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The logic is simple: the judges here are fakes but the judges in the afterlife are real; and moreover, the one truth he asks the jury to keep in mind is that "…a good man cannot be harmed either in life or in death" (41-c). After all, Socrates will find joy in questioning and having discussions with iconic persons like Homer or Orpheus: "I could spend my time testing and examining people there, as I do here, as to who among them is wise, and who thinks he is, but is not" (41-b).
TO: hy would Socrates think that it is logical for a vicious person to fear death?
Using Socratic logic, one could comfortably suggest that while it is not logical for a virtuous person to fear death is must then be logical for a person that is not virtuous to fear death. Otherwise, why would Socrates, a man…… [Read More]
Trial by Jury
One of the most controversial issues today in the area of criminal justice is that of the right of all defendants to a trial by jury their peers. While most arguments are for or against this right, careful consideration of specific issues and kinds of cases suggests that trial by jury should not be abolished entirely, but should not be an absolute right. The idea of trial by jury can be retained in the American legal system through compromise and by limiting trial by jury to specific cases and courts. Having specialized courts for particular legal issues such as medical malpractice or other highly technical issues would remedy many of the problems that critics of the current system grapple with as legal scholars and moral individuals.
Often, as seen in the pairing of the essays of the noted defense attorney, media personality, and Harvard legal scholar Alan…… [Read More]
[footnoteRef:24] the act required, according to Hausner, detached, painstaking planning and the cooperation of thousands in order to destroy six million Jews and an untold number of others. Over 1,500 Jewish centers and thousands of communities had been erased. Of the 9.8 million Jews that were living in areas of Europe that would later be annexed by the Nazis, over half were dead by the end of the war.[footnoteRef:25] for example, Germany, Poland, and Czechoslovakia lost 96%, 98%, and 96% of their Jewish populations, respectively. The indictment was in fact stating that Eichmann was both the architect and executioner for the elimination of the Jewish populations in much of Western Europe. [24: Ibid.] [25: Moshe Pearlman, the Capture and Trial of Adolf Eichmann, (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1963), 229.]
The first witnesses for the prosecution related their personal experiences during the period before the Final Solution was begun.[footnoteRef:26] "……… [Read More]
Trial by Jury -- a right that must be upheld, in part
One of the most controversial issues today in the area of criminal justice is that of the right of all defendants to a trial by jury of his or her peers. Often, as seen in the pairing of the essays of the noted defense attorney, media personality, and Harvard Legal scholar Alan Dershowitz against the words of Christie Davies, the debate can be very polarized. Dershowitz calls juries "Unsung Heroes," stating that "Juries Offer True Justice" in the populist and democratic spirit of America, while Christie Davies's "Trial by Jury Should Be Abolished" takes the contrary view, calling the right to trial by jury an outdated system that was viable only in eras of less complicated legal and technical questions, and in a more homogeneous America.
However, the polarized views of Dershowitz and Davies must be given more…… [Read More]
The Best Evidence ule and Why it Was Implemented into the Court System
The best evidence rule in basic terms is an ancient legal rule that requires the originals, rather than copies, of documents to be presented as evidence during trial. Nevertheless, copies can in this case be accepted as evidence if the originals are not available, and the concerned party gives a conclusive excuse for their absence. For instance, if the original document is destroyed, lost, or is in the opponent's possession, the concerned party may not be required to produce the same. The rule is, however, only applicable "when a party seeks to prove the contents of the document sought to be admitted as evidence" (Cornell University Law School, 2010). Traditionally, a document only implied an inscription, or writing. Modern times have, however, seen the courts appreciate technological advancement, and accept as documentary evidence, information stored…… [Read More]
Trial and Death of Socrates
Several of Plato's works explicate the details of Socrates life, especially his trial, sentence and execution. The novel, Trial and Death of Socrates too work around the same ideals, and present to the audience a man of great integrity and honor. Socrates was a man who valued his decisions and had great regards for self-respect, as well as respect for others. He was a man who preferred death to a life of debasement. Plato's Trial and Death of Socrates remains a powerful archive even today partly because it is true and partly because it illustrates the tale of one of the greatest men in history. The book represents to its audience four dialogues namely, The Euthyphro, The Apology, The Crito and The Phaedo. In Apology, Socrates dauntlessly guards the probity of his teachings and in the Crito, he demonstrates his respect for the law while…… [Read More]
Furthermore, all three groups believed that the Old Testament prophecies regarding the Messiah would be fulfilled. (Aiuto). In fact, Jesus was not the first person to be proclaimed the Messiah. Understanding that there was a tremendous amount of strife and competition in the Jewish community is important, because it makes it clear that while some Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus, it can hardly be suggested that all Jews were responsible for Jesus' death. Instead, Jewish involvement in Jesus' death seems explainable by one of the truisms of murder investigation: murders are generally committed by same-sex members of the victims' racial group. Because Jesus was a Jewish male, it should come as no surprise that some Jewish males played a central role in his trial and execution. However, that statement should not be viewed as either anti-Semitic or as an excuse for anti-Semitism. While some Jews played a…… [Read More]
Trial" by Franz Kafka
The human sense of justice in "The Trial" by Franz Kafka
The field of literature is filled with stories depicting human suffering in both explicit and implicit forms, which made the readers empathize or react to the horrors depicted in these illustrations of suffering. However, there is a far more horrific portrayal of human suffering, and this is the experience of injustice in one's life. In the novel "The Trial," which was published in 1925, Franz Kafka provides effective description of a man's life driven by injustice, having been arrested for an accusation that he knew he had not committed.
The novel chronicles Josef K.'s struggle to prove his innocence throughout the novel. He had met with people who represent, in one or the other, parts of a clearly corrupt and unjust justice system. Upon reading the novel, one is clearly reminded of societies wherein justice…… [Read More]
A family had been walking along the water front when the mother noticed some animals running away from a brush pile next to the water. Upon further investigation, they saw what appeared to be a human hand sticking out of the pile. The family ran away and phoned the police.
It had been months since the wife, mother and teacher had disappeared and it looked like she had been dead since the night she first went missing. Since she had disappeared last winter, it looked like someone may have stored her body in some type of freezer and had then moved her to the water hore in the hopes that no one would discover her body until spring. This was one idea that the police had, at least.
Her body was remarkably intact, but it was clear that she had been murdered. The evidence showed that sexual intercourse had recently…… [Read More]
In 2005, a Federal Judge in Georgia ruled that any sticker or notice violated the separation of Church and state, "Due to the manner in which the sticker refers to evolution as a theory, the sticker also has the effect of undermining evolution eduction. . . The distinction of evolution as a theory rather than a fact is the distinction that religiously motivated individuals have specifically asked school boards to make…. And in doing so improperly entagles religion and education" (Larson, 318).
Creation science now had to change, and now became intelligent design. Numerous districts either required it to be taught, or required statements about it be read at the same time as the teaching of any Darwinian theory. The first case, however, to test an individual district's policy to teach intelligent design. The plaintiffs argued that intelligent design was, in fact, creationism as an alternative to evolution. This, they…… [Read More]
..from the commencement of litigation to its resolution, whether by trial or settlement, any elapsed time other than reasonably required for pleadings, discovery and court events is unacceptable and should be eliminated" (as cited in Fairfax Circuit Court Civil Case Management: Executive Summary of DCTP, 2008) any civil court would be well served and would better serve the citizens of that county or federal court by implementing such a system in order to better regulate the flow of civil cases through the court system.
Recommendations of this memorandum on the 'time to trial' differences in criminal and civil court cases are that some type of system such as the one implemented in Fairfax County Virginia Circuit Civil Court System be implemented in the present court in the state of Confusion in order to clear up the backlog of civil cases and better serve the citizens of this fine state.…… [Read More]
He is taken outside, where the fresh air revives him. n this Chapter, K. suffers two types of defeat; first the defeat of his aborted sexual conquest that would ultimately be a victory over the Magistrate, and secondly the defeat of the air making him unable to go the Court offices. He is physically unable to be in the vicinity of the Court, and therefore unable to attempt to resolve his legal problems.
Chapter 4 is another abortive attempt to reestablish his ties with a lady. Fraulein Burstner lets K. know via Fraulein Montag that she does not wish to see him, and subsequently leaves, to make only one more appearance in the novel. When K. enters her empty apartment to look for her, he feels that he is doing something not only wrong, but also pointless. This pointlessness emphasizes the lack of meaning mentioned above.
Chapter 5 returns to…… [Read More]
Sacco and Vanzetti Murder Trial
Throughout the conviction of Sacco and Vanzetti until decades after their deaths, there was two different of thought and stand: The first group believed that the trial was fair and that the two murders got what they deserved while the other group held the view that these two Italians anarchists were the innocent victims of political and economic interests with the intention of passing a message about the rising tide of anarchist, (Katherine amsland, 2014). Little attention was given to the idea that maybe there was guilty one and innocent one, not until the strong evidence from ballistics test in 1961 was provided indicating that indeed Sacco fired a fatal bullet on that April day in South Braintree, Massachusetts.
There were all the reasons to believe that the prosecution team got it right about the Sacco and Vanzetti murder trial. The finding of the investigation…… [Read More]
The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company are perfect examples of how economics, politics, and military intervention are all interconnected. Easily referred to as “company-states,” and “the world’s first multi-national” corporations,” these companies effectively served as multifaceted arms of their respective regimes, allowing both the British and the Dutch to expand their trading options abroad, secure new markets and gain market dominance, and also to establish fierce colonial presence in areas where they needed access to resources (“The Amboyna Conspiracy Trial”). While they were motivated by competition between each other, the British and Dutch East India Companies also served as extensions of European geo-political conflicts. This website on the Amboyna Conspiracy Trial shows the extent of oligarchic, capitalist power as it spread from Europe to Asia.
The Amboyna Conspiracy Trial also shows how both the Dutch and the British used their political and judicial authority as…… [Read More]
Constitutional Rights – The Trial by Franz Kafka
The Trial by Franz Kafka is considered to be a narrative that details the arrest, trial and execution of Joseph K, the protagonist of the novel, who plays the role of the chief clerk of a major bank. The novel prompts contemplation on the correlation between law and justice. Imperatively, laws ought to be equitable and just. In the event that there is an unfair regulation or rule, it is expected that measures will be undertaken to ensure that this is upturned by entreating to higher principles of justice. For instance, inequitable laws such as discrimination and racial exclusion and apartheid were appealed against to greater principles of justice to eradicate such practices, which was attained. In the book, Kafka lays emphasis on the significance of distinctive right when an individual is accused of a trial. The main objective of this…… [Read More]
The media present through radios talked extensively about the trial while print media also gave the event a lot of coverage. In fact media people and many others thronged Dayton to witness the famous trial first hand.
The trial was on for the education system that is whether it is to be ruled by the faith or reason. Darrel held the belief that education system should not be controlled by the bigots and so he grilled Bryan on the issue who in turn gave confusing answers contradicting his own views about the interpretation of Bible. On one hand Bryan failed to impress with his views while n the other hand critics like H.L. Mencken made a mockery of the trial. This whole brouhaha created a picture of a tussle between forward approach of science and backward approach of religion. After the Tennessee Supreme Court verdict federal jurisprudence braced the idea…… [Read More]
Response to Craker
Craker describes the three types of evidence used during the Salem judicial proceedings: spectral evidence, non-spectral evidence, and confessions. According to Craker, the types of evidence used determined which individuals were selected for trial and execution. Most importantly, the author claims that no individual was called to trial or executed on the basis of spectral evidence alone. Craker shows how a closer examination of trial evidence and procedures can reconstruct a more accurate narrative of the Salem events. Prior historical constructions have been emotionally driven and sensationalistic, based on the assumption that spectral evidence was weighted more heavily than it actually was. In fact, non-spectral evidence proved far more meaningful in the eyes of the courts. The author investigates 156 accused and the evidence brought against them, in order to showcase the greater significance of non-spectral evidence.
Therefore, the Craker reading underscores the importance of re-investigating primary…… [Read More]
The American legal system has evolved and shape shifted much throughout the creation of the laws which govern this country and all of its very complicated and complex laws. The numerous trials that are conducted each year has allowed for advocates of the court to grow and expand their base of knowledge in achieving success within the court room. The idea of trial consultants is one of these developments that has helped shape and mold the current legal system into the form that it exists in today's world.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the qualities of trial consultants and describe how they can affect any single trial and how they have significantly altered the way in which the law is practiced. This essay will examine the varying duties that trial consultants undertake and explain how these roles can benefit one side or another within the…… [Read More]
Competency to Stand Trial
DRAWING THE LINE
At any point in criminal proceedings that a defendant shows signs of mental illness, his competence to proceed to stand trial may be questioned (Winick, 2002). The issue may be brought up when he pleads guilty, waives certain constitutional rights, at sentencing hearing or when administering punishment, including capital punishment. Either the defense or prosecution or the court itself may raise the issue, even if the defendant himself objects to it. ut mental illness alone, even schizophrenia, does not automatically produce a finding of incompetence. Rather, it is based on the degree of functional damage produced by the illness. Two conditions must be satisfied in order to be adjudged incompetent to stand trial. It focuses on the defendant's mental state during trial. It is differentiated from the legal insanity defense, which is based on the defendant's mental state at the time of the…… [Read More]
"Here there is no why"
Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz.
Attempting to determine what Franz Kafka really meant in any of his stories is a difficult undertaking, given the absurdity and irrationality of the situations he describes and characters that do not seem to function or react as 'normal' human beings. This is especially true in his unfinished novel The Trial, where the young and successful bank executive Joseph K. is arrested and put on trial without charges and for no apparent reason, then taken out and murdered a year later. He never knows why all of this is happening to him, and perhaps Kafka's main point is that there is no 'why'; there is no reason for any of it, and indeed the characters and society he portrays are not acting in a rational manner. Like Primo Levi in Auschwitz, who was thirsty and broke off an…… [Read More]
(Turner and Schulhofer, 2005)
IV. Proposed Remedy
It was reported in the Washington Post July 27th 2008 edition that "modern realities strongly argue against using the federal courts as the exclusive arena to hold or try all terrorism suspects. The first priority of a president must be to protect the country from attack. The president must have the legal flexibility to detain those against whom there is credible, actionable intelligence but not enough evidence to bring charges." (Washington Post, 2008) There are also security challenges in regards to traditional federal court proceedings. Therefore, the Washington Post report proposed a specialized national security court that would be "...Modeled after the court that processes surveillance warrants under the auspices of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)" and based in Washington with a staff of federal judges who would sit part time on the court for a set duration of time. This proposed…… [Read More]
Criminal Process; Arraignment to Pre-Trial
The purpose of criminal law is to promote respect for the law by people and ensure a just, safe, and peaceful society. The American justice system has many commendable elements that are aligned to the objectives of a justice system. The trial system significantly addresses many point of subtlety and does a great job in its effort to uphold the rule of law. In the effort to deliver justice, it is important that the rights of the defendant be uphold. This paper seeks to shed light on three stages before the process of criminal trial, and how the rights of the defendant are catered for in each of the stages before trial commences. These stages include the information, arraignment and the subsequent hearings at pretrial.
The stage that precedes and leads to trial in a criminal case is called arraignment. Arraignment must be done…… [Read More]
Criminal Trials and Sentencing
In a 2010 report, it is stated that Courtney Elizabeth Hernandez, of Killeen, Texas, was charged with the kidnapping of a 2-1/2-year-old girl. The Defendant was given permission by the mother of the child, who was stationed at Fort Hood as a soldier in the United States Army, to take the child camping. The child's mother contacted the defendant on the 5th of July 2010 to pick the child up. Hernandez promised to deliver the child but did not deliver the child home. The child was never returned home and the Defendant was charged with kidnapping. The Defendant was arraigned for kidnapping with her lawyer present in the Criminal Court. The prosecutor was also present for this hearing.
The Defendant's attorney filed a motion for discovery as well as a trial to set aside evidence on the basis that the evidence…… [Read More]
The Scopes "Monkey Trial" was less about a teacher's violation of an arcane Southern law regarding the teaching of evolution in the classroom and more about the place of Christian culture, doctrine and ethics in the modern world. The trial came down to William Jennings Bryan (who had run for president a quarter century earlier) on the side of Christian culture and the atheist Clarence Darrow as Bryan's political, social and cultural antagonist. While ostensibly there to prosecute and defend John Scopes respectively, the spectacle that the trial quickly became revealed the underlying purpose of the courtroom scene: like the trials at Nuremberg that would come a quarter century later, Scopes was a "show trial," the real meaning of which was a "showdown" between the Old World ideology and the New -- or, in other words, the extent to which the Christian religion had a place in modern America.…… [Read More]
As one side would see them as an extension of the Nazis, who wanted to destroy Israel at any cost. At the same time, opponents would argue that Israel should be talking and negotiating with their neighbors, to avoid similar kinds of conflicts. This is important, because these views would have an impact upon various military operations and foreign policy actions taken in the future. A good example of this can be seen with the events surrounding the Six Day War in 1967. What happened was, en Gurion had continually argued for Israel to use self restraint in international affairs. The problem was that the Arabs would use this as way to attack Israel. For many conservatives, this was a continuation of the same policies, as the inactions from the Mapai party would make the security situation worse. Where, many conservatives would argue that these actions were similar to the…… [Read More]
It is clear that Mr. Moran met the legal standard for competency. Because of concerns about his competency, likely prompted by Moran's suicide attempt, the trial court had Moran examined by two psychiatrists. Both doctors found him competent. The dissent attempted to question Moran's competency by citing notes one of the psychiatrist had made, which suggested that Moran's guilt may have hampered his ability to give his best efforts towards his defense. Given that Moran was responsible for the senseless deaths of four people, the fact that he felt guilt and was somewhat impaired by it was probably more indicative of mental competency than if he had not felt guilt. Competency to stand trial cannot and should not be confused with competency to escape a guilty verdict.
While I agree that represented and unrepresented individuals should have the same competency standards, and believe that Moran was competent to stand trial,…… [Read More]
Although in this particular case it seemed that Scott Peterson was guilty, even if the evidence was just circumstantial, this type of evidence has sent many people to death, only to find out later that they were not guilty. This is actually a flaw of the jury system. The European continental system lets a judge appreciate whether a person is guilty or not of some crime. Since judges have to pass an exam in order to be appointed and since they are not elected for some period of time, their complete independence is assured. This way, an impartial judge would be indifferent to the media pressure and would weigh the evidence better than any jury, since a judge certainly has more experience than any juror. However, the American legal system chose to put ordinary people to judge other ordinary people, with the "guilty beyond reasonable doubt" principle as the only…… [Read More]
To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.
Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George . Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to http://mediamatters.org, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…… [Read More]
1921 and 1927, the trial and appeals of two individuals, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti,, dominated the news and were the inspirational source for many political movements throughout the world (Frankfurter). The profound and wide ranging effect that these two Italian immigrants had on society in the 1920 is remarkable and provides an excellent topic for discussion.
The incident giving rise to the Sacco and Vanzetti controversy occurred on April 15, 1920. The payroll of a South Braintree, Massachusetts factory was being carried by the company's paymaster and a guard for disbursement when the two men were suddenly robbed and killed by two men who retrieved the payroll and escaped in a waiting automobile. At first, the crime received only minimal attention on the local level around Boston but this would soon change as the two Italian immigrants, Sacco and Vanzetti, were arrested for an unrelated crime and eventually charged…… [Read More]
Kung San Trial Marriages and U.S. Divorce Rates.
The!Kung San are a hunter-gatherer people that inhabit the Kalahari desert in Africa. They are the ushmen who have managed to live a contented, self-governed life while the rest of the world has sprung up around them in a mass of technology and dysfunction. They live a community life where the economy is based on sharing and "among the first words a child learns are na ("give it to me") and ihn ("take this")" (Shostak 2000:44) giving outsiders the impression of a quaint carefree nomadic life.
Nevertheless there are many similarities shared between Americans and the!Kung San, some of which are as simple as equal love for their children, to the interesting arrangements of a 'trial marriage'. A!Kung trial marriage could be acquainted with people living together before getting married, or cohabiting as part of a condition before marriage, depending on religious…… [Read More]
In America, the right to a speedy trial is guaranteed inside the Constitution. The case involving the man arrested for manslaughter and jailed for six months brings into question if these protections are being practiced. To fully understand what is happening requires focusing on: the factors the judge should take into consideration when arriving at a decision, if the press has a right to be present during trials and the problems with allowing television cameras inside the courtroom. Together, these elements will highlight the how this provision is applied with changes in technology and the way laws are interpreted. (Vile, 2003)
What factors do you think the judge should take into consideration when trying to arrive at a decision on how to ensure the defendant's right to a public and speedy trial?
During the deliberations, the judge should consider the facts of the case if there is some…… [Read More]
A modern-day reenactment: the murder trial of Ned Kelly
This is the story of a courageous hero. A valiant leader and bold luminary, who was not afraid to stand up for justice. It's the story of a man who was not afraid to stand up for his family and his community, and fight to defend against an oppressive government and a corrupt and violent police force.
This brave man is Ned Kelly. And it is precisely because of his strong sense of justice and leadership ability that made him a target of the police and government.
We've seen that the police would resort to uncivilized violence for the sake of maintaining order in a rigged system, that reduced the Irish Catholics of this country to poor, 2nd class citizens. The police were blindly carrying out the British government's system, which relegated the Irish Catholics to permanent inferior status.…… [Read More]
God on Trial: Movie Analysis and Review
The Holocaust of orld ar II spawned many tragedies, one of which was the crisis of faith it precipitated amongst European Jews. The film God on Trial depicts the inhabitants of a concentration camp literally putting God on trial for his crimes against humanity as they wait to be "sorted out" into groups of who will live and who will die at Auschwitz. The film begins set in the present, where various tourists to the concentration camp are shown gawking at the premises. They can hardly believe the horror was once real and then slowly, there is a shift as the camera pans away to reveal a change of time and the viewer is taken back to orld ar II. The event is based upon an apocryphal incident in which the residents of Auschwitz were said to have staged such a mock court,…… [Read More]
I want you to put yourself in their shoes and then tell me how you would feel if someone--anyone -- got a hold of your personal information, your private information, your identity, and used that information to buy stuff online. To commit Grand Theft.
Now, the defense is going to try to steer your minds away from the crime that was committed and will tell you that the police were not entitled to use canines in their search for drugs at - school. Of course, we as the state believe 100% in the protection of your rights and freedoms as Americans. We hold strong to the 4th Amendment of the constitution.
But in this case, these children were attending school. A key phrase in this trial is the "reasonable expectation of privacy." You and I have a reasonable expectation of privacy when we are in our own homes, don't we?…… [Read More]
As someone might say today, the lack of knowledge as a result of not willing to search for it is no excuse. How can anyone be sure to do right since the truth remains hidden? Socrates thinking was aimed at making his fellow humans who were willing to listen to him aware of the dangers of doing wrong by not being willing to question the truth or what it was known as the truth.
ne cannot help and wonder what would have happened if Socrates had accepted the jury's forgiveness in exchange for giving up his beliefs. Certainly, a life long work would have went to pieces and be destroyed. His credibility in front of his contemporary disciples, like Plato and all those who followed them would have been for ever shattered. Even if they understood his fear in front of what appears to be the most frightful opponent of…… [Read More]
Justice ithout Trial
The author and professor of criminal justice, Jerome Skolnick, argues in his book entitled Justice ithout Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society, that the first line of defense in the protection of personal safety and property any democratic society is that of effective law enforcement. However, the police form not a human line of protective and retributive justice, as they ideally should, but instead have created and fucntion as a subculture with little respect for other institutions of justice in the nation, such as trial by jury and presumptions of innocence. Instead, Skolnick states that even in allegedly democratic America, justice takes place without a trial, in the eyes of the prejudices of a policeman when they see a supposed perpetrator in the night. The presumption of guilt in the heart of the policeman, rather than the objectivity of a judge becomes the most compelling determinant of…… [Read More]
This can lead to social isolation, disapproval and prejudice, and shame and feelings of immorality (2008).
Arreola et al. (2009) state that LGBM are one of the groups that participate in some of the riskiest sexual behaviors among gay and bisexual men. This prevalence of risky behavior among gay and bisexual men is higher in instances where the men have been sexually abused as a child; it is even higher among LGBM (2009). Unprotected anal intercourse was significantly related to a history of childhood sexual abuse in a study conducted by Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal (2005) (Morales 2009). In another study of adult men who sleep with men, there was a significantly higher portion of LGBM who reported sexual abuse before age 13 years (22%) than did non-Latino men who sleep with men (11%). Furthermore, studies have shown that childhood sexual abuse can significantly predict negative health outcomes including HIV /…… [Read More]
He was willing to risk his livelihood, career, and reputation in the community in the name of science. As a biology teacher he knew that he was ultimately doing the right thing. I find this to be an admirable act and shows a strong belief in the American system of democracy as much as belief in science. Because of John Scopes and the ACLU, the Supreme Court reversed the Butler Act.
I also find it interesting that the reaction to the theory of evolution was so strong that it led to the passing of that law. However, the same thing seems to be happening today, as many Americans continue to deny the theory of evolution. I find it interesting that so many Americans believe in the Bible's creation story as being literal truth and wish to teach it in school instead of in church, almost a hundred years after the…… [Read More]
Indiana trial rule 4-4.17 and FRCP
In the legal system there are many rules, both federal and state, that govern the process for how things are done within the system. Two of these rules are Indiana Trial rules 4-4.17 and Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 4. Both of these rules have to do with issuing summons for a court case. According to the Indiana Trial rules a summons must include the name and address of the person for whom the service is for, the name, street address, and telephone number of the court and the cause number that has been assigned to the case, the name of the case that is on the complaint, but, if there are numerous parties, the name may be abridged to comprise only the first named plaintiff and defendant with a suitable suggestion that there are supplementary parties, the name, address, and telephone number of…… [Read More]
financial system trials tribulations starting early 2008. Indicate major reasons contributed financial market's collapse. Please leave a space reason. -College Level paperOrder ID
Five major factors that contributed to the financial market's collapse
eason 1: Historically low interest rates
The first major contributor to the collapse of the worlds' financial markets was the housing bubble. The Federal eserve dropped interest rates to historically levels after the September 11 terrorist attacks and the dot.com bubble burst. This was to generate more spending and borrowing and propel the nation out of recession. Low interest rates encouraged people to buy on credit. Many people took out mortgages, thinking that this was a good time to buy a house, and many others took out mortgages hoping to 'flip' a house, or sell it for more than they paid for it, as they were convinced that it was impossible for housing prices to go down…… [Read More]
" The right to trial was created to protect the individual citizen from the strength and power of the government and to prevent potential influence upon the judiciary by special interests. In protecting individuals, the right to jury trial protects all of the citizenry.
The Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution reads: "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense ." While the right to a jury trial is guaranteed by the United States Constitution in criminal…… [Read More]
Globalized Clinical Trials
As a part of a research team within a research consortium that is preparing to conduct a large-scale trial in multiple locations around the world, it is important to fully understand the advantages and challenges that are involved in managing globalized clinical trials. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning these issues, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the advantages and challenges that are associated with globalized clinical trials in the conclusion.
The Advantages of Globalized Clinical Trials
The trends are clear and there has been a steady increase in the use of globalized clinical trials by the biopharmaceutical industry in recent years, especially in several developing regions of the world including Latin American, Asia, and Central Eastern Europe, where medical care has languished despite efforts by national and international authorities to deliver modern healthcare services (Glancszpigel & acaro,…… [Read More]
Because of his death, Lincoln remained in history as a national martyr, with a great number of historians having recognized him as the greatest American president. Also, John ilkes Booth is considered to be one of the most famous criminals ever to have lived. All of the people having taken part in Lincoln's assassination have been blinded by their passion for the Confederacy; otherwise they would have realized that their actions would not accomplish what they had in mind, as it had been virtually impossible for them to bring back slavery and the Confederacy.
1. Brown, R.J. "The Postmortem Career of John ilkes Booth." Retrieved October 28, 2009, from the History buff eb site: http://www.historybuff.com/library/refbooth.html
2. Pierrepont, Edwards. (1867). "Argument of Hon. Edwards Pierrepont to the jury: on the trial of John H. Surratt for the murder of President Lincoln." Govt. Print. Off.
3. Pitman, Benn. (1865). "The…… [Read More]
Technology in Managing Data in Clinical Trials
Even a casual observer will undoubtedly make note of the range of high-tech solutions that are causing disruptive change in the process of clinical trials. From webinars and multi-day meetings to an expanding pool of literature, technology has been establishing itself as the key to an era fixated on measurable improvements like accelerating the research start-up phase, restructuring clinical trial information transmission, and overhauling research monitoring. And the issue is no longer a distinct solution to apparently intractable glitches; instead, it revolves around sharing real-time information captured by these solutions for facilitating strategic decision-making by collaborators, with regard to a research's status as it is actually progressing. This constitutes a drastic change from the conventional paper-based techniques that underlie the industry's costly and time-consuming methods of carrying out international clinical research, in which data quality assessment depended on near-database locking or onsite monitoring,…… [Read More]
Global Healthcare Ethics and the andomised HIV Trial
Healthcare professional face a range of ethical issues in the pursuance of their vocation. In the context of HIV research and the conducting of research among vulnerable population, such as poor expectant mothers in developing countries, the compete of global health ethics should provide a foundation for the assessment of ethical practices, both in planning, undertaking, and reviewing the work (WHO, 2014; Stapleton et al., 2013). Global health ethics is an interdisciplinary field, which covers not only health research, but also issues such as the provision of healthcare, and development of health policy, with the aim of understanding the moral values which should be implemented at a global level, undertaken utilising a predominantly geographic approach to macro level health issues (Stapleton et al., 2013). In this context, global health ethics is primarily concerned with issues such as pandemics, the effects of natural…… [Read More]
double blind trial. This is a study where neither the researchers or the participants know what they will receive. First and foremost, it removes any potential for bias, as there are no preconceived notions from the participants or those studying the reactions of the trial. Such studies often also "follow less restrictive methodological standards than phase III studies in terms of patient selection, comedictation, and other design issues," (Muller, 2011). Essentially they have greater room to better replicate real world scenarios. They are also much more able to be generalized than studies with more restrictions. However, there are also some downsides to double blind trials. For example, there is a much greater variance that the research will have to deal with. This is "caused by the different kinds of confounders as well as problematic design issues" that can lead to "wrong conclusions," (Muller, 2011). When there are issues it is…… [Read More]
SOC 205 – Society Law and Government 1
The Enron (Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling) Trial
Summary of the Trial
The Enron Trial dates as one of high profile case of corporate fraud in the US. Enron was founded in 1985 by Kenneth Lee Lay and was reported as the largest seller of Natural gas in North America by 2000. The American energy company recorded a spectacular rise with revenues increasing to over $100 billion in 2000 from $9 billion in 1995 and an increase of Enron’s stock prices recording a high of US$90.75 per share. Enron Corporation was ranked consistently as America's Most Innovative Company" between 1996 and 2001 by Fortune Magazine. The end of 2001 saw an unprecedented collapse of Enron’s stock price from US$90.75 per share to less than a dollar following an announced of $1billon loss in the first quarter of 2001 and resulting to declaration…… [Read More]
Absence of adjusting entries would most likely to either understate or overstate the accounts in the period of reporting and will have an adverse effect on the following reporting period. This is true except for bad debts or doubtful accounts and depreciation. eing in nature of an expense accounts and valuation accounts, absence of adjustments would overstate the operational performance of the business and at the same time overstate valuation of the particular asset it is supposed to reduce to its realizable value. Such absence would affect only the particular period where adjustment was omitted. To illustrate, salaries and wages of workers should be recorded as expense for the period, even if the actual payment falls on the following period. Failure to record the expense would understate salaries and wages for the year as well as understatement or omission of a liability regarding the same. The effect is an overstated…… [Read More]
After establishing the basics for knowledge management, the next step includes "Developing support and setting expectations." Lessons learned during this process and recommended to others considering utilizing knowledge management were reported to be:
1. To help insure the project starts off right and ends up right the first time, consider consulting a consultant, Stoll recommends. esearch and interview potential candidates to insure a positive working relationship.
2. Equip organization/business board and/or management to "get on board." Present benefits; concerns; projected outcomes. Stress expected benefits such as:
Better knowledge sharing among staff and member/customers;
Improved records-management system for enhanced use of our knowledge;
System that uses member/customer knowledge to improve customer relationship management and provide better services to members/customers.
3. Consider funding costs of the project.
4. Identify and set goals and expectations, yet be flexible when change is needed.
The Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management which contains…… [Read More]
outsourcing clinical trials that individuals and organizations looking to do so need to consider. Many of these different facets pertain to the contracts provided for this particular process. The principle services that one will need to procure, of course, are those of the research company that will be utilized to outsource the clinical trials. In the situation presented in this assignment, there are two individuals, one of which has the patent for a potential Alzheimer's compound and another that has the research skills. The first thing that this fledgling company needs to do is outline exactly what will be tested and how it will be done. This information itself must go into the contract that the party that is going to actually conduct the clinical trials needs to see. It is pertinent for the pharmaceutical company to be very specific about what sorts of these things it is testing for…… [Read More]
regulatory requirements involved will be covered. The report will also include an answer to the question of what three of the file documentation requirements are before a study can be begin at a given site. While the rules and regulations regarding clinical trials may seem arduous and aggravating, they exist for a very good reason.
As explained by the class PowerPoint, the role of the Investigator's Brochure is to offer a compilation of all clinical and non-clinical information that is relevant to a study. It also serves as a reminder and review of the protocol that must be followed. That protocol includes the rationale for the study as well as the compliance that must be part of the study. For the sponsor in particular, the Investigator's Brochure serves several specific needs. These needs include all information known an investigational drug, whether serious or adverse events are "expected" or "unexpected" during…… [Read More]
Murder Without a Body
Murder cases are perhaps the most noteworthy criminal prosecution cases regularly tried. They are indicative of the state of society and its larger problems. Therefore, it is always of extreme interest when there are murder cases in which there is no body found. The implications for these situations are obvious: if there is no dead body, is it truly fair to convict someone of having committed murder? In numerous instances, the answer to that question is a resounding yes. One of the most determining factors in convicting someone of murder without a body is circumstantial evidence. In the case of People v. Garcia, circumstantial evidence proved the deciding factor in convicting Mario Flavio Garcia of murder in the first degree in which it was found that he killed Christie Wilson.
Although Wilson's body was never recovered, there was a bevy of evidence that suggested that Garcia…… [Read More]
America and the seventeenth century in general, as a 'century of saints'. Some also refer to the seventeenth century as the 'golden age of demoniac." Towards the end of such a holy and demonic century the 1692 Salem Witch hunt showed just how much religion and religious belief permeated society. Several were accused and executed for witchcraft in Salem. While many of the accused were just victims of an overzealous society, the Salem Witch Trials remain as part of an unforgettable part of American history. Richard Godbeer's Escaping Salem: The Other Witch Hunt of 1692, take another look at the events of 1692 Salem, but from a different, refreshing perspective.
The book notes of the dramatic change in early New England's legal system because of the witch trials. The people's faith-based beliefs came in direct conflict with a legal system that at its base was reason and logic. But because…… [Read More]
Randomized Control Trial on Obesity
The health of children is significantly, negatively affected by obesity. The effects last through to one’s adult life. Obesity prevention initiatives are, therefore, seriously regarded across the globe and remain a priority. The urge for interventions based on evidence is overwhelming in modern day healthcare practice; more so for families with obese or overweight parents. A randomized control trial is, therefore, necessary (Johansson et al. 2016). This “Early STOPP” RCT focuses on obese or overweight parents that have infants. The intervention measures are began when children have hit one year and goes on until the age of six. The intervention is carried out by a specialist (a physiotherapist, a nurse or a therapist). The main aspects of the family Early STOPP measures are informed by recommendations from Swedish health experts for CHCC. They include advice on choices of foods that promote good health,…… [Read More]
It is the case of a black person taking the law against a white one. This is a story of race conflict, drawn through violent circumstances that will emphasize the proportions of that eternal war.
The courtroom dramas, that display the ability of lawyers to argument, to bring details into light, convince jury of a point-of-view, justify facts and present evidence are a favorite topic in American film industry. The film version would have been void of density without the trial suspense.
The conflict of morality, the eternal battle of right and wrong that will not always agree with what is forbidden or allowed (is it illegal to kill a criminal, but is it right to do it if they deserve it?). And especially the moral conflict of the people that have the power to judge this kind of actions and need to stay objective even through very powerful beliefs…… [Read More]
, 1999). In many areas of the country this may be very accurate.
Another problem that comes into the picture where obesity in children is concerned is that many parents must work very long hours today to pay bills and have money for what their family needs (Mokdad, et al., 1999). ecause of this, many children are latchkey kids and are not watched as closely by their parents as they used to be (Mokdad, et al., 1999). Children used to come home from school and go and play with others, but many now live in neighborhoods where this is unsafe or where there are no children their age so they remain inside watching TV or playing video games and snacking on whatever is available (Mokdad, et al., 1999).
If there is healthy food in the house this is often not a problem, but many households are full of potato chips,…… [Read More]
andomized Controlled Trial
The objective of this study is to carry out a critical appraisal of the article titled "Physical activity long-term after liver transplantation yields a better quality of life." (ongles, St.-pniewska, Lewandowska et al. 2011 p 126). The authors investigate the relationship between quality of life and physical activity in a randomly selected patients.
Validity of the esults
The goal of the CA (rapid critical appraisal) is to evaluate the validity of the research results, and the relevance of the results for the treatment and intervention of liver complications. The results are valid because the authors collect data of Group A and Group B and compare their results to present the outcome of the physical activities after transplantation. The Group B indulges in weekly physical and recreational activities that include cycling (53.8%), swimming (30.9%) and hiking (30.9%) compared to Group A with zero weekly physical activity. A comparative…… [Read More]
ight to a Jury Trial
A legal proceeding whereby a jury makes decisions or findings that are factual that are then applied by a judge is known as a jury trial. It is different from a bench trial where the sole decision maker is a panel of judges or a judge. Jury trials are applied in serious criminal cases in legal systems. Juries or lay judges have now been incorporated into the legal system of civil law countries for their criminal cases.
Among the several amendments, this is one of the most important amendments associated to the individual's benefit. It is under the seventh amendment in the constitution of the U.S.A. And it is preserved to the parties in violate (Cornel University Law School, 2013). The right to a jury states that in criminal prosecutions an accused person has the right to trial by a jury that is impartial, found…… [Read More]
Programs for Parents of Infants and Toddlers: ecent Evidence From andomized Trials
My initial thoughts and feelings were:
Infancy is a very important stage in children's development. It is at this stage that children are most receptive to both mental and physical change and they are at greater risk of potentially harmful influences than their older counterparts. Infants also get affected much more by parental disruptions than older kids. It has been shown that parent-child interactions during the early stages are great predictors of several late and early developmental outcomes. Lending parents support in coming up and implementing good parenting skills can lead to great child development (Pontoppidan, Klest & Sandov, 2016). Since the child is most malleable during infancy, experiences at this stage shape the child's behavior, wellbeing and brain development and so the effects can last for the entire life of the infant. Parenting interventions given to newborn…… [Read More]
Jessup Takes the Blame!
Today, in a remarkable turn of events in the murder trial of Marines Pfc. Louden Downey and Cpl. Harold Dawson, the hearing reached a dramatic conclusion. Col. Nathan Jessup, took responsibility in ordering the death of Pfc. William T. Santiago.
The courtroom was stunned when defense attorney Lieut. Daniel Kaffee accused the experienced officer who has commanded the Marine outpost on Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in his screams "I want the truth!"
Col. Jessup was eventually escorted out of the courtroom today by military police and is being held for questioning in his role of Santiago's murder. In a sly move of lawyer tactics LT. Kaffee baited Col. Jessup into admitting his role of ordering the " code red." Code Reds are slang for fellow military personnel discipline action upon one another as opposed to reporting it through the chain of command. In the case…… [Read More]