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T.S. Eliot and Amy Lowell
The poetic styles of T.S. Eliot and Amy Lowell are so dissimilar, that it comes as something of a shock to realize how much the two poets had in common. Each came from a prominent Boston family, and was related to a President of Harvard University -- Eliot was a distant relation to Harvard's President Eliot, and attended Harvard as an undergraduate: Amy Lowell's brother would become President of Harvard in the year that T.S. Eliot graduated. Meanwhile the poetic careers of both Eliot and Lowell were influenced by Ezra Pound: Pound famously edited Eliot's "aste Land," which is dedicated to him. But Pound had earlier been an artistic ally of Amy Lowell, and they had together been part of a loose poetic movement around the time of the First orld ar called "Imagism" -- their quarrel over the direction this movement would take is,…… [Read More]
TS Eliot REVISED
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T.S. Eliot is indefeasibly a Modernist masterpiece. Yet how do we know it is modernist? Let me count the ways. Modernist poetry is often marked by complicated or difficult disjunctions in tone -- "J. Alfred Prufrock" which is capable of moodily swinging from the depressive lows of "I should have been a pair of ragged claws / scuttling across the floors of silent seas" to the manic highs of "I shall wear white flannel trousers and talk upon the beach / I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each." Modernist poetry is often international in character and although in May of 1917, T.S. Eliot published Prufrock and Other Observations, his first collection of verse, in London, Eliot was not an Englishman but an American, and his poem uses Italian in the quotation from Dante that serves as epigraph…… [Read More]
T.S. Eliot and Paul Verlaine
The late nineteenth century Symbolist movement in literature was first identified as the primary origin of twentieth century Modernism by Edmund ilson, in his 1931 work Axel's Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870-1930. ilson's study ranges widely enough to cover the Modernist prose of Proust and Joyce in addition to the experimental prose-poetry of Gertrude Stein, but he makes a particularly strong case for the origins of Modernist poetry in the Symbolists. ilson, in defining Symbolist tendencies in poetry, is not uncritical in his assessment:
The Symbolists themselves, full of the idea of producing with poetry effects like those of music, tended to think of these images as possessing an abstract value like musical notes and chords. But the words of our speech are not musical notation, and what the symbols of Sym-bolism really were, were metaphors detached from their subjects for…… [Read More]
Sketch of T.S Eliot
The Life of T.S Eliot
Eliot was born in Missouri in 1888. He studied philosophy and logic at various universities including Harvard. After graduating he spent a year at Sorbonne in Paris reading French literature. He then returned to Harvard where he studied epistemological theory, Indian languages and metaphysics. He later transferred to Oxford where he studied Greek philosophy (Kamm 143).
During these years of study he also wrote many of his poems and several books of his poetry were published. These included the poems 'The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,' 'Preludes,' 'Portrait of a Lady' and 'Rhapsody at Midnight.' His books of poetry included Prufrock and Other Observations in 1917, Poems in 1919 and Ara Vos Prec in 1920 (Kamm 143).
Eliot also offered a criticism of literature in his book The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism published in 1920 (Kamm 143).…… [Read More]
This is the case with Gabriel in "The Dead" as well. Throughout much of the action of the story, Gabriel appears at a loss as to who he is, which is directly related to how he is perceived. The first time in the story this is noticed is to the beginning, when he gives a coin to Lily out of an unspecified yet apparently selfless motive. Gabriel wants to share himself with others, but is unable to do s in a manner he feels befits him because he is unsure of himself, and unsure of how others react to him. This becomes painfully clear at the end of the story, when Gabriel realizes that the nature of love is related to the desire for death in love's absence: "His soul had approached that region where dwell the vast hosts of the dead. He was conscious of, but could not apprehend,…… [Read More]
"On receiving news of the war" by Isaac Rosenberg
Rosenberg's poem conjures up a physical, metaphorical image of the specter of war. A spirit of a person torn by the red fangs of either death, war, or some diabolical, physically imagined agent hangs over the poem. This dead spirit, representing all of the fallen soldiers, is in neither heaven nor hell (suggesting a crisis of faith in this modernist poem) but is lonely in the never-never land where he mourns the loss of life of his colleagues.
"The Dead" by James Joyce
Gabriel, for the first time, understood how the dead Michael Furey still lived within the soul of his wife, Gretta. The snow outside was falling, and he also understood that the snow -- and death -- just like all other natural forces in the world affected everyone equally. He was no exception: neither his intellect nor being loved…… [Read More]
Ernest Hemingway & T.S. Eliot
Modernism in Literature: Comparative Analysis of the works of Ernest Hemingway and T.S. Eliot
As the world entered the 20th century, world literature have become influenced with the emerging ideology of modernism, a new thinking that promotes the potential of humanity to achieve more than they imagined possible. That is, modernism has promoted the idea that humanity has the potential achieve more than the present state they are living; the future offers numerous opportunities for human society to become more developed and further enlightened.
The optimism that modernist ideology in human society pervaded even the domain of literature, specifically in Western literature, the primary civilization that induced modernization to the world through the industrial revolution. American literature is an example of a Western literature wherein modernism became the main ideology of the 20th century. The promise of modernism is apparent in the works of T.S.…… [Read More]
Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." Specifically, it will choose one instance of abstraction in the work, and describe what the author is trying to "get at," through that abstraction. What is he trying to suggest? What methods is he using to do so? Does it "work" for you? Why or why not?
Abstraction in Poetry
In "The Love Song of Alfred J. Prufrock," T.S. Eliot writes in many abstractions, but there is one at the end, which is especially poignant and full of meaning. "I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each. / I do not think that they will sing to me. / I have seen them riding seaward on the waves / Combing the white hair of the waves blown back / When the wind blows the water white and black. / We have lingered in the chambers of the sea / By sea-girls…… [Read More]
T.S. Eliot: Still Modern Today
When he died in 1968, an article in Life Magazine proclaimed, "Our age beyond any doubt has been, and will continue to be, the Age of Eliot" (qtd. Brooker xiii). Although T.S. Eliot has been dead for over fifty years, this statement is still true in 2011, because in many ways, the basic issues and problems that formed the background for Eliot's works are still present in today's world, although the specific reasons and forms of those problems have evolved over the years. The period of Eliot's earliest artistic production, in particular, has many parallels to today. As with Eliot himself, young people coming of age today have strong familial and cultural traditions to which they are expected to conform, but which seem foreign to them. As during the writing and publication of Eliot's first major works (The Waste Land, 1922, and The Love Song…… [Read More]
" For Pound, the Image should be central to the poem; this is the "thing" that needs to be dealt with solely and directly, without any extraneous words, in musical meter.
Pounds definition of an image is "that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time." That is, an image as Pound uses the term is a snapshot; it is a motionless artifact, spontaneously and completely captured by the poet and transmitted via the poem to the reader without any additional trappings. The effect of such an image is one of "liberation;" it is the "sense of freedom from time limits and space limits." Images exist outside of time and space; they are not representations of shift but eternal constructs -- Pound uses the word complex -- that exist somehow outside the mind, somewhat like Plato's concept of the ideal. Imagism is the school of poetry…… [Read More]
However, in line with the Paz prompt at the outset of this discussion, Keats merely uses this tradition as a bridge on which to extend toward motivation on behalf of the evolving form. The subject matter is where this work takes a step toward modernity. The manner in which Keats describes the reality of dying is startling for its time primarily because it lacks religiosity. In describing death, the poet tells, "where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies; / here but to think is to be full of sorrow / and leaden-eyed despairs; / here beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes, / or new Love pine at them beyond to-morrow."
The notion of discussing death from a decidedly humanistic rather than spiritual perspective is more daring and innovative than perhaps we are won't to give credit for. It is remarkable that the poet would invert a steadfastly traditional form…… [Read More]
Miller and Eliot on Beauty
Comparing and Contrasting "Beauty" in Miller and Eliot
Arthur Miller and T.S. Eliot are two 20th century American playwrights. hile the latter is more commonly noted for expatriating to Britain and writing some of the most memorable poetry of the early 20th century, the former is noted for his famous depiction of the common man's struggle to find meaning and fulfillment in Death of a Salesman. As distinct as the two writers may seem, they both conceive of and treat the theme of beauty -- Miller analyzing its absence in Salesman, and Eliot analyzing its abandonment in several poems like "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "The asteland." This paper will compare and contrast both writers and show how they deal with the theme of beauty in their works.
The Absence of Beauty in Salesman and "Prufrock"
Beauty is missing from illy Loman's…… [Read More]
T.S. Eliot, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, & Ezra Pound
"Preludes" by T.S. Eliot adopts a slant rhyme pattern to convey the state of his thoughts as he writes the poem. The poem basically illustrates the Voice/Poet's thoughts about the seemingly busy, yet tiresome and uninteresting lives of the people in the urban areas (cities). Eliot paints this tiresome and uninteresting picture of human life in the city by slant rhymes, reflecting the continuous stream of unorganized thoughts of the poet. For example, slant rhyming occurs in lines 2 and 4, where "passageways" and "smoky days" are used. However, towards the end of the poem, slant rhyming is instead replaced with end-rhymes (lines 12 and 13, with rhymes used "stamps" and "lamps"), proving once again the presence of 'unstable' and changing thoughts of the poet.
"The pennycandystore beyond the El" by Lawrence Ferlinghetti utilizes symbolism to effectively depict his thoughts about the fleeting…… [Read More]
We see the stone images raised again to indicate soulless worshipping. It is used to highlight the impurity and insincerity of worshippers:
At the hour when we are Trembling with tenderness
Lips that would kiss
Form prayers to broken stone.
The fourth section is actually that twilight zone that hollow men dreaded. The fear of meeting the eyes had already been overcome. It is their absence which is disturbing now:
As the perpetual star
Of death's twilight kingdom
The absence of eyes in the 'twilight kingdom' suggests that this part if yet another version of the world. Here reappearance of eyes would mean rekindling of spirit and rebirth of soul and conscience. The return of eyes is now a hope- 'the hope only'. The syntax is deliberately ambiguous- 'This broken jaw of our lost kingdoms' evokes a powerful and mysterious image of things in the twilight kingdom. The…… [Read More]
In Rowson's version he mimics Eliot in the sense that his comic book is part satirical, it is pessimistic, and it is told in fragments, as well. But the two literary works could hardly be farther apart in substance, as Rowson parodies a crime novel's trashy tone -- parodying noted pulp crime writer Raymond Chandler more than Eliot or Eliot's poem -- and it shows in his edgy comic drawings that there is more than one "waste land" in the world.
Rowson had some problems in getting his lawyers to sign off on his parodies of Eliot's lines; for example, in Eliot's "The Fire Sermon," line 205, the poet writes "Jug jug jug jug…" and originally Rowson had his hero, Chris Marlowe ("Philip Marlowe" was a Chandler character ) walking past six jugs in the British Museum (which he uses in his comic illustrations). So instead of the six "jug[s]…"…… [Read More]
Hollow Men by T.S. Eliot was first published in Poems: 1909-1925 and contains many overlapping themes that were also seen in many of his other works. Moreover, "The Hollow Men" is reflective of the overarching themes that were seen in orld ar I poetry and may also provide an introspective look into Eliot's emotional and psychological state at the time. In "The Hollow Men," Eliot uses allusions, imagery, and an overall theme of despair and isolation.
"The Hollow Men" makes references to at least two outside works or events, Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness and the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. In addition to being referenced in the five parts of Eliot's poem, these two allusions are also referenced in the poem's epigraph as Eliot writes "Mistah Kurtz -- he dead" and "A penny for the Old Guy" (lines-epigraph). In Heart of Darkness, Kurtz realized, upon his deathbed, the extent of…… [Read More]
The central focus of the book is the search for self and identity and an attempt to answer the question of what happens when men leave the protective normative and restraining influence of society. The central figure of Kurtz is a man who has broken free of the constraints of a sick society. However the novel also questions whether Kurtz too has become evil and lost his own sense of direction. The question is posed questions whether the human "heart of darkness" is not the real problem. If one interprets the book from this perspective, as a work that states that human nature or the human heart is essentially flawed, then one could conclude that Heart of Darkness is in fact more gloomy or pessimistic then the Wasteland.
The Heart of Darkness is a complex work that can be interpreted on many different levels: psychological, sociological, ethical and political. The…… [Read More]
Paired Poets." It attempts to compare and contrast the lives, personality, psychology and the work of T.S. Elliot and DH Lawrence. Furthermore, it elaborates the similarities and the differences between both the poets and also details some of the most significant work done by these poets.
Life and Personality of T.S. Elliot and D.H.Lawrence
Thomas. Stearns. Elliot; a poet, editor and a critic was born on 26th September 1888 in St. Louis Missouri. His father; Henry are Eliot was the president of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company and his mother Charlotte Champe Stearns, a former teacher, an amateur poet and a social work volunteer at the Humanity Club of St. Louis. Born into a prosperous old New England family, Eliot was the youngest of the seven children. Afflicted with a congenital double hernia, he was in the constant eye of his mother and five older sisters. (notablebiographies.com)
Eliot was initially educated…… [Read More]
" In other words, you can't change the way you are or the way you think by staying in the same clothes or the same consciousness that you have been in all this time. You must be willing to sacrifice and accept that things may get worse before they get better. "…to be restored, our sickness must grow worse" Eliot writes, and this is actually a recipe for emotional health albeit nothing close to that was to be found in the asteland. Indeed the world "become stranger" and the pattern of our lives becomes "more complicated" as we grow older. But these are words that sound like philosophy, not the remorse that was saturated throughout the asteland.
The Dry Salvages -- Number Three of Four Quartets
In the asteland there was no water to be found. Not a drop of water -- just rock and dust and death. And yet…… [Read More]
Shakespeare's Hamlet and Herman Hesse's Siddhartha meet the words Eliot's "Little Gidding"
We shall not cease from exploration/And the end of all our exploring/Will be to arrive where we started/And know the place for the first time," writes T.S. Eliot in his Fourth Quatrain entitled "Little Gidding." In the tragedy that bears his name Prince Hamlet begins and ends in the same place, namely the court of his late father and the living King Claudius. He also begins and ends in the play in the hall of the court in a state of alienation from the rest of the court. However, while at the beginning of the play this alienation takes the form of a state of adolescent moodiness and mourning for his dead father at the end of the play Hamlet has a more reasoned and larger philosophical understanding of how his own family tragedy has a resonance with…… [Read More]
This darkness is the poem is the suggestion of death, which Eliot's character contemplates throughout the poem. In fact, the last lines of the poem refer to death. Eliot writes, "We have lingered in the chambers of the sea / By sea-girls wreathed with seaweed red and brown / Till human voices wake us, and we drown" (Eliot). Eliot's character knows his life is ending, and love and courtship are far behind him. Marvell's character also contemplates death. Marvell writes, "Time's winged chariot hurrying near; / And yonder all before us lie / Deserts of vast eternity. / Thy beauty shall no more be found, / Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound / My echoing song: then worms shall try / That long preserved virginity, / And your quaint honour turn to dust, / And into ashes all my lust: / The grave's a fine and private place, /…… [Read More]
Shakespeare's Hamlet and Herman Hesse's Siddhartha meet the words Eliot's "Little Gidding"
One of T.S. Eliot's most famous poetic protagonists, that of J. Alfred Prufrock, may lament that he is not Prince Hamlet, only a fool like Yorick or Polonius of the tragedy that bears the prince's name. But a closer examination of Shakespeare's play highlights the fact that the noble Prince Hamlet, is not really so noble at all, but begins the play in a state of adolescent moodiness, mourning his dead father, even though in the words of his uncle Claudius "your father lost a father, and your father lost his." Hamlet begins the play, not a young anointed king-to-be but a man angered at the limited, fleshy nature of human existence as well as the dissatisfactory reconstruction of his own family.
Hamlet sees falseness wherever he goes. He sees his mother whom once followed like "Niobe, all…… [Read More]
These young men were not immersed in the high modernist traditions of Virginia Woolf and T.S. Eliot: rather, they were immersed in the experience of war and their own visceral response to the horrors they witnessed.
Thus a multifaceted, rather than strictly comparative approach might be the most illuminating way to study this period of history and literature. Cross-cultural, comparative literary analysis is always imperfect, particularly given the linguistic challenges presented by evaluating German poetry in relation to its British counterparts. Contextualizing the British war poets requires a certain level of understanding how the war was seen by the other side, and by alien eyes. More is likely to be gained than lost by reading the German war poets in translation. Yet reading the German poets in translation allows the reader to appreciate the influence of symbolism and expressionism in their work that was not present even in the harsh…… [Read More]
Q3. Explain the importance of the Fisher King in Modern Literature.
The Fisher King is the wounded king that motivates Sir Galahad to find the Holy Grail to heal him and his people: the quest narrative is one of the most significant narratives in all of literature, and the Moderns despaired of finding a quest in the modern, faithless, directionless world. The Fisher King's wound symbolizes his lack of fertility, which leaves his kingdom hungry and barren. T.S. Eliot's poem "The Wasteland" suggests that modern life is like the Fisher King's kingdom.
Q4. Explain the importance of WWI trench poetry and the works of Wilfred Owen
While some of the early poets celebrated patriotism, or eulogized the fate of the common soldier with quiet despair, Owen's poetry was harsh, gritty and realistic. In his poem "Dulce et Decorum est" Owen takes the familiar Latin phrase that it is sweet to…… [Read More]
The image of the fog is significant because the protagonist is comparing himself to the fog in that he skirts along the outside of what is happening. If he is like fog, moving slowly and quietly, he does not have to become involved but can still see what is going on. hen he writes that there will be time to "prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet" (27), he is simply avoiding the issue by putting off the inevitable. The protagonist convinces himself that there will be time to do all that he wants to do, such as "murder and create" (28), and "drop a question on your plate" (30). Allan Burns suggests that the images are important to the reader in that they "underscore Prufrock's low self-esteem: he identifies with the lonely working class men" (Burns 47) and the image of his dead being chopped off…… [Read More]
"The immature poet imitates and the mature poet plagiarizes," said T.S. Eliot. If imitation is indeed the finest form of flattery, then does it follow that plagiarism is a worthwhile pursuit? Indeed it can be. Street art, including visual art and music, is both plagiarizer and plagiarized. To imitate without paying full homage to the original creator is to fail in the ultimate pursuit of aesthetic brilliance. The art of Banksy integrates itself fully with popular culture and community. By stealing space and time, Banksy and street artists like him raise poignant political questions about the ownership of public space and the social class hierarchies that determine access to and enjoyment of the public domain. Likewise, Banksy participates in the time-honored tradition of sampling. By mixing and matching, cutting and pasting, Banksy is following in a long and venerable line of artistic genius that revels in the creative potential…… [Read More]
The interpretation of the poem, like the speaker's interpretation of the statue, will likely depend on what he or she feels at the time about his or her own life.
The subjectivity of perception is also evident in the "Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T.S. Eliot. The speaker of this poem casts his decision to declare or not declare his love in heroic terms, even while he mourns the smallness of his existence, measured out in coffee spoons, in rooms where dull women come and go and talk about the great Leonardo in polite terms. The women, including his beloved, only see the speaker as a balding man, rather than the Hamlet he wishes to be, at the center of a great drama -- and because they see him as a fool, he feels like a fool. However, the contrast between inner and outer reality seen in Rilke…… [Read More]
Minor Characters and Themes
Minor characters in any play act as supporting foils and help to advance the plot. Without these foils, it would be impossible for the play to progress in the way that playwright has envisioned. Besides carrying the play forward, they also help in highlighting the major themes of the literary piece. In almost every piece of fiction, whether a play or short story or novel, we come across certain important minor characters that are minor because while they lend support to the plot, they are not directly influenced by the intentions of the author. The people who remain in the forefront and bear the brunt of all action are the major characters, and thus their in the story is obvious and needs little discussion. However it is the minor characters that need to be closely analyzed or discussed to see why they have been placed in…… [Read More]
Let the wenches dawdle in such dress
As they are used to wear, and let the boys
Bring flowers in last month's newspapers.
Let be finale of seem.
The only emperor is the emperor of ice-cream.
The children gather around the curls of cream, to wonder at the miraculous substance and this ordinary, humble labor is made momentarily great by his trade, a European Emperor who can give and take at will, and thus also seems faintly sinister in his muscularity.
Stevens celebrated "the emergence from old ideologies in the form of what was rapidly becoming an aesthetic ideology," a form of "American home-grown" modernist abstraction that still had its roots in the concrete, the concrete nature of imagism, and also of plain, simple, profound American reality. Unlike other American modernists, like T.S. Eliot (who eventually became a British citizen and converted to Anglicanism) or Ezra Pound (a permanent expatriate)…… [Read More]
The mere fact that these people interact as much as they do is a sign of the blurring of class signs. Also, the image of Gatsby as essentially nouveau riche, is itself a statement indicating interclass mobility. Unlike Steinbeck's story, Fitzgerald's is much more concerned with individual prejudices and stereotypes. In Gatsby, the prejudgments are of the working class against the leisured class. The work also speaks to the utter aimlessness of someone like Gatsby - a man who lives it seems, just for the sake of inoffensive pleasure, but who, at the same time, contributes nothing to the overall society. The unbelievable disconnect between Gatsby's set, and the rest of humanity is captured in an offhand remark of one of his guests, who just happened to find himself in the library, "I've been drunk for about a week now, and I thought it might sober me up to sit…… [Read More]
Argue whether the poetry/text presents the author as pilgrim or as tourist on a wartime journey
The distinction between the tourist and the pilgrim is one that invariably arises when analyzing texts that address war. While it is common for the hero (or author) to discuss war as a theme, a distinction must be made with regard to the way in which the author relates to the war and to the soldiers. In poems where the hero embarks on a journey, his journey can take the shape of either a pilgrimage or a simple tourist trip. Drawing from Donnelly's categorization involving the tourist vs. The pilgrim, this paper analyzes a series of war poems and texts that assume the form of either a pilgrimage or a tourist journey. The pilgrimage refers to an internal journey that is invested in the pilgrimage of war. The hero is profoundly affected by…… [Read More]
God, the World, and Literature: The Concept of Social Morality in Modern Literature
Literature, as the primary source of information of people in witnessing and experiencing realities interpreted by the author/writer, is more than a medium that extends messages of reality and experience. Literature is, first and foremost, an expression of thoughts and ideologies that may or may not be agreed upon by the author or his/her characters in the said work. The concept of social morality is such example of these ideologies extended thru literary works. Through literature, writers are able to provide people with varying themes related to the discussion of social morality, offering people avenues wherein morality can be created and developed by the society, and adapted by the individual.
Modern literature boasts itself of this kinds of art -- literary works that depict the life of individuals who were directly affected by their own or…… [Read More]
Apparently Plath wrote the poem during her stay in the hospital, which can be a depressing place notwithstanding all the nurses and orderlies dressed in white. The appendectomy followed a miscarriage that Plath had suffered through, so given those realities in the poet's life -- especially for a woman to lose a child she had been carrying -- one can identify with the bleak nature of the poem. Confronted with the birth that turned out to be death, and then a painful appendectomy, the tulips are used as something of an abstraction and the redness of them gives her pain because it "corresponds" to the wound in her body from the surgery.
The opening stanza's first few lines seem rather peaceful and restful: "The tulips are too excitable, it is winter here / look how white everything is / How quiet, how snowed-in / I am learning peacefulness / lying…… [Read More]
gender and how the characteristic is addressed within the precincts of play, poem, or short story. Further, a comparison of literary elements will be made, in the play, poem, or short story.
Gender and how it is handled in the confines of short story, play, or poem.
Poem -- Thomas Stearns Eliot's The Waste Land
A careful reading of T. S. Eliot's poem, The Waste Land depicts the author's profound anticipation of an important collection of concepts, considered as post-modernism for a major part of the second half of the 20th century. While it is well-understood that the poem by Eliot comprises of a portrayal of theatrical voices, critics are yet to fully understand the fact that a foundational portion of this drama is presentation of gender. Certainly, Eliot, who is, at times, openly positioned as an embodiment of male sexual/poetic hierarchy, is a pioneering 20th-century figure who depicted what…… [Read More]
The Subjective over the Objective
Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).
Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…… [Read More]
Bradley describes this by saying that "Othello's nature is all of one piece... Love, if he loves, must be to him the heaven where either he must leave or bear no life. If such a passion as jealousy seizes him, it will swell into a well-night incontrollable flood" (Bradley 188). This shows how Othello goes to the extremes, especially relating to his emotions. Bradley also says that "He is quite free from introspection, and is not given to reflection. Emotion excites his imagination, but it confuses and dulls his intellect" (Bradley 188). This shows that like Hamlet, Othello is not able to consider the source of his emotions. This occurs as a natural part of Othello's character, while for Hamlet it is specifically linked to the particular situation and the particular emotion. However, the end result is the same with both characters unable to consider their emotions and rationalize them.…… [Read More]
Leo Marx Critic on Huckleberry Finn
Author's ideas: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has a controversial ending, which, as stated in Professor Leo Marx's 1995 analysis, resulted from: the enforced happy ending, the author's basic betrayal of Huck's companion Jim (Twain, 1994), and the return of the tale to the original mood, reflected at the novel's start (roussard, 2011).
Leo Marx states that Huckleberry becomes a powerless, naive and subservient accomplice of Tom the robber (Marx, 1995, p. 296), akin to the eager boy, prepared to become a part of Tom's gang of thieves at the novel's outset.
I concur with Twain's view, since Tom's wild scheme holds no significance after the revelation that, all this time, Jim was a liberated man. Further, Huck discovers his father is deceased, and hence, is freed, as well. Ultimately, Twain (1994) ties up loose ends, providing writers with a seemingly happy ending, which,…… [Read More]
Literature is allowed to expand across class lines because it is constantly seeking out new forms of expressing the human experience. Even the most elite of the bourgeoisie are allowed to enjoy the latest experimental or ethnic literature, which serve as pure representations of the proletariat human experience, "it is common to see 'literature' defined as 'full, central, immediate human experience,' usually an associated reference to 'minute particulars,'" (illiams 45). These "minute particulars" are what make literature so interesting and entertaining, thus successful. It is with this understanding of literature as an ideology that the concept of ideology can take on duel roles, "A common culture is thus entirely compatible with a hierarchical one," (Eagleton The Idea of Culture 115). Much unlike the theories which state that a true ideology cannot live up to a duel existence, literature as an ideology proves to do just that.
It is in this…… [Read More]
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…… [Read More]
Elaine Reichek: "Paint Me a Cavernous aste Shore"
The artist Elaine Reichek's works can be best described as a combination of traditional crafts and pastiche. Reichek has, throughout her existence as an artist, been intent upon challenging conventional notions of what constitutes a fine art. Her 2009-2010 tapestry "Paint Me a Cavernous aste Shore" draws from Greek mythology, Renaissance art, and the poetry of T.S. Eliot. "One thing I'm very much worried about is the exclusion of the female artist, and the embrace of 'craft,'" Reichek has said (Lichtenstein 2012). Reichek notes that embroidery was the art of the upper class woman, yet it was also devalued because it was feminine -- and the women that produced it were not professionally trained like painters. "There's a connection between the warm and fuzzy image of knitting and the nostalgia associated with vintage photographs. There's a lot of baggage tied to all…… [Read More]
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…… [Read More]
Indeed. Gertrude Stein wrote for "herself" for many years prior to ever being noticed as the marvelously talented and versatile writer that she was. That fact was a reality simply because she did not have the opportunity for many years to publish the work she was so tirelessly putting out. Meanwhile, her legacy today is that of an extraordinarily insightful and respected woman of letters, an innovator, an elite member of the artistic avant garde in Europe, a prolific poet and writer, a visionary, something of a rebel, and more. Although she died in 1946 (of intestinal cancer), her work is discussed, debated, dissected and analyzed like the work of few other poets/writers. It's almost as if she were alive today.
Certainly this paper focuses on a gifted thinker whose poetic form is sometimes misunderstood, but rarely ignored. And it also delves into the life of a…… [Read More]
Herein is composed a character who captures the internal conflict that would identify America on its path to Civil ar.
In Twain's work, Huck emerges as a figure whose behavior and ideology are stimulated by a discomfort with the circumstances constraining him. Though painted as a portrait of one young man, the adventures which give the novel its title are actually a series of events wherein Huck brazenly flouts the standards which had given the pre-Civil ar delta its cultural outlook. His flight to freedom is guided by the juxtaposed but equally inapt incarcerations which he endured both at the pious hands of the idow Douglas and the abusive hands of his drunken father. Certainly, his staged death and his river-raft escape here would be explicit forms of active protest to the church-going morality of the former and the violent authority of the latter. In both, we see the religious…… [Read More]
Faustus' Acceptance to Eternal Damnation
Many traditions and legends have been created all the way through the long history of western culture. Among which one of the most outstanding and well-known as well long lasting traditions of western culture is of the Faustus legend, where in this legend, a man called Faust or Faustus, sells his soul to the devil for almost twenty-four years for the purpose of worldly power. This makes it a very prominent story that has been narrated many times over by writers such as Goethe, Lessing, and Mann. However, most probably the famous telling is Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe.
The social upheaval during the time period is the most prominent influence on Marlowe's version of Doctor Faustus. This novel has been suspected of being first performed in 1594, which was a time of great change in Europe. During this period the Medieval Times were over…… [Read More]
Paul Valery was a French poet, essayist, and critic, who gave up writing for 20 years to pursue work in the scientific arena. His poetic style was based on symbolism and he believed that the mental process of creation was what was really important and that the poetry that he wrote was a by-product of the effort. "Enthusiasm is not an artist's state of mind," stated Valery. T.. Eliot has compared Valery's analytical attitude to a scientist who works in a laboratory "weighting out or testing the drugs of which is compounded some medicine with an impressive name."
Poetry is simply literature reduced to the essence of its active principle. It is purged of idols of every kind, of realistic illusions, of any conceivable equivocation between the language of "truth" and the language of "creation." (from Litterature, 1929)
His quote, "Beauty is a way of death. The novelty, the intensity,…… [Read More]
Nightwood by Djuna Barnes [...] justify the book as a postmodern novel. "Nightwood" is a postmodern novel in every respect, from the stream-of-consciousness style of writing to the underlying sexual and homosexual themes that could only exist in postmodern writing of the twentieth century. "Nightwood" is unique, compelling, and disturbing all at the same time, yet it is difficult for the reader to put down. While it has been long touted as a classic lesbian novel, Barnes herself fought this label, wishing it only to be remembered as a classic postmodern work, not a sexually motivated treatise on women who love women.
Author Djuna Barnes was born in 1892 in Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York. Her mother was a violinist, and her father was a farmer and painter. Her parents instilled a love of the arts early in her life, and her father's free-spirited enthusiasm also greatly influenced her and her work.…… [Read More]
vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know. Evaluate this claim with reference to different areas of knowledge.
esponse Question: Does vocabulary limit what we can know or limit what we can express?
The sentiment, "the vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge. It shapes what we can know" expresses only a partial truth. The vocabulary we have only shapes what we can express or communicate to others, but real wisdom and discovery, as encountered in various areas of knowledge, can transcend vocabulary. This is most immediate in the area of knowledge encompasses by the arts. Literature, music, art and poetry can often express the inexpressible, aptly conveying it to the spectator and imparting wisdom to that spectator. The spectator may be fully aware of this, and fully cognizant that he has been touched, but unable to express through words just…… [Read More]
Hamlet Annotated Bibliography
Cook, Patrick J. Cinematic Hamlet: the Films of Olivier, Zeffirelli, Branagh, and Almereyda.
Athens, Ohio: Ohio UP. 2011. Print. This book focuses on the many versions of Hamlet that have been made for the silver screen. The play by illiam Shakespeare is one of the most frequently filmed works and each version of the story has a unique perspective. Director, screenwriter, and of course actor each influence the overall position of the film. Each chooses which elements of the story to emphasize and which to underplay. Even films that use the complete text of Shakespeare's work still alter the original by the act of interpretation. By examining each version, focusing on the three four major ones, the author helps explain what was important to the artists and by extension to the audience who would have seen the film.
In the context of a paper, each film would…… [Read More]
Leo Marx and Huckleberry Finn
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has a controversial ending, which, as stated in Professor Leo Marx's 1995 analysis, resulted from: the enforced happy ending, the author's basic betrayal of Huck's companion Jim (Twain, 1994), and the return of the tale to the original mood, reflected at the novel's start (roussard, 2011). Leo Marx states that Huckleberry becomes a powerless, naive and subservient accomplice of Tom the robber (Marx, 1995, p. 296), akin to the eager boy, prepared to become a part of Tom's gang of thieves at the novel's outset. I concur with Twain's view, since Tom's wild scheme holds no significance after the revelation that, all this time, Jim was a liberated man. Further, Huck discovers his father is deceased, and hence, is freed, as well. Ultimately, Twain (1994) ties up loose ends, providing writers with a seemingly happy ending, which, however,…… [Read More]
Some -- give trouble for half a year (Kipling)."
The above passage is clear and plain as it describes deaths by heart attacks that are sudden, accidents that are sudden and death by illness in which the person slowly dies.
In another passage Kipling illuminates the fact that just as there are many different personalities among the living, there are also many different personalities among the dying and how they choose to react to their impending death.
Some die quietly. Some abound
In loud self-pity. Others spread
Bad morale through the cots around...
This is a type that is better dead (Kipling). "
There is no question about what point Kipling seeks to make with his writing. He is clear and concise and there is no need to try and second guess any underlying meaning of his intent as one passes through the poems and stories of his career.
His…… [Read More]
astelands of Labyrinths, astelands of the Modern Past and Present
The wasteland of myth is a place where people have been mislead, where they dwell in a terrible half-existence, living a lie. Perhaps the most familiar modern expressions of the word 'wasteland' are those of T.S. Eliot's poem about "The asteland" and the idea of a modern, suburban 'teenage wasteland.' hen people speak about a teenage wasteland, they usually are referring to a group of disenchanted youths who have given up on their parent's values but cannot construct their own, new set of values. hen people speak of the "asteland" poem of Eliot, written during the early half of the 20th century, they are referring to Eliot's vision of modern life as a series of broken visions of past phrases, verses, and schemas of believe that no longer have a coherent form or provide moral guidance for people living today.…… [Read More]
Robert Frost "The Road Not Taken" (lines 18-20):
In the final lines of this poem, the narrator says some of the most famous lines in American poetry: "I took the one less travelled by, / And that has made all the difference" (19-20). Many have interpreted these lines as a celebration of individuality, but on closer inspection, it becomes evident that in reality, the narrator is lamenting that he has made these choices. Instead of following the path of others, he has gone on his own path. His conclusion is that it was this choice, choosing "the path less travelled by" that has marked the rest of his life. The tone of the piece is not one of self-congratulation but rather depression and despondency. He does not say that he regrets the choices that he has made, but acknowledges that his life would be very different had he made other…… [Read More]
Proust and Narrativity
We read Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time - that greatest work of his the title of which is more commonly translated as Remembrance of Things Past both because of the simple beauty of his language and because of the power that he has to find our own lost pieces of time. For while he makes us interested in his past because of his marvelous descriptions of his own childhood and we become entranced by his memories because of the elegant and lush way that he conveys them to us, we also read the book because it seems to offer to us a type of magic, seems to serve as a talisman to all pasts, not just his alone. This paper examines the narrative structure of In Search of Lost Time and the ways in which that structure, joined to Proust's language and symbolism, can help…… [Read More]
Even physical relationships are prone to dissolution -- as ebster shows: the lovers are murdered one by one. ebster and the other Jacobeans appear to pine for an era of old world spirituality -- for the new modern world, while full of scientific inquiry and triumph (see Bacon), lacks that sensitivity of soul that could effect true and real humility.
3. For, however, a complete and masterful representation of the many facets of human nature in all its strengths and failings, one need look no further than to the works of Shakespeare, which span both Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. For the folly of kingly pride, there is Lear. For the bitterness of ambition on the murdered conscience, there is Macbeth. For the nature of love and the relationship between man and woman there are the marvelous sonnets 116, 129, and 138: all three of which tackle the subject from a…… [Read More]
Faustus, who sees his time also coming to a close, becomes a kind of Hamlet-figure and doubts that he can be forgiven. Faustus' problem is more than a life of misdeeds -- it is a problem of lack of faith. The faith of Everyman may have been lukewarm, but it was not corrupt. The faith in the time of Everyman has been polluted by Lutheran and Calvinist doctrines.
Considering the form of the narrative, this is not surprising: Faustus is obsessed with fame and renown. Everyman has no name proper -- and neither does his author. That the author of the medieval morality play should be anonymous is nothing out of the ordinary, and indeed seems all the more fitting when one considers that the second most printed book after the ible was The Imitation of Christ, a work whose author never put his name on the original (and which…… [Read More]
The development of the major ideas and attitudes expressed in Modern American literatures since 1900 can start with the realist school of literature, which focused on representing in naturalistic terms and concepts the life of the world around. Thus, Theodore Dreiser wrote Sister Carrie about a bumpkin country girl who moves to the big city and becomes a mistress. Stehpen Crane also portrayed the street life and Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle about what it was like to work in the meat packing plants at the time and how difficult it was for immigrant life. The ideas here were focused on revealing real American life -- not in broad comedy like a Mark Twain novel -- but in serious terms.
F. Scott Fitzgerald reflected the concept of "wasted youth" and the obsession with riches and power that was all so meaningless in the greater scheme of things in…… [Read More]
There is even conjecture that ancient civilizations may have, …spotted an orbit that will culminate in a collision with Earth in 2012. This is easily the most predictable disaster for 2012. ith recent discussion of "dark comets," we have become aware of the possibility of our planet being struck with little or no warning." (2012 Possibilities)
Another possibility that has been mentioned by some scientists is the possibility of a Cronal Mass Ejection (CME) from the Sun. A CME is an emanation of energy from the sun which can cause ferocious storms. A solar storm in 1959 has been linked to this form of energy burst. An unsettling fact is that, " In 2009 NASA told us to be wary of solar storms." (2012 Possibilities)
These speculative findings and many other have created an enormous amount of discussion and debate on the Internet. An expert in the field is the…… [Read More]
Moonstone," a cornerstone in English literature that marks the birth of detective novels
Wilkie Collins published his novel "The Moonstone" in 1868, after a series of novels that had already consecrated him as a genius in the art of sensational fiction. The genre became popular, at that time, in England and abroad, thorough the translations of Collins' novels. "The Moonstone" is written in a narrative form of a detective novel that leads thorough the complicated but well constructed plot built around the theft of a diamond of Indian origin from "a quiet English house" (The Moonstone, p. 46).
In the preface to his novel, Collins emphasizes the fact that the narrative form took over in the construction of The Moonstone, as compared to his previous works: "In some of my former novels, the object proposed had been to trace the influence of circumstances upon character. In the present story I…… [Read More]
AUDRE: I still say I'm the only one who even comes close to understanding the struggle Obama has gone through, even though he is a man
ALLEN: And heterosexual
ADRIENNE: And alive
WILLIAM: Let's just take a step back and look at this objectively. Scientifically. Medically.
AUDRE: I think you've got the wrong hat on, doc. Figuratively speaking.
ALLEN: No, no, this could help. William, you want to right it because your sense of rhythm is uniquely American, right?
WILLIAM: Well, more or less -- m rhythm is the unique American rhythm, I would say
ALLEN: OK, buut close enough. And Adrienne, you think that because you're alive
ADRIENNE: And for other reasons, like, uhh...subjectivity, and er
ALLEN: Right. And Audre
AUDRE: The subjugation of this society which has made me an outcast in every
ALLEN: Yeah, yeah we know. Those are all some pretty valid reasons. As for me,…… [Read More]
Thus, it is clear that the novel in itself represents a series of underlying reasons and concepts which aim at personalizing the apparently common life of loom.
Another important theme of the novel is the idea of the presence of the conscience. In this sense, unlike many previous pieces of literature, "Ulysses" develops a human conscience for its characters. In this sense, Stephan and loom both have conscience problems which are part of the modernization of the world. Thus, while Stephan is remorseful about not obeying his mother on the dead bed, loom is retrospective concerning the life he is leading and the marriage he is part of. This comes to point out the modern aspect of the novel because it refers in particular to the strains of the society and to the lack of moral principles. At the same time, this dimension is connected to the idea about religiosity…… [Read More]