Twentieth century was a century of technological progress, century when most of democratic and social principles were realized on practice, which made society more open, liberal, free and advanced. Human progress is dynamic and its development reached unseen results in last decades. New means of technology such as telecommunication, wireless communication, internet and simply development of transportation and interaction of different countries had introduced new concept to our world, concept of popular culture, culture of popular stereotypes which is resulted by means of mass media.
Mass media and press are often called fourth "power" which supplements three existing powers and contributes to the development and simply to the nature of relations on different levels in society. Its informative purposes have an essential meaning for society, as they provide people with different kind of information, help them to form their opinion about different evens, help them in creating their point-of-view and…… [Read More]
It would seem that in the wars that were fought to contain Communism -- Korea, Viet Nam, many "brushfire" incidences such as the raid on the island of Granada -- the idea of spreading their ideology was not nearly as important to the Communists as just spreading, having more and more land under their control.
China has been a somewhat different story. The repression and brutality of Stalinism appeared the same but the Chinese actually seem to be trying to find ways to make Communism actually improve their country and way of life. Of course, in both major proponents of the philosophy, there is a ruling elite that just like the Emperor and the Czar get the most and best of everything.
The democracies fought to keep Communism from expanding but it doesn't appear it was actually motivated by political considerations. In most of the countries where the democracies have…… [Read More]
Another interesting form of manifestation of the rebellion were protest songs, sung primarily by rock and folk bands about the war, political woes, and other issues of the day. Another historian writes, "Protest songs were always a part of American folk music, and showcasing them within the entire folk spectrum gave them a wholesome image. In this all-American guise, folksingers invaded the musical vacuum on college campuses during the late 1950s" (odnitzky 105). Music was heard by more people, and appealed to a broader audience, so it brought more people into the rebellion and made the causes the youth were fighting more sympathetic. Many of the musicians understood the power of their music. Historian odnitzky continues, "Indeed, in 1964 Peter Yarrow bragged that his trio could 'mobilize the youth of America in a way that nobody else could' and perhaps even sway an election by traveling with a presidential candidate.…… [Read More]
20th Century Fashion and Designers
According to Tara Maginnis of Costumes.org, the prominent silhouette for a woman in (in estern cultures) was a thin-waisted shape created by a tightly-laced corset. She writes "The Hourglass shape of the woman of the 1890's transformed after 1897 into the "S" curve of 1897-1908. This change came from longer lined "health" corsets that supported the spine and abdomen, especially when they were over-laced by the fashionable. Fashionable women in this period seem to be leaning into a wind." As mentioned above, this "S" shape was a slight change from the hourglass shape favored prior to 1897, and it was highly influenced by Art Neaveau illustration.
One particularly influential designer of the time was Spanish designer Mariano Fortuny, who was working in France at the time. According to his biography on the Fortuny company website, He is most famous for designing the "Delphos Gown," which…… [Read More]
twentieth century Cold War between communist nations led by the Soviet Union and their opposing Western counterparts, led by the United States of America and its North American Treaty Organization (NATO) allies. Specifically, we will discuss how the termination of the so-called Cold War and its associated revolution impacted political events during the two decades from 1970 to 1990, and the longer-term effects that prevailed upon American politics and governmental policy.
The term Cold War generally refers to the post-1945 relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union (USS) which followed the conclusion of World War Two. This relationship was a dominant feature of international politics for several decades in the mid-twentieth century. A number of landmark events marking that period in history, including the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Berlin Wall, the Vietnam War and the overshadowing threat of nuclear war throughout most of the latter half of that…… [Read More]
twentieth century brought psychology along with the psychology of learning on a new, scientific ground. Learning theories developed based on scientific observations, tests and studies. The western approach to learning theories has contributed to the development of systems of education that spread around the globe. The Anglo-Saxon education system, for example, is viewed today as one of the most effective systems in the world. Nonetheless, it is also one of the most expensive education systems. The globalization era brought peoples closer together than they ever were in the history of humankind, but it also made individuals more aware of cultural differences. Since learning theories are older than the twentieth century, the gathering and assessing of a body of work dedicated to this subject from all over the world became absolutely necessary for the researchers who were willing to integrate what others had already observed and studied into the modern science…… [Read More]
twentieth century, the Brazilian national character had shed the veil of colonialism in favor of its own unique personality, one of the religiously historic samba, celebratory carnival, and a universal passion for soccer. The athletic fanaticism was steered at the helm by Edsom Arantes de Nascimento, the famous Pele. One of the most famed athletes in international sports, Pele was born to a poor Brazilian family in 1940.
While the samba music of the cities gained international attention, the burgeoning soccer star honed his kick on a stuffed sock. Years later, after scoring his 1,000th goal and garnering national love and world-wide hype, Pele's biggest contribution to the Brazilian people was clear. Through soccer, the beloved national pastime, Brazil surmounted many of the complex hurdles in developing a modern identity, navigating race relations, and becoming an important part of an international focus.
Unlike other popular colonial sports brought to the…… [Read More]
twentieth century seen the triumph of the state or the individual in the United States? You may wish to consider the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 particularly. Does that piece of legislation contain group or individual rights? hat problem is being addressed here and how is it being addressed?
American individualism' is a phrase that is often bandied about in the popular media. However, it is seldom given a coherent historical definition. Rampant individualism is often seen as a societal negative that is endemic to America, where finding one's self is seen as a form of excluding one's self from a larger responsibility to a community and to a nation. However, without a doubt, one of the movements in American history that was characterized by a sense of social responsibility to a people, a community, and to an American ideal of freedom was the Civil Rights…… [Read More]
For instance, computer and technology literacy was taught to me by educators beginning in elementary school. Educators teach the basics of computer use, internet use and how to use technology to advance education. Over the course of this process, I began to use the computer for keeping in touch with friends. This real world application reinforced my educational experience and has created a general level of computer literacy that carries over into all of my courses.
Although most of the literacies noted above are taught and then reinforced through practical application, skills such as leadership and organizational skills are not taught in the classroom. Rather, these skills are implied and developed through interactions in both the classroom and the real world. For instance, teachers assign a significant amount of homework. In order to remain on top of this homework, organizational skills are needed. These skills develop out of a necessity…… [Read More]
Sports have become a viable means to stimulate local and even national economies. Before the twentieth century, such a thing would have been completely unheard of, preposterous to even consider. The tools of the global marketplace make sports absolutely relevant in a global economy. A local sports team can draw investment from outside of the community, leading to a growth in small businesses as well as the establishment of external companies. The result is more local jobs and growth in tourism and associated service industries. Even national economies benefit from sports. A nation with a winning soccer team enjoys an effect not unlike a marketing buzz. Especially teams that host major international sports events like the Olympics or the World Cup enjoy foreign direct investments.
Therefore, globalization has had the greatest impact on sports culture and history. The exchange of players across national boundaries has facilitated the development of superpower…… [Read More]
Exoticism in Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth Century Opera
The objective of this study is to answer as to what is meant by exoticism in nineteenth and early-twentieth century opera and as to what the appeal of exoticism to European librettists and composers. This work will take two operas as case studies and explore both the ways in which the librettists handle their subject matter and the ways in which the composers attempted to represent exoticism in musical terms. For the purpose of this study, the opera Salome by Richard Strauss and Aida by Giuseppe Verdi are chosen. This study will first examine Salome followed by an examination of Salome.
Salome the Opera
It has been said that Salome is the "most important event in German opera since the work of Richard Wagner." (Manitoba Opera 2011-2012) In fact, according to critics 'its concentrated power, eerie and sinister harmonies, and extraordinarily exotic orchestration…… [Read More]
music of the Twentieth entury. Specifically, it will compare music of the Twentieth entury to the music of a previous period, and include information about the significance of composers in society, the role of music in the societal landscape, and the evolution of musical forms through the centuries.
Twentieth entury music embodies so many different forms and types that it is difficult to lump it together under one heading. In the United States, the Twentieth entury brought music listeners everything from Gershwin to rap and blues to headbanging. Just as America is a rich cultural melting pot, her music is just as rich and varied, and this is nowhere more evident than in the Twentieth entury.
At the turn of the Twentieth entury, most of America listened to opera and classical music - much of it from some of Europe's most famous composers of the previous centuries, such as Bach,…… [Read More]
These are not matters of arguments as concerning the holiness of the Christianity. The conservatives could easily agree regardless of their respective schematizations of the redemptive history and holiness. Therefore, this united opposition to the rise of modernism reached the multitudes in the form of multiple famous publications, the Fundamentals (1910-1915) (Babinski, 1995). This publication presented enough moderation for the movement. This allowed people to speak of any firm fundamentalist. The conservatives still belonged to the mainstream church and worked for their reforms from within the church.
Marsden makes clear in his definition the diversity of the conservatives question to the church relationship with the world. He presents different perspectives; these are, the 'premillennial extreme', which condemned the present age and could not fathom the use of the widespread efforts of reform. In their congregation, the premillennialists' interests in evangelism and civic reform simply over rode the pessimism that we…… [Read More]
enaissance and early twentieth century art offer an interesting study in comparison because of their distinctive styles. It is the objective of this paper to describe the definitive characteristics of each period through comparing aphael's Alba Madonna to Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory.
enaissance art is reputed for the unified balance achieved between pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color on the one hand, and the artist's personal expression on the other (Pioch, 2002). This unity is evident in aphael's Alba Madonna, a painting that represents the artist's unique style of sweetness of expression. The painting is remarkable because of the manner in which aphael has succeeded in addressing a serious subject within a backdrop of a serene countryside. Indeed, it can be said that he was able to do this precisely because of the use of symmetry, namely, the round format that succeeds…… [Read More]
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…… [Read More]
They experimented, they felt the need to invent, to innovate, to improvise and to foster new ways of expressions, new means, in order for them to go forward and to have something new and significant to say in art. They had to break with the conventions of the traditional art in order to do that.
y the mid twentieth century, New York became the center of the art world, as it managed to gather some of the most significant names in modern art at the time. The 9th Street Show from 1952 in New York, simply put New York on the map by gathering numerous names of the contemporary artists on both sides of the Atlantic, with a special accent on abstract expressionism. Thus, the paintings of artists like Clyfford Still, Willem de Kooning, Mark Rothko and Robert Motherwell, started to speak to the rest of the world at a…… [Read More]
Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]
Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…… [Read More]
20th Century a Good Century for Labor?
By all accounts, the early 20th century was a terrible time to be a worker in the United States. ages were low, benefits were virtually nonexistent, and safety considerations were not even a consideration. There was no unemployment or disability insurance for the vast majority of workers, and the labor movements that emerged during the early and middle 20th century were largely in response to these conditions. Further, a number of key pieces of legislation were passed during the 20th century that helped to address these inequities in the workplace. Unfortunately, a downside to the emergence of labor unions was a concomitant increase in the corruption and collusion between big business and labor leaders who did not always have their constituents' best interests at heart. To determine whether the 20th century ended up being a good century for labor or not, this paper…… [Read More]
Expressionism: This movement was launched in the early 20th century and it used exaggeration, alteration and "primitivism" (www.ibiblio.org). Expressionism alludes to art works that "emphasize the extreme expressive properties of pictorial form," according to the Guggenheim Museum. Expressionism departed from the "appearance of reality" and promoted idealistic values that oppose the "constricting forces and repressive materialism of bourgeois society" (Guggenheim). The example used is "Paris Society" by Max Beckmann: given that this painting was finished on the eve of the Third Reich, all the people appear foreboding and depressed (perhaps for good reason); it's a black-tie party but people are exaggeratedly solemn. This could be a response to materialism as party-goers are supposed to be gay and enthusiastic.
Symbolism: This movement actually began as a literary concept, but came to be a part of the style of younger painters as well, who, like the writers, rejected "…the conventions of Naturalism"…… [Read More]
The Gilded Age witnessed industrial progress and accumulated wealth that boosted the growth of the middle class, yet at the same time there was the spread of "appalling" conditions in the slum areas of the cities, the farmers were in desperate times, and factory workers and others were trampled upon by the wheels of progress (Progressive pp). The "war between capital and labor" demonstrated that Americans were willing to fight for their economic rights, and many historians believe that if the conditions of the working poor had not been addresses, the country very likely would have been thrown into another revolution (Progressive pp). Yet, a revolution did actually take place, just not on the battlefield (Progressive pp). It was called the Progressive Movement, and as a basic conservative movement, it was not meant to cause as stir, but to address the problems of society and find solutions in…… [Read More]
The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.
Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…… [Read More]
Wars of the Century
Major Wars of the 20th Century: the Causes
The twentieth century has certainly seen its shares of horrors of killings. Internationally, an astonishing number of major and minor wars have broken down during this specific time period. All of these major and minor conflicts have certainly changed the face of our society and affected millions of people worldwide; to understand the changes undergone by our international culture and society as well as the major causes of war, it is of the utmost importance to gain a better understanding of those conflicts. The similarities in many of those worldly conflicts traceable to the twentieth century are astonishing and deeper analysis of the causes and outcomes of those conflicts certainly is necessary from a historic point-of-view. By establishing a list of the major conflicts of the twentieth century and learning more about the deep-rooted causes of those wars,…… [Read More]
There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.
Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…… [Read More]
In 1963, the Equal Pay Act equalized pay between men and women by law, but did not apply to many types of employment such as administrators, professionals, and executives. The following year, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination based on gender (and race), in conjunction with the creation of the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce employment rights and redress violations of law in that regard.
Homophobia, Limitations of Equality, and Room for Future Improvement:
Today, American women enjoy most of the same rights and privileges and men, although certain inequalities still persist. In a practical sense, female wages still lag substantially behind many of their male counterparts in wages in non-regulated employment areas. One of the areas in which civil rights and privileges still reflect considerable inequality is in the realm of same-sex unions. While some states recognize the equality of same-sex couples…… [Read More]
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…… [Read More]
As Pressman states, "Given what has later become known about the delicacies of brain function and the complexities of psychiatric illness, it strains credulity that such a crude procedure as the original lobotomies might truly have yielded therapeutic benefits for a great many patients." (Pressman1998, 195) This also refers to the fact that some medical theories are favored at certain times and not others. This suggests the relativity rather than the certainty of the scientific -- rational worldview.
The above brings us to the views put forward by Freeman and others concerning the technological fix. This in turn relates to other questions; such as why a method like lobotomy should have been seen to be effective in the past but not today. This leads to the view that political and social factors influence medicine and especially the success once attributed to a technology like lobotomy. For example, Pressman refers to…… [Read More]
issionary efforts during the nineteenth century had led to a massive expansion of the Church and Christianity, and the first several decades of the twentieth century saw several international and inter-denominational conferences regarding the evangelical need for other missionary efforts and the practical means of carrying them out. Robert Speer was one of the most dedicated missionaries at these conferences, exhorting others with a great zeal that he exhibited in his actions, as well. The gains of the nineteenth century, however -- as well as some of those in the twentieth century -- had come at the cost of hundreds of thousands of Christian lives confirmed the unfortunate truth "that the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church." The death of these martyrs had largely ended by the Edinburgh issionary Conference of 1910, which established a new consciousness regarding the missionary purpose and pursuit.
Chapter…… [Read More]
nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…… [Read More]
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…… [Read More]
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…… [Read More]
This is the problem of induction in a nutshell, and it is something that has alternatively been seen as one of the most severe limitations on true knowledge about the world or as a non-issue in any practical terms. If inductive reasoning cannot be trusted, then all past experience and even experimental data is essentially meaningless in predicting the future and there is no logical reason to assume things should occur one way simply because they have occurred that way before. Many have pointed out how silly it would be to go through the world without inductive reasoning -- not being sure if the door would open when the handle is turned, etc. -- but this does not actually address the logical problem of induction.
Edwards Attempted Answer
There have been attempts to address the problem of induction at the fundamental logical level, some of them seeming to come closer…… [Read More]
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…… [Read More]
Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).
The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…… [Read More]
Elizabeth Bishop's, "Filling Station"
Elizabeth Bishops poem "Filling Station" is about the poet's ability to see something magnificent in the most ordinary of things. It is through the observation of a dirty filling station that Bishop is able to see an example of love. Bishop is known by her skill of employing imagery with attention to detail. (Lauter 2294) In "Filling Station,"she successfully transforms a greasy filling station into a place that displays expressions of love. By engaging the reader in the poem by posing questions, she is asking the reader to look beyond what is on the surface and search for something more.
Bishop has selected the perfect subject for the topic of her poem, as most people would not find a filling station attractive nor would most people stop to think about a filling station -- in one way or another. Although it is just a dirty, greasy…… [Read More]
Yank in "Hairy Ape" by Eugene O'Neill
In the play, "Hairy Ape," by Eugene O'Neill, the character of Yank portrays the individual who seeks to conform in his society and is always in need to belong with other people. Robert Smith, or Yank, is illustrated as an individual who personifies anything that is deviant in the society: O'Neill portrays him as "broader, fiercer, more truculent, more powerful, and surer of himself than the rest. They respect his superior strength -- the grudging respect of fear. Then, too, he represents to them a self-expression, the very last word in what they are, their most highly developed individual." This passage from the play shows how, because of both his physical appearance and personality, Yank is immediately identified as 'distinct' and 'different' from other people.
Looking into his portrayal in the play, Yank also shows apparent dislike for conformity, deviating from all the…… [Read More]
Admiral's Advantage -- U.S. Navy Operational Intelligence in World War II and the Cold War
The Admirals Advantage
The Admirals Advantage is a book that is based on an Operational Intelligence (OPINTEL) 'Lessons Learnt' symposium that was held in 1998 at the National Maritime Intelligence Centre. It also borrows from studies conducted by the reserve units of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) that were conducted in the period between 1994 and 2004. The book is written by Christopher Ford and David Rosenberg, who received assistance from Randy alano. Christopher Ford served as the Republican Chief Counsel to the U.S. committee on appropriations and among other previous roles; he had served as U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence's general counsel[footnoteRef:1]. He is also a graduate from Yale and Harvard. At the time the book was being written, David Rosenberg worked in the Institute for Defense Analyses as a professional staff…… [Read More]
War Below, James Scott offers insight into the roles American submarines played on the Pacific front during World War Two. Focusing especially on the ways only three submarines (Silversides, Drum, and Tang) were used to sabotage Japan, Scott uses a narrative writing style replete with anecdotes derived from face-to-face interviews and the memoirs of the survivors of these missions. The War Below is divided into 22 chapters, but also includes an epilogue as well as photographs. Because of its gripping narrative format, many readers will find The War Below captivating even without having prior military background. However, military historians and military strategists will find The War Below to be a helpful addition to their libraries.
The USS Silversides, USS Drum, and USS Tang operated independently of one another, but each remained dedicated to thwarting the Japanese. These were only three of almost two hundred American submarines that had begun to…… [Read More]
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida
This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.
We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…… [Read More]
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…… [Read More]
e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]
Modern art in the Asia-Pacific region reflects the rapidly changing geo-political landscapes, as well as becoming increasingly integrated into architecture and urban planning. In the Asia-Pacific region, the art of the 21st century can be large scale and includes ambitious installation projects as well as graphic art, graffiti, and urban art. Although influenced by European trends like abstraction and surrealism, the art of the Asia-Pacific region is dedicated to communicating a localized aesthetic. Contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region can also be politically powerful, designed to make statements. In some cases, art has become a critical component of social justice and communications. The work of Ai Weiwei reflects the fusion of art with politics at critical junctures. In Japan and Korea, political statements were less concerned about protests against governmental institutions and more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history…… [Read More]
Disasters of the Twentieth Century
Most of the great disasters of the twentieth century became truly "great" precisely because there were not appropriate levels of planning or mitigation processes in place, and the San Francisco Fire of 1906 was no exception. Caused by an earthquake that disrupted what mitigation components that were a part of the city -- rupturing water lines to make fighting the fires all but impossible, ad breaking the city's alarm system to make warnings less effective -- San Francisco was nearly leveled by the two concurrent and directly related disasters that struck (Popular Mechanics, 2012). A lack of planning in the city's design made the buildings susceptible to the earthquake and the fire, with densely packed wooden structures and man-made ground both exacerbating the problem immensely (Popular Mechanics, 2012). With the mitigation systems compromised from the outset, there was little to be done.
The Spanish Flu…… [Read More]
Presidential Disaster Declaration Process
Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century
Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.
I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?
II. Importance…… [Read More]
Indirectly, the technological and industrial endeavors of the First World War led to an increased emphasis on the importance of science knowledge and practical application throughout the country, and when there was no longer a war effort towards which to direct these energies, the fervor did not die away but rather found itself applied in new directions, such as crop dusting, increasing diversification of automobiles, and many other innovations (Highbeam 2010).
The 1920s ended with the market crash and the onset of the Great Depression, and though technology continued to advance its progress was necessarily slowed during this period. World War II saw a similar resurgence in technological and industrial innovations, however, and the following decade of the 1950s saw a major increase in the number and the affordability of many new or newer household technologies. Among these was the all important television, which would change the way the world…… [Read More]
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…… [Read More]
great wars of the twentieth century can be classified as "total wars" not because of their far-reaching effects, although many of them have been global wars. Rather, the term "total war" refers more to the all-encompassing effect of war on the cultures involved. Total wars alter civilian mentality and ideology in a way traditional wars do not. Patriotism and nationalism are by no means new concepts; nor is taking civilian casualties a new practice. But since World War One, total wars have taken on new meanings and transformed political ideologies.
The term "total war" seems to have originated during World War One, when the idea of a "People's War" gained popularity. As burgeoning nationalism changed the face of European geographical boundaries, national identities fostered a fresh sense of patriotism. The 19th century saw the unification of Germany following a series of battles that incidentally led up to the First World…… [Read More]
In his book Culture and Everyday Life, Andy Bennett provides a definition of fashion that highlights the fact that fashion has a particular utilitarian function wholly apart from that of clothing, and though a simple observation, this fact forces one to reconsider how men's fashion has been regarded for at least the last eighty years. In his book, Bennett writes that "fashion provides one of the most ready means through which individuals can make expressive visual statements about their identities," a claim most people would readily agree with (Bennett 2000, p. 96). However, this claim has not been taken to its logical conclusion in the many major academic texts regarding fashion, and particularly men's fashion, due to the erroneous belief that at some point in the nineteenth century, men "renounced" fashion, deeming it feminine and thus outside the sphere of male activity. In reality, the so-called "Great Masculine…… [Read More]
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]
Iran Societal Assessment
The RAND document shows that a powerful country is one that is able to take decisions that make it economically productive for many years to come And to gain this productivity the country requires a combination of state and societal strength
Hence this shows the significance of the societal aspect of any country's power in the world
SOCIETAL OVERVIEW: the Iranian population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations At the start of the twentieth century Iranian population was estimated to be around 5 million but the actual numbers showed a figure of 10 million, twice the projected size Each consecutive census shows that this fast paced trend has since continued on its path as it is By 1956 had seen an increase of approximately 9 million while in the next 3 decades the population rise was around 16 million This humungous increase was…… [Read More]
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]
Better transportation methods helped farmers reach a global market, but they also helped increase the cost of food, and helped more farmers give up agriculture as their employment, too. Technology helped farms become more efficient, but it also helped develop large, factory farms that ran small, independent farmers out of business because they could not compete financially.
Many other innovations that we take for granted today also changed the face of life in the twentieth century. One of those is plastic. "Time" Magazine editors note, "In 1908, Belgian inventor Leo Baekeland created Bakelite, the first plastic, by combining phenols and formaldehyde; it was used originally as an alternative to ivory billiard balls" (Editors). Plastic does not seem to be a vital invention, and yet, everywhere we look today there are plastics, from our computer keyboards and components, to Zip-lock storage bags, water bottles, and automobile interiors. Plastics are everywhere, and…… [Read More]
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]
Spain and Hungary remained among the last to overcome the feudal era thanks to the industrial change, by the outbreak of the First orld ar (Trebilcock). Considering the different levels of intensity the industrialization came to have during the eighteenth century and up until the First orld ar and the variations in the way modernization and a global trade system manifested in different parts of Europe, an industrial revolution may be considered an exaggeration in terms of its achievement at a continental level. "it is obvious that nothing so monolithic as 'an industrial revolution in Europe' occurred in the nineteenth century. The experience of industrialization was most certainly not uniform between countries; instead, there was an immense variety of growth rate, technological advance, and managerial expertise" (idem, 2). Feudal and Capitalist societies coexisted for a while after the industrialization phenomenon spread in Europe, producing inequalities and major differences not only…… [Read More]
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…… [Read More]
Anomie and Alienation
Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found
Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…… [Read More]
Black Women in Law Profession Early Twentieth Century
Black women attempting to enter careers in law during the period from 1900 through 1970 faced a variety of unique challenges. During this era, many women of all races began to question their role and place into society; it was during this time that civil rights campaigns were beginning to flourish, and African-American women as faced the prospect of not only being a minority as a woman, but also being a minority because of their skin color and ethnic heritage.
African-American women attempting to pursue careers during this time rarely had the opportunity to hold leadership positions, which was common for women of any race. Another challenge facing black women was the lack of adequate representation, influence and emphasis in the workforce. The lack of attention to black women's careers is even evident in the context of textual references and history; the…… [Read More]
The organization emphasized strong ties among third world countries and neutrality in relations with the U.S. And the Soviet Union. ("Josip Broz Tito," n.d.) Domestically, Tito introduced a system of decentralized economy, which encouraged workers' self-management. He tackled the strong nationalistic fissures in the country by creating a system of "symmetrical federalism" that ensured 'equality' among the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous provinces.
In the end, it is difficult to speculate how different the world would have been if the man called Tito had never lived. It is true that his country of disparate nationalities, which Tito had held together with sheer will and the force of his personality for 35 years, unraveled quickly after his death. But to hold him responsible for the break-up of his beloved country and the tragic events which occurred during the ethnic strife in the Balkans would be doing injustice to the…… [Read More]
The ideological implications are more than obvious. The third level is the international one. The Atlantic community is now united by the same patterns of consumer behaviour and by the same need for security which contributes to the diminishment of conflict risks.
What the author does in order to bring further support for the importance of the changes which were taking place at that time is mention how the terms from the military language, such as launch day, Dday or mobilization passed into the language used by people dealing with marketing. From a war zone they passed into daily life proving that a new war was going on, that is consumption on a daily basis.
And indeed de Grazia brings into discussion the so called Detergent wars. America is the place where the first PR and advertising agencies were born. This fact was naturally a consequence of the economic realities…… [Read More]
Moreover, the production of nylon depends on the petroleum industry and heavy manufacturing: sources of pollution. Therefore, nylon did not necessarily make the world a better place.
The invention of nylon proved to be a mixed blessing. Used in parachutes and tent materials during World War Two, nylon did open up a wealth of possibilities for modernization and technological innovation (Agogino 2007). Few commercial sectors today do not rely at least in part on nylon. Musicians string their guitars with nylon strings; sailors rely on nylon sails; and dentists give their patients toothbrushes with nylon bristles. Yet the clothing industry was perhaps the one most affected by the introduction of nylon to the market. At the 1939 World's Fair in New York City DuPont introduced the first commercial product using nylon: stockings. The stockings were marketed mainly to women, and became so popular that they were soon referred to not…… [Read More]