sustain traumatic brain injuries. Bryan Stow was a…
Hopefully the school she chooses to attend will have similar resources. Some sources Mary may find useful include the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) website [www.ada.gov], the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, which has resources for people who have suffered traumatic brain injury [http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/tbi.htm].
Beard, L.A., Carpenter, L.B., & Johnston, L. (2011). Assistive technology: Access for all students. 2e Kindle edition. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.
Speaker. 2011. Softonic International. Retrieved from http://speaker.en.softonic.com/
ask 2: Identify 4 web sites that you will continue to utilize as an educator for A or UDL assessment or planning. Please specify why you prefer to use them.
Closing the Gap Solutions [www.closingthegap.com] is an affordable subscription-based resource -- $37.50 per year after a fourteen-day free trial. he site has an electronic journal with articles explaining the use of various Assistive echnology devices and strategies. A searchable resource directory allows the user to search…
The U.S. Department of Education's IDEA website [ http://idea.ed.gov ] is designed as a "one-stop shop" resource. It features news articles, links to events, a document archive, and many major topics of interest to special educators and anyone who works with this student population. Like the website above, there is the capability for submitting questions. It can be reassuring to have someone to ask when one cannot find the answer being sought. The website is continually updated, so there is new information all the time. When teaching students and families to be advocates, it is a source that a teacher can highly recommend.
A teacher should always be familiar with the offerings of the state department of education website. In the case of California, there is a comprehensive section on the use of assistive technology [ http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/sr/astvtech.asp ]. The site explains assistive technology and the law, and provides a number of links with basic AT resources. As with two of the other sites mentioned, there is a point of contact for users with questions.
All four websites will be useful in my career as a teacher; they provide professional resources I can use and also ones I can recommend to colleagues and families. The sites are dynamic, adding new content as laws change and more information becomes available.
However, I was simply unaware that the problem was so huge. To know that today's global slave trade is far larger than the slave trade was at the height of the Atlantic Slave trade if horrifying. Even more horrifying is the fact that many slaveholders are in Western countries where slavery has long been illegal, and these slaves are hidden away and may never be detected. Three forms of human trafficking that I noticed were smuggling-related trafficking, where immigrants seeking to come to the United States are instead diverted into sweat shops and forced to work as laborers, the sex-slave trade, and the domestic labor slave trade. Most troubling to me was child trafficking. Honestly, after watching the videos, I went beyond them to further examine the problem. I found a wide variety in numbers, but consistently saw that between 100,000 and 300,000 children in the U.S. are at risk…
Terrorism Has Changed the United States
The United States has experienced considerable threats of terrorism in the past decade similar to other parts of the world. This threat has largely emerged from the fact that groups like Al-Qaeda and other terror organizations have continued to pose a significant threat to the United States homeland. Despite the success that the country has achieved in eliminating terror groups and organizations like al-Qaeda, affiliate and extremist groups continue to pose a major threat to the United States. The increase in terrorist activities and incidents in the recent past have contributed to various measures adopted by the United States as well as other countries towards combating terrorism. These efforts have significantly transformed the United States and other countries around the globe with regards to security measures, immigration, and foreign policy.
The Threat of Terrorism to the United States
The United States wasn't officially involved…
Gellman, Barton, and Greg Miller. "Black Budget' Summary Details U.S. Spy Network's Successes, Failures and Objectives." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 29 Aug. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Green, Matthew. "How 9/11 Changed America: Four Major Lasting Impacts." Online Posting. The Lowdown - Decoding the News. KQED Newsroom, 10 Sept. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Jenkins, Brian M. "How a Decade of Terror Changed America." RAND Corporation - Objective Analysis, Effective Solutions. RAND Corporation., 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Plumer, Brad. "Nine Facts about Terrorism in the United States since 9/11." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Homeless Mental Health
Mental health is an issue that is deemed to be very under-treated and very under-diagnosed within the United States. Beyond that, there are populations that are much more at risk than others. A good example would be the prison population where drug use and mental health issues are both rampant. However, there is another group that is highly stricken and very vexing and difficult to treat and that would be the homeless. Indeed, many people that are homeless are in that position due to mental health issues. Mental health is often not the only issue involved as comorbidity can exist with substance abuse. However, mental health will be the focus of this report. Facets of the homeless with mental health that will be focused upon within this report will include issues like diversity, ethics, values, social justice, diagnosing of patients, initiation/termination of care, aftercare, and the broader…
Belcher, J. R. (1988). Rights vs. Needs of Homeless Mentally Ill Persons. Social Work, 33(5), 398.
Chambers, C., Chiu, S., Scott, A., Tolomiczenko, G., Redelmeier, D., Levinson, W., & Hwang,
S. (2014). Factors Associated with Poor Mental Health Status Among Homeless Women
With and Without Dependent Children. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(5), 553-