Traumatic Brain Injury In Children Research Paper

Length: 6 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Children Type: Research Paper Paper: #9895940 Related Topics: Concussion, Child Observation, Human Brain, Child Abuse
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Traumatic Brain Injury in Children

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been one of the primary public health problems under health concerns over several decades. Health statistics reveal that this problem has been common among the male adolescents, as well as the young adults under the age bracket of 15 to 24 years. Similarly, this disorder is common among the elderly people of both sexes under the age of 75 and above. However, this paper is of high concern about children of ages 5 and below, or 5 to 18 years, who are at high risk of traumatic brain injuries. TBI is among the leading causes of death and acquired disabilities among infants and children.

Traumatic brain injury is an acquired injury to an individual's brain resulting from an external physical force exerted on the head, leading to partial or total disability and/or psychological impairment. This scenario may adversely impact on a child's educational performance. This term TBI does not apply to degenerative or congenital brain injuries, or any induced brain injuries during birth trauma. It applies to any closed or open head injury that results to impairments on any body part (Fenwick, Manly, Anderson & Robertson, 2012). Such impairments may relate to language, cognition, memory, reasoning, attention, judgment, abstract thinking, speech, problem solving, sensory and motor abilities, physical performance, and psycho-social behavior of a child. TBI can thereby change how a child acts, moves, thinks and performs in the course of learning.

Motor vehicle accidents, falls, and playing with risky objects are the common contributing factors for unintentional causes while child abuse and assaults during infancy, young age, and adolescence ages are the ill-fated causes of TBI. Many research and health institutions thereby focus on limiting the primary brain injuries and minimizing the secondary brain injuries (Lazar & Menaldino, 2009). Today, many health institutions, understand the importance of a healthy brain and its traumatic responses. However, health research institutions still have much to do in order to understand the treatment and how to reverse the damage that results from head injuries (Porr, 2012).

Whereas the symptoms of brain injuries among the children may be similar to those experienced by the adults, the impact may be very different in terms of functionality (Povlishock & Christman, 2003). This is because the brains of children continuously develop as opposed to those of adults. In the past, people had an assumption that children with brain injuries would recover quicker and better than the adults due to the "plasticity" in younger brains. This cliche is no longer functional. The most recent health researches on brain injuries reveal that brain injuries in children has more devastating effects than brain injuries of similar severity within the mature adults. The perceptive impairment symptoms on children may take longer to appear, but may be apparent as the child grows into adult age. Lazar and Menaldino (2009) affirmed that such delayed impacts may lead to lifetime challenges on physical performance, learning, as well as the social life. The greatest challenge facing lots of children with brain injuries involve changes in formal social behaviors, and the ability to think and learn.

Mutual deficits upon brain injury may include impaired judgment, difficulty in reasoning and processing information. In adults, these deficits may become apparent just in months after the brain injury. On the contrary, the injury deficits may take years to become apparent, after which the impact advances to be so treacherous. At the time of damage incidence, the child may only show cranial fractures, contusions, cranial nerve injuries, intracranial or extra-parenchymal hematomas, and edema (Povlishock & Christman, 2003). Hematoma is damage to the blood vessel in the head region. After the head injury, cerebral damage may become secondary to the injury complications or primary to the trauma. The secondary damages encompass the subsequent insults after the impact or insults during the process of emergency medical interventions. The primary cerebral damage commonly becomes permanent; however, both of the damage types may result into limitations of body functional outcomes (Lazar & Menaldino, 2009).

Most of the primary focal injuries are temporary and frontal amongst children. A clinician may use a computer tomography scan after an injury in order to predict the degree and types of the subsequent functional limitations. Using the magnetic resonance imaging of the corpus callosum and brainstem, the clinician can identify the diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). These injuries are as a result of shearing forces during the...


A child's brain tissues develop differently as compared developments within adults' brain hence; young children and infants are always vulnerable damages caused by the secondary trauma. The complications involved in secondary trauma include cerebral edema, cerebral swelling, hematomas and vasospasm, which subsequently result into increased hypoxia, hypotension, ischemia, and increased intracranial pressure.

Immediately after the traumatic period, pressure necrosis, infarction, and herniation may occur. According to Hall and Cope (2007), damages from such secondary complications are more diffuse in children than in adults and may resolve during the rehabilitation and recovery period of a child. According to Lehmkuhl, High and Boake (2008), it is commonly advisable for parents of children recovering from traumatic brain injury to refer their children to rehabilitation services of any kind. In adolescent children with TBI, the most commonly observed, functional limitations are in the areas of speech, vision, self-feeding, hearing, dressing, bathing, walking, behavior, and cognition (Hall & Cope, 2007). During childhood, traumatic brain injury may have long-term effects on psychosocial and cognitive functioning; including unsatisfactory academic achievements resulting from significant deficits in the child's working memory.

TBI may exhibit a wide range of both physical and psychological symptoms. As in adults, the signs and symptoms among children may be moderate, mild, or severe, depending on the magnitude of the brain damage. Some of these symptoms may be apparent immediately upon the traumatic event, whereas other signs and symptoms may become apparent days, weeks, months, or years later. A child with a mild traumatic brain injury may experience loss of consciousness or remain conscious over a given duration. In both children and adults, the mild traumatic brain injury may exhibit symptoms such as confusion, headache, dizziness, tired eyes, blurred vision, loss of appetite, fatigue, mood swings, change in sleeping patterns, and troubles with thinking, attention, memory and concentration.

Nonetheless, young children and infants may lack appropriate communication skills to report some of these feelings, such as sensory problems, headaches, and confusion. Most of the TBI's signs and symptoms will thereby be apparent through observations and visualization (Lehmkuhl et. al., 2008). Some of these observable symptoms include change in nursing and eating habits, easy or unusual irritability, persistent crying, inability to pay attention, depressed moods, change in sleeping habits, and loss of interest in activities or favorite toys. These signs and symptoms may vary depending on the injured part of the brain and the level of severity.

Children who are capable of communicating and expressing their feelings and ideas are at a higher position of exposing the signs and symptoms of the TBI. According to Jennings and Blaskey (2013), they can show their physical disabilities hearing, speaking, seeing, and using other senses. They can communicate their feelings of headache and fatigue. When walking, parents, health doctors, or any other person can be able to see their difficulties in movement due to a paralyzed body or body part. Following the brain injuries, it is general that the child's ability to utilize their brain will change drastically (Kinsella, Prior & Sawyer, 2006). The child may have problems with the short-term memory (the ability to remember from one minute to another). Similarly, the child may suffer from trouble of long-term memory (the ability to recollect information from a while ago). Kinsella et al. (2006) assert that these memory troubles may lead to forgetfulness of what the teacher just taught in class or the facts learnt from the previous lessons. The child will always be able to focus attention just within a short time or completely losses concentration, either at home or in class.

Children with TBI will always experience social troubles when interacting with fellow children since they commonly undergo sudden changes in anxiety, moods, and depression. They may laugh or cry a lot, lack control over their emotions, and sometimes become restless. It is thereby essential to understand that during growth and development of a child, both teachers and parents may be able to notice the child's problems. This is because they both have high expectations on these children to use their brains in developing new skills and useful knowledge. However, it may be challenging for parents and educators to notice some of the problems related to TBI at earlier stages. The problems can then develop gradually to affect the child in learning and to develop such new skills (Fenwick, et al., 2012).

One of the most common but minor type of traumatic brain injury is the concussion. Technically, concussion is short-term…

Sources Used in Documents:


Fenwick, T., Manly, T., Anderson, V. & Robertson, I. (2012). Attentional skills following traumatic brain injury in childhood: A componential analysis. Journal of Brain Injuries,

57(12), 237 -- 249.

Hall, K., & Cope, D. (2007). The benefit of rehabilitation in traumatic brain injury: A literature review. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26 (10), 1 -- 13.

Jennings, M. & Blaskey, J.(2013). Traumatic brain injury: Decision making in pediatric neurologic physical therapy. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.

Cite this Document:

"Traumatic Brain Injury In Children" (2013, October 27) Retrieved October 16, 2021, from

"Traumatic Brain Injury In Children" 27 October 2013. Web.16 October. 2021. <>

"Traumatic Brain Injury In Children", 27 October 2013, Accessed.16 October. 2021,

Related Documents
Analyzing Traumatic Brain Injury
Words: 2986 Length: 7 Pages Topic: Health - Nursing Paper #: 94354005

Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology Traumatic brain injury, continues to remain an enigma and treatment is elusive, causing death and disability across the globe. Luckily, significant progress has been made in helping improve short-term outcome in victims facing a severe brain injury. Unfortunately, it is still not possible to get back the victims to their normative level of brain functioning. Injuries to the brains caused by forceful impact may cause tissue distortion. Clinically,

Manifestations of Types of Traumatic Brain Injury
Words: 1379 Length: 5 Pages Topic: Disease Paper #: 99937213

manifestations of types of traumatic brain injury (focal, diffuse) and hemorrhage (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid)? Focal TBI occurs as a result of some mechanical force acting on the skull (and hence the brain) or penetrating injury to the brain. The manifestations of focal TBI will depend on the particular area of the brain that is damaged (Granacher, 2007). For example, damage to the posterior portion of the left frontal lobe will

Children Learning in the Classroom
Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Teaching Paper #: 19981722

Next, Westwood explains how educators must compartmentalize lesson plans as to minimize the amount of information the student must cognitively digest. The smaller the lesson plans, the greater chance that child has at retaining that information. It is large lesson plans filled with complex amounts of information which provides an environment which the memory challenged child will undoubtedly fail. Another key method for improving learning abilities in children with memory

Children's Hospital for My Alternate
Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Children Paper #: 56411096

The RN really became a part of the educational team, tailoring her assistance to the child to the classroom environment. In fact, because much of the education seemed tailored towards teaching the students basic life-skills information, such as the weather, the nurse was able to really interact with the child's education. The best part of the experience was observing the inherent joy in children. From an outsider's perspective, the children

Child Physical Abuse
Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Topic: Counseling Paper #: 93520689

Child Abuse and Corporal Punishment 1. According to Barnett et al. (2011), there are mild to serious traumatic brain injuries that could result from the violent shaking of an infant. The shaken baby syndrome, as the authors point out, is one such traumatic brain injury. On the other hand, Munchausen by Proxy could be described as yet another form of child abuse in which case a caregiver falsifies symptoms (psychological or

Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
Words: 2785 Length: 8 Pages Topic: Children Paper #: 17371982

Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern