Twentieth Century Essays (Examples)

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Early 20th Century

Words: 777 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83170696

Twentieth Century

The Gilded Age witnessed industrial progress and accumulated wealth that boosted the growth of the middle class, yet at the same time there was the spread of "appalling" conditions in the slum areas of the cities, the farmers were in desperate times, and factory workers and others were trampled upon by the wheels of progress (Progressive pp). The "war between capital and labor" demonstrated that Americans were willing to fight for their economic rights, and many historians believe that if the conditions of the working poor had not been addresses, the country very likely would have been thrown into another revolution (Progressive pp). Yet, a revolution did actually take place, just not on the battlefield (Progressive pp). It was called the Progressive Movement, and as a basic conservative movement, it was not meant to cause as stir, but to address the problems of society and find solutions in…… [Read More]

Work Cited

The Age of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1933-1945. Retrieved October 17, 2005 from:

http://www.eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/crossroads/sec2/essay10.html

Boom or Bust. Retrieved October 17, 2005 from:

http://www.eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/crossroads/sec2/essay09.html
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Events of the 20th Century

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1379502

20th Century

The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.

Chinese Revolution

Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brian McArthur, Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches (London: Penguin Viking, 1992), pp. 234-237.

Roberts, J.M. The Penguin History of the World, The Penguin. Third Edition Helicon Publishing, 1992

Kevin Reilly, Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader: Since 1400, Bedford/St. Martin's; (February 2000)

Mao Tse-Tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung: Vol. I, From: Be Concerned with the Well-Being of the Masses, Pay Attention to Methods of Work --The Concluding speech made by Comrade Mao Tse-tung at the Second National Congress of Workers' and Peasants' Representatives held in Juichin, Kiangsi Province in January 1934. Available at http://www.maoism.org/msw/vol1/mswv1_idx.htm. Accessed on 18.7.2003
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Wars of the Century Major Wars of

Words: 2772 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41238277

Wars of the Century

Major Wars of the 20th Century: the Causes

The twentieth century has certainly seen its shares of horrors of killings. Internationally, an astonishing number of major and minor wars have broken down during this specific time period. All of these major and minor conflicts have certainly changed the face of our society and affected millions of people worldwide; to understand the changes undergone by our international culture and society as well as the major causes of war, it is of the utmost importance to gain a better understanding of those conflicts. The similarities in many of those worldly conflicts traceable to the twentieth century are astonishing and deeper analysis of the causes and outcomes of those conflicts certainly is necessary from a historic point-of-view. By establishing a list of the major conflicts of the twentieth century and learning more about the deep-rooted causes of those wars,…… [Read More]

References

Best, Anthony et al. (2008) International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond. Oxon, Routledge.

Booth, Ken and Dunne, Tim (eds) (2002) Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of the Global Order. Hampshire, Palgrave.

Chatfield, Charles and DeBenedetti, Charles (1990) An American Ordeal: the antiwar movement of the Vietnam Era. Syracuse, Syracuse University Press.

Cowley, Robert and Parker, Geoffrey (1996) The Reader's Companion to Military History. New York, Houghton Mifflin.
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Fertility in the 20th Century

Words: 2691 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5568855



3. Solutions

There are a number of solutions that are medically available for infertility. Fertility treatments for men and women can include chemical solutions, solutions to boost fertility as well as surgical procedures. However, these work on a personal level and do not address the wider and larger issues in society. The most effective and long-term solution to the problem of declining fertility rates is understanding and knowledge, coupled with governmental and institutional application of this knowledge. In other words, this could involve simple precautionary aspects such as the understanding and avoidance of certain chemical substance and toxins in the workplace that can increase the possibility of infertility.

Social and cultural stresses are major factors that impact on fertility rate and research into these factors is needed if the general problem is to be addressed adequately. Governmental and social policies that improve the possibility for increased fertility rates have in…… [Read More]

Velculescu D. et al. (2004) Fertility Declines and Youth Dependency: Implications for the Global Economy. Retrieved October 25, 2008, at http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2004/09globaleconomics_bryant.aspx

Natality is defined as: "The birthrate, which is the ratio of total live births to total population in a particular area over a specified period of time; expressed as childbirths per 1000 people (or population) per year, ( http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Natality )

Fertility in the 20th century
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Women's Rights in the Twentieth

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5601044



In 1963, the Equal Pay Act equalized pay between men and women by law, but did not apply to many types of employment such as administrators, professionals, and executives. The following year, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination based on gender (and race), in conjunction with the creation of the Equal

Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce employment rights and redress violations of law in that regard.

Homophobia, Limitations of Equality, and Room for Future Improvement:

Today, American women enjoy most of the same rights and privileges and men, although certain inequalities still persist. In a practical sense, female wages still lag substantially behind many of their male counterparts in wages in non-regulated employment areas. One of the areas in which civil rights and privileges still reflect considerable inequality is in the realm of same-sex unions. While some states recognize the equality of same-sex couples…… [Read More]

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American History Early 20th Century

Words: 1597 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11498247

Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).

A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Progressing into the 20th Century the Progressive Movement." (n.d.). 14 February 2010,



"Progressive Movement." (2010). 14 February 2010,

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Technological Th Century Surgical Technological

Words: 1071 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54487773

As Pressman states, "Given what has later become known about the delicacies of brain function and the complexities of psychiatric illness, it strains credulity that such a crude procedure as the original lobotomies might truly have yielded therapeutic benefits for a great many patients." (Pressman1998, 195) This also refers to the fact that some medical theories are favored at certain times and not others. This suggests the relativity rather than the certainty of the scientific -- rational worldview.

The above brings us to the views put forward by Freeman and others concerning the technological fix. This in turn relates to other questions; such as why a method like lobotomy should have been seen to be effective in the past but not today. This leads to the view that political and social factors influence medicine and especially the success once attributed to a technology like lobotomy. For example, Pressman refers to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Freeman, Walter and Watts, W. 1942. Psychosurgery, Intelligence, Emotion and Social

Behavior Following Prefrontal Lobotomy for Mental Disorders. Springfield:Baltimore.

Freeman, Walter and Watts, W. 1937. "Subcortical Prefrontal Lobotomy in the Treatment

of Certain Psychoses." Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 38: 225-229
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Eighteenth Century Religion in Many

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55558761



Chapter 12

issionary efforts during the nineteenth century had led to a massive expansion of the Church and Christianity, and the first several decades of the twentieth century saw several international and inter-denominational conferences regarding the evangelical need for other missionary efforts and the practical means of carrying them out. Robert Speer was one of the most dedicated missionaries at these conferences, exhorting others with a great zeal that he exhibited in his actions, as well. The gains of the nineteenth century, however -- as well as some of those in the twentieth century -- had come at the cost of hundreds of thousands of Christian lives confirmed the unfortunate truth "that the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church." The death of these martyrs had largely ended by the Edinburgh issionary Conference of 1910, which established a new consciousness regarding the missionary purpose and pursuit.

Chapter…… [Read More]

Missionary efforts during the nineteenth century had led to a massive expansion of the Church and Christianity, and the first several decades of the twentieth century saw several international and inter-denominational conferences regarding the evangelical need for other missionary efforts and the practical means of carrying them out. Robert Speer was one of the most dedicated missionaries at these conferences, exhorting others with a great zeal that he exhibited in his actions, as well. The gains of the nineteenth century, however -- as well as some of those in the twentieth century -- had come at the cost of hundreds of thousands of Christian lives confirmed the unfortunate truth "that the blood of the martyrs was the seed of the Church." The death of these martyrs had largely ended by the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of 1910, which established a new consciousness regarding the missionary purpose and pursuit.

Chapter 13

Though it is difficult to determine with precision the most important turning points in the history of Christianity in the twentieth century from such a close vantage point, but several key events and trends can be singled out. The rise of Pentecostalism throughout the twentieth century was certainly significant, with signs of the Holy Spirit felt by millions more today than ever before in Christian history. The Second Vatican Council and its decisions also had enormous ramifications for the Church in the latter half of the twentieth century and beyond, and major political and economic events that took place in the world -- the great Depression, the two World Wars, etc. -- also had large religious ramifications.
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Nineteenth Century and the Early Part of

Words: 2023 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56366949

nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was a time of hardship for many Americans, and a time of extreme injustice for several groups, as well. African-Americans were strictly segregated and subjected to institutional racism by the state and local governments in the South and by cultural sentiments, and Native Americans continued to be pushed into ever-smaller reservations and subjected to a host of other injustices, as well. The former group was being ostracized from mainstream American society, while the latter group was forced to assimilate or to live in squalor, and leadership in both groups was split, as well. Meanwhile, expansion into areas of the continent that had been unsettled increased due to mining efforts and for other reasons, as well, though by the early twentieth century the frontier had largely been closed and the first phase of America's history, at least according to some observers,…… [Read More]

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Education in America the Seventeenth Century Has

Words: 3372 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23845923

Education in America

The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.

The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America

University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971

2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard

University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
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19th and 20th Centuries Americans

Words: 3665 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49376107

In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).

The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…… [Read More]

References

Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.

Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood

Press.
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Induction Discussions Across the Centuries

Words: 1339 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54119084



This is the problem of induction in a nutshell, and it is something that has alternatively been seen as one of the most severe limitations on true knowledge about the world or as a non-issue in any practical terms. If inductive reasoning cannot be trusted, then all past experience and even experimental data is essentially meaningless in predicting the future and there is no logical reason to assume things should occur one way simply because they have occurred that way before. Many have pointed out how silly it would be to go through the world without inductive reasoning -- not being sure if the door would open when the handle is turned, etc. -- but this does not actually address the logical problem of induction.

Edwards Attempted Answer

There have been attempts to address the problem of induction at the fundamental logical level, some of them seeming to come closer…… [Read More]

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Hapsburg Empire in the Half Century Before

Words: 1956 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19521802

Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I

At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.

The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.

During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…… [Read More]

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Environmental Crime Throughout the Twentieth

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9737426

Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).

The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp

Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
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Exotism in 19th and Early 20th Century Opera

Words: 2976 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98016479

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida

This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.

We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…… [Read More]

References:

Crebas, Aya & Dick Pels. "The Character of Carmen and the Social Construction of a New Feminine Myth." Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series #5, December 12, 1987.

Harwood, Buie, Bridget May, Phd, & Curt Sherman. "Exoticism: 1830s -- 1920s." Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century: An Integrated History, Volume 2,-Page 212 -- 235. Prentice Hall, 2009.

Locke, Ralph P. "A Broader View of Musical Exoticism." The Journal of Musicology, Volume 24, No. 4, Pages 477 -- 521. University of California Press, 2007.

Locke, Ralph P. "Beyond the exotic: How 'Eastern' is Aida?" Cambridge Opera Journal, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 105 -- 139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
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Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78019635

Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera

Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera

Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.

Exoticism in History and Culture

Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm

New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO

The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
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Leadership Three Theories Three Centuries

Words: 2027 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621831

e. leadership (Pruyne, 2001, p. 6), but also that "determining how to abstract a set of leadership concepts that apply across contexts without sacrificing an understanding of how the conditions and qualities involved in leadership vary among those same contexts" remained elusive (Pruyne, 2001, p. 7). Experts provided extended series of examples, mostly from the 20th century, demonstrating how leadership characteristics change over time and vary with context. Therefore future, 21st-century leaders should learn from the confused, sometimes contradictory and still evolving historical development of the concept "leadership," in order to distill the useful concepts from mistakes and temporary analytical fads. What seems to persist from the development of leadership theory over the last three centuries, is that leaders can be made rather than born regardless of inherited socio-economic status, and that while certain traits may be more prominent or apparent in those who find themselves in positions of leadership…… [Read More]

References

House, R., Javidan, M., Hanges, P. And Dorfman, P. (2002). Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE. Journal of World Business 37, 3-10. Retrieved from http://t-bird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/jwb_globe_intro.pdf

Kirkpatrick, K.A. And Locke, E.A. (1991). Leadership: do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive 5(2), 48-60. Retrieved from  http://sbuweb.tcu.edu/jmathis/org_mgmt_materials/leadership%20-%20do%20traits%20matgter.pdf 

Pruyne, E. (2002). Conversations on leadership. Harvard Leadership Roundtable 2000-2001, 1-

78 Center for Public Leadership, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Retrieved from  http://www.morehouse.edu/centers/leadershipcenter/pdf/ConversationsOnLeadership.pdf
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contemporary art 21st century asia

Words: 1566 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47954456

Modern art in the Asia-Pacific region reflects the rapidly changing geo-political landscapes, as well as becoming increasingly integrated into architecture and urban planning. In the Asia-Pacific region, the art of the 21st century can be large scale and includes ambitious installation projects as well as graphic art, graffiti, and urban art. Although influenced by European trends like abstraction and surrealism, the art of the Asia-Pacific region is dedicated to communicating a localized aesthetic. Contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region can also be politically powerful, designed to make statements. In some cases, art has become a critical component of social justice and communications. The work of Ai Weiwei reflects the fusion of art with politics at critical junctures. In Japan and Korea, political statements were less concerned about protests against governmental institutions and more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history…… [Read More]

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Lessons Learned

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77734091

Disasters of the Twentieth Century

Most of the great disasters of the twentieth century became truly "great" precisely because there were not appropriate levels of planning or mitigation processes in place, and the San Francisco Fire of 1906 was no exception. Caused by an earthquake that disrupted what mitigation components that were a part of the city -- rupturing water lines to make fighting the fires all but impossible, ad breaking the city's alarm system to make warnings less effective -- San Francisco was nearly leveled by the two concurrent and directly related disasters that struck (Popular Mechanics, 2012). A lack of planning in the city's design made the buildings susceptible to the earthquake and the fire, with densely packed wooden structures and man-made ground both exacerbating the problem immensely (Popular Mechanics, 2012). With the mitigation systems compromised from the outset, there was little to be done.

The Spanish Flu…… [Read More]

References

JFK Library. (2012). The Bay of Pigs. Accessed 1 May 2012.  http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx 

Popular Mechanics. (2012). The top 10 worst disasters of the last century. Accessed 1 May 2012. http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/survival/stories/10-disasters
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Presidential Disaster Declaration Process

Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54280279

Presidential Disaster Declaration Process

Preparedness and Mitigation from Disasters in the Twentieth Century

Numerous disasters have always brought intensive destruction to the environment and human lives over the years. The twentieth century, however, has experienced rather greater disasters, which have called for intervention through ensuring mitigation and preparedness. The presidential disaster declaration process is aimed at fulfilling the ambitions of preparing for disasters. These disasters include both the man-made and natural ones, ranging from the outbreak of fires, contagious diseases that need extreme control, earthquakes and hurricanes, the nightmare of global warming, political instability and many others. The essay evaluates analytically, the need for preparedness through the presidential disaster declaration process, which is a strategy to getting assistance. The evolution of the process in the twentieth century to strengthen hazard management is also discussed in the content.

Outline

Introduction

I. What is the presidential disaster declaration (PDD) process?

II. Importance…… [Read More]

References

Bellamy, J.S. (2009) Cleverland's Greatest Disasters!: 16 Tragic True Tales of Death and Destruction: New York: Gray and Company.

Ec-Council (2010) Disaster Recovery: New York, Cengage Learning.

Kapucu, N. & Alpaslan, Z. (2011) Managing Emergencies and Crises: MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishing.

Oliver, J. & Aldcroft, H.D. (2007) Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century: New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Military Tech the United States

Words: 1352 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2781909

Indirectly, the technological and industrial endeavors of the First World War led to an increased emphasis on the importance of science knowledge and practical application throughout the country, and when there was no longer a war effort towards which to direct these energies, the fervor did not die away but rather found itself applied in new directions, such as crop dusting, increasing diversification of automobiles, and many other innovations (Highbeam 2010).

The 1920s ended with the market crash and the onset of the Great Depression, and though technology continued to advance its progress was necessarily slowed during this period. World War II saw a similar resurgence in technological and industrial innovations, however, and the following decade of the 1950s saw a major increase in the number and the affordability of many new or newer household technologies. Among these was the all important television, which would change the way the world…… [Read More]

References

Davidson, L. (2009). "WWI: New technologies." Accessed 8 June 2010. http://techcenter.davidson.k12.nc.us/group9/tech.htm

Highbeam. (2010). "The 1920s: Science and technology." Accessed 8 June 2010. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3468301016.html

Pursell, C. (2007). The machine in America. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.

SCNET. (2010). "Information science in the twentieth century." Accessed 8 June 2010. http://www.libsci.sc.edu/BOB/istchron/ISCNET/ISC1940.HTM
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Racism Race Ethnicity in the 18th

Words: 2842 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92022289

Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).

On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.

Compared with Thebedi,…… [Read More]

References in Black Women's Narratives of Apartheid Racism. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 414-431. Accessed on 10 May 2012 from EBSCOhost database
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History and War

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62669133

great wars of the twentieth century can be classified as "total wars" not because of their far-reaching effects, although many of them have been global wars. Rather, the term "total war" refers more to the all-encompassing effect of war on the cultures involved. Total wars alter civilian mentality and ideology in a way traditional wars do not. Patriotism and nationalism are by no means new concepts; nor is taking civilian casualties a new practice. But since World War One, total wars have taken on new meanings and transformed political ideologies.

The term "total war" seems to have originated during World War One, when the idea of a "People's War" gained popularity. As burgeoning nationalism changed the face of European geographical boundaries, national identities fostered a fresh sense of patriotism. The 19th century saw the unification of Germany following a series of battles that incidentally led up to the First World…… [Read More]

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Fashion Cultural Historical Studies Gender Masculinity and Femininity Androgyny

Words: 2478 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76848772

Men's Fashion

In his book Culture and Everyday Life, Andy Bennett provides a definition of fashion that highlights the fact that fashion has a particular utilitarian function wholly apart from that of clothing, and though a simple observation, this fact forces one to reconsider how men's fashion has been regarded for at least the last eighty years. In his book, Bennett writes that "fashion provides one of the most ready means through which individuals can make expressive visual statements about their identities," a claim most people would readily agree with (Bennett 2000, p. 96). However, this claim has not been taken to its logical conclusion in the many major academic texts regarding fashion, and particularly men's fashion, due to the erroneous belief that at some point in the nineteenth century, men "renounced" fashion, deeming it feminine and thus outside the sphere of male activity. In reality, the so-called "Great Masculine…… [Read More]

References

Barker, C. (2008), Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice, SAGE, New York.

Bennett, A. (2005), Culture and Everyday Life, SAGE, New York.

Bourdieu, P. (1984), Distinction, Routledge, New York.

Bourke, J. (1996), "The Great Male Renunciation: Men's Dress Reform in Inter-War Britain,"
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Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts and Art

Words: 5404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63467824

Olmec

Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."

At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]

References:

1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf

2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website:  http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf 

3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website:  http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf 

4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
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Country Study Assessment on Iran Societal Assessment

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59054844

Iran Societal Assessment

Societal Assessment

The RAND document shows that a powerful country is one that is able to take decisions that make it economically productive for many years to come And to gain this productivity the country requires a combination of state and societal strength

Hence this shows the significance of the societal aspect of any country's power in the world

SOCIETAL OVERVIEW: the Iranian population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations At the start of the twentieth century Iranian population was estimated to be around 5 million but the actual numbers showed a figure of 10 million, twice the projected size Each consecutive census shows that this fast paced trend has since continued on its path as it is By 1956 had seen an increase of approximately 9 million while in the next 3 decades the population rise was around 16 million This humungous increase was…… [Read More]

. Unlike Pakistan, where ethnic groups are close in quantity and group loyalty has made it difficult for the people to unite, Iran does not have that issue. Its dominant force is the Shia population that is in control of every administrative department. It was religious unity that had provided support to the two revolutions that have shaped the country's history and its current political system. The overwhelming support that Ayatollah Khomeini got in 1979, to bring about the revolution, characterizes the revolution as 'a society vs. state' conflict. All factions of society had some conflict with the existing government: the farmers were saddened over the monetary losses they had faced; the Ulema (cleric) felt the state was alienated from religion, hence rather unreligious in approach. Lastly, the general public was desirous of more freedom. Therefore all of them united to prepare demonstrations and get rid of the rulers. However, the resultant political form has also failed to satisfy the masses. Writer Farideh Farhi, in her book 'Crafting a National Identity Amidst Contentious Politics in Contemporary Iran,' talks about how the people of Iran are now faced with an identity crisis that has them confused and continuously in search of a religious philosophy that would bring them mental and social peace. They have lost faith in the government and their religious reforms

. The two issues of relationships with U.S. And the nuclear program are great burdens on the public's mind and they have adopted a more modern outlook to life than the government would allow. If the 2009 protests are any indication the people are running out of patience with government and their reforms.

Enterprise: Education is the key to a successful, happy life and a nation's children are its future. If they are not well educated, the society can be expected to be illiterate and inefficient and the nation's economic, social and political demise becomes imminent. Education paves the way towards economic and social progress. Iran has gone through immense development in this sector after the revolution. In the 10 years starting from 1988 overall adult literacy rate rose from 57.1 to 74.5%. The post revolution government understood the value of education and made acquisition of it easier for the public. That is why the average enrolment rate also rose by 10%, from 65.6 to 75. The government enforced laws that made education an absolutely necessity for higher education and employment. However,
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Global Changes in the Missiology

Words: 9755 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77300433

" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)

Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:

(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;

(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bosch, David Jacobus (1991) Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission, American Society of Missiology Series; No. 16. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.

Gelder, Craig Van (2007) the Missional Church in Context: Helping Congregations Develop Contextual Ministry. Volume 1 of Missional Church Series. Missional Church Network Series. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.

Guder, Darrell L. (2000) the Continuing Conversion of the Church. Grand Rapids, NI: Eerdmans, 2000.

Hesselgrave, David J> (2007) Will We Correct the Edinburgh Error? Future Mission in Historical Perspective. Southwestern Journal of Theology.Vol. 49 No. 2 Spring 2007.
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Technology Has Determined the Outcomes

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61874482

Better transportation methods helped farmers reach a global market, but they also helped increase the cost of food, and helped more farmers give up agriculture as their employment, too. Technology helped farms become more efficient, but it also helped develop large, factory farms that ran small, independent farmers out of business because they could not compete financially.

Many other innovations that we take for granted today also changed the face of life in the twentieth century. One of those is plastic. "Time" Magazine editors note, "In 1908, Belgian inventor Leo Baekeland created Bakelite, the first plastic, by combining phenols and formaldehyde; it was used originally as an alternative to ivory billiard balls" (Editors). Plastic does not seem to be a vital invention, and yet, everywhere we look today there are plastics, from our computer keyboards and components, to Zip-lock storage bags, water bottles, and automobile interiors. Plastics are everywhere, and…… [Read More]

References

Best, Antony, Jussi M. Hanhim ki, Joseph a. Maiolo, and Kirsten E. Schulze. International History of the Twentieth Century. London: Routledge, 2004.

Editors. "20th Century Technology." Time.com. 2008. 2 Sept. 2008. http://www.time.com/time/time100/builder/tech_supp/tech_supp.html

Keitz, Maribeth. "Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century." GreatAchievements.org. 2008. 2 Sept. 2008.  http://www.greatachievements.org/ 

Walker, Melisa. "Problems of Plenty: The American Farmer in the Twentieth Century." Journal of Southern History 70.3 (2004): 707+.
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James Rarick Western Civilization II

Words: 3653 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18069719

The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.

6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire

People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…… [Read More]

Resources, 01.07.1997)

9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)

10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)

11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)

12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
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Structural Inequality & Diversity Root

Words: 5575 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73975506

" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:

The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.

Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).

Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).

Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
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Industrialization That Started in the

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64152102

Spain and Hungary remained among the last to overcome the feudal era thanks to the industrial change, by the outbreak of the First orld ar (Trebilcock). Considering the different levels of intensity the industrialization came to have during the eighteenth century and up until the First orld ar and the variations in the way modernization and a global trade system manifested in different parts of Europe, an industrial revolution may be considered an exaggeration in terms of its achievement at a continental level. "it is obvious that nothing so monolithic as 'an industrial revolution in Europe' occurred in the nineteenth century. The experience of industrialization was most certainly not uniform between countries; instead, there was an immense variety of growth rate, technological advance, and managerial expertise" (idem, 2). Feudal and Capitalist societies coexisted for a while after the industrialization phenomenon spread in Europe, producing inequalities and major differences not only…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kiely, Ray. Industrialization and Development: A Comparative Analysis. London: UCL Press, 1998

Sylla, Richard, and Gianni Toniolo, eds. Patterns of European Industrialization: The Nineteenth Century. London: Routledge, 1992

Trebilcock, Clive. The Industrialization of the Continental Powers, 1780-1914. London: Longman, 1981
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Industrial Capitalism and Imperialism Throughout

Words: 2253 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1397342

In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)

However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)

hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?

The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.

Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.

Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
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Anomie and Alienation Lost With No Possibility

Words: 1581 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83835533

Anomie and Alienation

Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found

Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…… [Read More]

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Black Women at Work 1900-1970

Words: 1662 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97279105

Black Women in Law Profession Early Twentieth Century

Black women attempting to enter careers in law during the period from 1900 through 1970 faced a variety of unique challenges. During this era, many women of all races began to question their role and place into society; it was during this time that civil rights campaigns were beginning to flourish, and African-American women as faced the prospect of not only being a minority as a woman, but also being a minority because of their skin color and ethnic heritage.

African-American women attempting to pursue careers during this time rarely had the opportunity to hold leadership positions, which was common for women of any race. Another challenge facing black women was the lack of adequate representation, influence and emphasis in the workforce. The lack of attention to black women's careers is even evident in the context of textual references and history; the…… [Read More]

References

Benjamin, Lois H. "Black Women in the Academy: Promises and Perils." University Press of Florida: 1997

Coquery-Vidrovitch, C., Raps, B. "African Woman: A Modern History." Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.

Fassinger, Ruth E., Johnson, J., Linn, Sonja, Prosser, J., Richie, B., Robinson, S. "Persistence, Connection, and Passion: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving African-American Black and White Women." Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 44, 1997

High Beam Research, LLC. "History." {Online}. Available: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0878427/html
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Josip Broz Tito 1892-1980 Few

Words: 1921 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26775993

The organization emphasized strong ties among third world countries and neutrality in relations with the U.S. And the Soviet Union. ("Josip Broz Tito," n.d.) Domestically, Tito introduced a system of decentralized economy, which encouraged workers' self-management. He tackled the strong nationalistic fissures in the country by creating a system of "symmetrical federalism" that ensured 'equality' among the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous provinces.

In the end, it is difficult to speculate how different the world would have been if the man called Tito had never lived. It is true that his country of disparate nationalities, which Tito had held together with sheer will and the force of his personality for 35 years, unraveled quickly after his death. But to hold him responsible for the break-up of his beloved country and the tragic events which occurred during the ethnic strife in the Balkans would be doing injustice to the…… [Read More]

References

Josip Broz Tito." (n.d.) CNN.com: Interactive. Retrieved on April 8, 2007 at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/kbank/profiles/tito/

MacLean, F. (1957). The Heretic: The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers.

Markham, R.H. (1947). Tito's Imperial Communism. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ. Of North Carolina Press.

Rezun, M. (1995). Europe and War in the Balkans: Toward a New Yugoslav Identity. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
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Americanization of Europe After 1945

Words: 3631 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35636388

The ideological implications are more than obvious. The third level is the international one. The Atlantic community is now united by the same patterns of consumer behaviour and by the same need for security which contributes to the diminishment of conflict risks.

What the author does in order to bring further support for the importance of the changes which were taking place at that time is mention how the terms from the military language, such as launch day, Dday or mobilization passed into the language used by people dealing with marketing. From a war zone they passed into daily life proving that a new war was going on, that is consumption on a daily basis.

And indeed de Grazia brings into discussion the so called Detergent wars. America is the place where the first PR and advertising agencies were born. This fact was naturally a consequence of the economic realities…… [Read More]

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Nylon One of the First

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79592859

Moreover, the production of nylon depends on the petroleum industry and heavy manufacturing: sources of pollution. Therefore, nylon did not necessarily make the world a better place.

The invention of nylon proved to be a mixed blessing. Used in parachutes and tent materials during World War Two, nylon did open up a wealth of possibilities for modernization and technological innovation (Agogino 2007). Few commercial sectors today do not rely at least in part on nylon. Musicians string their guitars with nylon strings; sailors rely on nylon sails; and dentists give their patients toothbrushes with nylon bristles. Yet the clothing industry was perhaps the one most affected by the introduction of nylon to the market. At the 1939 World's Fair in New York City DuPont introduced the first commercial product using nylon: stockings. The stockings were marketed mainly to women, and became so popular that they were soon referred to not…… [Read More]

References

Short History of Manufactured Fibers." Fibersource.com. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at  http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/history.htm 

Agogino, a. (2007). Engineering Education "Today in History" Blog: Nylon first manufactured. NSDL Pathways News. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://expertvoices.nsdl.org/pathwaysnews/2007/12/15/engineering-education-today-in-history-blog-nylon-first-manufactured/

Bellis, M. (nd). A history of pantyhose? About.com. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpantyhose.htm

Hegde, R.R., Dahiya, a. & Kamath, M.G. (2004). Nylon fibers. Retrieved Sept 24, 2008 at  http://www.engr.utk.edu/mse/pages/Textiles/Nylon%20fibers.htm