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This also serves as an important catalytic effects for the bonding of mothers to their babies even before they are born. It is also called the "re-assurance scans" and misnamed as "entertainment scans." Some specialists do not recommend 3-D and 4-D ultrasound as manadatory development of the conventional 2-D scans. Although these may play a part in the study of fetal embryology.
There were many researches done on the in-vitro effects of ultrasonic insonation at various intensities, its effects on heating, cavitation and bubbles, as well as the mechanism of action, standardization of intensity measurements and making the different Guidelines on iological Safety. There were also researches on immuno-suppresive effects, platelet aggregation, cell phagocytosis, DNA damage, fetal weight alterations and increase in sister chromatic exchanges, just to name a few.
There was no definite long-term adverse effects to ultrasound exposed children on new studies in the 1980s and 90s. In…… [Read More]
Physics -- History of Ultrasound Physics and Properties of Transducer
The history of Ultrasound Physics has involved contributions from many professions from a number of countries over hundreds of years. The first developments, dating as far back as 1794, were made by scientists outside the medical profession and were often disconnected from each other. As science progressed and scientists combined these discoveries, the medical profession gradually realized the value of ultrasound for detection, diagnosis and treatment. From the first uses of ultrasound physics with large, clumsy and limited equipment, ultrasound has been so refined that ultrasound can now be accomplished with easily portable equipment at the site of care, far from any hospital or laboratory.
A vital part of these ultrasound developments that is still used today is the transducer, a device that efficiently converts electrical energy into images. Consisting of a sensor and the associated circuitry, the type of…… [Read More]
Bonsanto, MM, et al. "3D ultrasound navigation in syrinx surgery - a feasibility study." Acta Neurochirurgica 54.4 (2005): 540-1.
This article talks about the different designsmof the ultrasounds. It deals with the construction, and assessment of a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound system which is utilized for the treatment of kidney tumors which are using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). This tpye of method contains of a therapeutic ultrasound distribution unit (power amplifier, matching circuit, driver, and transducer (1 MHz)) and a 3D positioning of the different component ( microcontroller and stepper motors). The article talks about the structure comprises of software that projects a treatment preparation in keeping with the tumor directs. In order to confirm the competence of the structure for touching the transducer, the placing module was positively driven so that it would cover the cylinders of sizes that are as large as 30 cm (diameter) x 10 cm (height)…… [Read More]
History of Ultrasound Physics and the Properties of the Transducer
Today, innovations in medical imaging allow clinicians to view the soft tissues, organs and blood flow inside the human body in ways that provide the opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of disorders as well as to monitor neonatal health (Goldberg & Verny, 2007). The introduction of ultrasound technologies, though, has only taken place since the second half of the 20th century, although there were a number of earlier attempts in the late 19th century that met with limited success. To determine the facts about this important innovation, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning the history of ultrasound physics and the properties of the transducers that are used for ultrasound imaging, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
According to Levine (2010), ultrasound…… [Read More]
Very near the beginning of orld ar II, Karl Dussik began exploring ultrasound technology for diagnostic purposes by "attempted to locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull" (oo 7). This experiment produced disappointing results, and the development of this apparatus was not pursued further because of the elaborate set-up, and lack of clear visual representations of the brain.
However, at about the same time in Hamburg, Germany, Heinrich Netheler and olf-Dieter Keidel were independently working on developing ultrasound technology for the purpose of diagnosis. here most development on the topic was still focused on the treatment of diseases, both Keidel and Netheler presented papers to the First Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948, on the potential of ultrasound technology use in the diagnostic field.
The first diagnostic research conducted in the United States was…… [Read More]
Ultrasound in Teaching Medical Students
During medical courses, teaching of anatomy and physiology largely depends on lectures, course books and the dissection of corpses. Ultrasonography is more often than not used in clinical practice and an accumulating number of doctors are taught on its daily use. Contemporary ultrasound machines are less burdensome and more user friendly in comparison to older ones. The main goal of the study encompassed evaluating the viability of conveying an ultrasound-based course to undergraduates and to discover the perceptions of the students as well as those of teachers in this auspicious teaching modality (Hammoudi et al., 2013). In particular, the authors within the article undertake a feasibility analysis as to whether an ultrasound-based course can easily and effectively be incorporated into the normal medical teaching programme for the undergraduate students or not. This was done by obtaining feedback from the students as well as the teachers.…… [Read More]
The mean of Group One minus Group Two equals -5.694852
95% confidence interval of this difference: From -9.458031 to -1.931672
Intermediate values used in calculations:
t = 2.9968 df = 118 standard error of difference = 1.900
Required "t" Value = 1.671
Conclusion: What was seen visa via the raw data presentation was a "slight" difference in ultrasound content knowledge between pre and post instruction. However, the "t" Test analysis has shown that the differences are statistically significant. A resulting "t" value of 2.9968 far exceeds the required value of 1.671. Therefore, enrolling in a ultrasound class significantly increased the participant's content knowledge level. This is a perfect example how one cannt every draw a conclusion about data from a raw data numerical stance. What might appear not to be so different actually ends I being very, very different. Finally, participating in the course obviously did produce a…… [Read More]
arha.org/Career/careerguide.pdf)(ASRT website https://www.asrt.org/)Michigan requires the successful completion of the ASRT test as well as program completion but does not license separately. (Michigan Department of Community Health Web site: (http://www.michigan.gov/mdch/0,1607,7-132-27417_27529-,00.html)
ursing can include two basic levels of nursing education and responsibilities, an Licensed Practical urse or a Registered urse. In brief the clinical difference is minimal, but Rs take on a leadership role and are required as supervisors in most settings. ursing responsibilities are self-evident as they are the main providers of bedside care for all patients, no matter the area of need. Average starting salary for an LP ins $30,763 and an $R 44,304. Education for an LP is between 1-2 years and an R can be 2 years but usually requires a full bachelors degree. Specialization for Rs requires advanced practice training and certification. Both require the completion of education, successful completion of the CLEX, expanded for RS…… [Read More]
But a provider may also "use his/her professional judgment to disclose health information to a parent, even in cases that otherwise meet an exception, as 'necessary to avert a serious and imminent threat to the health or safety of the minor'" such as if a minor begs a doctor not to tell his or her parent that s/he is being sexually abused (Minors, 2005, Miller School). However, given the circumstances of the case, the sonographer went 'out of bounds' in addressing the parents without the girl's permission about her condition, as well as introducing personal information.
HIPPA suggests a sonographer should ask if the young girl would like her parent to be there during the discussion of the procedure, and if the patient gives consent, inform the patient and her parents of any risks that might come to light. If the girl's life is judged to be at risk because…… [Read More]
Catheter insertions take place in medical facilities across the United States every day on a consistent and ongoing manner. As one recent study determined central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is required for many patients who are critically ill (Timsit, 2003) and that the insertion site for each patient should be based upon the most effective, efficient and ease of placement due to the many risks associated with the CVC procedure. Care must be taken, therefore, to ensure that the catheter is placed correctly with every single insertion. Venous insertions of catheters take place to allow medical access for drawing blood, chemotherapy, transfusions, and (amongst other uses) dialysis. Ensuring that the catheters are placed in the proper position is the responsibility of the individual surgeon or radiologist who is charged with placing the catheter in the patient (Ohio State, 2013).
Sometimes, however, mistakes are made, and the catheter is inserted into…… [Read More]
Discuss the legal and ethical issues involved in Roe v. Wade
With the advent of 70's and particularly, aftermath of the decision of the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade during 1973, abortion policy has become a controversial issue in the merican politics. (Levine; Staiger; Kane; Zimmerman, 1996) The decision in Roe v. Wade reinforced the right of women to privacy with regard to her own body, incorporating the termination of pregnancy. (Pozga, 2010) Roe v. Wade delineated more specifically the rights of fetus as well as the mother on the basis of the magnitude of viability. (Killion; Dempski, 2000)
The decision in Roe v. Wade which accorded constitutional protection to abortion, which voided the state laws which banned it, was a decision which had several legal and ethical concerns. This verdict in Roe v. Wade damaged the cornerstone of the ethical principles against the issue of killing. The…… [Read More]
Other signs of manifestation may include irregular bleeding not associated with a woman's normal menstrual cycle, pressure or pain during or after intercourse and abdominal pain of unknown origin (NIC, 2003).
Ultrasound, endovaginal ultrasound and transvaginal sonography have all been used to help identify malignancies within the reproductive organs including the uterus. Of these, the more effective of tools is Color Doppler Sonography, because it allows physicians to distinguish benign masses from malignant masses more easily than do traditional U/S, EVU and TVS techniques. The advantages of U/S, EVU and TVS include the relatively low risk of complications and exposure to radiation which may prove more dangerous than beneficial. In times of old CT scans were often used in an attempt to try to identify malignancies of the uterus and endometrium (oss & Goplerud, 1982). Today, by combining techniques, many doctors find it is much easier to exclude cancer…… [Read More]
Using both at the same energy improved temporal resolution, best used in cardiac imaging. hen used at different kilovoltages resulted in material differentiation (Vlahos 2007).
This dual-energy scanner, based on different attenuations and different photon energies will likely be used for pulmonary arterial angiographic and aortic imaging with, potentially, lower contrast volume. It will also likely be used for pulmonary enhancement maps and may possibly eliminate precontrast imaging and reduce radiation exposure (Vlahos 2007).
Utilizing the distinguishing qualities of attenuation, consistency or homogeneity, number and size of tumors found in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans of lungs and thyroid, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, liver, and ovaries can be evaluated with training.
Fitton, Steenbakkers, et al. worked on a study of the lymph nodes of 13 patients found to have lung cancer. The data was obtained under free breathing conditions, a protocol was determined for CT/PET registration and a comparison of the…… [Read More]
CT scan or MA may result in the clinician oversight of some of the more subtle findings. It is expensive and the availability is limited.
It is possible to evaluate AS via angiogram, bet evaluation of the size of the stenosis tends to be imprecise. Additionally, angiography does not allow a cross-sectional assessment of the stenosis, and in the case of FMD, it is not possible to distinguish the different histological types, although intervention at the time of assessment is a possibility. Doppler sonography is able to measure the amount of blood flow, and is non-invasive. It tends to be highly invasive and is able to demonstrate problems with slow patterns and other issues which are highly suggestive of significant stenosis. Doppler ultrasound tends to be very operator dependent and the exam takes a significant amount of time. Additionally, the exam may be limited by abdominal girth, patient movement and…… [Read More]
Sound waves are then produced by a generator and transmitted through via the thin. Vacuum-like cannula. When the instrument makes contact with the fat cells, they liquefy and are vacuumed out ("Ultrasonic," 2008).
Indications and Clinical Application for UAL:
Scheinfeld and Zimbler (2006) noted that patients with lipodystrophy, localized increased adipose tissue, benefit from liposuction. These patients may be at or below their ideal weight, yet there is fatty tissue present in excess in certain areas. Generalized obesity is not an indication for liposuction. Candidates should be in good health, have realistic expectations and not be obese. UAL is specifically indicated in areas where enhanced contouring is needed, very large areas, or very fibrous areas. Other indications for UAL, and liposuction in general, include treatment of: solitary and multiple lipomas, lipodystrophy, gynecomastia or psydogynecomastia, axillary hyperhidrosis, and axillary bromidrosis. UAL may also be used in reconstructive procedures, including fat debulking…… [Read More]
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…… [Read More]
To register, sonographers must pass a series of tests proving mastery of ultrasound procedures.
At the same time, sonographers can also receive special training from a variety of different venues including specialized programs ancillary to nursing coursework. The most common means of achieving the required certification is via a two-year Associates degree program ("Medical Sonographer Career and Job Information"). Coursework in specialized sonography programs includes ethical issues in health care as well as instruction in anatomy and physiology. Moreover, sonographers must prove they are able to life, push and pull heavy equipment and should be in general good health ("So You ant to Be a Sonographer").
Medical Sonographer Career and Job Information." Career Overview. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008 at http://www.careeroverview.com/medical-sonographer-career.html
So You ant to be a Sonographer..." Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008 at http://www.sdms.org/career/career.asp… [Read More]
A found it interesting that at all the practice sites; they eschewed the use of paper in favor of linen gowns and sheets. When I questioned this practice, I was told that it was done mostly out of a fear of MRSA being spread from patient to patient. I wondered about this, because it would seem to me that the use of disposable linens would definitely reduce the incidence of MRSA and save the cost of laundering the linens. This was definitely a different practice that what I was used to.
All in all I found the sonographers to be a very competent bunch. They appear to be extremely technically proficient and know what they are doing. It also appears that this field is held in high regard by the physicians who will even speak to the sonographer about the results of the scan or consult with them on different…… [Read More]
Technology & Logistics
The author of this report has been asked to answer a fairly general but intriguing question. That question asks the author of this report to define how technology can improve the management of global logistics. Of course, technology can be used to improve logistics in any number of ways. However, the author of this report will center on a few in particular. Indeed, the use of barcodes, networking technology, wireless technology and voice recognition technology are just a few ways and manner in which technology can be used and leveraged to achieve more efficient and error-free logistical performance. While this technology can be daunting and complex, the results garnered from using them effectively is obvious and easy to see.
One example of how technology can aid logistics is through "hidden" barcodes. Most everyone is familiar with the UPC codes used in retail stores to tie an…… [Read More]
Nursing is one of those professions that provides the opportunity not only to further oneself on a professional level, but also on a personal level. It provides the individual with the opportunity to connect with others by providing a platform of health care, while also providing a helping hand that promotes not only short-term healing, but also long-term well-being. This makes nursing one of the most caring professions, as it provides the nurse with the opportunity to use his or her skills, and also to lend a hand above the duties of simple physical health care. In this way, nursing extends to caring for the whole person rather than the physical being alone. This is one of the major factors that has attracted me to the profession throughout my life.
According to Limon (2001), there are four central concepts that are central to the metaparadigm of nursing, including the person…… [Read More]
The aim of the following study was to conduct an ergonomic evaluation to identify contributing factors in the development of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in Ultrasound Sonographers involved in Obstetric and Gynecological scanning. The methodology involved a cross-sectional study of Sonographers in one hospital. The methodology included the use of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) to identify the exposure to postural risk, static muscle work and repetition, and the use of an adapted Musculoskeletal Questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and distribution of musculoskeletal problems,. Fourteen participants were assessed in the workplace. The RULA analysis identified that the task element with the highest risk factor within this sample was scanning patients; it was found that the participant spent between 31% and 39% of their working time doing this in a 26-hour week. The results from the questionnaire found that 64% had experiences one or more combined physical problems…… [Read More]
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:
we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has recently constructed an ultramodern pediatric imaging facility. The healthcare facility exclusively focuses its improved services on children's imaging. In this paper, we present a marketing approach that covers computed Tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, General radiology (X-ay), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MI), Nuclear Medicine as well as ultrasound. The work includes an assessment of both the internal as well as external environment which is important in allowing us to determine the full advantage associated with the CHOP brand, the strategic location of the facility as well as the purchase of the new and improved equipment to warrant the integrated marketing strategy. The approach is however, threatened by the existence of another major hospital within Philadelphia that also offers pediatric imaging services. This risk will however be mitigated by CHOP's approach of focusing on pediatric imaging at an affordable price. Pediatric imaging is to form CHOP's niche market.…… [Read More]
Letter to Official
Steven V. Oroho, District 24, New Jersey
e: Obstetrical Ultrasound/Sonogram
Dear Mr. Oroho:
This letter is written in support of the Bill Introduced in Senate No. 2896 in the State of New Jersey 213th Legislature in June, 2009. The Bill in regards to an act in relation to obstetrical ultrasounds which supplements Title 26 of the evised Statues and which is known as the 'Full Disclosure Ultrasound Act'. This Act states that "All facilities in which abortion procedures are performed, and all facilities whose practitioners refer patients for abortions, shall have either functional ultrasound or sonogram equipment on site or shall have access to such equipment through other medical facilities." (New Jersey Legislature, nd, p. 1)
In addition the act states as follows: "As part of the informed consent to the abortion procedure, a patient desiring an abortion shall be offered an opportunity to undergo an ultrasound…… [Read More]
, 2010). egardless of the cause, infant SV is linked to "significantly more symptoms of wheezing disorder and clinical allergy than controls and were more likely to be sensitized to common inhaled allergens" (Todd et al., 2010). The number of studies and the number of subjects is still small, but the correlations have been consistently large enough to suggest that a serious bout of SV-bronchiolitis in infancy is linked to later lung problems such as asthma, wheezing, and atopy. Therefore, M.C.'s parents should be educated about the possibility that M.C. may experience breathing problems in later life, and told to advise her primary care physician of her SV diagnosis and hospitalization.
Caiulo, V.A., Gargani, L., Caiulo, S., Fisicaro, A., Moramarco, F., Latini, G., & Picano, E.
(2011). Lung ultrasound in bronchiolitis: Comparison with chest x-ray. Eur J. Pediatr, 170, 1427-1433.
Healthwise. (2012). Bronchiolitis- topic overview. etrieved March 9, 2013…… [Read More]
Wilm's tumor refers to a very rare type of kidney cancer that is also known as nephroblastoma, a type of cancer which can impact both kidneys, though usually first developing in just one. Because Wilm's tumor so frequently impacts children, doctors tend to think that "the tumor begins to grow as a fetus develops in the womb, with some cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor" (kidshealth.org, 2013). At the same time, even though this condition is more common to children, it can still occur in adults. It generally manifests between the ages of 3 and 4 and becomes less likely to occur around the age of five.
Symptoms and Signs
It's important to acknowledge that while this condition does occur with a set group of symptoms, some children experience no symptoms whatsoever. Another important aspect to remember is that…… [Read More]
Within the wealth nations, product performance and features matter most. The introduction of the low-cost product in the developed nations might weaken a high-priced and high-quality products designed for hospitals in the wealthy countries.
Case analysis of an Article tiled "Building a Company without Borders." (Becht, 2010).
The goal of the author is to reveal the global operation of B (eckitt Benckiser). The B's global version is to allow company top managers to hold managerial positions uniquely in other countries rather than their countries of origin. The company managers do not hold managerial positions in their country of origin making the company top managers to view themselves as global citizens.
The company operates in more than 60 countries and its top 400 managers are from 60 different nationalities. The company has developed culture of global mobility to create global entrepreneurships in order to develop new ideas.
Importance of…… [Read More]
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…… [Read More]
Define the term Teratology
Teratology refers to the study of abnormal fetal growth. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, chemical and drug agents, metabolic or maternal causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as heat, ionizing radiation, and mechanical factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and stillborn, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, about 10% of infants have internal functional deficits or anomalies which might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface later on in life. Congenital abnormalities can be categorized into: (1) Malformations, which denote changes in normal growth transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an irregular mechanical force upon a fetus which is otherwise normal (e.g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring because of disturbance in normal process of growth (for instance,…… [Read More]
Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.
According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…… [Read More]
Fetal palpation commonly used to detect a variety of complications that can occur during pregnancy. One recent study of 1639 pregnant women compared symphysis fundal height (SFH) measurement with palpation to detect fetal intrauterine growth restriction and abnormal fetal growth. It also compared both techniques' efficacy in reducing neonatal hypoglycaemia; admission to neonatal nursery; premature labor and C-sections (obert et al. 2012). "Symphysis-fundal height (SFH) measurement refers to the distance (measured in centimetres) over the abdominal wall from the top of the uterus (fundus) to the upper border of the symphysis pubis" (Symphysis-fundal height measurement, 2012, Midirs.org). Larger-than-average measurements are associated with breech deliveries -- or simply a larger-than-average baby. Smaller-than-average measurements can indicate a smaller-than-average baby or insufficient amniotic fluid (Symphysis-fundal height measurement, 2012, Midirs.org). The study found no difference between the techniques "but suggested no change in the current practice of using clinical palpation vs. SFH as the…… [Read More]
Diathermy: Uses, Benefits, And isks
As one of the oldest treatment modalites, the therapeutic effects of heat have been experienced for several hundred years. In order to use heat in the treatment of deep muscle injury, diathermy treatment is the therapy of choice. Diathermy uses high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heating results in pain relief, increased blood flow, and increased flexibility. esearch has demonstrated evidence both for and against the effectiveness of diathermy treatment. Attention must be given, however, to risk factors predisposing some patients to serious adverse effects due to diathermy treatment.
Diathermy: Uses, benefits, and risks
Diathermy refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat deep muscular tissues. This heat increases the flow of blood to the area, which in turn, speeds up recovery. The term diathermy is a derivative of the Greek words therma, meaning heat, and dia, meaning through. Therefore,…… [Read More]
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) is also called erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition occurs when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby. "Hemolytic" means breaking down of red blood cells; "erythroblastosis" refers to making of immature red blood cells; "fetalis" refers to fetus (alker et al. 1957).
HDN most frequently occurs when an Rh negative mother has a baby with an Rh positive father. hen the baby's Rh factor is positive, like the father's, problems can develop if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother (Issit & Anstee 1998). This usually happens at delivery when the placenta detaches. However, it may also happen anytime blood cells of the two circulations mix, such as during a miscarriage or abortion, with a fall, or during an invasive prenatal testing procedure (i.e., an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling).
The mother's immune system sees…… [Read More]
Endovascular Laser and Microphlebectomy for Treatment of Varicose Vein
Venous insufficiency is a condition that affects hundreds and thousands of individuals each year, particularly women. Venous insufficiency often results in varicose veins, phlebitis and similar physiological conditions. In general these abnormalities are thought to result from a combination of gender and heredity among other things. Historically treatment for venous insufficiencies involved very aggressive and invasive surgery which stripped veins; this process resulted in a removal of the offending veins. Often the recovery time was in excess of two weeks, with patients often only minimally mobile.
Advances in technology and procedure however have resulted in a new minimally invasive procedure that combines the use of endovascular laser surgery and microphlebectomy to remove varicosities that occur below the knee (Pearce, 2003). The use of endovascular laser is limited primarily to the greater and minor saphenous veins, which are often implicated in venous…… [Read More]
Trisomy 13 or Patau Syndrome is a genetic disease in which the person has 3 copies of the genetic material from chromosome 13 instead of having 2 copies. It occurs when the extra DNA from chromosome 13 appears in some or all of the body's cells. The treatment of this disorder differs from child to child and depends on the symptoms.
Trisomy 13 (Patau Syndrome)
Background (description of the disease, its symptoms, and impacted population)
Klaus Patau was a German-American geneticist, and together with his research colleagues, described the condition in 1960. The syndrome's clinical appearances were described in 1657 for the first time by Erasmus Bartholin, but he did not know its aetiology (Patient Information, n.d.). Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal condition linked with severe physical and intellectual disability. Those suffering from Trisomy usually have spinal or brain abnormalities, heart defects and smaller, not fully developed eyes -a condition…… [Read More]
The complex dynamic processes that underlie the development of the various functionalities of the infant brain and its maturation into an adult brain continue to be studied by researchers working to uncover the pattern of brain development. Earlier, there was a battle between the role of nature and nurture in brain development of a Child. Today, neurologists have concurred that both nature and nurture play a significant role during the initial years of development of the brain. Advancements in neuroimaging techniques including the various refinements in MRI and optical tomography have made possible the focused study of the various developmental stages of the brain in an infant. Particularly, the portable, safe and easy to use Optical tomography has brought the scanning device to the infant instead of having to carry the infant to the scanning device. It is also now a known fact that the emotional and behavioral development of…… [Read More]
Emergency Action Plan
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the clinical laboratory science department must comply to this standard that is used in describing all the appropriate actions that must be taken by the facility in order to ensure that there is proper safety in case of any accidents such as fire outbreak.
As a strict requirement of OSHA, the facility must ensure that there is a proper Fire Prevention Plan that is necessary to avert any kind of loss of either life or property.
Medical and First Aid
All the employees who work in this department must have the necessary component of both medical and first-aid providers. This is in order to ensure that any emergency situation that arises can be met with the appropriate solution.
Personal Protective Equipment
Due to the high risk of infection that is associated with the samples in the laboratory, it is…… [Read More]
execution involves the rigorous discussions that entail a variety of elements that are necessary for the successful implementation of the company's core objectives and business functions. It involves a lot of questions and follows ups that are all intended to provide utmost accountability in the way a firm is run. The process of execution involves the making of assumptions regarding the operating environment of the firm. It also involves the process of assessing the firm's capabilities as concerns its running and interaction with its clients and other business entities. The execution process plays an integral part in the linkage of the firm's core business value with strategy. It also defines the roles of the individuals who will be responsible for the implementation of the strategies. It is also fundamental role of execution process to synchronize the roles of these individuals with their respective dockets or disciplines. It has a major…… [Read More]
2009). SPECT identifies the physiologic consequence of the clot rather than the clot itself. Adding low-dose CT without contract agent raises the level of confidence in the reading result. At the same time, it reduces inconclusive studies with SPECT alone from 5% to 0% when combined with low-dose CT. Furthermore, specificity improves with fewer false-positive readings from 18% - 0%. Low-dose findings explaining subtle perfusion defects otherwise perceived as PE on SPECT alone account for the improvement. The study also showed that V/Q SPECT with low-dose CT is useful as a routine method. Immobilization during the SPECT and low-dose CT procedure lasted only 20 minutes. Even critically ill patients can tolerate it. The 11 out of the overall total of 196 volunteer patients were disqualified for participation in the study because of discomfort, shortness of breath or lack of willingness to remain in supine position. Those who qualified were placed…… [Read More]
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…… [Read More]
By the end of this portion, I had gained confidence in the processes and the procedure and could remember all the requirements.
The learning outcome of the course was to educate nurses on the new protocols and technology to complete this procedure on difficult patients. I feel that the curriculum attended very well to these goals. It was always on task and efficient in its training. I'm guessing that it was so efficient because it was through the hospital to train the staff and they did not want to waste time.
After the training I was certified and expected to use this technique on difficult patients. The only lacking competency was using this technique on children. I had not had any previous experience of inserting lines into children and was unaware of protocols or strategies to ease the child's nervousness. This was addressed by more senior nurses in the pediatric…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…… [Read More]
The most common cause of pancreatic cancer is smoking which accounts for 25 -- 30% of cases (urveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program). Other factors include hereditary pancreatic cancers, adults with diabetes of minimum duration two years, hereditary pancreatic, and a history of other family cancers (GUT. Guidelines for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer periampullary and ampullary carcinomas). The Consensus Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology advises that patients with a genetic history of pancreatic cancer should be referred to specialist centers where they can receive diagnosis of pancreatic diseases, genetic counseling, and advice on secondary screening (Ulrich et al., 2001).
Most pancreatic cancers (about 90%) originate in the ductal region and are usually discovered when they are locally advanced. They are called ductal adenocarcinoma. Others (80-90%) occur in the head of the gland (GUT). Lymph node metastasis is common as well as…… [Read More]
U.S. technology in Thai hospitals will have a positive, negative or neutral effect on the mortality rate of patients in Thailand. U.S. hospitals currently offer patients some of the most modern and complex technology available. Patients whether at private or public facilities are very often afforded modern urgent care that reduces the likelihood of mortality from common and less common illness. The mortality ratio, or comparison of patients admitted vs. discharged in most U.S. hospitals is close to or less than 1.00 (Comaro, 2003).
In Thailand hospitals, modern technology used in community hospitals is somewhat limited and typically consists of the use of X-ay technology and ultrasound for imaging and diagnosis (Dionson, 2003). Many community hospitals currently lack the advanced technology available in U.S. hospitals that has been proven to save lives. There are several private institutions within Thailand however, that do offer more advanced technology.
However, Thai hospitals historically…… [Read More]
Lower Abdominal Pain
Patient: Patient is a 30-year-old female presenting with lower abdominal pain, beginning approximately 48-hour previous to her exam. Over the last few days, her pain has increased, and she reports vaginal bleeding that is scanty. She did have a normal menstrual period that ending two-weeks prior, and she indicates this was normal and lasted about 4 days. She is Gravida 2, Para -0, Miscarriage -- 2, and has been attempting to conceive with her husband. In addition, she denies dysuria or urinary frequency.
Vaginal bleeding after sex; inflammation of cervix from friction during sex, usually harmless and clear up quickly. It is possible that the issue could be something more serious (cervical dysplasia or cancer), but more likely inadequate lubrication or foreplay, possibly injury to the uterine lining. Vaginitis is another possible cause, all of which require a vaginal examination (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
Pseydocyesis (False pregnancy). This…… [Read More]
Interstitial lung disease is a blanket term for a big group of disorders categorized by progressive scarring of both the lung tissue supporting and between the air sacs. This tissue is called the interstitium. The interstitium consists of the region between the alveolar space and the capillaries. The scarring causes inflammation and damage in the lung tissue followed by lung stiffness, meaning the air sacs cannot expand as much as before. Lung stiffness makes it harder to breathe. People affected by the condition are not able to get enough oxygen from the lungs into their bloodstream.
Although some potential causes have been researched, there may be no underlying cause for development of interstitial lung disease. If there is no known cause, it is called idiopathic interstitial lung disease. IPF or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains the most common type of this illness. Of the causes most widely recognized, cigarette smoking is…… [Read More]
Pleural Effusion in Children -- An Overview
Pleural Effusion is a disease resulting from excess production of fluids or a decrease in absorption or in some instances both thereby leading to an abnormal collection of fluids in the pleural space. It is the commonest pleural disease and has etiologies that include symptomatic inflammatory, cardiopulmonary disorders and malignant diseases that require speedy evaluation as well as treatment (Jeffery ubins 2016).
Disorders like an infection are some of the primary afflictions that could lead to the collection of fluids in the pleural space leading to pediatrics pleural effusion. The fluid accumulation can result from poor absorption or an increase in filtration. While mild effusion is asymptomatic, complications like septicemia, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, bronchopleural fistula, and respiratory failure might accompany it (Shahla Afsharpaiman, et al. 2016). a chest ultrasound or lateral decubitus indicates the probability of the existence of a large pleural effusion.…… [Read More]
Disorders of the Veins and Arteries
Pathophysiology of Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis
Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) pathophysiology is either the obstruction or reflux of venous blood flow (Gujja, Wiley, & Krishnan, 2014). The perforating veins valve normally functions by preventing the reflux of blood from the deep veins into the superficial veins. CVI occurs when there is venous hypertension that is caused by incompetent valves. Venous blood will escape from its normal antegrade flow path and it refluxes backward into the veins of an already congested leg. After prolonged standing, the individual's veins will be completely filled and the venous valves will be flat open. This results in a high hydrostatic venous pressure due to the unbroken column of fluid that is extending from the head to the foot. The failed valves will cause the column of standing blood in the vein to remain high even during…… [Read More]
This veering, would place pressure on the right side of the aircraft, which would help contribute to the break up during plane after touching down. To combat this problem, the NTS recommends that all aircraft have some type of back up flight control and hydraulics system. The presence of such a system could have helped to mitigate the effects of the disaster, by giving the pilots control of the aircraft. During the initial decent, this could have proven vital in ensuring that the pilots were able to successfully reach the runway at Sioux City and it helped to safely land the plane when it was initially touching down. ("United Airlines Flight 232," 1990)
A third issue that helped contribute to the crash of United flight 232 was: problems with the manufacture of engine. During their report, the NTS found that the engine that was manufactured by GE helped contribute to…… [Read More]
All surgeries were successful and the prognosis based on follow up testing was good. (Yamashiro et al., 2007)
racheoplasty was also carried out for fourteen patients, seven of whom showed other symptoms of VAER association and the rest presented tracheal problems without other VAER symptoms. (Fiore, Brown, Weber, & urrentine, 2005)the same treatment modality was used for all patients with the loss of only two patients. Follow up indicated that this was a sound modality for treatment of tracheal defects in VAER associations. Similarly, urinary tract reconstruction was deemed successful and safe for end-stage renal disease in infants. he overall patient survival rate was 95%. (DeFoor et al., 2003) and, in another study, it was shown that neurosurgical treatment was successful 60% of the time for hydrocephalus from VAER, which prompts the researchers to indicate that the prognosis of certain death is not necessarily true and that the patients who…… [Read More]
So, in those regards the curriculum is slowly catching up with the times. Personally, I would like to see additions such as a playing of the movie, "The Business of Being Born" at one of the sessions or as homework.
The second way that the curriculum should change within the next three years is to begin allowing more nurses to become certified teachers. Currently, it is easier for a parent to become a coach than it is for a nurse. The reason, according to Bradley, is that the parents have direct experience, whereas nurses only have book-related experience. In fact, Bradley does offer the option for nurses to become a teacher, but additional reading and exam requirements must be met.
Personally, I find it to be in the best interest of Bradley to offer their curriculum with open arms to nurses for one simple reason: the more nurses who know…… [Read More]
Dynatronics Corporation (formerly Dynatronics Laser Corporation) was started in 1979 with the initial intent of developing laser technology for use in medical procedures. Unable to acquire the necessary FDA approval required to market the technology the company turned to other areas within the medical rehabilitation market. Seeing an opening in the market for ultrasound electrotherapy technology the company soon found a distribution channel that could support the new product offerings. Subsequent years led to the company developing additional products that have been used to treat chronic pain, test physical ability with computer software and to provide other forms of therapy. In addition, the company has ventured into the aesthetic market and has patented and distributed microdermabrasion technology for use by both aestheticians and plastic surgeons. Dynatronics has made several acquisitions over the years that have met with mixed results. The purchase of a rehabilitation…… [Read More]
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…… [Read More]
The dexamethasone group showed meaningful improvements in several variables. After 48 hours, the women who received dexamethasone has a significantly reduced mean arterial pressure at 115 mm Hg v 94 m Hg, P < 0.05 and mean asparatate aminotransferase level at 100 IU/1 v 50 IU/1; P < 0.05. Their urine output also improved at 60 ml/h v 40 ml/h; P < 0.05 and a mean platelet count at 115-000 v 70 000; P < 0.05. The researchers concluded that their findings supported a high dose corticosteroid treatment of women with the HELLP syndrome. Although three control patients showed infectious complications, there were no statistically significant differences in morbidity.
As part of nursing and medical management, dexamethasone is often given to women with this condition and are between 24 and 34 weeks' gestation at risk of pre-term delivery to accelerate the maturation of fetal lungs (Matchaba and Moodley 2005). While…… [Read More]
As noted, the agency provides a wide variety of services and programs. They service women and young children in the greater Henry County, GA area. The agency provides counseling for pregnant women, but it also provides support to those mothers who choose to keep and raise their children. They provide everything from baby formula and diapers to maternity clothing, baby clothing, car seats, and cribs to needy families and mothers. It is a full-service organization in that caseworkers are assigned to clients and can advise them throughout the pregnancy and beyond. PC also has counseling available for young mothers who choose to give their babies up for adoption. They also provide links to further educational information, and will counsel young women if they choose to have an abortion, too. They will not perform the abortion, however. They also provide ultrasounds for patients.
Funding is always a challenge in any community…… [Read More]
Nursing -- Chest Tubes
As the field of nursing gains more respect around the world, nursing professionals and nursing students becomes increasingly aware of the high degree of specialized knowledge and practice that are necessary to be a competent or successful nurse. One of the more complex tasks and pieces of equipment will be the focus of this paper, which is chest tubes. There are a few types of chest tubes including wet, dry, and those with Heimlich valves. Chest tubes are used for very specific and delicate types of injuries, mostly to the lungs.
Trauma, disease, or surgery can interrupt the closed negative-pressure system of the lungs, causing the lung to collapse. Air or fluid may leak into the pleural cavity. A chest tube is inserted and a closed chest drainage system is attached to promote drainage of air and fluid. Chest tubes are used after chest…… [Read More]
recoding a pregnant mother-Based case study. thai primegravida multpara.
This essay is about a process recording for a pregnant mother. Process recording is a written record of an interaction with a client. Pregnant mothers are in danger of any disease but there most alarming gestational diseases; these include hypertension, cardiac disease, anemia, diabetes, hyperemis gravidarum and many more. In this essay am only going to dwell in gestational hypertension.
This is a process recording of a case study of a pregnant mother. Mrs. B is a 16 years old primigravida at 30 weeks gestation and has attended the antenatal clinic three times. All finding were within the normal range until her last visit 1 week ago when her blood pressure was 130/90mmHg.On urinalysis there was no proteinuria. The fetal heart sounds were normal, the fetus was active and uterine size was consistent with dates. She has come to clinic today,…… [Read More]
misconception in people that having an aneurysm means bleeding in the brain. An aneurysm is in fact a balloon-like swelling in a blood vessel that can affect any large vessel in your body; these larger vessels being arteries. Aneurysms pose a risk to health from the potential for rupture, clotting, or dissecting. It is the pressure of the blood passing through a weak part of the blood vessel that forces it to bulge outwards, forming a sort of a blister. If the sac that is formed extends the artery too far, the vessel may burst, causing death by bleeding. upture of an aneurysm in the brain causes stroke, and rupture of an aneurysm in the abdomen causes shock. (THIJ, 2001)
Aneurysms are the cause of many deaths because they are usually silent until a medical emergency occurs. "One author has referred to an AAA as a "U-boat" in the belly,…… [Read More]
ectopic/heterotopic brain tissue. Extracranial brain tissue without direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect that is usually located on the occipital or parietal area of the scalp. Most of the time these are harmless and can be removed. These often are called heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain tissue or (CEB).
ECTOPIC OR HETEROTOPIC BRAIN TISSUE
Extracranial brain tissue that is directly connected to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneious embryonic defect. These are usually located on the occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. They are often called heteropic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB) (Janniger 1). Most of the time these are simple defective tissue that can easily be removed from the scalp. However, there are several different types of ectopic brain tissues and some of these can be signs of underlying central nervous system problems. Each of…… [Read More]
Special Procedure requiring Special Sensitivity on the part of the Radiology Department and Attending Physicians
Testicular patients dying through ignorance," proclaimed a 2002 article in Life Extension Daily News. Researchers from Nijmegen's University Medical Center St. Radboud warned that a treatment delay of more than three months for testicular carcinoma was associated with a "significantly decreased" five-year survival rate. The most commonly cited reason for this critical diagnostic delay was not monetary issues. Instead, the delay was often due to patients fear and embarrassment of the condition and the location of the condition in the body. (Health Media Ltd., 2002) One way to prevent the spread of testicular carcinoma is speedy detection and treatment. Patients must conduct self-examinations on a regular basis, of course, and take responsibility for their own health. However, after detection has been made of a suspicious testicular mass, the next step often is the…… [Read More]