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ULYSSES S. GRANT
The 18th President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant, was a most curious American public figure. His two presidential terms are considered by political critics as the most corrupt in American history, yet his contribution and role in those most important and historic times cannot be under-estimated.
He was born Hiram Ulysses Grant in 1822 to a hardworking couple in southwestern Ohio. He went to a seminary and a Presbyterian academy, as well as worked with horses in his father's farm (Grant 1885-1886), working with horses. At 17, he was admitted to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point through a Congressman from Ohio. In 1839, he entered West Point, where he enjoyed drill and discipline more than most cadets did. He finished only with an average record, ranking only 21st in class. While hoping to teach Mathematics at the academy, he was instead assigned to…
Bush, George W. 2002. Ulysses S. Grant: The White House Biography
Grant, Ulysses S. 2000. Personal Memoirs. New York: Bartleby.com
MSN Learning and Research. 2002. Ulysses S. Grant:
Microsoft Corporation, Inc.
In fact, Norton claims that while the hiskey Ring investigation was taking place, Grant had stated, "Let no guilty man escape" (Bailey 512) but when news that his secretary was involved surfaced, he "speedily changed his views" (512). Grant wrote a personal note to the jury and "with all the weight of his exalter office behind it, the their escaped" (512). hen Belknap was exposed, Grant accepted his resignation "with great regret" while the Senate voted to impeach him. Norton maintains that by 1872, there was a "wave of disgust with Grantism" (Norton 512), leading to a surge of popularity of a liberal Republican Party, who simply wanted to "turn the rascals out" (512). Grant never seemed to grasp the notion of what it took to lead a country and he failed to separate his personal feelings from his duties as president.
Simon distinguishes between Grant's military experience and political…
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Davidson, James. Nation of Nations. Vol. II. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Church, William Conant. Ulysses S. Grant and the Period of National Preservation and Reconstruction. New York: The Knickerbocker Press. 1897.
Grant supporter, George Curtis, editor of Harper's eekly, once wrote to a friend, "I think the warmest friends of Grant feel that he has failed terribly as President, but not from want of honesty or desire, but from want of tact and great ignorance...It is a political position and he knows nothing of politics and rather despises them" (Goode)..
After he left office, Grant and Julia settled in New York. Grant soon went bankrupt after investing in a all Street firm co-owned by his son Buck. To support his family, he began writing magazine articles, and eventually negotiated a book contract with his friend Mark Twain's company (Ulysses). His memoirs, published in a two-volume set, sold 300,000 copies and became a classic work of American literature, however sadly Grant never saw the profits, for he died just two months after the book went to press, on July 23, 1885 (Ulysses).…
Goode, Stephen. "Ulysses S. Grant: 'the unheroic hero'" World and I. July 1, 1999.
Retrieved December 12, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Lasner, Lynn Fabian. "The Rise and Fall and Rise of Ulysses S. Grant." Humanities.
January/February 2002. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2002-01/grant.html
After all, "he was headed South, toward Richmond, not back to ashington in retreat. To Grant, even the heavy losses in the ilderness signified a victory. The Confederates had no reserves to replace the dead and wounded. But Grant could call on a huge supply of civilians to fill the Union armies" (People & events: Grant's greatest battles, 2006, PBS).
At Cold Harbor, Grant lost 12,000 men but while his causalities were much higher than the Confederates, he knew that Sherman and other Union generals were destroying what was left of the South elsewhere. After nine months, the Union was able to starve the blockaded forces of Lee out of Petersburg. hen Lee retreated, Grant took Richmond, and Lee eventually surrendered at Appomattox. It was Grant's willingness to sacrifice his men that eventually brought the war to its end. Grant's decision was bloody, but it could be argued that waiting…
McPherson, James (2000). Ordeal by fire. New York: McGraw-Hill.
People & events: Grant's greatest battles. (2006). The American Experience. PBS. Retrieved
October 17, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/grant/peopleevents/e_general.html
Ulysses S. Grant. (2009). Ohio History. Retrieved October 17, 2009 at http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=155
The Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War and which Wilson played a key part in negotiating, was never ratified by the U.S. Congress and, as a result, the United States never became a member of the League of Nations.
Wilson's behavior in reaction to opposition in Congress regarding the Versailles Treaty, in general, and the League of Nations portion of that Treaty, specifically, may be the best indication of the similarities between himself and President Grant. Both men had a strong stubborn streak that often interfered with their otherwise competent leadership skills. In Grant's case, his stubbornness was characterized by his misguided loyalty to his friends and military associates. Throughout his two administrations, Grant continued to surround himself with his friends and former military associates and place such individuals in positions of authority instead of utilizing the services of talented and experienced politicians. The result was that…
Cooper, J. (2011). Woodrow Wilson: A Biography. London: Vintage.
Livermore, S.W. (1966). Woodrow Wilson and the war Congress. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Mantell, M.E. (1973). Johnson, Grant, and the Politics of Reconstruction. New York: Columbia University Press.
Smith, J.E. (2001). Grant. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Scandals During Grant's Presidency
Ulysses S. Grant, the 18th President of the United States, had a reputation as a very honest man, but one who exercised poor judgment in his choice of companions. Evidence of Grant's poor judgment can be found in the sheer number of scandals that occurred during his presidency. One notable scandal during Grant's tenure as president was the Black Friday Gold Panic of 1869. Another scandal during his presidency was the Whisky ing. Examining both these scandals reveals that Grant did not personally profit from the scandals, but was willing to use his position as President to help out his less scrupulous acquaintances. Unfortunately, the willingness to use his power and influence to help out less scrupulous friends, though it did not provide any personal benefit to Grant, tainted his presidency as much as if he had personally profited from those scandals.
The Black Friday Gold…
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2013. Whiskey Ring. Encylopaedia Britannica.
Fat Wallet. 2013. Black Friday 1869. Fat Wallet. http://www.fatwallet.com/black-friday/resources/black-friday-1869/
The University of Richmond. 2009. Grant Administration Embroiled in Whisky Ring Scandal.
Despite all of the destruction and chaos that had crippled the South as a result of the war and his surrender to Grant, Lee was considered "the symbol of everything for which (the Confederate soldiers) had been willing to die." Thus, "if the Lost Cause," being the loss of the Old South and its aristocratic/slavery system, "sanctified by so much heroism and so many deaths, had a living justification," it was obert E. Lee (Catton, 2003, 632).
In contrast, Ulysses S. Grant "was everything Lee was not," for instead of being raised in a rather well-to-do family with close and important ties to a number of wealthy and prominent Southern political figures and leaders, Grant, the son of a skin tanner of the Western American frontier, had been raised "the hard way" and symbolized the "eternal toughness" and sinewy fiber" of the great mountain men, those who had…
Catton, Bruce. (2003). "Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts." Bannon: A Writer's Workshop: Crafting Paragraphs, Building Essays. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 631-34.
Grant and ilson
I propose that doing a comparison of Presidents Ulysses S. Grant and oodrow ilson would allow for a comprehensive understanding of how the leadership styles of these two men shaped the United States of America during their respective administrations. They will be compared in terms of their public and political leadership, how they functioned as Chief Executive and the leader of the Executive Branch, and how they functioned as Chief Legislator including their relationship with Congress.
Public and Political Leader:
During his initial run for office, Grant was a very popular man with the American public. He was considered a hero of the Civil ar. His accomplishments included expansion of Republicanism into the south which yielded the first elections of black Congressmen. However, his administration was marred by corruption and he has gone down in history as one of the least effective presidents politically (ilentz 2010).
Blackmon, Douglas A. (2009). Slavery by Another Name: the Re-Enslavement of Black
Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Anchor Books. 357-58.
Cooper, John (2009). Woodrow Wilson: A Biography.
Link, Arthur (1945). "The Baltimore Convention of 1912." American Historical Review. 50(4):
He focused on tariff reform in the Underwood-Simmons Act by arguing that high tariffs created monopolies and hurt consumers, pushed to end certain child labor practices, and above all tried to engender a fairer distribution of public funds for housing, utilities, and public projects (Wilson, 2011).
However, looking back at his pre-World War I policies, it was his adamant work on currency and banking reform that seemed to have the greatest impact on American society. The Federal eserve's Monetary Policy is the most important function of the Fed and is probably the most used policy in macroeconomics. Monetary policy refers to the actions undertaken by a central bank, such as the Federal eserve, to influence the availability and cost of money and credit to help promote national economic goals. The Federal eserve Act of 1913 gave the Federal eserve responsibility for setting monetary policy. The Federal eserve controls the three…
Grant: A Reference Resource. (2011). Miller Center at the University of Virginia. Cited in: http://millercenter.org/president/grant/essays/biography/4
Woodrow Wilson. (2011). Conservapedia.com. Cited in: http://www.conservapedia.com/Woodrow_Wilson
Wilson: A Reference Resource. (2011). Miller Center at the University of Virginia. Cited in:
Ultimately, Grant may be remembered as one of America's best generals. He is still the only general in history to capture three separate armies, and he presided over Lee's surrender at Appomattox in April 1865. He was also a fair man who treated the Confederates well during their surrender. He was simply determined not to allow the South to be victorious. He sometimes misjudged his generals, and perhaps left some in power longer than they should have been, but ultimately he led the Army to victory, and was responsible for the final battles that laid waste to the Confederacy and led to the end of the war.
He was also a technical general, who understood the need for supplies as much as the need for victory on the battlefield. He knew the South's army was undersupplied and desperate for provisions, and so, when a general was victorious, he ordered them…
McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
Sherman's March To The Sea
Services and trainings at military
Marriage and Career
Services in Civil Wars
Year 1864 (Atlanta Event): Preparation of War 4
March to the Sea Event
Move to South Carolina Event
Move to North Carolina Event
Consequences of the Sherman's March
esearch Paper Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman who was also known as General Sherman (born on 8 February, 1820 in Lancaster-Ohio) that is nearby Hocking iver shore. By profession, his father was a lawyer and worked at Ohio Supreme Court. At the age of nine, his father died. A family friend raised him.
When he was 16 years old, Ewing appointed him as a cadet in U.S. military academy at the West Point. After his graduation, he entered into the army as second lieutenant in 1840. Sherman was promoted to Captain due to his services. He was not…
Clarke & Dwight, L. (1969). William Tecumseh Sherman: Gold Rush Banker. California Historical Society.
Eicher, J.H. & Eicher, D.J. (2001). Civil War High Commands. Stanford University Press.
Inscoe, J. (2011). The Civil War in Georgia: A New Georgia Encyclopaedia Companion. University of Georgia Press.
Rhodes, J.F. (1901). Sherman's March to the Sea. The American Historical Review, 6(3), 466-474.
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…
The beginning of the American Civil War. (2009). BBC. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3245140
Bleeding Kansas 1853-1861. (2009). Africans in America. PBS. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html
Faust, Patricia. (2005, March 26). The Anaconda Plan. Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved from Strategy and Tactics: Civil War Home on February 22, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/anacondaplan.htm
Owens, Mackubin T. (2004, September). September 17, 1862: High tide of the Confederacy?
" In it, he showed a poor boy and a rich boy (the Prince), who exchanged places and found that they each preferred to live in the life to which they had been born. Still, each learned from the other's life and the outcome was not what the Sunday School books had all written. The rich Prince "lived only a few years," but he lived them worthily.
In conclusion, Mark Twain was saying in his Story of the Good Little Boy, it is in a situation where one might expect to find reward that one finds punishment, and it is not how one's religion wants one to live that one finds reward and satisfaction. Also, the authorities in his Story did not exercise justice, so this was another disappointment for the reader, again coming to the conclusion that religion was not the answer to life's problems. It did no good…
Library of Congrress. "America's Story from America's Library." Website at: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/gilded.
PBS, "Andrew Carnegie: The Gilded Age." Website at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/gildedage.html .
Twain, Mark. "Poor Little Stephen Girard," in Carleton's Popular Readings, Anna Randall-Diehl, ed., New York, 1879, 183-84.
Twain, Mark. The Gilded Age. New York: Classic Literature Library. 1873.
Grant and Lee: A Study in Contracts
Why do the differences between Grant and Lee receive more extended treatment than the similarities? Why are the similarities discussed last?
The United States, at Appomattox, had just suffered a profound rend in its history because of the Civil War, culturally and personally. For the duration of the war, the nation's regional and political differences rather than its similarities had come to the forefront. The personages, political views, and upbringings of Grant and Lee are used to emphasize this, as "they were two strong men these oddly different generals, and they represented the strengths of two conflicting currents that through them, had come into final collision. As North and South was in contrast, so the generals at the head of the army represented this contrast. But ultimately, these generals were forced to come to peace, and thus their similarities are discussed at the…
However, even Lee's most ardent apologists cannot ignore the very simple fact that Grant emerged the victor, Lee the loser in the great, final battle. The war was always the Union's to lose, and according to one historian "once the timid McClellan, the clumsy Hooker and Burnsides, and the dilatory Meade had passed," from command of the Union Army, the Confederacy "found itself up against Ulysses S. Grant, and its ultimate destruction was only a matter of time. 'Unconditional Surrender' Grant was both fearless and tenacious, and was the first Union commander to match his tactics with his opportunities. Once engaged by this dour mastermind, Lee's army could do little against his bulldog grip.
" the influx of new men, including African-American forces after the Emancipation Proclamation (as chronicled in the film Glory) sealed the Confederacy's doom.
However, to call Grant 'dour' is to deny his brilliance -- although less…
"Confederate General Robert E. Lee." American Civil War. Accessed November 19, 2010 at http://americancivilwar.com/south/lee.html
"Grant's greatest battles." PBS. Accessed November 19, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/grant/peopleevents/e_general.html
"People & Events: General Robert E. Lee, 1807-1870." PBS. Accessed November 19, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/grant/peopleevents/p_lee.html
Puffer, Raymond. "Damage them all you can; Robert E. Lee's army of northern
military imparts in an individual many important qualities that they carry out into the real world. These qualities are leadership, versatility, character, among others. The military is an excellent place to learn, to grow, and to better one's self. Many people have had long and successful careers that they earned only through being in the military. It teaches a person the importance of hard work, communication, and bravery.
The military allows for transition into a multitude of careers, especially career in the government. And in sectors where leadership skills are rare and sought after, the military prepares one to establish a secure foothold in these areas. Non-for-profits, volunteer organizations, and businesses all require strong and fearless leaders with clear direction and focus. The military offers exactly what a person needs early on to achieve anything they set out for. Six sections will be examined to show just how military lessons…
Ambrose, S.E. (1983). Eisenhower. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Burns, J.M., & Dunn, S. (2004). George Washington. New York: Times Books.
Cunningham, J.B., & Lischeron, J. (1991). Defining Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 29(1), 45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8691.1993.tb00073.x
Gowel, D. (2012, March 1). 5 reasons the military is the best training for entrepreneurs | SmartBlogs [Web blog post]. Retrieved from https://smartblogs.com/leadership/2012/03/01/5-reasons-the-military-is-the-best-training-for-entrepreneurs/
Slavery was one, but not the only, cause of the Civil War. In fact, the institution of slavery represents a combination of social, political, and economic forces at play throughout the United States. For one, Westward expansion and the principle of Manifest Destiny gave rise to the important issue of whether to allow slavery in new territories or to leave the question of slavery up to the residents in the new territory or state. he Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the Dred Scott Supreme Court decision, the formation of the new Republican party and the election of Lincoln, the Nat urner rebellion, the introduction of Uncle om's Cabin into popular culture, and especially Westward expansion were among the most important events that led up to the outbreak of the Civil War.
he Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights…
The Compromise of 1850 was disastrous in that it accomplished nothing to promote human rights and civil liberties. California was admitted to the union as a free state. In exchange, other new lands gained in the Mexican War had no restrictions on whether slavery was or was not permitted. The slave trade was being phased out, but the practice slavery itself was preserved in the District of Columbia. The fugitive slave laws were enhanced too. So disastrous was the Compromise of 1850 that northerners did not take the Fugitive Slave Law seriously and did not enforce it. Another disastrous piece of legislation that preceded the Civil War, and helped spark it, was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The Act overturned the Missouri Compromise and divided Kansas and Missouri into two states: one slave and one free. As Brinkley states, "No other piece of legislation in American history produced so many immediate, sweeping, and ominous political consequences," (327). Significant regarding the build-up to the Civil war, the Kansas-Nebraska Act caused the creation of the new Republican Party. Also, the Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the "bleeding Kansas" episode during which abolitionist and pro-enslavement advocates battled in pre-Civil War skirmishes.
Both the Nat Turner Rebellion and the popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin represented the darker sides of slavery and promoted the politics of liberation. However, no other event in American history illustrates so well the way racism has permeated American politics as the Dred Scott v. Sanford decision. The Supreme Court took a strong racist stance that bolstered the pro-slavery cause immediately prior to the Civil War. Clearly, the nation was divided. On the one hand, decisions like Dred Scott showed that racist Americans served in positions of power at the federal level and could forever impact the quality of the country. On the other hand, abolitionists saw the necessity for a swift end to slavery in order to preserve the Constitutional rights and ideals upon which the nation was founded. The southerners could not foresee a means to have a viable economy without free and forced labor; the northerners did.
Even Democrats were divided, leading to the eventual election of the Republican candidate for President in 1860. Lincoln, who was "not an abolitionist" but who also believed that "slavery was morally wrong" steered the United States in a direction different from what most Southern whites wanted (Brinkley 332). After Lincoln was elected, the Southern states viewed the federal government as being illegitimate and decided one by one to cede from the union. The differences between slave-owning and free states were too great to overcome at the time. The economy and lifestyle of the south depended on slavery, whereas the Northern point-of-view favored sanity and genuine freedom.
The warfare was also psychological because the looting of southern homes and the pillaging of southern farms greatly diminished the resources of the confederate army. The confederate army was running out of options. In addition to the use of psychological warfare, Sherman also used traditional warfare tactics to bring about surrender and ultimately victory.
Sherman's strategies during the Civil ar also had an influence upon the manner in which the Indian ars were conducted. Again the general utilized a combination of traditional and psychological warfare tactics. The Indian wars were a series of conflicts between the Colonists and Native American tribes. The Indian ars lasted foor several decades.
According to Hughes (2001) the 1840's saw a rise in negative attitudes towards colonists by Native Americans and vice versa. Native American's believed that hite men were taking over their native territories and pushing them off of the land where they had…
Dunkelman, Mark H. American History; Aug2002, Vol. 37 Issue 3, p28, 8p, 4 color
Fellman, Michael. Lincoln. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 1995. p 125
Hanson, Victor Davis. "Sherman's War." American Heritage; Nov99, Vol. 50 Issue 7, p58, 8p, 3 bw
Hughes, Howard. American Indian Wars. Harpenden,, GBR: Pocket Essentials, 2001. p 7.
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
Neutralizing the Valley
The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were operations and battles during the American Civil War, which occurred in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October 1864 (Wikipedia 2005). The opposing forces in these battles were the Union and the Confederates. The Union was led by then Lt General Ulysses S. Grant, Commander George G. Meade, and enjamin utler, while the Confederate was led by Robert Lee and his Lt General Jubal Early. The outcome of the campaigns shows that appropriate tactics and quality leadership determined victory in the particular terrain and physical conditions. Grant established a strategy that focused at the heart of the Confederacy from different directions according to the concept, which he shared with Abraham Lincoln and William Sherman, that only the utter defeat of the Confederate forces and their economic supply would win the War for the Union (Wikipedia).
The strategy pitted Grant,…
Feis, William B. Neutralizing the Valley: the Role of Military Intelligence in the Defeat of Jubal Early's Army of the Valley, 1864-65. Civil War History 39 no 3, Sept 1993 pp 199-215
Union Military Intelligence Failure: Jubal Early's Raid. Civil War History 36 no 3, September 1990 pp 209-225
Sifakis, Steward. Jubal Anderson Early. Who Was Who in the Civil War, 2005. http://www.civilwarhome.com/earlybio.htm
Wikipedia. Valley Campaigns of 1864. Media Wiki. http://www.answers.com/topic/valley-campaigns-of-1864
inning the Civil ar
The American Civil ar is considered the most costly of all the wars fought by this nation in terms of the human lives that were lost and the casualties which left young men mutilated, amputated, and barely able to carry on. Approximately 750,000 young men died by the war's end either from wounds inflicted in battle or from infection and lack of sanitation in hospitals.[footnoteRef:1] At the end, to warring sides were once again united as a single nation rather than two countries torn apart by ideological differences. Four years of bloodshed and violence officially ended at Appomattox Court House in Northern Virginia when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. It is believed that the Union won the war because the nation was reunified; however this assumption is based on the belief that there can ever be a winner in…
Alexander, Bevin. How the South Could Have Won the Civil War: the Fatal Errors that Led to Confederate Defeat. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 2007.
Civil War Trust, "Robert E. Lee." Last modified 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Covert, Thomas M. "To his Wife." Stafford Court House, VA. 1863.
Generally considered to be the greatest president of the United States, who freed four million slaves and saved the nation after leading the Union to victory in the Civil War of 1861-65, Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky in 1809 to a pioneer family on what was then the western frontier of the United States. His family then moved to southern Indiana in 1816 and southern Illinois three years later, although Lincoln by all accounts never intended to follow the same social and economic path as these poor white farmers. Even as a young man, though, he picked up their strongly antislavery views and the common belief that poor whites had little opportunity to better their social and economic circumstances in the slave states. Given the lack of schools and universities on the frontier, almost all of Lincoln's education was really self-education, and he learned his writing…
From that point onward, the abolition of slavery depended on the success of the Northern armies, and by the end of the war freed slaves made up 10% of these. Lincoln finally found two generals who had achieved great success against the Confederates in the West -- William Tecumseh Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant -- and formulated a successful strategy with them for winning the war (Thomas 306). Grant was sent to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond and defeat Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia while Sherman was sent through Georgia and the Carolinas to destroy Confederate railroads, industry and agriculture there. In 1864, Lincoln feared that he would be defeated for reelection by General George McClellan, a conservative Democrat who had opposed the Emancipation Proclamation and intended to offer peace terms to the Confederacy that would permit slavery to continue (Thomas 409). Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Georgia in 1864 ensured Lincoln's reelection, while Grant captured Richmond in April 1865 and accepted the surrender of Lee's forces at Appomattox Courthouse. Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, before he had really begun to deal with the problems of postwar Reconstruction, but at the end of his life he was moving toward the position of granting citizenship and voting rights to blacks for the first time in U.S. history (McPherson 63).
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
" The rebel army thought nothing of stealing food and good drinking water from the citizens of Vicksburg. The rebel army authorities put 100 men in charge of securing homes and lives, but "over seventy-five of the men selected" for the policing duty were Creoles who spoke little or no English, and the troops pretty much took what they wanted. Many people became refugees and moved into tent cities outside the range of the Union guns. "There was something tangible about stealing a pig or helping oneself to a buck of water," alker explained on page 123.
Prices for food and other necessary items went through the roof during the build-up to the battle. Brandy was $40 a gallon on December 3; on December 29, "when Sherman was knocking on the gates of the city," brandy went up to $60 a gallon (p. 128). On December 20, the Vicksburg City…
Arnold, James R. Grant Wins the War: Decision at Vicksburg. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Confederate Military History, Vol. 7, Chapter IX. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 - July 4, 1863). Retrieved 23 Nov. At http://www.civilwarhome.com/siegeofvicksburg.htm .
Faust, Patricia L. "The Battle of Vicksburg." Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved 20 Nov. 2006 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/battleofvicksburg.htm .
Grant, Ulysses S. "The Vicksburg Campaign." The Siege of Vicksburg. Retrieved 22 Nov. 2006 at
All of these together constitute the full relationship, and it is confusing and contradictory" (1998, 3). The cast of public characters included U.S. diplomats, Navy and Marine officers, and congressmen. Private citizens, including bankers, journalists, lobbyists, and businessmen, rounded out the ensemble. All these groups interacted to influence U.S. relations with Trujillo, although rarely in a consolidated fashion. hile the Dominican Republic became a difficult place to do business, a querulous participant in negotiations, and a major cause of Caribbean disquiet, including genocide, war scares, and assassinations" Trujillo still continued to obtain U.S. support (1998, 3). Even after the Trujillo government was overthrown, the U.S. government insisted on maintaining its power over the region by insisting on "approving the new head of the army and keeping the military intact." In short, ashington moved to create a "guardian system" it could control or manipulate (McSherry 2003, 2). The United States support…
Atkins, Pope and Larm Wilson. 1998. "The Dominican Republic and the United States from Imperialism to Transnationalism." The U.S. And the Americas. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
Chester, Eric Thomas. 2001. "Rag-Tags, Scum, Riff-Raff, and Commies: The Intervention in the Dominican Republic 1965-1966. NY Monthly Review Press.
Desmarais P., Norman and James McGovern. "Essential Documents in American History, President Ulysses S. Grant's appeal for the Annexation of Santo Domingo, 1492-Present." Providential College.
Farmer, Richard S. 1985. "Economic Policy Toward the Caribbean Basin: The Balance Sheet." The Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 27, No.1.
Literacy Short Assgts
READING. Fadi Awwad
My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3
I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.
I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…
The decisive moment in the Virginia theater came down to this: on the first day of the ilderness, the new commander Grant stood behind the line and met Union troops that had been routed. Rather than ordering them to return to ashington as McClellan might have, admitting defeat, he merely sent them back down a transverse road to attack at another point. All that was left was a battle of attrition which the South could never hope to win.
Ambrose Bierce was one of the leading American literary figures of his generation, approaching the rank of his contemporary, Mark Twain. He was the only first class author to fight in the Civil ar and to write extensively about it in both fiction and non-fiction genres. He enlisted as a private a few days after Fort Sumter fell and served until wounded in early 1865, reaching the rank of major. Decorated…
Bierce, Ambrose. n. d. "The Nature of War," in Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster, eds. 2002. Phantoms of a Blood-Stained period: the Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 309-10.
Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Craze. 2000. http://188.8.131.52/craze.html (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Famous American Duels. 2005. http://www.law.gwu.edu/Burns/rarebooks/exhibits/duel_american.htm (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Keegan, John. 1987. The Mask of Command. New York: Viking.
Civil War in the United States can be considered as the darkest moment in its relatively young history. (Donovan, 2002) To this day, arguments abound about the relative strengths of the positions of the secessionists vs. those that wanted to maintain the integrity of the country. ut despite the death and destruction -- several hundred thousand lost their lives and millions more became casualties in one way or the other -- two beautiful outcomes resulted. The adage: "One Nation under God" was preserved as a truism for all time; and the Emancipation Proclamation declared that all men were equal and could not be differently treated solely on the basis of color of skin. esides being arguably on the right side of the War the North also won because it was economically stronger and also embraced the rise technological advances that came from the Industrial Revolution.
The Confederate South was militarily…
Brinkley, A. (1991). American history: a survey (8th ed.), New York, McGraw-Hill.
Commager, H.S., & Bruun, E. (2000). The Civil War archive: the history of the Civil War in documents, New York, Black Dog & Leventhal: Distributed by Workman Pub. Co.
Current, R.N. (1983). American history: a survey (6th ed.), New York, Knopf.
Donovan, T.H. (2002). The American Civil War, Garden City Park, N.Y., Square One Publishers.
paradoxical that none of the American movies has ever done a good job at representing the American democracy. However Lincoln the movie is one among the many movies that have tried to demonstrate a great democratic art form. Lincoln (2012) is an American drama that was produced and directed by Steven Spielberg. The movie is centered on the United States sixteenth president Abraham Lincoln and covers the four final months of Lincoln's life, focus being on the efforts made by the president in January 1865 of having the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States House of representative that would see the abolishment of slavery in the country. He tried to scare up votes to ensure that he could get enough votes to pass the bill in congress. This movie concentrates on tumultuous period between January 1865 and the end of the civil war on April 9th and finally the assassination…
Scott, A.O. (2012). A President Engaged in a Great Civil War. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/11/09/movies/lincoln-by-steven-spielberg-stars-daniel-day-lewis.html?pagewanted=all
orn in 1826, George . McClellan served as an officer in the U.S. Army. He was also a politician who became a major general at the time of the Civil War from 1861-1865 as well as a railroad president. In 1861, he was in command of the Army of Potomac, which he organized. McClellan also served the Union Army as the general-in-chief for a short time. He was very popular among his men, but was reluctant to make strong attacks on the Confederacy, despite having an advantage due to the number of men in his army. This brought differences between him and President Abraham Lincoln[footnoteRef:1]. When the Seven Days attle came to an end in 1862, McClellan's Peninsula Campaign fell apart. He was unable to defeat the Confederate Army of Robert E at the attle of Antietam at a later time of the same year. His extremely cautious…
Bay. "Sherman's March to the Sea: Total Impact Warfare." Creaters. 2014. Accessed May 16, 2016. https://www.creators.com/read/austin-bay/11/14/shermans-march-to-the-sea-total-impact-warfare .
Civil War Traveler. "North Carolina Civil War the Carolinas Campaign." Accessed May 16, 2016. http://www.civilwartraveler.com/EAST/NC/CarolinasCampaign.html .
History. "George Mcclellan." Accessed May 16, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/george-b-mcclellan .
History. "Robert E. Lee." Accessed May 16, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/robert-e-lee .
(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)
Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.
Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.
There are countless examples of the alterations…
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.
Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.
Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp
Maryanne Bickerdyke - Nursing Pioneer
Mary Ann Ball Bickerdyke was a nursing pioneer and an important figure during the United States Civil ar. Her contributions to the field of nursing can be seen in her work for Civil ar soldiers and in army hospitals around the country. Because of her work for Union soldiers, Birckerdyke earned commendations from leaders such as General Ulysses S. Grant and illiam Tecumseh Sherman.
Bickerdyke was born on July 19, 1817 in Knox County, Ohio. She was only one-year-old when her mother passed away. The young Mary Ann spent much of her childhood on her grandparents' farm in Richland County, Ohio. Not much is known about Mary Ann's pre-nursing life. Biographers like Garrison (1999) believe that she went to nursing school at Oberlin College in the 1830s. Garrison also states that Mary Ann spent time caring for cholera victims during the epidemics that swept through…
Garrison, Webb. 1999. Amazing Women Of The Civil War: Fascinating True Stories of Women Who Made a Difference. New York: Rutledge Hill Press.
Mary Ann Ball Bickerdyke." 2004. Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
Worst Faults a Military Leader Can Exhibit:
Incompetence, selfishness, and living in the past
"If America is to meet the multiple challenges of the 21st century, it is crucial that we develop a system that places the right people in the right places in government at the right moment."[footnoteRef:1] ut just as critical as being the 'right' type of leader is avoiding making some of the most typical mistakes of poor leaders of the past. Incompetence and disorganization; fighting the last war rather than the current conflict (i.e., living in the past); selfishness and a focus on the personal ego rather than the actual needs of the nation are the three worst faults a leader can exhibit. [1: J. McCausland, "Developing strategic leaders for the 21st century," Strategic Studies Institute, 2008. Available: http://www.StrategicStudiesInstitute.army.mil / (26 Sept 2013), xi]
On a very basic level, military leaders must have basic organizational skills.…
Bartone, P, Barry, C., & Armstrong, R. "To Build Resilience: Leader Influence on Mental
Hardiness. Defense Horizons, 69 (2009): 1-8.
Hermann, Margaret. "Assessing leadership style: A trait analysis." Social Science Automation
Her involvement finally earned her the Medal of Honor, and enduring gratitude for her contribution as a physician to the war effort.
Probably one of the most famous women who worked during the Civil War was Clara Harlowe Barton. Barton was a nurse during the war, who at first simply stockpiled medical supplies and food that she knew the soldiers would need, and later took her supplies into the field where they were most needed. One historian wrote of her right after the war ended, "Her devotion to her work has been remarkable, and her organizing abilities are unsurpassed among her own sex and equaled by very few among the other" (Brockett and Bellows 132). Later, her work in the field and her stockpiling of supplies in warehouses became known as the "Sanitary Commission," which eventually evolved into the worldwide humanitarian organization known as the ed Cross. Clara Barton worked…
Brockett, L.P., and Henry W. Bellows. Woman's Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Ed. Mary C. Vaughan. Philadelphia: Zeigler, McCurdy, 1867.
Dumene, Joanne E. "A Woman's Military Service as 'Albert Cashier'." The Washington Times 7 Dec. 2002: B03.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Johnson, Kellie. "Mary Edwards Walker, Pauline Cushman, Emeline Pigott, and Elizabeth Van Lew." University of San Diego. 20 Nov. 2002. 20 Dec. 2004. http://www.sandiego.edu/~kelliej/women.html
A stronger Navy allowed the North to enforce the blockade more effectively than the Confederacy could overcome it. The second significant part of the Anaconda Plan was similar in scope and strategic significance: to take control of the Mississippi. When the Union Army eventually did gain control of the mighty Mississippi, the South was effectively split in two. The Anaconda Plan was fulfilled. Not only did the Union have the means by which to enforce their strategies: the Confederacy also lacked as clear a military plan.
While the blockade was nearly automatic and put into place toward the beginning of the war, control over the Mississippi was harder-fought. It meant encroachment deep into Southern territory, where most of the war was fought. Not until 1863 and the Union victory at the Battle of Vicksburg did the Union manage to infiltrate the iver and successfully set up its second major and…
Debating Who Actually Won the Civil War." Dummies.com. Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.dummies.com/WileyCDA/DummiesArticle/id-1229.html
Feldmeth, Greg D. "Secession and Civil War." U.S. History Resources. 31 March 1998. Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html
The History Place. "The U.S. Civil War 1861-1865." Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/
Why did the North Win the Civil War?" Retrieved Nov 19, 2006 at http://www.socialstudieshelp.com/Lesson_35_Notes.htm
Certainly, Lincoln was extremely upset with the notion that while some Americans were free to pursue their own personal agendas, others were not free in any respect whatsoever, these being African-American slaves. Thus, in order to end this situation, Lincoln dedicated his life to seeing the institution of slavery eradicated from the face of the earth which he accomplished in some small measure in 1863 with his Emancipation Proclamation.
Furthermore, in 1860, the editor for the Charleston Mercury, a staunch advocate of slavery, wrote an editorial called "The Terrors of Submission," a reference to the South falling under the control of the abolitionists who wished to see slavery destroyed and the slaves given their freedom. This unidentified editor points out that if Abraham Lincoln becomes President in 1861, then an "immediate danger will be brought to slavery. . . all slave property will be weakened. . . And all the…
"Causes of the Civil War." 2009. Internet. Retrieved May 25, 2009 from http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html .
Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches From the Unfinished Civil War.
New York: Random House, 2002.
Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. New York: Penguin Group, 2003.
James Longstreet, January 9, 1821 -- January 2, 1904, was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil ar, who later enjoyed a successful post-war career working as a diplomat and administrator for the government of his former enemies.
Longstreet was born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, grew up in Augusta, Georgia, and at the age of twelve, his father died and the family moved to Somerville, Alabama.
In 1838, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy by the state of Alabama, and graduated from est Point in 1842, just in time to serve with distinction in the Mexican ar and rise to the rank of major.
In June 1861, he resigned from the U.S. Army to join with the Confederacy during the Civil ar.
Already highly regarded as an officer, Longstreet was immediately appointed as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army, and after fighting at…
Mary Todd Lincoln:
Public Perceptions as First Lady
Synopsis of Mary Todd Lincoln's Life
Mary Ann Todd was born on December 13, 1818, in Lexington, Kentucky. She was one of seven children born to Robert S. Todd and his wife, Eliza Parker Todd - prominent family in Lexington. Mary's mother passed away in 1825, and her father remarried the following year (Baker 1986).
She appeared in school plays and learned to speak French fluently. Mary was ambitious, scholarly, and an excellent conversationalist (Baker 1986). In 1839, Mary moved to Springfield, Illinois, to live at the home of her older sister, Elizabeth Edwards. Mary, who stood about 5' 2," was active and popular in Springfield's society - courting Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln won her heart, and the two were married in 1842. Abraham surprised Mary with a wedding ring engraved with the words, 'Love is Eternal' (Anderson 1975).…
Anderson, L. Mary Todd Lincoln: President's Wife. Champaign, IL: Garrard Publishing, 1975.
Baker, J. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography. New York W.W. Norton, 1986.
Biography of Mary Todd Lincoln (6-9). 22 November 2003.
However, despite the personal successes, he felt personally responsible for the loss and would use the events from ull Run to questions his effectiveness as a military officer.
Next, Sherman would serve under Robert Anderson. Where, he would eventually succeed him and take command of all Union forces in Kentucky. This was important, because Kentucky was considered to be a neutral state in the war, where the Union army was based and there were pockets of Confederate units as well. This would create an atmosphere, where Sherman would be unable to conduct a total war, to defeat the various Confederate elements. At which point, he would complain to Washington about the constant shortages that he would face in achieving this objective, with his army lacking the men necessary to fight a successful campaign to low food provisions / ammunition. This would cause Sherman to be relieved of command and placed…
General Sherman's March to the Sea. Son of the South, 2008 Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/shermans-march-to-the-sea.htm . Accessed 14 July, 2010.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sherman, William . After the War. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-after-war.htm Accessed 14, July 2010.
Sherman, William . The Battle of Bull Run to Puducah 1861 -- 1862. Son of the South, 2008. Available from Son of the South http://www.sonofthesouth.net/union-generals/sherman/memoirs/general-sherman-battle-bull-run.htm Accessed 14, July 2010.
Confederacy's Loss of the Civil War: Social, Political, and Economic Factors
The Confederacy lost the Civil War due to a number of political, social, and economic factors. To begin, the Confederacy was depending on an alliance with Europe; however, European countries had no interests in becoming involved in a North American war which would have damaged their own armed forces (Current 1998). Furthermore, the Confederacy had far fewer resources. The Union had a virtual monopoly on heavy industries; coal, iron, woollens, armaments, shipyards, machine shops, all of which were scarce in the South. As well, Union infrastructure was far greater, with twice the density of railroads, and several times the mileage of canals and well-surfaced roads. In terms of the South, they had only one machine shop capable of building an engine for a respectable warship. Another resource that the South lacked was manpower (21 million to 9 million). Although…
Current, Richard. MacMillan Information Now Encyclopaedias: The Confederacy. New York:
Mulligan keenly notices features of Stephen's obsession when he mockingly calls him "O, shade of Kinch the elder! Japhet in search of father!" Partially, his argument for Shakespeare's autobiographical tendencies is seeded by his own frustration in his search for paternal links.
Out of this, Stephen's rejection of the Irish renaissance is significant because he wishes to judge himself against the backdrop of classical standards. "In our case, Stephen has 'entered into a competition' with Shakespeare by making himself a companion to the model of Shakespeare and placing himself, as much as he can by means of lecturing, next to the model of Shakespeare." So the contention that Shakespeare's plays are autobiographical, by being a particularly unique argument, if successful, would forever attach the name Dedalus to Shakespeare -- thus, his intellectual roots would be fundamentally defined to the external world. Notably, this would remain true regardless of Stephen's recognition…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness and the Secret Sharer. New York: Bantam Books, 1981.
Ellman, Richard. James Joyce. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Jones, William Powell. Stephen Hero, a Part of the First Draft of a Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: New Directions, 1944.
Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
The mood is not unlike the effect of the lotus, being a state of languor. The landscape is lush and detailed, the sort of landscape that would be appealing on its own and that visitors would not want to leave for its own sake.
Such description begins as the ship apperoaches the land and Ulysses tells his men to have courage:
In the afternoon they came unto a land
In which it seemed always afternoon.
All round the coast the languid air did swoon,
Breathing like one that hath a weary dream.
Full-faced above the valley stood the moon;
And, like a downward smoke, the slender stream
Along the cliff to fall and pause and fall did seem. (lines 3-9)
Tennyson says this is "A land of streams!" (line 10) and describes those streams and their effects in some detail. After making the appeal of the land clear, Tennyson notes…
Grob, Alan. "Tennyson's 'The Lotos-Eaters': Two Versions of Art." Modern Philology, Vol. 62, No. 2 (November 1964), 118-129.
Gurka, John E. "The Voices of Ulysses and Prufrock." The English Journal, Vol. 55, No. 2 (February 1966), 205-207
Halio, Jay L. " 'Prothalamion,' 'Ulysses,' and Intention in Poetry." College English, Vol. 22, No. 6 (Mar., 1961), 390-394.
Lattimore, Richard (tr.). The Odyssey of Homer. New York: Harper Collins, 1967.
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
General James Mattis – Thesis & Outline
General James Mattis who is commonly known as, “Mad Dog” spent 40 years on the front lines before retiring and appointed as the new Secretary of Defense. During his years of service, Mattis led combat troops in different missions including the battle in Fallujah, Iraq. Given his experience and actions, General Mattis has become a prominent figure in the military, particularly in the debate on how the military should engage in irregular warfare such as one in which enemies deploy computer viruses or hide in mosques (Dickerson, 2010). Consequently, General Mattis has utilized several strategies, styles, behaviors, and qualities of past Maverick Leaders and successfully adapted them to the modern operating environment. General Mattis employed the strategies, behaviors, styles and qualities of past Maverick Leaders to become a risk taker and extremely aggressive commander.
1. General Mattis’ years of service…
McPherson also points out that following the Union victory at Laurel Hill, McClellan was given the responsibility of training the newly-named Army of the Potomac at Washington, D.C. Upon arriving in the city, McClellan "found no army to command, only a mere collection of regiments, perfectly raw and dispirited... " He then "took hold with a firm hand to reorganize and train these troops" which demonstrates his excellent skills as an organizer and administrator, two very important traits for a general. In response, national newspapers hailed McClellan as "the man to save his country... And talked of him as the next President." This praise "went to his head and came to regard himself" as a master over Lincoln and every other high-ranking military officer. McPherson refers to this as McClellan's "Messiah complex" which seems quite accurate, especially since McClellan said to Lincoln that "I can do it all" in…
George McClellan." (2007). Internet. Retrieved April 14, 2008 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USACWmcclellan.htm.
Guelzo, Allen C. (2004). Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
McPherson, James M. (1993). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction.
New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Inner Truth and Outer Truth
The forefathers of our country were not known for their emotional clarity. Neither were they known for expressing publicly their private sense of self. Those who became known at all were known for their hard work and dedication to the public causes meant to benefit the common good. We can perceive them only through our own eyes, much changed by the passage of time.
It is not for us to judge them, but to seek to understand as we hope that those who come after us will seek to understand us. The writings that historical figures have left us reveal their lives in guarded ways, in styles they had been taught were good and proper. If we search closely we may know something of what went on in their inmost hearts. John Woolman sat beside Newbegun Creek and listened quietly for Truth to "open the…
Water" by David James Duncan which commends the author in his elaboration of the importance of the ecological system in lieu of our human needs.
The words of one reviewer as she commended this book said, "I thank David James Duncan for putting into words the profound idea that the salmon's presence is a breathtaking reminder of the rightness of the earth's own plan." And theses words are thus the thesis of the narratives in "My tory as Told by Water" by David James Duncan.
As the human civilization progresses we see that the environment is being affected adversely. There are tens of instances where humans have polluted nature and the results can be seen in the greenhouse effect and extinction of various species. This raises the question of the relevance of nature to the human. Environmentalists are focusing on the concepts of sustainable progress and in such a scenario…
My Story as Told by Water: Confessions, Druidic rants, reflections, bird-watchings, fish-stalkings, visions, songs and prayers refracting light, from living rivers, in the age of the industrial dark by David James Duncan Sierra Club Books 2001
Xenia as an Institution of Order in Homeric Society
Xenia, the custom of hospitality in Homeric society, is widely practiced in Homer's "The Odyssey." While xenia was at times extended to guests out of the goodness of a one's heart, it was more often extended as a method of maintaining order and avoiding conflict. Not only did xenia endear guests to their hosts and hostesses, often moving them to extend returning xenia should the opportunity arise; xenia was also a means of pleasing and honoring the gods, as visitors were believed to be sent from the gods for a specific purpose. When xenia is observed, peace and order prevail, as it did when Odysseus' son Telemachus visited Nestor. When xenia is not observed -- either by host or guest -- chaos ensues.
Regarding Telemachus' visit to Nestor, Telemachus was accompanied by the goddess Minerva and Nestor sought to honor the…
As a reader, the setting descriptions that the author used created an atmosphere of being "present" during the war. he maps used have helped the reader follow the warriors and deal with the facts surrounding the U.S. war with Mexico. he book really represents its era, as it is today, when it comes to the political and military problems and the relationship of the two countries.
he denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the reaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas rist. he United States was given undisputed control of exas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. he present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico…
The denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. The United States was given undisputed control of Texas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. The present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico before the war had begun. The $3.25 million debts that the Mexican government owed to the United States citizens were also assumed by the United States.
What if the United States did not colonize Mexico, would there be another nation to take charge? As Mexico has gained its independence as a republic in the years after 1836, it established diplomatic ties with Britain, France, and the United States. Nearly during those years, there was an existing political dispute between the United States and Britain over the Oregon territorial boundary. Although the United States has succeeded on conquering almost 40% of its territory, not all of the Americans were in favor of what had happened. One of the country's great men, then Lieutenant Ulysses Grant, who became the 18th President of the United States, also served in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. He was a genius and keen observer of the war as he has learned to judge the actions of colonels and generals. As written on his memoirs, he admitted that the war against Mexico was one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. This was just a clear indication that, aside from the citizens' belief on the Manifest Destiny, considering the territorial dispute with another super power nation (Britain), the United States did the conquest primarily because of concerns that Britain might also attempt to occupy the area.
As you have finished reading the book, your thinking will be greatly influenced by the central idea of the book - the motives of each belligerent party; how they stood for what they believe and ought to achieve; the call for personal agenda; and the discovery of unsung injustice. This is somewhat a call from the author, as he stated in the introduction that this time should not be "relegated to the attic of memory."
Decentering of Culture in Native American Groups in the Later Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
While Westernization has created tremendous problems for a wide variety of indigenous cultural traditions, there is little question that the introduction of Westerners to the Americas resulted in some of the most massive destruction of an indigenous culture ever seen in history. The vast majority of this destruction occurred prior to the 19th century. When Europeans first came to the Americas, they decimated native populations with disease and violence. Later, Native Americans were forced off of their land. The infamous Trail of Tears in which many Native American groups were forced from their traditional lands and onto reservations occurred in the early 19th century. Therefore, by the end of the 19th century, it is fair to say that Native American culture had already been indelibly impacted by the Western expansion. However, it is important to…
Bear, C. (2008, May 12). American Indian boarding schools haunt many. Retrieved May 20,
2011 from NPR website: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16516865
Grant, U. (1871, December 4). State of the Union Address. Retrieved May 20, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/t/hist/state-of-the-union/83.html
Johansen, B. (1998, September). Reprise / forced sterilizations: Sterilizations of Native
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2006). Understanding management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Pearce, J., Doh, J. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30-38.
Limited the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the President and Congress in the Late 19th Century
In the nineteenth century, the American government saw many Americans worry about the responsiveness, complexity, or size of their democracy. Having this perspective in mind, the American government of the nineteenth century was small and orderly, having a great machine that oversaw the state at night and held in check by the yeoman citizenry. Moreover, the lines of authority were overlapping where the federal structure took measures to ensure that the national government and the states each had their precise and respective orbits. As such, the structures ensured that the federal government remained small and limited. The little system of regulations precluded the emergence of the sprawling regulatory state having a cacophony of interest groups that competed, the bureaucrats were unresponsive, the politicians were ambitious, and citizen-clients. In summary, the idealized image of the nineteenth…
Carlson, Bernard. Technology and America as a Consumer Society, 1870-1900. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, 2007. Print.
Eric, Arneson. American Workers and the Labor Movement in the Late Nineteenth Century. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, 2007. Print.
Glaeser, Edward, and Goldin, Claudia. Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Print.
Johnson, Kimberley. Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, 1877-1929. Princeton University Press, 2006. Print.
The main causes of the war relied in the issue of slavery as well as the right of the states to be part of a federal entity with equal rights and voices. The implications for this war were enormous as it provided a different future for the colonies and for the U.S. As a whole.
The main cause of the war was, as stated, the issue of slavery. In this sense, the Mexican war played an important role. It pointed out the importance of the slavery issue even in an apparently international situation. The Wilmot Proviso is essential in this way. Thus, it represented an additional act to a bill that enabled the U.S. To satisfy the financial needs of Mexico. The act in itself however was not passed because it pointed out the fact that none of the territories acquired during the Mexican war should be opened to slavery;…
Africans in America. The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. 2007.Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html
Caughey, John Walton. The California gold rush. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1975.
Civil Rights Act of 1866. Historycentral.com. 2000. Available at http://www.historycentral.com/documents/civilrightsact.html
Cornell University Law School. "13th Amendment." United States Constitution. 2010. Available at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiii
In another McGraw Hill edition, entitled American History: Early Years to 1877, there does seem to be more of a stress upon being clear and factual, rather than presenting an equal number of women and men than in the Houghton Mifflin approach. Major figures such as George ashington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ulysses Grant are given the greatest amount of attention. Issues of sex, gender, and sexual orientation and gender identity are seldom included in this textbook. There was an avoidance of special 'boxed' topics, segregating female or diversity issues away from other issues.
In most of these social studies books, the issue of female oppression is not at the forefront, although when relevant to the history of the past, such as with the struggles of African-Americans to find their way to freedom via the Underground Railroad under Harriet Tubman's watch, these issues are not ignored. This raises the question, of…
American History: Early Years to 1877. (2006). New York: Glencoe McGraw Hill.
Community Map." (2004). Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/maps/A_comm.pdf
Golden, Daniel. (19 Aug 2006). "Aiming for Diversity, Textbooks Overshoot." The Wall
Street Journal. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB115595234477240157-RhaWj2JLBSK5vWf_z_2LGU4TkzU_20060829.html?mod=blogs
The Democratic Party did not win another presidential election until 1913 when Woodwork Wilson was elected due to a split vote between Republican conservative candidate, William Howard Taft and Republican progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt.
The New Freedom "was the slogan of Woodrow Wilson who came into presidential office on the platform of promising reform on a liberal basis. Specifically, through an extension of Federal regulations of banking and industry. Further reform through setting up the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Trade Commission as well as strengthening antitrust statutes on the part of Wilson. Much needed reforms to legislation of welfare was attended by Wilson. Wilson's first Administration demonstrated breaking of connections to the old tradition of Democratic laissez faire.
The Republican Party:
The Republican Party united once again nominated Rutherford . Hayes in 1876. Although the Democratic candidate, Samuel Tilden, was said to have won by popular votes, the…
Historical Eras [Online] available at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/eras.html#reform
The United States Encyclopedia of History (1967) Vol. 6 Curtis Publishing Company Philadelphia - New York
Democratic and Republic Parties
Tammany Hall: Mirror of Human Greed
e often hear the road to hell is paved with good intentions and we can certainly use the history of Tammany Hall as an example of how this occurs. Tammany Hall was born from good intentions for the residents of New York, primarily the immigrants and lower working class. Helping others find work and shelter sounds like a way to improve the situations for many in the Lower East Side and this fact only brings us to question how a political party moves from this mindset to one of corruption so quickly and easily. The answer lies with the nature of man. hile the road to hell is paved with good intentions, we also know that power is one of the most destructive elements known to man. hen it comes to personal greed and the welfare of others, greed often wins. Tammany Hall demonstrates…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. (1994). The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath
Davidson, James, et al. Nation of Nations. (1990). New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing