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Underground ailroad was the single most important nonviolent political protest movement in nineteenth century America. Slave rebellions did help to rally the cause for self-empowerment and abolition, but the Underground ailroad led to meaningful, tangible results. The descendants of former slaves who made it to Canada have shaped the fabric of that nation, while the descendants of the former slaves to achieved liberty in their lifetime and lived to tell their stories have left an indelible mark on American history. In many ways, the Underground ailroad signified the stirrings of Civil War. Dissent among slaves created problems for slave owners, who clung ever tighter to their traditions.
In 1850, Congress enacted the Fugitive Slave Act, which criminalized aiding and abetting escaped slaves on the grounds that escaped slaves were recognized as stolen property. Tightening the noose on slavery with the Fugitive Slave Act, the federal government lost a considerable amount…… [Read More]
underground railroad, harriet tubman involved underground railroad. history underground railroad state Indiana (Terre Haute).
A Run through the Underground Railroad
Slavery is one of the most important issues that helped shape American cultural identity, and, throughout time, there have been many famous people who helped slaves escape the terror in the South and reach Free states in the North of the United States of America or even in Canada.
Everything started at the end of the 18th century, when George Washington complained about how one of his slaves was assisted in escaping by a society of Quakers, which, according to what Washington said, was formed solely for this purpose: to help slaves escape the terror of their slaveholder. ut this happened in 1786. More important things were still to come with the new century.
Throughout the United States of America there were many people who were against slavery and who…… [Read More]
The Underground Railroad was an informal network of aide and assistance for those who would escape the bondage of slavery and seek freedom. Besides the Underground Railroad made famous by American History, other such systems have offered similar services. Until all persons in the world are free, Underground Railroads will operate in order to bring freedom and liberty to all human beings.
Anyone who as read Anne Frank's diary knows that an Underground Railroad similar to the one that existed in the United States helped Jews escape Nazi horrors during World War Two. Like the many men and women who risked their lives by helping the black slaves in the antebellum South run toward freedom, conductors of the Underground Railroads in Europe risked their lives helping Jews and others who were persecuted by the Nazis. In both cases, the conductors and others who participated were putting their lives and reputations…… [Read More]
hat are the signs that a website has credibility and value to the researcher? hat specific information in a website's presentation lets the researcher know that this information is valid and verified? This portion of the paper explores the way in which websites are best evaluated and tested for validity.
ebsite Review and Evaluation
hen a researcher goes to Google and types in "evaluating website checklist," Google reports (in less than 2 seconds) that there are "About 760,000 results," or links, to sites that relate to that topic. Anyone that has used Google knows full well that all 760,000 of those links are not necessarily useful; and indeed there are bound to be repeat links among the 760,000 sites.
The shortest criterion for evaluating websites was put online by Avon Public Schools in Connecticut. There are eight ways to check information on websites (note: some schools spell it "web…… [Read More]
What is the purpose of Foner’s introduction “Rethinking the Underground Railroad”?
Brief background on Foner reveals he is a Pulitzer Prize-winning historian. The reason for the book is to relay the intense story of fugitive slaves along with the antislavery activists who went against the law to assist in helping the slaves find freedom. The introduction then helps explain this by talking about Frederick Bailey. Frederick Bailey and four of his friends, created and implemented a plan to abscond via canoe to make their way up north. Although they were caught, arrested, and then sent back to their owners, he began to plot his escape again. The initial failure led to the beginnings of what was the fight for freedom for slaves as Bailey became Frederick Douglass and led the cause for abolition in the United States.
Who are the Quakers and what was their involvement in the Underground Railroad?…… [Read More]
Underground Railroad Functioned and Assess Its Significance
During the 1850s, slaves had few alternatives in life --a slave could remain on the plantation of his/her master, come to terms with the idea of a life filled with frequent cruel physical punishments and grueling labor, and the possibility of one's family getting separated, (accompanied by the pain of watching family members being sold away). hile this wasn't necessarily the fate all slaves met, they could expect it, if they remained enslaved. The idea of escape was fraught with uncertainty. The slaves would be hunted either by the master himself or by cruel, professional slave hunters. If a runaway slave was caught, he was nearly always put to death; further, the other slaves (i.e., his coworkers in the plantation) were also punished and were, normally, made to witness the defiant slave's execution. Moreover, a run-away life wasn't at all easy. Even in…… [Read More]
d.). Therefore, the strength of his convictions and the acceptance of sacrifice create indeed a vivid impression of the character. Moreover, he openly admits the challenges facing his business and his ability to support his family, yet "yet my faith was not shaken, nor my efforts for the slaves lessened"(Coffin, n.d.). The power the belief in a higher authority that offered the blessing on the affairs he conducted represented the main argument which drove him forward and enabled him to make the efforts to set in place and conduct the Underground Railway.
The financial support he was able to have at his disposal was an essential element in the entire success of the initiative. This can be seen from the perspective of the system his partners and he managed to set in place. In this sense, they had at every moment a wagon stationed in the places slaves were considered…… [Read More]
Bloss, a Christian evangelist and labor activist who published a newspaper titled "Rights of Man" (Kaye, p. 147).
ere there others whose names are not well-known but who played an important role in the abolitionist movement? According to author Harvey J. Kaye, the co-editor of "Freedom's Journal" was an African-American named Samuel Cornish. Kaye writes (p. 147) that Cornish also launched his own abolitionist newspaper, "The Rights of All." Another free black man, David alker, from North Carolina, was "apparently moved by the Bible, the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and the revolutionary example of Paine's "Common Sense," started his own pamphlet that called on black slaves to "rise up against their white oppressors" (Kaye, p. 148). The pamphlet launched by alker was called: "An Appeal, in Four Articles, Together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the orld, but in Particular and Very Expressly to Those…… [Read More]
Real Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman -- Journal Article Review
The stories, myths, and facts surrounding Harriet Tubman's Underground Railroad may seem to be a settled matter to the public, but this is far from true (Larson 9). Over the past several decades, historians have been sifting through primary source material for additional information about Tubman's contributions to the Underground Railroad during the Pre-Civil ar period. The routes that Tubman used ran through Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New York to St. Catharines in Canada. This journal article will examine this new evidence and the arguments presented by Kate Larson to justify her findings and conclusions.
A New Perspective
Larson lists various types of primary source material documenting the Underground Railroad and sounds surprised that historians had, until recently, largely ignored this wealth of information (9-10). These sources revealed that there were scores of men and women who took great risks to…… [Read More]
According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, a slave is a 'person who is the legal property of another or others and is bound to absolute obedience' (Blackburn 262).
To be very concise, slavery is the opposite of freedom. A 'liberated' individual possesses all the freedom to enjoy basic human rights of citizenship, profession choice and lifestyle. Not only this, he has all the rights of security of self and property. On the contrary, the slave is a hereditary chattel who can be legally punished, sold or transferred, controlled and separated from the loved ones. Both his productive and reproductive capacities are exploited by the master. Thus, a slave doesn't have any right that a 'free' individual holds. Slaves belong to a different economic group; totally separated with the 'independent' working class (Campbell viii).
Slavery can be described as an institution that is founded on a relationship of control…… [Read More]
Primary Source Material Analysis: Harriet Tubman
Mrs. Sarah H. Bradford wrote a small book in 1868 for the purpose of raising funds to benefit Harriet Tubman's efforts to buy a house and support herself and her aging parents (Introduction). This book was composed immediately before Bradford set sail for Europe in 1868 and its publication costs were covered by several benefactors. The book is remarkable because it is written by a hite abolitionist and suffragist who had become acquainted with Harriet's work on the Underground Railroad through friends and associates.
The stories that Bradford included in the book were corroborated through independent sources and therefore represent a collection of accounts detailing Harriet's struggle to move her family and other slaves north to freedom in Canada along the Underground Railroad. To substantiate the veracity of these accounts Bradford includes in the preface several letters attesting to Harriet's contributions, including one from…… [Read More]
Additionally, it has been observed that the Obama Administration's approach differs from the Bush Administration in that the latter was more short-sighted in its anti-trafficking goals (Ditmore, 2009). The Bush Administration was focused primarily on combating sex trafficking, while the Obama Administration aims to address a wider array of abusive labor practices (Ditmore, 2009). The aims of the Obama Administration reach for wider public support and attempting to deal with the problem more effectively by addressing important, related abusive practices.
States are also playing a critical role in anti-trafficking measures. State and local law enforcement officials are working on combating human trafficking (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Many states have their own human trafficking legislation (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Maryland is also committed to anti-trafficking measures. In particular, the Attorney General of Maryland, the Baltimore City State's Attorney, and the U.S. Attorney's Office created a Human Trafficking…… [Read More]
Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Politics in the Mid-19th Century
To the Editor of the Freeport Press:
I am writing today to express my strong support for Abraham Lincoln's candidacy in the upcoming Senatorial elections. There are many reasons why I have decided to vote for a Republican -- going against my life-long commitment to the Democratic Party -- not the least of which is the way in which Lincoln stood up to the demagoguery of Mr. Douglas. While Lincoln showed great skill at oratory, Douglas' dirty tactics and his obsession with the idea that Negroes are less than human have contributed to my decision in this election.
In fact, when Douglass loudly asserted that Republicans who supported an end to slavery were something akin to demons, I was outraged. When Douglas said he would "…nail it [Republican platforms] upon the back of every Black Republican in the state," he alienated me,…… [Read More]
McCoy received a United States patent for this device on June 23, 1872. (AfricaWithin.com)
McCoy's lubricating cup proved adaptable to other types of steam engines, which were used in factories and at sea. Versions of this cup became standard components on many types of heavy machinery, entering service on railways of the West, on Great Lakes steamships, and even on transatlantic liners. (AfricaWithin.com)
McCoy began inventing other mechanisms. In 1892, McCoy invented devices to lubricate railroad locomotives. In the 1920s, McCoy applied his lubricating system to airbrakes used on locomotives and other vehicles using air brakes. Almost all of McCoy's patents related to automatic lubrication, with the exception of a patent for an ironing table and a lawn sprinkler.
As bigger, heavier and more powerful locomotives were built, rather than use oil alone as a lubricant, designers preferred to mix the oil with powdered graphite, a form of carbon.…… [Read More]
Thus, in comparison to King's leadership style of pacifism and quiet strength, Powell's is a style involving the characteristics of confrontation, sacrifice of personal desires for the best interest of the groups, and confidence in the leader. While Powell's leadership style does not make him a better leader than King, it certainly exemplifies the fact that leadership styles must change based on circumstance. King's quiet strength gained him the respect he needed to become a champion of the civil rights movement. Powell's confrontational attitude gave him the motivation and confidence he needed to confront other nations in the name of peace.
Finally, Harriet Tubman's leadership style involved a combination of the styles and characteristics advocated by both King and Powell. Tubman's situation as a slave and eventual leader of the Underground ailroad forced her to accept the confrontational style of Powell to some degree. She displayed both confidence in herself…… [Read More]
omen in American History
The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.
omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth
One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…… [Read More]
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…… [Read More]
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]
Many see slavery as the cause of the Civil ar but like with many other wars, it simply is not that simple. ars are never simple and rarely are they clear-cut. Slavery is a black eye on the history of the United States but within that turmoil, there is much to glean about a nation and a people. hile slavery is not unique to America, it is connected to the Civil ar. The struggle up until that time demonstrates how society and culture influence behavior and beliefs. Slavery was painful and freedom was not a perfect answer for those who suddenly found themselves free with nowhere to go. The pain of the Civil ar lead to the birth of Civil Rights and from such pain, individuals find release through perseverance. Unfortunately, slavery is a part of the history of man and while we read the pages of history, it is…… [Read More]
Southern culture was reconfigured by blues, jazz, gospel, and country music, the stirring of modern literature, the spread of popular sports and amusements, and the birth of new religious dominations....Things were seldom as simple as they appeared to later generations, for Southerners of every rank confronted the dilemmas brought by new opportunities and constraints. Many kinds of power operated in the South, some built on coercion and others built on persuasion, some consented to and some challenged, some private and some public.
In many ways the resolution of the conflict sin southern society, which had been entrenched by fear, based legal actions began their resolution at the beginning of I, when the need for soldiers, of all colors began to make both black and white question foundational issues of character and ability. I also began a trend of employing blacks in jobs they had not previously done, by…… [Read More]
Her escape could have been accomplished fairly easily if she had been willing to leave without her child, but she refused. Several times Helen of the Swiss Embassy strongly suggested she just forget about her daughter and they could get her out. Those of Iranian background, such as Helen, could not understand her refusal as in their worldview the children belonged to the man (Books I've Read: Not Without My Daughter).
With this acceptance the culture, Betty did manage to find another American woman who was in the same position. However, this women had already accepted her fate, which was living in a foreign country with an abusive husband.
In addition, Betty met Ellen, another American woman to whom a similar thing had happened, but who had finally accepted her fate. Betty initially felt a kinship with Ellen upon meeting her at a class as they were from the same…… [Read More]
Allan Pinkerton was born in Glasgow, cotland on August 25, 1819, and he died on July 1, 1884, in Chicago. Pinkerton's father was a police sergeant who was killed in a street riot early in Allan Pinkerton's childhood, which left the Pinkerton family in dire straits financially, according to Biography.com. Pinkerton found work at a young age as a cooper (making barrels) and later (at age 22) he became involved in "Chartism," a mass movement in cotland that was trying to promote "political and social reform" (Biography.com). The campaign that Pinkerton was involved with -- trying to achieve suffrage and fairness for the poor -- eventually organized strikes. When Pinkerton was about to be arrested for his heavy involvement in the strikes -- a warrant was out for his arrest -- he left cotland with his wife and headed for Canada (Champkin, 2004, p. 1).
Pinkerton's Life and Times in…… [Read More]
..that the rebellion, if crushed out tomorrow, would be renewed within a year if Slavery were left in full vigor (Greeley 1862).
If the North eventually won the war, and slavery was not abolished as an institution, war would be again inevitable. However, Lincoln's primary duty, as he saw it, was not to save or destroy slavery, regardless of his personal views, but to preserve the idea of the Union. Lincoln believed that it was unlawful for any State to succeed, it simply could not be done -- the Union was the Union, and his role was to bring the errant South back into the fold. Lincoln personally found slavery abhorrent, but his duty was not to destroy it, but to unite the North and South as one nation once again. If letting slavery exist helped united the country, Lincoln would let it be so, or vice versa. "What I…… [Read More]
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]
Criticism of Consequentialism:
The deontological criticism of consequentialism would suggest that the very fact that two identical acts can be highly ethical or highly unethical in different circumstances renders consequentialism purely subjective and dependent on opinion instead of objective principles. In that view, the deontological ethical approach may produce unintended negative results on occasion, but at least deontological ethics are predictable and consistent; furthermore, deontological values lead to the better choice of conduct often enough to justify any specific instances where practical injustices could result from adherence to rules.
Adhering to rules is the surest way of ensuring ethical human conduct notwithstanding that isolated societies may establish rules that could be defined objectively as unethical. One of the best examples of the impracticality of consequentialism is the general law of false arrest in most American states. A citizen arrested unlawfully by a duly authorized law enforcement officer may not flee…… [Read More]
In homes and buildings, the thermal mass of concrete plays a big role in energy efficiency. The high thermal mass of concrete offers this benefit: it stores and releases the energy required for heating or cooling and hence, reduces "temperature swings in homes and buildings."
Interestingly, concrete also helps big rig trucks and "over-the-road trucks" use less fuel; that is because concrete's rigid pavement design is better than asphalt pavement in terms of fuel consumption. And concrete pavement is "light-reflective" and so it requires "less energy than other materials to illuminate." The Cement Americas narrative goes on to report that members of the Portland Cement Association have voted to adopt a goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions "per ton of product by 10% (from 1990 levels) by the year 2020."
The Portland Cement Association (PCA), meantime, has its own informational eb site (www.cement.org) and the PCA claims that concrete is…… [Read More]
If those seats were held by politicians from free states, the pro-slavery senators would gradually be silenced. Pro-slavery legislation would be impossible to pass in a senate dominated by anti-slavery politicians.
Thus, Westward expansion exacerbated the division between north and south. As pro-slavery Southerners felt increasingly threatened by their abolitionist Yankee counterparts, their representatives in Congress helped embed a second Fugitive Slave Law into the Compromise of 1850. Humiliated by the Underground ailroad and other attempts to subvert the first Fugitive Slave Law, pro-slavery politicians tightened the noose on runaway slaves and Americans who aided them. Therefore, Southerners directly used the Fugitive Slave Law as political leverage, as a means to regain some of their dwindling power in the federal government. The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law exposed the deep rift that had already developed between North and South and effectively presaged the Civil War.
Fugitive Slave…… [Read More]
This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.
Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.
The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…… [Read More]
In another McGraw Hill edition, entitled American History: Early Years to 1877, there does seem to be more of a stress upon being clear and factual, rather than presenting an equal number of women and men than in the Houghton Mifflin approach. Major figures such as George ashington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ulysses Grant are given the greatest amount of attention. Issues of sex, gender, and sexual orientation and gender identity are seldom included in this textbook. There was an avoidance of special 'boxed' topics, segregating female or diversity issues away from other issues.
In most of these social studies books, the issue of female oppression is not at the forefront, although when relevant to the history of the past, such as with the struggles of African-Americans to find their way to freedom via the Underground Railroad under Harriet Tubman's watch, these issues are not ignored. This raises the question, of…… [Read More]
Nancy Woloch's Chapter 14 "Feminism and Suffrage" (1994, 2nd ed, pp. 326-363) from the general to the specific and back again. Remarkable to me was how three generations (357) of women reacted to a complex and evolving institutional and social environment to adapt and specialize toward the primary goal of woman suffrage. hey achieved this core objective by targeting the strongest leverage, from the woman on the street to their male 'representatives' in the state house, "deliberately and collectively" (Woloch 359), and I add 'persistently,' over five decades (355) through changing leadership and constituent characteristics and preferences. Woloch asks what this achievement contributed toward "the overhaul of attitudes demanded in 1848" (359). he result was a model for accomplishing massive structural social change that led directly from Seneca Falls through the labor movement, the Great Society era Civil Rights Movement, to Stonewall and Section 503 of the Civil Rights Act…… [Read More]
After establishing that it is conceded that African-Americans are humans, Douglass moves on to the proposition that he should not be called upon to prove that humans are entitled to liberty. He points out that Americans have already declared that man is entitled to liberty and freedom. He points out that all men resist slavery and feel it is wrong for another person to claim ownership of them. He also points out the brutal side of slavery, and argues that no person could argue that those things were somehow right including: beatings, lashings, shackling, hunting them with dogs, split out families, knocking out their teeth, selling them at auction, and starvation. He believes that it is ridiculous to expect him to argue that a system that includes all of these horrors is wrong.
Douglass' also tackles the common argument during the time that slavery was a divinely ordained condition or…… [Read More]
Matilda Joslyn Gage, (1826-1898) is one of the foremost advocates of women's rights and women's suffrage. She and her colleagues did the United States a great service in the furtherance of rights for women. Though her voice is often one that goes unheard in the histories about her era its strength has been recently noticed and its wisdom upheld. One of the most important messages of the women's rights movement was the need for the recognized value of the women in vocation and education. Most women's rights advocates believe that the full strength of any society could never be realized if half of the persons in it where not given full ability to contribute to it, not only in the voice of their vote but in the voice of their strength as productive and employed members of the society they live in.
... The boasted civilizations of antiquity were eminently…… [Read More]
The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.
In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. hile the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…… [Read More]
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…… [Read More]
It was our land, and still they claimed it as if it were their own.
Not many years passed, and these Americans were everywhere among us - killing us, and driving us out of our ancient homes. They sent their soldiers to slaughter us, and later to collect us up to live beside their forts. They killed the buffalo on which so many of us depended for food, and so caused us to starve. And when we complain, when we tried to use their "laws" to help ourselves, they laughed at us, and told us that we had no rights. This land belonged to them. It was their "Manifest Destiny" to expand across the continent, and to take the land from the "savages" that lived there. They would bring God and civilization to all these places. They believed that only they were right, and that only their God was real.…… [Read More]
From Jessica McElrath, Your Guide to African-American History)."
In addition to the renaissance the new found self-confidence and pride that was found by Southern Blacks who moved north also impacted the work environment.
Social protest was not only possible it was available to those who were not happy with their working conditions in the North (the BLACKS and the UNIONS (http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blktu.html).While it was extremely oppressed compared to the life of African-Americans today, it was still a far cry and significantly better than anything they had experience in the south up to that point.
Currently the nation is facing a social crisis when it comes to the plight of Mexican immigrants. Whether they are here legally or illegally there are an estimated 12 million Mexicans working and living inside the American boundaries. If one were to compare their plight to those of the Southern blacks they would find several similarities.…… [Read More]
Vincent Vinikas' review of Dominic J. Capeci's The Lynching of Cleo Wright takes a critical stance toward Capeci's account of the case of Cleo Wright, a black man who was lynched in Missouri in 1942. ather than examining the underlying causes concerning why lynching took place (particularly as late as 1942), Vinikas restricts his focus to elucidating logical fallacies that hinder Capeci's article. Vinikas argues that it is lamentable that even in books that purportedly reveal information concerning actual lynching cases, the true facts involved in such cases is never truthfully revealed, such that the public is still not privy to crucial information that colors America's history. In contrast, in her article "An Outrageous Proceeding: A Northern Lynching and the Enforcement of Anti-Lynching Legislation in Illinois, 1905-1910" Stacy Pratt McDermott applies a more comprehensive approach, determining the cultural forces that promoted lynching and made it incredibly difficult to abolish. Consequently,…… [Read More]
religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.
Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.
In 1787…… [Read More]
Voice of Freedom
In chapter 15 it deals a lot with resistance to slavery and of course one of these was the best known of all slave rebellions which involved was Nat Turner, who happened to be a slave preacher. This chapter was also devoted in describing the conspiracies that went into the uprisings and the rebellions that actually changed the face of slavery. This chapter gave a very vivid detail in exploring what went on behind the scenes in regards to these revolts coming together. ith that said, this essay will explore this chapter and talk about the significance of the voice of freedom.
After the Civil ar, the definitions of freedom surely changed for nation, for the freedmen, and for southern whites in a lot of ways. Southern white were fearful. It was apparent that they never wanted slavery to end because it had a huge effect on…… [Read More]
Nothing stays with us in life as powerfully as the images of our parents we take with us into adulthood. A harsh father, a loving mother, a single parent who was on the edge of exhaustion, but always available... The emotions attached to these memories affect our adult decisions. These recollections influence how we see ourselves, who we believe we can be in the adult world, and who we see when we look in the morning mirror.
In the equity of the universe, it seems unfair that the species which spends the most time in its home before heading into the world is most influenced by its parents. When looking across the animal kingdom, lion cubs are ready to hunt for themselves after a number of months. Sea turtles are born on the beaches, devoid of any parental influence.
Those lucky enough to make it back to water are…… [Read More]
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…… [Read More]
Technology Is Good agree that technological process is always good. Learning is an important facet of life and without it, we cannot grow. Growth is an important aspect of life. It is human nature to be curious and it is the human spirit to explore. Intelligence increases with each new discovery and with all of the exciting possibilities that technology has to offer, we should look forward with enthusiasm.
This is not to say that, as a society, we will not encounter problems that might arise from the advancement of technology. Just recently, we have seen some of the repercussions of technology with the first so-called cloned human baby. Many people are opposed to technology because of problems just like this. In fact, many people refer to Dr. Frankenstein and his monster whenever technology seems to interfere with moral issues. If we can learn to approach each situation responsibly and…… [Read More]
history of Missouri there is a strained and well-documented legacy of slavery and conflict over it. As the nation divided itself on the political/economic rather than moral issue of slavery, deciding status of statehood almost entirely on this one issue Missouri was caught in the middle. Yet, this reality had little if anything to do with the reality of life for black women in the state. Black women's lives both free and slave revolved around work and family. In many ways black women, and marginalized women in general are the first real example of a women's working class.
Black women worked in and out of the home either for themselves or for another and lived their lives almost unaffected by the political decisions, made to seem so important in retrospect. That which was important to real working black women was the economy and for that reason most free blacks lived…… [Read More]
From a feminist perspective, the foundations of contemporary psychology and therapy are a scandal. The origins of the contemporary therapeutic relationship are based on Freud's "talking cure" for "hysteria" -- and it is worth noting that "hysteria" was, one hundred years ago, a mysterious mental illness that mainly affected women, simply because they were women. The word "hysteria" itself derives from the Greek word for "uterus"! The illness that Freud began his career by examining -- and which he thought he could cure simply by talking with the patient -- was treated like it was simply a pathological form of womanhood.
As an African-American woman, myself am aware that we must bear witness to the past, and we must learn from the past, in order that we do not repeat it. So when we approach a feminist critique of contemporary therapeutic practices, think it is important to recognize…… [Read More]
The four American history-related web sites used for this paper are: United States History (http://www.u-s-history.com/index.html); American History: The Heritage of the United States (http://www.legendsofamerica.com/americanhistory.html); History (http://www.history.com/); and USHistory.org (http://www.ushistory.org/).
United States History: How much information is provided? hat sort of information is offered? In the United States History site, there is an enormous amount of specific information within each time period. For example, there are fourteen window of time (up to 1630; 1630-1763; 1763-1783; all the way through 2001), and in each window there are eight to ten links that take the reader to specific events, personalities, groups and laws. In the 1815-1860 window of time a reader can get in-depth information on the Monroe Doctrine, Nat Turner Rebellion, The Alamo, Manifest Destiny, The Compromise of 1850, and the California Gold Rush, among several other links.
Is the eb better at transmitting some kinds of information as compared…… [Read More]
During mid-1981, grout consumption attained 98.2m 3/m and this consumed 67% of the total time. Total drivage amounted to 131m. In 1978 the corresponding values were 5.7m 3/m, 53% and the total tunnel drivage was 1490m."
Channel Tunnel. On the United Kingdom side of the Channel Tunnel project, ground movements were largely restricted to the area that was being worked, with 90mm being measured in an inclinometer that was sited on the toeweight area situated immediately uphill of the toeprint (Kirland 1995). Engineers on the UK side of the project were satisfied of this localized ground movement, though, when these ground movements stopped or quickly stabilized after construction work stopped (Kirkland 1995). By contrast, engineers on the French side of the project were confronted with the presence of faults with comparatively large displacements, as well as a thinner chalk marl that dipped at a more acute angle compared to the…… [Read More]
Intercity Train System
History of the train System
The modern intercity train system is dominated by the latest revolutionary rapid transit which is an electric passenger railway with high capacity, frequency and a characteristic separation from the other transport systems of the city. These rapid transit systems are normally located either in underground tunnels or are elevated above the city streets, though once they snail their way out of the city they can run on the ground like any other traffic but way separated from the road.
The first transit system to be developed was the London underground that was opened in 1863; this was quickly replicated in many cities across Europe and the U.S.A. The revolution went on so fast with the largest growth of these systems experienced in Asia with the driverless systems. Currently, there are more than 160 cities with the rapid transit system and 25 cities…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the importance of the metro in moving people in St.
Petersburg is illustrated in the impact the metro has on people's lives.
The article by Irina Titova on the St. Petersburg metro cites Valentina
Ivanova, deputy head of the State Duma's education and science committee.
According to the article, the city will open a Southwest aste Treatment
Station shortly, causing the district to develop. Ivavnova maintains that
when the district develops because of the opening of the Treatment Station,
that "the metro will be essential" and that two new stations will need to
be opened "at the south-west of the city" (Titova 2004). The fact that the
opening of a waste treatment center will create the need for two new metro
stations showcases the importance of the metro on daily life and the
movement of people in the city. Anywhere in the city that people need to
go to,…… [Read More]
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…… [Read More]
Project Management Plan
xyz cur, gutter & ROAD PAVING FOR CITY OF HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA INCLUDING RESTORATION WORK OF HISTORIC DISTRICT NEAR OLD RAILROAD DEPOT
The proposed contract for this project management plan is repaving of all the city streets in the city of Huntsville, Alaama. The project will include rehailitation and preservation of the historic district in the area of the old Railroad Depot in Decatur, Alaama to include rick streets, and round-aouts in the area of downtown Huntsville, Alaama. This will e a large-scale cur, gutter, and road paving project with high costs in laor and materials. Included in this project are the following cur, gutter, and road paving as well as rehailitative street construction initiatives:
miles of cur, gutter and street paving in the City of Huntsville, Alaama
round-aouts near the Railroad Depot
miles of rehailitaiton of rick streets leaving streetcar rails in the rick paving…… [Read More]
Balfour Beatty, founded in 1909, is the 19th-largest contractor in the world, and a highly-respected firm that designs, engineers and manages large infrastructure projects all over the world, including the UK, U.S., Europe, Australia, South America and the Middle East. It has over a century of experience in building highways, railroad, power plants and utilities, including the National Grid in Britain. For decades, the company has been very active in overseas infrastructure projects such as railroads, tunnels, bridges, water systems and utilities in many nations, and participated in the construction of high-prestige projects like the Channel Tunnel and Hong Kong Airport (Balfour Beatty Company History 2011). This company has 50,000 employees in over 100 countries, from the U.S. And UK to Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and is a leader if the management of highways, utilities and public facilities. Through its partners and associates, it can offer services along…… [Read More]
Petersburg have on the Civil War
The Significance of the Siege of Petersburg
The Civil War was the bloodiest chapter in America's history. An unparalleled percentage of the population perished in the Southern State's abortive attempt to free itself from Federal Control. If the Confederacy was a brilliant butterfly, the Siege of Petersburg would be the inexorable pin that held it to the collection board of history. Petersburg was a ten-month siege that was a turning point for the war, leading to the surrender and defeat of the Confederate Army. This was a significant ordeal because of the geographic location of Petersburg, the way in which it pinned down General Lee's army, and how the South was left open for a devastating attack on its infrastructure and morale.
Geographically, Petersburg is located on the south side of the Appomattox River, and is a little over 20 miles south of Richmond,…… [Read More]
However, the city was not exactly celebrating.
The ig Dig project was not completed without controversy. It resulted in criminal arrests, as well as charges for escalating costs, leaks, poor execution and use of substandard materials (Wikipedia, 2008). In May 2006, six executives of echtel/Parsons rinckerhoff, including its general manager, were arrested and charged with fraud.
Over 200 complaints were filed by the state of Massachusetts as a result of leaks, cost overruns, quality concerns, and safety violations. In July 2006, a ig Dig I-90 tunnel a large plate of concrete from the tunnel ceiling fell on a car, with one death, a woman crushed to death. A major investigation resulted, and closure of part of the ig Dig for a while.
Despite these controversial issues, the project was hailed as an engineering marvel, especially due to the challenge of building among subway tunnels and steam pipes while the city…… [Read More]
These women make outcalls, where they visit the home of the client; or in-calls, where the clients visit their homes. At the second tier are women who work at established locations such as strip clubs, sex juice bars, brothels and massage parlors, where erotic services are also included following or during, what is an often a therapeutic massage. The third and lowest tier of prostitutes are the streetwalkers who roam certain areas, are picked up by customers and the sex acts are performed in motels that cater to this service, or cars or in back alleys. For each encounter, the prostitutes who belong to this third tier often charge only a few tens of dollars for their services. These lower tiers also include drug addicts who perform these acts in drug dens or at truck stops catering to long haul truck drivers.
Legalization of Prostitution
The term legalization can be…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
" (2003) During the 1850s ilbao was drastically changed by rapid industrialization and by the 1860s planned was a new city in which the former method of building houses without a design for the streets was changed and "the new area of planned prosperity was more orderly." (Zulaika, 2003) Zulaika states that the:
central economic ideology was utilitarian laissez-faire - industry should be self-regulated and government reduced to a minimum. The maximum good would come through the unregulated, self-aggrandizing effort of every individual. With the pecuniary reward the only measure of social value, and with profit the only controlling agent, gross social inequalities took root." (Zulaika,2003)
It is related by Zulaika, that these "techniques of agglomeration" stretched across all sectors of life at work including the English factor waterpower system to the steam engine of Watts and the transportation system of the railroad with ilbao and other port cities playing…… [Read More]
Auschwitz gave to Promo Levi when he dared to ask the "hy?" question. To be sure, the guard was simply attempting to be cynical and sarcastic rather than reflective or philosophical, but LaCapra is also critical of Claude Lanzmann for failing to ask this question enough in Shoah. All of the Germans who Lanzmann interviewed were either perpetrators of complicit bystanders, and they spent a great deal of time explaining what, where and how the Holocaust happened, while also denying or minimizing their own responsibility. Franz Suchomel, the S.S. guard at Treblinka, was a notable exception to this rule, but Lanzmann interviewed him with a hidden camera after promising to keep his identity anonymous. Almost all of the Jewish survivors described what happened in painful detail, and Lanzmann's preference was to make them literally relive their experiences, but they were not asked why. ith a few exceptions the resistance leader…… [Read More]
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…… [Read More]
President Bush's recent initiatives regarding the environment represent a significant change from the government environmental policies of the past century. Bush, who presents himself as a steward of the environment, believes that conservation and protection are best achieved through a partnership with industry. Instead of relying on strict government regulations, Bush believes that forests would be preserved and rivers would be cleaner if market forces are allowed to run their natural course ("Bush reshapes environmental debate").
This essay examines the evolution of Bush's position in light of the American policies regarding the environment over the past 100 years. It looks at how environment policies have changed, from the time President Theodore Roosevelt established the wildlife preserve in Pelican Island Bay, Florida. This essay also examines the changing perceptions Americans hold regarding their environment -- which has been first been viewed as an infinite natural resource, then as a…… [Read More]