163+ documents containing “traumatic brain injury”.
Traumatic Brain Injury in Children
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the primary public health problems under health concerns over several decades. Health statistics reveal that this problem has been common among the male adolescents, as well as the young adults under the age bracket of 15 to 24 years. Similarly, this disorder is common among the elderly people of both sexes under the age of 75 and above. However, this paper is of high concern about children of ages 5 and below, or 5 to 18 years, who are at high risk of traumatic brain injuries. TBI is among the leading causes of death and acquired disabilities among infants and children.
Traumatic brain injury is an acquired injury to an individual's brain resulting from an external physical force exerted on the head, leading to partial or total disability and/or psychological impairment. This scenario may adversely impact on a child's….
Fenwick, T., Manly, T., Anderson, V. & Robertson, I. (2012). Attentional skills following traumatic brain injury in childhood: A componential analysis. Journal of Brain Injuries,
57(12), 237 -- 249.
Hall, K., & Cope, D. (2007). The benefit of rehabilitation in traumatic brain injury: A literature review. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26 (10), 1 -- 13.
Jennings, M. & Blaskey, J.(2013). Traumatic brain injury: Decision making in pediatric neurologic physical therapy. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
The soldiers who informed that their injury didn't include any altered mental status or the loss of consciousness worked as the reference group for all of the analyses (2008).
Mild TBI was significantly correlated with psychiatric symptoms -- especially PTSD, and the correlation maintained its significance after combat experiences had been controlled for (Hoge et al. 2008). Over 40% of soldiers with injuries linked with loss of consciousness met the standards for PTSD. This information shows that a history of mild TBI in combat scenarios -- especially when related with loss of consciousness -- mirrors exposure to an intense situation that threatens the life of the soldiers and thus makes the chance of PTSD greater (2008).
The study on soldiers returning from Iraq is especially important and, though it used a nonrandom sample from two distinct brigades, it can be considered as being representative of soldiers working ground units in Iraq.….
Levin, H.S., Gary, H.E., Eisenberg, H.M., Ruff, R.M., Barth, J.T., & Kreutzer J. et al.
(1990). Neurobehavioral outcome 1-year after severe head injury experience of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank. J Neurosurg, 44: 699-709.
Dikmen, S.S., Temkin, N.R., Machamer, J.E., Holubkov, a.L., Fraser, R.T., & Winn,
H.R. (2004) Employment following traumatic head injuries. Archives Neurol, 51:
condition known as Post-traumatic Amnesia. This condition occurs when an individual suffers an acute brain damaging injury. Automobile crashes are said to be the most common origin of such injuries, and thus, the fundamental source of this disorder, in young adults. The condition persists for a few minutes or hours after the accident, or may go on for as long as weeks, months or years. Post-traumatic amnesia is accompanied chiefly by memory loss and other similar impairments.
The paper begins with an introduction to the disorder, followed by a section on the characteristics that help diagnose post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). The third section of the paper is dedicated to neuropsychological testing/evaluation for identifying behavioral or cognitive shortfalls, such as a patient might experience with post-traumatic amnesia. The factors for evaluation described here are: unconsciousness, scores on the Glasgow Coma Scale, and duration of diagnosed post-traumatic amnesia. Furthermore, treatment techniques for PTA….
Barbosa, R.R., Jawa, R., Watters, J.M., Knight, J.C., Kerwin, A.J., Winston, E.S., Barraco, R.D., Tucker, B., Bardes, J.M. & Rowell, S.E. (2012).Evaluation and management of mild traumatic brain injury: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline, J Trauma Acute Care Surg. Vol. 73, No. 5, Supplement 4
Capehart, B. & Bass, D. (2012). Review: Managing posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans with comorbid traumatic brain injury, JRRD, Volume 49, Number 5.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2010). Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths 2002 -- 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Chung, P. & Khan, F. (2013). Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment. J Neurol Neurophysiol 5: 182. doi:10.4172/2155-9562.1000182
Traumatic rain Injury
Traumatic brain injury, continues to remain an enigma and treatment is elusive, causing death and disability across the globe. Luckily, significant progress has been made in helping improve short-term outcome in victims facing a severe brain injury. Unfortunately, it is still not possible to get back the victims to their normative level of brain functioning. Injuries to the brains caused by forceful impact may cause tissue distortion. Clinically, outcome depends on the mediating the cellular changes and bimolecular changes caused due to the injury. Secondary brain injuries lead to alteration in the functioning of the cell through disruption of homeostasis, excitotoxicity, free radical generation, and depolarization. It may also propagate injury through intracranial hypertension, edema formation, blood- brain barrier disruption and ischemic injury. To help improve the outcome in patients suffering from traumatic injuries, it is necessary to understand evolution of therapies and processes that are known to….
ACC., (2016). Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Strategy. Retrieved from: http://www.acc.co.nz/for-providers/clinical-best-practice/tbi-strategy/index.htm
ACS. (n.d.). Best practices in the management of traumatic brain injury. American College of Surgeons.
Alban, R., Berry, C., Ley, E., Mirocha, J., Marguilies, D., Tillou, A., et al. (2010). Does Health Care Insurance affect outcomes after Traumatic brain injury? The American Surgeon, 1108-1111.
Arrastia, R., Kochanek, P., Bergold, P., Kenney, K., Marx, C., Grimes, J., et al. (2014). Pharmacotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury: State of the Science and the Road Forward: Report of the Department of Defense Neurotrauma Pharmacology Workgroup. Journal of Neurotrauma, 135-158.
Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans
Traumatic brain injury is an acute injury of the brain, which may or may not be detected at the outset. It can be classified as either mild or severe, depending on whether loss of consciousness lasts less than or more than 30 minutes. As gun shots rank high among its causes, war veterans have high cases of traumatic brain injury. Many organizations have been advocating for the case of TBI among veterans.
The Center for Neuroscience and egenerative Medicine
This is an organization that focuses on the traumatic brain injury that emanates from military injuries. It is a federal program and thus received federal funding. It is an organization that has brought together the efforts of three other organizations, which are the Walter eed National Military Medical Center, the National Institute of Health and the Uniformed Services University. Through their combined efforts, both the members of the military….
AVBI. (2015, November 26). Retrieved from Americans Veterans with Brain Injury: http://www.avbi.org/programs.html
Brainline Military. (2015, Novmeber 26). Retrieved from Brainline Military: http://www.brainlinemilitary.org/
CNRM. (2015, November 25). About CNRM. Retrieved from Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine: http://www.cnrmstudies.org/about#.Vlah3VTnWRQ
DVBIC. (2015, November 26). Retrieved from The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center: www.dvbic.dcoe.mil/
MTBI and Depression
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs as a result of force to the skull or brain. The probability of receiving a TBI is increased if one is participates in a number of sports such as professional football in the National Football League (NFL) and in a number of vocations such being in the military. The results of a TBI include a number of cognitive and emotional symptoms (McCrea, 2008). One of the most common emotional sequale of TBI is depression. This paper argues that depression associated with mild TBI (mTBI) is a public, not personal concern.
Traumatic Brain Injury
A TBI occurs when there is damage to the brain as a result of an application of an external mechanical force (Parikh, Koch, & Naraya, 2007). All TBI's fall under the label of head injury, whereas not all head injuries result in a TBI (McCrea, 2008). The most common types of external….
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs (2008). Traumatic brain injury task force. Retrieved on July 13, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/icd9/Sep08TBI.pdf .
Finkel, A.G., Yerry, J., Scher, J. & Choi, Y.S. (2012). Headaches in soldiers with mild traumatic brain injury: findings and phenomenologic descriptions. Headache 52(6), 957- 965.
manifestations of types of traumatic brain injury (focal, diffuse) and hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid)?
Focal TBI occurs as a result of some mechanical force acting on the skull (and hence the brain) or penetrating injury to the brain. The manifestations of focal TBI will depend on the particular area of the brain that is damaged (Granacher, 2007). For example, damage to the posterior portion of the left frontal lobe will typically result in problems with expressive language and executive functions, whereas damage to the posterior portion of the left temporal lobe is more likely to result in receptive language problems, naming problems, and problems with verbal memory (Granacher, 2007).
The manifestations of diffuse TBI can be quite varied such is the case of the diffuse axonal injury caused by sharing of the axons in the brain. These can range from global effects on cognition, movement, sensation and perception, to more specific….
Brivet, F.G., Ducuing, S., Jacobs, F., Chary, I., Pompier, R., Prat, D., ... & Nordmann, P. (2005).
Accuracy of clinical presentation for differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis in adults: A multivariate approach. Intensive Care Medicine, 31(12), 1654-1660.
Engel, J. (2013). Seizures and epilepsy (Vol. 83). New York: Oxford University Press.
Granacher, R.P. (2007). Traumatic brain injury: Methods for clinical & forensic neuropsychiatric assessment second edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
The diagnostic criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury as indicated in the DSM-5 begins with cognitive problems meaning that the patient must have a diagnosis of a mild neurocognitive disorder. There must be evidence of a traumatic brain injury that might have occurred due to a head injury. This head injury must result in the patient losing consciousness, posttraumatic amnesia, disorientation and confusion, and neurological signs (Cooper et al., 2015). Lastly, the mild neurological disorder presents immediately after the patient has experienced the traumatic brain injury or after the patient regains consciousness and it lasts past the acute post-injury period. Mild neurocognitive disorders usually do not require any treatment other than the patient taking enough rest and over-the-counter pain relievers mostly for treating the headache. However, the patient should be monitored for any persistent, worsening, or new symptoms (Writer & Schillerstrom, 2009). Treatment for the head can….
Brain Injury and DamageIntroductionBrain damage can present itself during the postnatal stage, perinatal, or even the prenatal stage. The prenatal phase arises before birth, and brain damage during this stage harms the brain's development in several ways. It alters cell maturation, proliferation, or migration leading to a future brain malfunction. The perinatal phase entails the phase at the time of birth, while postnatal is the period after (Wilson, 2013).This paper examines psychological, clinical, and biological factors surrounding brain recovery after damage and the underlying recovery factors. Further, it describes numerous clinical interventions essential in the restoration and rejuvenation of compromised brain capabilities.Recovery of Lost Function after Traumatic Brain InjuryNeuroplasticityThe central nervous system (CNS) assumes innovative roles and potential that encourage secondary recovery mechanisms. By definition, neuroplasticity shapes recovery by running neuronal circuits by employing adaptive transformations to functional and structural levels. These changes take different forms that range from synaptic,….
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2019). Treating clients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Substance Abuse Treatment Advisory, 9(2). Retrieved from https://www.brainline.org/article/treating-clients-traumatic-brain-injury
Dana Foundation. (2012). Repairing the injured brain. Retrieved from https://dana.org/article/repairing-the-injured-brain/
Gomez-de-Regil, L., Estrella-Castillo, D., & Vega-Cauich, J. (2019). Psychological intervention in Traumatic Brain Injury. Behavioral Neurology. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6937832
Institute of Medicine. (2011). Cognitive rehabilitation therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury: evaluating the evidence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13220 .
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.
The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference. All….
Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560
Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.
-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.
Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,
Anthropologist working with the VA
Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues
Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area
The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement
ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles
Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters
Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.
Relevant Laws and Regulations
Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public
Other helpful information you think about on your own
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the issues and how they impact the individual. This paper is….
Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.
2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012
2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency.
Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male and females. These changes can be caused by injury to specific brain structures in charge of producing and regulating specific hormone levels.
Changes in hormone levels can also be caused by the various medications prescribed to traumatic brain injury patients. "H2-antihistamines and stereotonegic agonists were found to decrease libido," according to Aloni and Katz in their 1999 work, "A Review of the Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response," (Aloni & Katz, p. 276). Only female experienced an….
Aloni, Ronit and Katz, Shlome. "A Review of the Effect o Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response." Brain Injury. Vol. 3. Number 4. p. 269-280. 1999.
Bianci-Demichel, Francesco and Ortigue, Stephanie. "Toward an Understanding of the Cerebral Substrates of a Woman's Orgasm." Neuropsychologia. Vol 45. Number 12. P. 2645-2659. 2007.
Blumer, D and Waler, a.E. "The Neural Basis of Sexual Behavoir." Psychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease. P. 199-216. 1974.
Elliott, Mike Laurel. "Head Injury." Brain Injury. October 1996.
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age, injury severity, comorbid….
Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354
Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218
Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) has considerable impacts on the normal functioning or operation of the brain. In most cases, brain injuries damage nerve cells to an extent that these cells no longer transmit information to each other in the ordinary manner. Brain injuries are usually divided into three major categories i.e. mild, moderate and severe depending on the extent of neurological damage that takes place. Given their impact on neurological functioning, brain injuries have impact on one's cognitive ability levels. Some of these impacts include cognitive disabilities, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and effect on life roles at different development stages and ages. Therefore, the extent with which brain injuries affect a person's cognitive ability levels is an important topic of study. Is there a direct link between brain injuries and how….
Juengst, S.B., Adams, L. M., Bogner, J.A., Arenth, P.M., O'Neil-Pirozzi, T.M., Dreer, L.E., & Wagner, A.K. (2015, November). Trajectories of Life Satisfaction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Influence of Life Roles, Age, Cognitive Disability, and Depressive Symptoms. Rehabilitation Psychology, 60(4), 353-364. Doi: 10.1037/rep0000056
Massy. J. S., Meares, S., Batchelor, J., & Bryant, R.A. (2015, July). An Exploratory Study of the Association of Acute Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Pain to Cognitive Functioning in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Neuropsychology, 29(4), 530-542. Doi: 10.1037/meu000192
McDonald, S., Gowland, A., Randall, R., Fisher, A., Osborne-Crowley, K., & Honan, C. (2014, September). Cognitive Factors Underpinning Poor Expressive Communication Skills after Traumatic Brain Injury: Theory of Mind or Execution Function? Neuropsychology, 28(5), 801-811. Doi: 10.1037/neu0000089
Meyers. N. M., Chapman, J.C., Gunthert, K.C., & Weissbrod, C.S. (2016, January). The Effect of Masculinity on Community Reintegration Following TBI in Military Veterans. Military Psychology, 28(1), 14-24. Doi:10.1037/mil0000097
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over and over….
In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)
In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.
I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
Traumatic Brain Injury in Children Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the primary public health problems under health concerns over several decades. Health statistics reveal that this problem…Read Full Paper ❯
The soldiers who informed that their injury didn't include any altered mental status or the loss of consciousness worked as the reference group for all of the analyses…Read Full Paper ❯
condition known as Post-traumatic Amnesia. This condition occurs when an individual suffers an acute brain damaging injury. Automobile crashes are said to be the most common origin of…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Traumatic rain Injury Pathophysiology Traumatic brain injury, continues to remain an enigma and treatment is elusive, causing death and disability across the globe. Luckily, significant progress has been made in helping…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans Traumatic brain injury is an acute injury of the brain, which may or may not be detected at the outset. It can be classified as…Read Full Paper ❯
MTBI and Depression Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs as a result of force to the skull or brain. The probability of receiving a TBI is increased if one is participates…Read Full Paper ❯
manifestations of types of traumatic brain injury (focal, diffuse) and hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid)? Focal TBI occurs as a result of some mechanical force acting on the skull (and…Read Full Paper ❯
The diagnostic criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder due to traumatic brain injury as indicated in the DSM-5 begins with cognitive problems meaning that the patient must have a diagnosis…Read Full Paper ❯
Brain Injury and DamageIntroductionBrain damage can present itself during the postnatal stage, perinatal, or even the prenatal stage. The prenatal phase arises before birth, and brain damage during this…Read Full Paper ❯
patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors? Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects…Read Full Paper ❯
Anthropologist working with the VA Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement ibliography of the…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency. Another way in which…Read Full Paper ❯
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused…Read Full Paper ❯
Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels A traumatic brain injury (TBI) has considerable impacts on the normal…Read Full Paper ❯
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken…Read Full Paper ❯