Underground Railroad Essays (Examples)

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Underground Railway Effects on Slavery

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15647999

Underground Railroad Functioned and Assess Its Significance

During the 1850s, slaves had few alternatives in life --a slave could remain on the plantation of his/her master, come to terms with the idea of a life filled with frequent cruel physical punishments and grueling labor, and the possibility of one's family getting separated, (accompanied by the pain of watching family members being sold away). hile this wasn't necessarily the fate all slaves met, they could expect it, if they remained enslaved. The idea of escape was fraught with uncertainty. The slaves would be hunted either by the master himself or by cruel, professional slave hunters. If a runaway slave was caught, he was nearly always put to death; further, the other slaves (i.e., his coworkers in the plantation) were also punished and were, normally, made to witness the defiant slave's execution. Moreover, a run-away life wasn't at all easy. Even in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Connors, Tiffany. "How the Underground Railroad Worked." HowStuffWorks. 28 Feb. 2008. Web. 16 Oct. 2015.

Tubman, Harriet. "Underground Railroad."Underground Railroad. Web. 16 Oct. 2015.
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Levi Coffin's Artical About the

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87648878

d.). Therefore, the strength of his convictions and the acceptance of sacrifice create indeed a vivid impression of the character. Moreover, he openly admits the challenges facing his business and his ability to support his family, yet "yet my faith was not shaken, nor my efforts for the slaves lessened"(Coffin, n.d.). The power the belief in a higher authority that offered the blessing on the affairs he conducted represented the main argument which drove him forward and enabled him to make the efforts to set in place and conduct the Underground Railway.

The financial support he was able to have at his disposal was an essential element in the entire success of the initiative. This can be seen from the perspective of the system his partners and he managed to set in place. In this sense, they had at every moment a wagon stationed in the places slaves were considered…… [Read More]


Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.

Coffin, Levi. The underground railway.
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Abolitionist Movement in American and

Words: 2158 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65951108

Bloss, a Christian evangelist and labor activist who published a newspaper titled "Rights of Man" (Kaye, p. 147).

ere there others whose names are not well-known but who played an important role in the abolitionist movement? According to author Harvey J. Kaye, the co-editor of "Freedom's Journal" was an African-American named Samuel Cornish. Kaye writes (p. 147) that Cornish also launched his own abolitionist newspaper, "The Rights of All." Another free black man, David alker, from North Carolina, was "apparently moved by the Bible, the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and the revolutionary example of Paine's "Common Sense," started his own pamphlet that called on black slaves to "rise up against their white oppressors" (Kaye, p. 148). The pamphlet launched by alker was called: "An Appeal, in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the orld, but in Particular and Very Expressly to Those…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave.

Charleston, SC: Forgotten Books, 1845.

Kaye, Harvey J. Thomas Paine and the Promise of America. New York: Macmillan, 2006.

Lamme, Ary J. "Commemorative Language in Abolitionist Landscape Texts: New York's 'Burned-Over District'." Southeastern Geographer 48.3 (2008): 356-373.
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Women in the Civil War

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74241989

Real Harriet Tubman

Harriet Tubman -- Journal Article Review

The stories, myths, and facts surrounding Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad may seem to be a settled matter to the public, but this is far from true (Larson 9). Over the past several decades, historians have been sifting through primary source material for additional information about Tubman's contributions to the Underground Railroad during the Pre-Civil ar period. The routes that Tubman used ran through Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New York to St. Catharines in Canada. This journal article will examine this new evidence and the arguments presented by Kate Larson to justify her findings and conclusions.

A New Perspective

Larson lists various types of primary source material documenting the Underground Railroad and sounds surprised that historians had, until recently, largely ignored this wealth of information (9-10). These sources revealed that there were scores of men and women who took great risks to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Larson, Kate Clifford. "Racing for Freedom: Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad Network through New York." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 36.1 (2012): 7-33.
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Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47466276


According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, a slave is a 'person who is the legal property of another or others and is bound to absolute obedience' (Blackburn 262).

To be very concise, slavery is the opposite of freedom. A 'liberated' individual possesses all the freedom to enjoy basic human rights of citizenship, profession choice and lifestyle. Not only this, he has all the rights of security of self and property. On the contrary, the slave is a hereditary chattel who can be legally punished, sold or transferred, controlled and separated from the loved ones. Both his productive and reproductive capacities are exploited by the master. Thus, a slave doesn't have any right that a 'free' individual holds. Slaves belong to a different economic group; totally separated with the 'independent' working class (Campbell viii).

Slavery can be described as an institution that is founded on a relationship of control…… [Read More]


Blackburn, Robin. "Eighteen Defining Slavery -- its Special Features and Social Role."Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour. Ed. LEonie J. Archer. London: Routledge, 1988. 262-276. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

Campbell, Gwyn, ed. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. London: Frank Cass, 2004. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

"Historic Timeline of Slavery and the Underground Railroad." National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. U.S. Department of Education Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program, n.d. Web. 6 Dec 2011. .

"History of Man from the Start Is Blighted by Slavery." South Wales Echo (Cardiff, Wales) 18 Sept. 2006: 10. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
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Women in the Civil War

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81281606

Primary Source Material Analysis: Harriet Tubman

Mrs. Sarah H. Bradford wrote a small book in 1868 for the purpose of raising funds to benefit Harriet Tubman's efforts to buy a house and support herself and her aging parents (Introduction). This book was composed immediately before Bradford set sail for Europe in 1868 and its publication costs were covered by several benefactors. The book is remarkable because it is written by a hite abolitionist and suffragist who had become acquainted with Harriet's work on the Underground Railroad through friends and associates.

The stories that Bradford included in the book were corroborated through independent sources and therefore represent a collection of accounts detailing Harriet's struggle to move her family and other slaves north to freedom in Canada along the Underground Railroad. To substantiate the veracity of these accounts Bradford includes in the preface several letters attesting to Harriet's contributions, including one from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradford, Sarah H. Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman. 1869. Salem, NH: Ayer Company, 1992. Print.

Miller, Anne Fitzhugh and Miller, Elizabeth Smith. Miller NAWSA Suffrage Scrapbooks, 1897-1911. Scrapbook 1905-1906. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Washington, D.C. Web. 9 Sep. 2013.  http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D-rbcmillerbib:3:./temp/~ammem_fED1 ::

Tubman, Harriet. "General Affidavit" [Claim of Harriet Tubman: General affidavit of Harriet Tubman Davis regarding payment for services rendered during the Civil War]. The Center for Legislative Archives, National Archives, c. 1898. Web. 9 Sep. 2013.  http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/claim-of-harriet-tubman/ .
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Legislating and Combating Human Trafficking

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65611876

Additionally, it has been observed that the Obama Administration's approach differs from the Bush Administration in that the latter was more short-sighted in its anti-trafficking goals (Ditmore, 2009). The Bush Administration was focused primarily on combating sex trafficking, while the Obama Administration aims to address a wider array of abusive labor practices (Ditmore, 2009). The aims of the Obama Administration reach for wider public support and attempting to deal with the problem more effectively by addressing important, related abusive practices.

States are also playing a critical role in anti-trafficking measures. State and local law enforcement officials are working on combating human trafficking (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Many states have their own human trafficking legislation (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Maryland is also committed to anti-trafficking measures. In particular, the Attorney General of Maryland, the Baltimore City State's Attorney, and the U.S. Attorney's Office created a Human Trafficking…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ditmore, Melissa. (June 2009). The sweep of modern-day slavery. Guardian. Retrieved from  http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ .

Maryland Human Trafficking Task Force. (April 2010). Human Trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/usao/md/Human-Trafficking/index.html.

National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. (February 2010). Anti-Human Trafficking

Efforts on the Home Front Remain a Work in Progress. Retrieved from  http://freedomcenter.org/freedom-forum/index.php/2010/02/progress-slow-fighting-domestic-human-trafficking/ .
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Beginning of the End of Slavery

Words: 1441 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11275985

Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Politics in the Mid-19th Century

To the Editor of the Freeport Press:

I am writing today to express my strong support for Abraham Lincoln's candidacy in the upcoming Senatorial elections. There are many reasons why I have decided to vote for a Republican -- going against my life-long commitment to the Democratic Party -- not the least of which is the way in which Lincoln stood up to the demagoguery of Mr. Douglas. While Lincoln showed great skill at oratory, Douglas' dirty tactics and his obsession with the idea that Negroes are less than human have contributed to my decision in this election.

In fact, when Douglass loudly asserted that Republicans who supported an end to slavery were something akin to demons, I was outraged. When Douglas said he would "…nail it [Republican platforms] upon the back of every Black Republican in the state," he alienated me,…… [Read More]

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Elijah Mccoy Was Born in

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25659798

McCoy received a United States patent for this device on June 23, 1872. (AfricaWithin.com)

McCoy's lubricating cup proved adaptable to other types of steam engines, which were used in factories and at sea. Versions of this cup became standard components on many types of heavy machinery, entering service on railways of the West, on Great Lakes steamships, and even on transatlantic liners. (AfricaWithin.com)

McCoy began inventing other mechanisms. In 1892, McCoy invented devices to lubricate railroad locomotives. In the 1920s, McCoy applied his lubricating system to airbrakes used on locomotives and other vehicles using air brakes. Almost all of McCoy's patents related to automatic lubrication, with the exception of a patent for an ironing table and a lawn sprinkler.


As bigger, heavier and more powerful locomotives were built, rather than use oil alone as a lubricant, designers preferred to mix the oil with powdered graphite, a form of carbon.…… [Read More]


AfricaWithin.com. "Elijah McCoy." 2001. Africa Within. 27 January 2009  http://www.africawithin.com/bios/elijah_mccoy.htm .

Lemelson MIT Program - Inventor of the Week. May 1996. 27 January 2009  http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/mccoy.html .

McElrath, Jessica. "Elijah McCoy." n.d. About.com - African-American History. 27 January 2009 http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/elijahmccoy/p/bio_mccoy_e.htm.

Northern California Council of Black Professional Engineers. Elijah McCoy. 09 October 2007.
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Leadership Comparison of Leadership Styles

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58923306

Thus, in comparison to King's leadership style of pacifism and quiet strength, Powell's is a style involving the characteristics of confrontation, sacrifice of personal desires for the best interest of the groups, and confidence in the leader. While Powell's leadership style does not make him a better leader than King, it certainly exemplifies the fact that leadership styles must change based on circumstance. King's quiet strength gained him the respect he needed to become a champion of the civil rights movement. Powell's confrontational attitude gave him the motivation and confidence he needed to confront other nations in the name of peace.

Finally, Harriet Tubman's leadership style involved a combination of the styles and characteristics advocated by both King and Powell. Tubman's situation as a slave and eventual leader of the Underground ailroad forced her to accept the confrontational style of Powell to some degree. She displayed both confidence in herself…… [Read More]


Ling, P.J. (2003, April 1). Martin Luther King's Style of Leadership. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from the BBC. Web Site:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/recent/martin_luther_king_01.shtml 

Harari, O.A Leadership Primer from General (Ret.) Colin Powell, Secretary of State.

Retreived March 29, 2009, from the HR Chally Group. Web Site:  http://www.chally.com/enews/powell.html 

U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs. (2008, April
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Women in American History

Words: 2642 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19581890

omen in American History

The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.

omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth

One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.

Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from  http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .

Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
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How Did Nursing Change Social Roles of Northern Women During the Civil War

Words: 7299 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96446723

Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar

The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.

The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar

"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A

Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.

Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.

Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
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History of Slavery

Words: 3408 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66576323

Abolitionist Movement

Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]


Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.

Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.

Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from  http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm 

Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
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Slavery in the American South

Words: 1709 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42495412

Many see slavery as the cause of the Civil ar but like with many other wars, it simply is not that simple. ars are never simple and rarely are they clear-cut. Slavery is a black eye on the history of the United States but within that turmoil, there is much to glean about a nation and a people. hile slavery is not unique to America, it is connected to the Civil ar. The struggle up until that time demonstrates how society and culture influence behavior and beliefs. Slavery was painful and freedom was not a perfect answer for those who suddenly found themselves free with nowhere to go. The pain of the Civil ar lead to the birth of Civil Rights and from such pain, individuals find release through perseverance. Unfortunately, slavery is a part of the history of man and while we read the pages of history, it is…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.

Bailey, Ronald. The Bloodiest Day. Alexandria: Time Life Books. 1984.

Davis, Pohanka, Troini. Civil War Journal: The Battles. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press. 1998.

Norton, Mary Beth, ed. A People and a Nation: Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
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Southern Economy Culture and Politics

Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37146565

Southern culture was reconfigured by blues, jazz, gospel, and country music, the stirring of modern literature, the spread of popular sports and amusements, and the birth of new religious dominations....Things were seldom as simple as they appeared to later generations, for Southerners of every rank confronted the dilemmas brought by new opportunities and constraints. Many kinds of power operated in the South, some built on coercion and others built on persuasion, some consented to and some challenged, some private and some public.

Ayers vii)

In many ways the resolution of the conflict sin southern society, which had been entrenched by fear, based legal actions began their resolution at the beginning of I, when the need for soldiers, of all colors began to make both black and white question foundational issues of character and ability. I also began a trend of employing blacks in jobs they had not previously done, by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayers, Edward L. Southern Crossing: A History of the American South, 1877-1906 / . New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Duignan, Peter, and Clarence Clendenen. The United States and the African Slave Trade, 1619-1862. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1963.

Rawley, James a. Turning Points of the Civil War. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Slavery." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2007. Questia. 15 Mar. 2008
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Movie Not Without My Daughter

Words: 591 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27823888

Her escape could have been accomplished fairly easily if she had been willing to leave without her child, but she refused. Several times Helen of the Swiss Embassy strongly suggested she just forget about her daughter and they could get her out. Those of Iranian background, such as Helen, could not understand her refusal as in their worldview the children belonged to the man (Books I've Read: Not Without My Daughter).

With this acceptance the culture, Betty did manage to find another American woman who was in the same position. However, this women had already accepted her fate, which was living in a foreign country with an abusive husband.

In addition, Betty met Ellen, another American woman to whom a similar thing had happened, but who had finally accepted her fate. Betty initially felt a kinship with Ellen upon meeting her at a class as they were from the same…… [Read More]

From there, it is apparent Betty accepted the Muslim culture enough to not to be noticed in order to escape. In order to proceed with her plans, she had to adapt to the environment so that everything will go the way she wanted, which is a survivor skill.

Books I've Read: Not Without My Daughter.  http://annavenger.blogspot.com/2007/09/books-ive-read-not-without-my-daughter.html 

Not Without My Daughter.  http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/reviews/Not-Without-My-Daughter
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Allan Pinkerton Was Born in Glasgow Scotland

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59358833

Allan Pinkerton was born in Glasgow, cotland on August 25, 1819, and he died on July 1, 1884, in Chicago. Pinkerton's father was a police sergeant who was killed in a street riot early in Allan Pinkerton's childhood, which left the Pinkerton family in dire straits financially, according to Biography.com. Pinkerton found work at a young age as a cooper (making barrels) and later (at age 22) he became involved in "Chartism," a mass movement in cotland that was trying to promote "political and social reform" (Biography.com). The campaign that Pinkerton was involved with -- trying to achieve suffrage and fairness for the poor -- eventually organized strikes. When Pinkerton was about to be arrested for his heavy involvement in the strikes -- a warrant was out for his arrest -- he left cotland with his wife and headed for Canada (Champkin, 2004, p. 1).

Pinkerton's Life and Times in…… [Read More]

Some references suggest that Pinkerton left the sheriff's duty because of poor pay, but the Library of Congress said he wanted to start his own detective agency, which he did in 1850. The Pinkerton National Detective Agency was one of the first detective agencies in the country, and the major culprits that Pinkerton went after were train robbers and counterfeiters. "By the 1870s the agency had the world's largest collection of mug shots and a criminal database," and Pinkerton's logo, the "All-Seeing Eye," became the inspiration for the term "private eye" (LOC).

Champkin explains that the railways were losing "vast sums in pilfering [by gangs of robbers] and large-scale thefts," and during one investigation into railroad theft Pinkerton was hired by a firm run by George McClellan, whose lawyer was a man named Abraham Lincoln. In fact Lincoln had just been elected president, and while investigating the rail hold-up, Pinkerton learned of an assassination plot to kill Lincoln. The plot was foiled by Pinkerton, and Lincoln was of course grateful and in time hired Pinkerton to "organize a secret service" which would "obtain military information in the Southern states during the Civil War" (LOC).

Pinkerton used
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Honest Abe as Abhorrent as

Words: 1476 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49125206

..that the rebellion, if crushed out tomorrow, would be renewed within a year if Slavery were left in full vigor (Greeley 1862).

If the North eventually won the war, and slavery was not abolished as an institution, war would be again inevitable. However, Lincoln's primary duty, as he saw it, was not to save or destroy slavery, regardless of his personal views, but to preserve the idea of the Union. Lincoln believed that it was unlawful for any State to succeed, it simply could not be done -- the Union was the Union, and his role was to bring the errant South back into the fold. Lincoln personally found slavery abhorrent, but his duty was not to destroy it, but to unite the North and South as one nation once again. If letting slavery exist helped united the country, Lincoln would let it be so, or vice versa. "What I…… [Read More]


Greeley, H. "The Prayer of the Twenty Million." CivilWarHome.com. August 19, 1862.  http://www.civilwarhome.com/lincolngreeley.htm  (accessed August 2010).

Lincoln, A. "A Proclamation By the President of the United States." Civilwarhome.com. September 22, 1862.  http://www.civilwarhome.com/emancipation.htm  (accessed August 2010).

____. "Reply to Emancipation Memorial presented by Chicago Christians of All Denominations." Teachingamericanhistory.org. September 13, 1892.  http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=1080  (accessed August 2010).

____. "The Dilemma of Slavery." In Reparations for Slavery - A Reader, by Salzberger., et.al., eds., 17-21. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
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Black Church the Redemptive Role

Words: 16899 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2523902

It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.

esearch Questions

In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.

1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?

2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?

3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?

4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]


Primary Sources

Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from  http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/aaron/aaron.html#p6 

Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,

2010 from  http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/adams/adams.html#adams6
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Ethics - Consequentialism Consequentialism Consequentialist

Words: 1287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95980478

Criticism of Consequentialism:

The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.

Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…… [Read More]


Beauchamp, Bowie, & Arnold. (2009). Ethical Theory and Business. 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
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Concrete History of Concrete the

Words: 3333 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9554215

In homes and buildings, the thermal mass of concrete plays a big role in energy efficiency. The high thermal mass of concrete offers this benefit: it stores and releases the energy required for heating or cooling and hence, reduces "temperature swings in homes and buildings."

Interestingly, concrete also helps big rig trucks and "over-the-road trucks" use less fuel; that is because concrete's rigid pavement design is better than asphalt pavement in terms of fuel consumption. And concrete pavement is "light-reflective" and so it requires "less energy than other materials to illuminate." The Cement Americas narrative goes on to report that members of the Portland Cement Association have voted to adopt a goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions "per ton of product by 10% (from 1990 levels) by the year 2020."

The Portland Cement Association (PCA), meantime, has its own informational eb site (www.cement.org) and the PCA claims that concrete is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aaronson, Lauren. "Safer, Tastier Construction." Popular Science 271.5 (2007).

Brown, Jeff L. "Bridges: Construction Begins on Record-Breaking West Virginia Span." Civil

Engineering News. American Society of Civil Engineers. Retrieved Dec. 1, 2007, at http://www.pubs.asce.org.

Cardno, Catherine a. "Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Withstands Strong Earthquakes."
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Civil War as Civil War

Words: 365 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46794700

If those seats were held by politicians from free states, the pro-slavery senators would gradually be silenced. Pro-slavery legislation would be impossible to pass in a senate dominated by anti-slavery politicians.

Thus, Westward expansion exacerbated the division between north and south. As pro-slavery Southerners felt increasingly threatened by their abolitionist Yankee counterparts, their representatives in Congress helped embed a second Fugitive Slave Law into the Compromise of 1850. Humiliated by the Underground ailroad and other attempts to subvert the first Fugitive Slave Law, pro-slavery politicians tightened the noose on runaway slaves and Americans who aided them. Therefore, Southerners directly used the Fugitive Slave Law as political leverage, as a means to regain some of their dwindling power in the federal government. The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law exposed the deep rift that had already developed between North and South and effectively presaged the Civil War.


Fugitive Slave…… [Read More]


Fugitive Slave Laws." Infoplease. 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007 at  http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0819828.html 

The Kansas Nebraska Act." The History Place. 1996. Retrieved June 27, 2007 at  http://www.historyplace.com/lincoln/kansas.htm
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Boston Paving the Way for

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90885414

This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.

Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.

The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…… [Read More]


Banner, David. "The History of Boston, Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site:  http://www.searchboston.com/history.html 

Boston: History." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-History.html

Massachusetts Tourist Information. "Boston Area Information." Retrieved from Web site:  http://www.masstourist.com/boston.htm 

Wikipedia, "Boston Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston,_Massachusetts
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Gender Bias & Inclusion Recently

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1184587

In another McGraw Hill edition, entitled American History: Early Years to 1877, there does seem to be more of a stress upon being clear and factual, rather than presenting an equal number of women and men than in the Houghton Mifflin approach. Major figures such as George ashington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ulysses Grant are given the greatest amount of attention. Issues of sex, gender, and sexual orientation and gender identity are seldom included in this textbook. There was an avoidance of special 'boxed' topics, segregating female or diversity issues away from other issues.

In most of these social studies books, the issue of female oppression is not at the forefront, although when relevant to the history of the past, such as with the struggles of African-Americans to find their way to freedom via the Underground Railroad under Harriet Tubman's watch, these issues are not ignored. This raises the question, of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American History: Early Years to 1877. (2006). New York: Glencoe McGraw Hill.

Community Map." (2004). Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at  http://www.eduplace.com/ss/socsci/books/content/maps/A_comm.pdf 

Golden, Daniel. (19 Aug 2006). "Aiming for Diversity, Textbooks Overshoot." The Wall

Street Journal. Retrieved 19 Dec 2006 at  http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB115595234477240157-RhaWj2JLBSK5vWf_z_2LGU4TkzU_20060829.html?mod=blogs
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Nancy Woloch's Chapter 14 Feminism and Suffrage

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53585577

Nancy Woloch's Chapter 14 "Feminism and Suffrage" (1994, 2nd ed, pp. 326-363) from the general to the specific and back again. Remarkable to me was how three generations (357) of women reacted to a complex and evolving institutional and social environment to adapt and specialize toward the primary goal of woman suffrage. hey achieved this core objective by targeting the strongest leverage, from the woman on the street to their male 'representatives' in the state house, "deliberately and collectively" (Woloch 359), and I add 'persistently,' over five decades (355) through changing leadership and constituent characteristics and preferences. Woloch asks what this achievement contributed toward "the overhaul of attitudes demanded in 1848" (359). he result was a model for accomplishing massive structural social change that led directly from Seneca Falls through the labor movement, the Great Society era Civil Rights Movement, to Stonewall and Section 503 of the Civil Rights Act…… [Read More]

This all being said, the sacrifices were difficult for some, maybe not for others; the painful decisions seem to have been tactical rather than rejections in principle, and in easier circumstances may have been different. Achieving the vote took partnership and pragmatism, building on the contribution of the English suffrage movement (351) and the struggle for equality going back to the Underground Railroad. Those women hung out a quilt pointing the way to a freedom and equality which, while still persistently elusive today, is far closer for our generation than it was for theirs. What is important now is for feminists of all genders and heritage, not to succumb to illusions "[t]here is nothing for women to rally around" (Anna Shaw, qtd. In Woloch 358). Knowing this story makes our work seem less of a burden than an obligation, if we can finally rise above "the indifference, the inertia, the apathy of women" (Susan B. Anthony, qtd. In Woloch 328) that may be our only remaining obstacle today.


Woloch, Nancy. Women and the American Experience. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
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Frederick Douglass' Argument in the

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97594370

After establishing that it is conceded that African-Americans are humans, Douglass moves on to the proposition that he should not be called upon to prove that humans are entitled to liberty. He points out that Americans have already declared that man is entitled to liberty and freedom. He points out that all men resist slavery and feel it is wrong for another person to claim ownership of them. He also points out the brutal side of slavery, and argues that no person could argue that those things were somehow right including: beatings, lashings, shackling, hunting them with dogs, split out families, knocking out their teeth, selling them at auction, and starvation. He believes that it is ridiculous to expect him to argue that a system that includes all of these horrors is wrong.

Douglass' also tackles the common argument during the time that slavery was a divinely ordained condition or…… [Read More]


Douglass, F. (1852, July 4). The Hypocrisy of American Slavery. Retrieved February 13, 2012

from the History Place website:  http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/douglass.htm
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Matilda Joslyn Gage 1826-1898 Is One of

Words: 2436 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30067035

Matilda Joslyn Gage, (1826-1898) is one of the foremost advocates of women's rights and women's suffrage. She and her colleagues did the United States a great service in the furtherance of rights for women. Though her voice is often one that goes unheard in the histories about her era its strength has been recently noticed and its wisdom upheld. One of the most important messages of the women's rights movement was the need for the recognized value of the women in vocation and education. Most women's rights advocates believe that the full strength of any society could never be realized if half of the persons in it where not given full ability to contribute to it, not only in the voice of their vote but in the voice of their strength as productive and employed members of the society they live in.

... The boasted civilizations of antiquity were eminently…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brammer, Leila R. Excluded from Suffrage History: Matilda Joslyn Gage, Nineteenth Century American Feminist. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, ed. Women Public Speakers in the United States, 1800-1925: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.

Man Cannot Speak for Her. Vol. 2. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989.

Crowell, Kathy (contributor) Obituary: Matilda Josyln Gage. The Weekly Reader
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Slavery Is a Dark Stain

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38197560

The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.

In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. hile the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at http://cghs.dade.k12.fl.us/slavery/anti-slavery_movement/acs.htm.

Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at  http://innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html .

Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period." African-American Odyssey. Online at  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart2.html .

History of Slavery in the United States." Wikipedia.com. Online at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_the_United_States .
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Civil War After the War

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30786382

California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.

The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at  http://www.pbs.org /wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html.

The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at
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1820-1860 Numerous Reform Groups Including

Words: 1543 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13740626

It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.

Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…… [Read More]

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Jews Left Russia and Eastern

Words: 3310 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93211231


From Jessica McElrath, Your Guide to African-American History)."

In addition to the renaissance the new found self-confidence and pride that was found by Southern Blacks who moved north also impacted the work environment.

Social protest was not only possible it was available to those who were not happy with their working conditions in the North (the BLACKS and the UNIONS (http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blktu.html).While it was extremely oppressed compared to the life of African-Americans today, it was still a far cry and significantly better than anything they had experience in the south up to that point.

Currently the nation is facing a social crisis when it comes to the plight of Mexican immigrants. Whether they are here legally or illegally there are an estimated 12 million Mexicans working and living inside the American boundaries. If one were to compare their plight to those of the Southern blacks they would find several similarities.…… [Read More]


People at Risk


Harlem Renaissance http://afroamhistory.about.com/cs/harlemrenaissance/a/harlemren.htm

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Vincent Vinikas' Review of Dominic J Capeci's

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47036174

Vincent Vinikas' review of Dominic J. Capeci's The Lynching of Cleo Wright takes a critical stance toward Capeci's account of the case of Cleo Wright, a black man who was lynched in Missouri in 1942. ather than examining the underlying causes concerning why lynching took place (particularly as late as 1942), Vinikas restricts his focus to elucidating logical fallacies that hinder Capeci's article. Vinikas argues that it is lamentable that even in books that purportedly reveal information concerning actual lynching cases, the true facts involved in such cases is never truthfully revealed, such that the public is still not privy to crucial information that colors America's history. In contrast, in her article "An Outrageous Proceeding: A Northern Lynching and the Enforcement of Anti-Lynching Legislation in Illinois, 1905-1910" Stacy Pratt McDermott applies a more comprehensive approach, determining the cultural forces that promoted lynching and made it incredibly difficult to abolish. Consequently,…… [Read More]


McDermott, S.P. (1999). An outrageous proceeding: A northern lynching and the enforcement of anti-lynching legislation in Illinois, 1905-1910. The Journal of Negro History, 84(1), 61-78.

Vinikas, V. (1999). The lynching of Cleo Wright by Dominic J. Capeci. Review by Vincent Vinikas. The Journal of Southern History, 65(4), 907-908.
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]


Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County." usgennet.org. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/county/capemay/Jarena.htm  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Voice of Freedom

Words: 2226 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29141516

Voice of Freedom

In chapter 15 it deals a lot with resistance to slavery and of course one of these was the best known of all slave rebellions which involved was Nat Turner, who happened to be a slave preacher. This chapter was also devoted in describing the conspiracies that went into the uprisings and the rebellions that actually changed the face of slavery. This chapter gave a very vivid detail in exploring what went on behind the scenes in regards to these revolts coming together. ith that said, this essay will explore this chapter and talk about the significance of the voice of freedom.

After the Civil ar, the definitions of freedom surely changed for nation, for the freedmen, and for southern whites in a lot of ways. Southern white were fearful. It was apparent that they never wanted slavery to end because it had a huge effect on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arts, Martin. "The Liberty Haggadah: From Slavery to Freedom. From Exile to Independence." 1-90. Chicago: Matan Arts; Hebrew - English edition, 2011.

Chambers, Glenn A. "From slavery to servitude: The African and Asian struggle for freedom in Latin America and the Caribbean." History 21, no. 9 (2008): 23-45.

de, la Fuente. "From slaves to citizens? Tannenbaum and the debates on slavery, emancipation, and race relations in Latin America." International Labor and Working Class History 77, no. 1 (2010): 154-173.

Foner, Eric. "Give Me Liberty!: An American History." 1-584. New York City W.W. Norton & Company; Seagull Third Edition, 2009.
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Patriarch Nothing Stays With Us in Life

Words: 4845 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81294708


Nothing stays with us in life as powerfully as the images of our parents we take with us into adulthood. A harsh father, a loving mother, a single parent who was on the edge of exhaustion, but always available... The emotions attached to these memories affect our adult decisions. These recollections influence how we see ourselves, who we believe we can be in the adult world, and who we see when we look in the morning mirror.

In the equity of the universe, it seems unfair that the species which spends the most time in its home before heading into the world is most influenced by its parents. When looking across the animal kingdom, lion cubs are ready to hunt for themselves after a number of months. Sea turtles are born on the beaches, devoid of any parental influence.

Those lucky enough to make it back to water are…… [Read More]


Bloom, Harold. Blooms Major Poets: Langston Hughes. PA: Chelsea House, 1999

Cooper, Floyd. Coming Home from the Life of Langston Hughes. NY: Philomel Books.

The Holy Bible, American Standard Version. IA: Parson's Technology Inc. 1998

Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. NY: Knopf. 1940
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Nineteenth Century Reform

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1976691

Nineteenth Century Reform

The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/

Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.

Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842.  http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm 

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.

U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
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Technology Is Good Agree That Technological Process

Words: 1817 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75005823

Technology Is Good agree that technological process is always good. Learning is an important facet of life and without it, we cannot grow. Growth is an important aspect of life. It is human nature to be curious and it is the human spirit to explore. Intelligence increases with each new discovery and with all of the exciting possibilities that technology has to offer, we should look forward with enthusiasm.

This is not to say that, as a society, we will not encounter problems that might arise from the advancement of technology. Just recently, we have seen some of the repercussions of technology with the first so-called cloned human baby. Many people are opposed to technology because of problems just like this. In fact, many people refer to Dr. Frankenstein and his monster whenever technology seems to interfere with moral issues. If we can learn to approach each situation responsibly and…… [Read More]

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African-American Women in Missouri

Words: 2245 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39467293

history of Missouri there is a strained and well-documented legacy of slavery and conflict over it. As the nation divided itself on the political/economic rather than moral issue of slavery, deciding status of statehood almost entirely on this one issue Missouri was caught in the middle. Yet, this reality had little if anything to do with the reality of life for black women in the state. Black women's lives both free and slave revolved around work and family. In many ways black women, and marginalized women in general are the first real example of a women's working class.

Black women worked in and out of the home either for themselves or for another and lived their lives almost unaffected by the political decisions, made to seem so important in retrospect. That which was important to real working black women was the economy and for that reason most free blacks lived…… [Read More]

Discus, Malinda. Slave Narratives -- Missouri. 1936-1938 Western Historical Manuscripts Collection. University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri George P. Rawick Papers. At http://www.umsl.edu/~libweb/blackstudies

Henderson, Isabelle, Slave Narratives -- Missouri. 1936-1938 Western Historical Manuscripts Collection. University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri George P. Rawick Papers. At http://www.umsl.edu/~libweb/blackstudies

State of Missouri Official Manual, 1973-1974 The Role of the Negro in Missouri History at: www.umsl.edu/services/library/blackstudies/freenegr.htm" State of Missouri Official Manual, 1973-1974 The Role of the Negro in Missouri History at http://www.umsl.edu/services/library/blackstudies/freenegr.htm
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Power Dynamics of Society in Therapy

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24488712

Feminist Therapy

From a feminist perspective, the foundations of contemporary psychology and therapy are a scandal. The origins of the contemporary therapeutic relationship are based on Freud's "talking cure" for "hysteria" -- and it is worth noting that "hysteria" was, one hundred years ago, a mysterious mental illness that mainly affected women, simply because they were women. The word "hysteria" itself derives from the Greek word for "uterus"! The illness that Freud began his career by examining -- and which he thought he could cure simply by talking with the patient -- was treated like it was simply a pathological form of womanhood.

As an African-American woman, myself am aware that we must bear witness to the past, and we must learn from the past, in order that we do not repeat it. So when we approach a feminist critique of contemporary therapeutic practices, think it is important to recognize…… [Read More]

In 1851, a white medical doctor in Louisiana (Dr. Samuel Cartwright) published an article in a medical journal in New Orleans discussing a new form of mental illness called "Drapetomania" -- this mental illness only affected enslaved African-Americans, and its chief symptom was that it made them attempt to run away from plantations. In other words, a real medical journal published an article which claimed that the Underground Railroad was a form of mental illness. Now it is important to note (in fairness to the medical profession) that most doctors did not agree with Dr. Cartwright's racist suggestion -- in fact, he was generally mocked for publishing the article.

This story is important today for showing the way in which the general power dynamics of society can be reflected within the medical profession. We know today that slavery is evil, and that women are allowed to vote -- nobody in 2014 thinks that a slave who flees from a plantation or a woman who suggests that women should have the right to vote is suffering from mental illness. But it is important to understand the history of these issues to show that the assumptions made by therapists can frequently reflect the power dynamics of society in the worst ways.

We should also note that, just as our ideas of justice can change over time with history, so too can the definition of psychological problems change over time. To return to the starting example of "hysteria" -- the mysterious female psychological condition which Sigmund Freud began his career by investigating -- we should observe that the actual symptoms that Freud was examining do not exist anymore. Female hysterics of the late nineteenth century were placed under medical care because they had the sudden paralysis of an arm or a leg, and had not suffered a stroke or any other physiological cause that would explain the paralysis. Instead the paralysis was understood to be psychological in origin. In 2014, we would have to look for a long time to find anyone with symptoms like this, even though the symptoms were common enough 125 years ago that psychiatrists could examine multiple patients displaying different versions of these symptoms. So where did this disease go? The simple fact is that symptoms may in fact be a reflection of the society in which patients find themselves. The crucial thing is to know that therapist and patient are both part of historical processes they did not cause.
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Reviewing History Websites

Words: 1846 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81982532

History ebsites

The four American history-related web sites used for this paper are: United States History (http://www.u-s-history.com/index.html); American History: The Heritage of the United States (http://www.legendsofamerica.com/americanhistory.html); History (http://www.history.com/); and USHistory.org (http://www.ushistory.org/).

United States History: How much information is provided? hat sort of information is offered? In the United States History site, there is an enormous amount of specific information within each time period. For example, there are fourteen window of time (up to 1630; 1630-1763; 1763-1783; all the way through 2001), and in each window there are eight to ten links that take the reader to specific events, personalities, groups and laws. In the 1815-1860 window of time a reader can get in-depth information on the Monroe Doctrine, Nat Turner Rebellion, The Alamo, Manifest Destiny, The Compromise of 1850, and the California Gold Rush, among several other links.

Is the eb better at transmitting some kinds of information as compared…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Best of History Websites. (2013). Welcome to Best of History Websites. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from  http://www.besthistorysites.net .

History.com (2013). History by Topic. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from  http://www.history.com .

Legends of America. (2012). American History / The Heritage of the United States. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from  http://www.legendsofamerica.com .

United States History. (2013). American History / Time Period / Historical Era. Retrieved
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Channel Tunnel and the Seikan

Words: 1098 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35038888

During mid-1981, grout consumption attained 98.2m 3/m and this consumed 67% of the total time. Total drivage amounted to 131m. In 1978 the corresponding values were 5.7m 3/m, 53% and the total tunnel drivage was 1490m."

Channel Tunnel. On the United Kingdom side of the Channel Tunnel project, ground movements were largely restricted to the area that was being worked, with 90mm being measured in an inclinometer that was sited on the toeweight area situated immediately uphill of the toeprint (Kirland 1995). Engineers on the UK side of the project were satisfied of this localized ground movement, though, when these ground movements stopped or quickly stabilized after construction work stopped (Kirkland 1995). By contrast, engineers on the French side of the project were confronted with the presence of faults with comparatively large displacements, as well as a thinner chalk marl that dipped at a more acute angle compared to the…… [Read More]


Anderson, G and Roskrow B. 1994, the Channel Tunnel Story, London: E & FN Spon.

Cavendish, M 2007, World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, New York: Marshall


'Ends Meet at World's Longest Hi-Speed Train Tunnel under the Swiss Alps,' 2010, October 15,
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Intercity Train System History of the Train

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44392092

Intercity Train System

History of the train System

The modern intercity train system is dominated by the latest revolutionary rapid transit which is an electric passenger railway with high capacity, frequency and a characteristic separation from the other transport systems of the city. These rapid transit systems are normally located either in underground tunnels or are elevated above the city streets, though once they snail their way out of the city they can run on the ground like any other traffic but way separated from the road.

The first transit system to be developed was the London underground that was opened in 1863; this was quickly replicated in many cities across Europe and the U.S.A. The revolution went on so fast with the largest growth of these systems experienced in Asia with the driverless systems. Currently, there are more than 160 cities with the rapid transit system and 25 cities…… [Read More]


Eurail, (2011). Train Travel in Germany with Eurail. Retrieved March, 4, 2011 from  http://www.eurail.com/countries/germany?gclid=CNnY0dipg6gCFQMjfAodfXcTrw 

InterKnowledge Corp. (2006). Russia's. Trans-Siberian Railway. Retrieved March, 4, 2011 from  http://www.geographia.com/russia/trasib01.htm
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St Petersburg Russia Metro What

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37182710

Furthermore, the importance of the metro in moving people in St.
Petersburg is illustrated in the impact the metro has on people's lives.
The article by Irina Titova on the St. Petersburg metro cites Valentina
Ivanova, deputy head of the State Duma's education and science committee.
According to the article, the city will open a Southwest aste Treatment
Station shortly, causing the district to develop. Ivavnova maintains that
when the district develops because of the opening of the Treatment Station,
that "the metro will be essential" and that two new stations will need to
be opened "at the south-west of the city" (Titova 2004). The fact that the
opening of a waste treatment center will create the need for two new metro
stations showcases the importance of the metro on daily life and the
movement of people in the city. Anywhere in the city that people need to
go to,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennett, Philip. "The Daily Drama of St. Petersburg." The Boston Globe
[Boston] 8 Aug 1993:
 http://www.boston.com/news/globe/  .

Japan Fact Sheet. "Railways." Web Japan. 10 Mar 2007.
<  http://web-japan.org/factsheet/pdf/TRANSPOR.PDF  >
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European Resistance Movements in the

Words: 4304 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43688761

A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.

A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).

Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…… [Read More]


Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.

Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.

Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
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Project Management Plan Xyz Curb Gutter &

Words: 1960 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26396674

Project Management Plan



The proposed contract for this project management plan is repaving of all the city streets in the city of Huntsville, Alaama. The project will include rehailitation and preservation of the historic district in the area of the old Railroad Depot in Decatur, Alaama to include rick streets, and round-aouts in the area of downtown Huntsville, Alaama. This will e a large-scale cur, gutter, and road paving project with high costs in laor and materials. Included in this project are the following cur, gutter, and road paving as well as rehailitative street construction initiatives:

miles of cur, gutter and street paving in the City of Huntsville, Alaama

round-aouts near the Railroad Depot

miles of rehailitaiton of rick streets leaving streetcar rails in the rick paving…… [Read More]


Low Impact Development At the Local Level: Developers' Experiences and City County Support. (2009) Econwest. Retrieved from: http://www.econw.com/media/ap_files/ECONorthwest_Publication_LID-Clackamas-County-Case-Study_2009.pdf

Bid/No-Bid Decision Process Flow (2015) The One Business Proposal. Retrieved from:  http://www.theonebusinessproposal.com/bid-no-bid-decision-process-flow.html 

Roadway/Transportation -- Capital Improvement Projects (CIP) (nd) Retrieved from:

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Balfour Beatty Founded in 1909 Is the

Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26909703

Balfour Beatty, founded in 1909, is the 19th-largest contractor in the world, and a highly-respected firm that designs, engineers and manages large infrastructure projects all over the world, including the UK, U.S., Europe, Australia, South America and the Middle East. It has over a century of experience in building highways, railroad, power plants and utilities, including the National Grid in Britain. For decades, the company has been very active in overseas infrastructure projects such as railroads, tunnels, bridges, water systems and utilities in many nations, and participated in the construction of high-prestige projects like the Channel Tunnel and Hong Kong Airport (Balfour Beatty Company History 2011). This company has 50,000 employees in over 100 countries, from the U.S. And UK to Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and is a leader if the management of highways, utilities and public facilities. Through its partners and associates, it can offer services along…… [Read More]


Balfour Beatty Website (2011).

Retrieved from:  http://www.balfourbeatty.com
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What Influence Did Petersburg Have on the Civil War

Words: 915 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90347478

Petersburg have on the Civil War

The Significance of the Siege of Petersburg

The Civil War was the bloodiest chapter in America's history. An unparalleled percentage of the population perished in the Southern State's abortive attempt to free itself from Federal Control. If the Confederacy was a brilliant butterfly, the Siege of Petersburg would be the inexorable pin that held it to the collection board of history. Petersburg was a ten-month siege that was a turning point for the war, leading to the surrender and defeat of the Confederate Army. This was a significant ordeal because of the geographic location of Petersburg, the way in which it pinned down General Lee's army, and how the South was left open for a devastating attack on its infrastructure and morale.

Geographically, Petersburg is located on the south side of the Appomattox River, and is a little over 20 miles south of Richmond,…… [Read More]


Freeman, Joanne. "Time Line of the Civil War." American History.  http://ex.susd.org/cKules/Go_%20to_the_Head_of_the_Class.htm 

MultiEducator. "Seige of Petersburg." The Civil War. History Central.  http://www.multied.com/civilwar/Petersburg.html 

Epperson, James. "Why Petersburg? An Introduction and Background." The Seige of Petersburg.  http://members.aol.com/siege1864/why.html
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Big Dig Project -- a

Words: 1444 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45033646

However, the city was not exactly celebrating.

The ig Dig project was not completed without controversy. It resulted in criminal arrests, as well as charges for escalating costs, leaks, poor execution and use of substandard materials (Wikipedia, 2008). In May 2006, six executives of echtel/Parsons rinckerhoff, including its general manager, were arrested and charged with fraud.

Over 200 complaints were filed by the state of Massachusetts as a result of leaks, cost overruns, quality concerns, and safety violations. In July 2006, a ig Dig I-90 tunnel a large plate of concrete from the tunnel ceiling fell on a car, with one death, a woman crushed to death. A major investigation resulted, and closure of part of the ig Dig for a while.

Despite these controversial issues, the project was hailed as an engineering marvel, especially due to the challenge of building among subway tunnels and steam pipes while the city…… [Read More]


Big Dig's red ink engulfs state, Boston Globe, July 17, 2008

Curtin, Daniel. Witter, Jonathan. (2005). Windfalls, Wipeouts, Givings, and Takings in Dramatic Redevelopment Projects.

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review.

Economic Development Research Group for the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority. (2006). Economic and Transportation Impacts of the Central Artery/Tunnel in Boston. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.edrgroup.com/library/highways-roads/economic-impact-central-arterytunnel.html .
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Man Has Evolved From Times

Words: 5105 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78129156

These women make outcalls, where they visit the home of the client; or in-calls, where the clients visit their homes. At the second tier are women who work at established locations such as strip clubs, sex juice bars, brothels and massage parlors, where erotic services are also included following or during, what is an often a therapeutic massage. The third and lowest tier of prostitutes are the streetwalkers who roam certain areas, are picked up by customers and the sex acts are performed in motels that cater to this service, or cars or in back alleys. For each encounter, the prostitutes who belong to this third tier often charge only a few tens of dollars for their services. These lower tiers also include drug addicts who perform these acts in drug dens or at truck stops catering to long haul truck drivers.

Legalization of Prostitution

The term legalization can be…… [Read More]


Bazelon, Emily. Why Is Prostitution Illegal? 2008. Slate.com. Available:

http://www.slate.com/id/2186243/.April25 2008.

BreakingFreeInc. Breaking Free Inc.: Sisters Helping Sisters Break Free. 2008. BreakingFreeInc.net. Available:

 http://www.breakingfree.net/.April25  2008.
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]


American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
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Basque Culture of Bilbao and

Words: 3563 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83483048

" (2003) During the 1850s ilbao was drastically changed by rapid industrialization and by the 1860s planned was a new city in which the former method of building houses without a design for the streets was changed and "the new area of planned prosperity was more orderly." (Zulaika, 2003) Zulaika states that the:

central economic ideology was utilitarian laissez-faire - industry should be self-regulated and government reduced to a minimum. The maximum good would come through the unregulated, self-aggrandizing effort of every individual. With the pecuniary reward the only measure of social value, and with profit the only controlling agent, gross social inequalities took root." (Zulaika,2003)

It is related by Zulaika, that these "techniques of agglomeration" stretched across all sectors of life at work including the English factor waterpower system to the steam engine of Watts and the transportation system of the railroad with ilbao and other port cities playing…… [Read More]


Trask, Robert Lawrence (1997) the History of Basque. Routledge. Google Books. Online available at  http://books.google.com/books?id=ZZo2gW3fJKgC&dq=Bilbao:+Basque+cultural+history&lr=&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 

Zulaika, Joseba (2003) Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa: Museums, Architecture and City Renewal. University of Nevada Press 2003.

Wolf, Eric (1982) Industrial Revolution (Chapter 9, Europe and the People without History) University of California Press, Berkeley, 1982: in Zuliaka

Wolf, Eric (1982) Industrial Revolution (Chapter 9, Europe and the People without History) University of California Press, Berkeley, 1982: in Zuliaka, Joseba (2003) Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa: Museums, Architecture and City Renewal. University of Nevada Press 2003
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Framing Testimony

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61722409

Auschwitz gave to Promo Levi when he dared to ask the "hy?" question. To be sure, the guard was simply attempting to be cynical and sarcastic rather than reflective or philosophical, but LaCapra is also critical of Claude Lanzmann for failing to ask this question enough in Shoah. All of the Germans who Lanzmann interviewed were either perpetrators of complicit bystanders, and they spent a great deal of time explaining what, where and how the Holocaust happened, while also denying or minimizing their own responsibility. Franz Suchomel, the S.S. guard at Treblinka, was a notable exception to this rule, but Lanzmann interviewed him with a hidden camera after promising to keep his identity anonymous. Almost all of the Jewish survivors described what happened in painful detail, and Lanzmann's preference was to make them literally relive their experiences, but they were not asked why. ith a few exceptions the resistance leader…… [Read More]


LaCapra, Dominick. "Lanzmann's Shoah: "Here There Is No Why." Critical Inquiry, Vol. 23. No. 2, Winter 1997: 231-69.

Levi, Primo. The Drowned and the Saved. NY: Summit Books, 1986.
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William J Donovan and the

Words: 4625 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15468295

Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available:  https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html .

Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.

Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.

Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
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Snake River Is Part of

Words: 3074 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30363227

Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).

The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…… [Read More]


Columbia River (2005). Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.ccrh.org/river/history.htm.

The Columbia River Basin watershed and its ecosystems (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at  http://www.fwee.org/crb.html .

How a hydroelectric project can affect a river (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at  http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html .

Human history in the Tetons (2001). Grand Teton History, retrieved September 10, 2005 at  http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/gt/history/ .
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American Land

Words: 1306 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11913140

American Land

President Bush's recent initiatives regarding the environment represent a significant change from the government environmental policies of the past century. Bush, who presents himself as a steward of the environment, believes that conservation and protection are best achieved through a partnership with industry. Instead of relying on strict government regulations, Bush believes that forests would be preserved and rivers would be cleaner if market forces are allowed to run their natural course ("Bush reshapes environmental debate").

This essay examines the evolution of Bush's position in light of the American policies regarding the environment over the past 100 years. It looks at how environment policies have changed, from the time President Theodore Roosevelt established the wildlife preserve in Pelican Island Bay, Florida. This essay also examines the changing perceptions Americans hold regarding their environment -- which has been first been viewed as an infinite natural resource, then as a…… [Read More]