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Unethical Business Research Conduct Business Research Is
Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11875704
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Unethical Business esearch Conduct

Business research is conducted for many reasons that are dependent on intended recipient of the research. For business marketers, research might include customer surveys of focus groups. When the research is for the development of a product, it can have a scientific basis and when it comes to stakeholders the research may include financial projections. This paper will therefore look at an article that focuses on some of the unethical business research conduct. The paper will clearly highlight some of the unethical research behavior that is involved and the people who are affected by these unethical research behaviors. The paper will further highlight how the unethical behavior has affected the organization, individuals and society at large. Finally a conclusion will be made on how the unethical behavior can be avoided or resolved.

The article "The case of Neurontin; Skewed esearch in service selling" is an example…

Reference

Ramirez de Arellano, A.B. (2009). The Case of Neurontin: Skewed Research in the Service of Selling. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from  http://www.citizen.org/Page.aspx?pid=2887

Unethical Business Research Practices What Unethical Research
Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21824562
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Unethical Business esearch Practices

What unethical research behavior was involved?

The antitrust case brought by Wal-Mart and other retailers against Visa and MasterCard in the U.S. Eastern District court, was settled in 2003 for $3 billion and primarily involved a dispute concerning the efficient pricing of access to payment information, including security data that confirmed or refuted the transactional identities of cardholders (oberds & Schreft, 2009). In their pleadings, Wal-Mart and other class action litigants argued that third-party providers such as Visa and MasterCard required them to accept both debit and credit cards issued by MasterCard but the interchange fees were higher for debit cards (Ulzheimer, 2012). In sum, the suit filed by Wal-Mart and other large retailers claimed that Visa and MasterCard "required all merchants who accept their credit cards to also accept their signature debit cards [which] constitutes an illegal tie-in in violation of antitrust law" (Peterson, 2002,…

References

An introduction to ISO 27001. (2012). The ISO2700 Directory. Retrieved from http://www.

27000.org/iso-27001.htm.

Azola, M. (2011). The Reconciliation Project: Separation and integration in business ethics research. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 19 -- 36.

Binning, D. (2012). Top five cloud computing security issues. ComputerWeekly. Retrieved from:

Unethical Labor Practices in the
Words: 1810 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37241202
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Over 100 of that group will be allowed to participate in a special training session that both teaches and tests medical preparation and fire suppression skills, and which will allow those who pass to gain entrance into the department (eese 2011). Those who are not selected will be eligible to partkae in a $30 million dollar monetary award that was largely facilitated by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The fact that such a venerable organization had to become involved with this particualr grievance of African-American firefighters is largely indicative of the fact that such unethical practices of hiring -- which directly influence the amount of those promoted -- are based upon discriminatory measures against African-Americans.

In conclusion, it has been conclusively demonstrated that there is a history of unethical practices in regards to the promotion of African-American firefighters that continues throughout contemporary times. In some respects,…

References

Cosgrove, Maurenn. (2011). "Federal appeals court reinstates African-American firefighter discrimination suit." Paper Chase News Burst. Retrieved from  http://jurist.org/paperchase/2011/08/federal-appeals-court-reinstates-african-american-firefighter-suit.php 

Moran, C. (2011). "HFD exam lawsuit settled for 7 black firefighter." Houston Chronicle.  http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/HFD-exam-lawsuit-settled-for-7-black-firefighters-1687065.php 

No author. (2011). "Organization History." Stentorians of L.A. County. Retrieved from http://lacostentorians.org/about.htm

No author. (No date). "African-American Firefighters: Our Brothers Under Fire." Wisconsin Black Historical Society. Retrieved from  http://wbhsm.homestead.com/brothers_under_fire.html

Unethical Leadership
Words: 2942 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76607720
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Unethical Leadership

Leadership is not an inherited gift or a family heritage. Becoming a leader is a deliberate and planned process of personal and professional development that must be carried out experientially. It requires one to have the courage to say both "yes" and "no' to an everlasting chain of large and small tests. In order to become a true leader, one must be prepared to define his/her values, character, and leadership style. The resilient, tough leaders make this process a way of life, not only in business, but within their families, communities, and the world (Chandler, 2009).

Leadership can be described as "a process of social influence through which an environment is provided where personal, professional, and/or organizational goals can be successfully achieved" (Bahreinian, Ahi & Soltani, 2012). In today's rapidly-growing and spirited industry, efficient management is the major cause of making an organization superior to the other. If…

References

Atkins, P.W., & Parker, S.K. (2012). Understanding Individual Compassion in Organizations: The Role of Appraisals and Psychological Flexibility. Academy of Management Review, 37(4), 524-546.

Bahreinian, M.R., Ahi, M.A., & Soltani, F. (2012). The Relationship between Personality Type and Leadership Style of Managers: A Case Study. Mustang Journal of Business & Ethics, 3, 94-111.

Brown, M.E., & Mitchell, M.S. (2010). Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenues for Future Research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(4), 583-616.

Chandler, D.J. (2009). The Perfect Storm of Leaders' Unethical Behavior: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 69-93. Retrieved January 9, 2013, from  http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publica

Unethical Marketing Successful Advertising Has
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 75990639
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Though the Vioxx incident is one of the more major breaches of this implicit public contract, the issues of improper marketing -- especially in over-promoting a drug's efficacy and unethically downplaying a drug's risks -- are an industry-wide problem (OBM, 2005) for that reason, Merck and other pharmaceutical companies ought to adhere to the same standards as social marketing. Social marketing, which is generally not for a profit, is concerned only with public welfare, and thus faces slightly different ethical issues (Brenkert, 2002). Both commercial and social marketing are concerned with improving the well-being of the consumer, but in social marketing "the intended well-being of the people targeted is not simply an individual or subjective matter" (Brenkert, 2002). The same should be true of pharmaceutical marketing; though these companies must turn a profit, their main concern -- like the main concern for all other sectors and practitioners in healthcare --…

References

Brenkert, G. (2002). "Ethical challenges of social marketing." Journal of public policy and marketing, 21 (1), pp. 14-25

Hosmer, L. (1994). "Strategic planning as if ethics mattered." Strategic management journal, 15, pp. 17-34

OMB Watch. (2005). "House hearing reveals unethical marketing of Vioxx." Accessed 2 February 2009.  http://www.ombwatch.org/article/articleview/2845/1/308?TopicID=1

Unethical Police Operations Over the
Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96529109
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The charges were quietly dropped against the suspect and an Internal Affairs investigation cleared them of all wrong doing. (Terruso, 2011)

Explain the outcomes of the cases. Did you agree with the outcomes? Why or why not?

The situation involving the New York City police officers is still in the court system. So far I agree with the outcome. This is because they were deliberately breaking the law by selling automatic weapons to criminal elements. Moreover, they were also working with organized crime to sell cigarettes that were stolen from the police evidence room. This can erode the confidence of the general public in the department's ability to objectively enforce the law. When this happens, it will affect investigations and their outcomes. As a result, they had to be stopped before the situation became worse. (ashbaum, 2011)

While the case in Elizabeth, resulted in the suspect suing the department for…

References

2010 NPMSRP. (2010), Police Misconduct. Retrieved from:  http://www.policemisconduct.net/2010-q2-npmsrp-national-police-misconduct-statistical-report/ 

Johnson, K. (2007). Police Brutality Cases on the Rise. USA Today. Retrieved from:  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-12-17-Copmisconduct_N.htm 

Rashbaum, W. (2011). 8 Officers Charged with Gun Trafficking. City Room. Retrieved from:  http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/officers-accused-of-smuggling-guns-in-federal-corruption-case/ 

Terruso, J. (2011). Elizabeth Police Brutality. Star Ledger. Retrieved from:  http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2011/11/elizabeth_police_brutality_cas.html

Unethical Best Practices Ethics and Morality
Words: 864 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93669602
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Unethical 'Best Practices'

Corporate Governance Case Study: Enron

Enron, the seventh-largest American corporation, collapsed in December 2001 in what most people refer to as the 'New Economy's first major failure'. Following its collapse, Congressional committees immediately embarked on inquiries to determine the cause(s) of its bankruptcy. Once investigations were complete, it was evident that the corporate governance mechanisms employed by the company had contributed to its downfall. The company employed the Anglo-American model of corporate governance, which places substantial emphasis on shareholder rights as opposed to stakeholder rights, and which, in addition, is management-dominated and has a unitary board structure with a single powerful leader. Driven by an urge to keep shareholders appeased by paying them more even when the company's resources were strained, Enron's managers employed off-balance sheet transactions with SPEs, and were able to hide huge amounts of debt that was often collaterized with the company's stock. The…

References

Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business Ethics: Decision-Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Pies, I., Beckmann, M. & Hielscher, S. (2010). Value Creation, Management Competencies, and Global Corporate Citizenship: An Ordonomic Approach to Business Ethics in the Age of Globalization. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 265-278.

Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral Leadership: The Theory and Practice of Power, Judgment, and Policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Business Research the Unethical Research Behavior Discussed
Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31374141
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Business Research

The unethical research behavior discussed was conducted by yeth, and is symptomatic of the systemic issues that the pharmaceutical industry has with respect to research. The article details a case involving yeth that resulted in class action litigation. The ethical issue in this case is fraudulent research. The allegation is that yeth fabricated research by using "vendors to produce ghostwritten manuscripts and place them into medical journals." The research produced was therefore entirely fraudulent, but passed off in medical journals as legitimate research. The objective of placing this research in the journals was to legitimize the new drug that yeth was about launch, Prempro, a menopausal hormone therapy.

The larger issue is publication planning, described by Fugh-Berman (2010) as "the process by which pharmaceutical, biotech and medical device companies produce and release articles in medical journals and posters at meetings to establish key marketing messages." These companies use…

Works Cited:

Fugh-Berman, A. (2010). The haunting of medical journals: How ghostwriting sold "HRT." PLOS Medicine. Vol. 7 (9) Retrieved October 31, 2012 from  http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000335

Organizational Behavior Leadership Is One
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46780925
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It is more concerned with understanding the way that ethnical ideas are presented, than judging those concepts within the construct of the society. However, when one looks at the history of any philosophical subject, it is important to note that differing concepts of philosophy often arise "out of" that very historical and cultural fabric of the time -- and then evolve so that they become more acceptable to future generations rather than contemporaneous ones. Individuals tend to justify unethical behavior based on these concepts; if the behavior results in what they perceive to be the best choice for everyone, or if they have self-interests and are able to find a reason for their action. A classic example is in the Victor Hugo book Les Miserables. The main character is imprisoned for stealing a loaf of bread for his starving sister and seven children. He is imprisoned for 19 years for…

Ethical Behavior in Organizations
Words: 7363 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67578921
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Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations

This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.

ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS

Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations

UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS

Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations

Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior

Results from Baucus and Near's research model

Part Three

SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS

Part Four

NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY

hat is organizational behavior?

Purpose of organizational behavior

An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components

Basic models of organizational behaviors

Part Five

PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION

Part Six

FUTURE DIRECTION

orks Cited

APPENDIX

Ethical Behavior…

Works Cited

Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business

Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition

Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Ethical Behavior Really Exist in
Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94158395
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IV: How to influence stakeholders and shareholders to behave ethically

It would be perfectly normal for any organization or individual that is often faced with ethical dilemmas to be assisted by someone who is experienced in decision making and who is better qualified to deal with ethical dilemmas. Shareholders often tend to be biased in decision making, as they are aware that their wealth can be put at serious risk if they perform a wrong move. In contrast, stakeholders are more likely to behave objectively when they know that their decisions will not necessarily affect their social position. Thus, stakeholders can behave more ethically than shareholders, but the downside on this is that the former have more chances of performing mistakes, as they know that the risks involved in most conditions that they encounter are lesser on their side.

In particular situations, stakeholders can feel more inclined to behave unethically,…

Works cited:

1. Klein, Linda S. "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).

2. Sauer, Wolfgang "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.

Linda S. Klein, "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).

Wolfgang Sauer, "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.

Ethical Behavior of a Person or a
Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40994200
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Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.

In other words,…

References

Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.

Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.

Ethical Behavior
Words: 1201 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 21588468
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Ethics and Nursing

One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. When there are issues surrounding unethical behavior, the standard view is that the issue is one of ignorance (unaware of the issue or policy), failure (sloppy medical work), or intent (purposeful negativity). Instead, Christopher Meyers (2004) believes that it is more the culture of the institution that frames ethical behavior than it is anything more purposeful.…

REFERENCES

Gaudine, A., et.al. (2011). Ethical Conflicts With Hospitals: The Perspective of Nurses

And Physicians. Nursing Ethics. 18 (6): 756-66.

Meyers, C. (2004). Institutional Culture and Individual Behavior: Creating an Ethical

Environment. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10 (1): 269-76.

Organizational Behavior Trends Increasingly Two Major Factors
Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86882635
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Organizational ehavior Trends

Increasingly two major factors are influencing corporate decisions makers. The first is a reenergized campaign for corporate ethics. The second is technology and work-related stress. This paper describes why these trends are occurring and the results on how decision makers behave. It then concludes with an assessment of whether ethics and technology pull the manager in two different directions.

The long held notion that companies will profit from unethical behavior is now being dispelled. Many research studies such as those conducted by the Institute of usiness Ethics, a promoter of corporate ethical best practice, have shown that companies with a clear commitment to ethical conduct outperform those which do not (Webley and More). The Institute of usiness Ethics carried out its research on large companies in the United Kingdom, studying those with a demonstrable commitment to ethical behavior through having a published code of business ethics, and…

Bibliography

Brickey, K. From Enron to WorldCom and beyond: life and crime after Sarbanes-Oxley. Washington U. School of Law Working Paper No. 03-06-01. Washington University Law Quarterly, Vol 81, 2003.

Business ethics and compliance in the Sarbanes-Oxley era. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from Deloitte Web site: http://216.239.57.104/search?q=cache:mBukAJUM4H4J:www.deloitte.com/dtt/cda/doc/content/us_assur_ethicsCompliance (1).pdf+%22business+ethics%22+and+trends+and+2004& hl=en

Dainow, S. (2001, August 10). Technology causes stress for journalism professors, report say. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from Web site:  http://chronicle.com/free/2001/08/2001081003t.htm 

Dennis, M. Technology and stress in the workplace. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from CMA Web site: http://www.creditservices.org/articles/art248.shtml

Unethical/Criminal Conduct following the Equities Market Crash 2000 to 2002

This paper is a discussion of the identification and analysis of unethical and criminal conduct following the equities market crash from 2000 to 2002. The paper begins with an Introduction to the problem in Chapter One that also contains the hypothesis for the paper, the definition of terms section, and other valuable information. This information sets up the rest of the paper and gives rise to the belief that there was a great deal of unethical and criminal conduct in this country following this event.

A review of the literature follows in Chapter Two where information available about the issue will be presented and discussed. At least 60 sources will be analyzed in order to receive a complete picture of the issue. Chapter Three will then set up the methodology for analyzing this literature and determining what, if any, decision…

Works Cited

Arkes, R. 1991. Costs and Benefits of Judgment Errors." Implications for Debiasing, 110 PSYCHOL. BULL. 486, 486-87

Arlen, J. 1998. The Future of Behavioral Economic Analysis of Law, 51 VAND. L. REV. 1765, 1769

Arlen, J., Spitzer, M. & Talley, E. (2002). Endowment Effects Within Corporate Agency Relationships, 31 J. LEG. STUD. 1, 31

Bainbridge, SM. (2000)Mandatory Disclosure: A Behavioral Analysis, 68 U. CINN. L. REV. 1023, 1027

Ethical Behavior by Corporations Would
Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78358626
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370).

On the subject of shareholders and adverse publicity, in the book Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance, the authors mention how much investors / shareholders "hate" surprises, in particular when the surprises are caused by the "unethical behavior of senior managers…" (Zimmerli, et al., 2007, p. 155). In today's mass media environment it is a sure thing that some blogger, local newspaper reporter or national cable news talking head is going to find out that company X has hired a lobbying firm to basically bust the competition. hen this story hits the 24-hour news cycle -- and the media today is extremely competitive, so it is a given that several media outlets will dig deeper into the story and be less than objective in their reports -- the shareholders will be hit with the surprise they did not want to be hit with.

An embarrassing public relations disaster like this…

Works Cited

Baglini, Norman a. (2001). Ethical Behavior, Corporate Culture and Financial Services. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 26(3), 367-372.

Zimmerli, Walther Christoph, Zimmerli, Walther C., Richter, Klaus, and Holzinger, Markus.

(2007). Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance. New York: Springer.

Organizational Behavior Leadership Ethics Gender and Other Variables
Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41018024
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Leadership and Change," Burns & By (2012) examine the relationship between leadership ethics and effective organizational change. In "Coping with Job insecurity," Loi, Lam & Chan (2012) examine the relationship between procedural justice (or injustice) and job security (or insecurity). In "Gender Differences in Leadership ole Occupancy," Schuh et al. (2014) examine the relationship between power motivation and being in positions of leadership to show why women are underrepresented in positions of power. Each of these studies examines some aspect of leadership to show how individuals and organizations can approve their overall effectiveness in key measurable or qualitative areas. Each of the studies provides a strong case with reference to prior literature. However, Burns & By (2012) only analyze existing studies, whereas Loi, Lam & Chan (2012) and Schuh, et al. (2014) conduct original research using an experimental design. The studies are all important in their own ways, with Burns…

References

Ahmed, B., et al. (2012). Organizational ethics and job satisfaction: Evidence from Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management 6(8): 2966-2973.

Burnes, B. & By, R.T. (2012). Leadership and change. Journal of Business Ethics 2012(108): 238-252.

Carter, M.Z., et al. (2013). Transformational leadership, relational quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior 34(7): 942-958.

Loi, R., Lam, L.W. & Chan, K.W. (2012). Coping with job insecurity. Journal of Business Ethics 2012(108): 361-372.

How Companies Use Unethical Technologies in the Workplace
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87559772
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Ethics in Technology

There has been a rapidly increasing use of technology in the workplace, but while some technological advances have benefitted companies, other technologies have raised serious concerns about employee privacy.

Consequentialism and Privacy Abuses

One of the issues that arises often in the workplace when it comes to employee privacy and employer technological overreach is when employers use certain electronic surveillance practices (monitoring personal phone calls and voice messages) to basically eavesdrop on their employees (Findlaw). In fact personal privacy laws affirm that an employer may not monitor an employee's personal phone calls; albeit the company can monitor a personal call if the employee knows it is being monitored and agrees (Findlaw). One ethical theory that applies to this situation is the consequentialism, which posits that the consequence of an action determines its moral value.

One complicating aspect of this is that a manager may believe that it…

Works Cited

FindLaw. (2010). Privacy in the Workplace: Overview. Retrieved February 8, 2015, from  http://employment.findlaw.com .

Velasquez, M., Andre, C., Shanks, T., and Meyer, M.J. (2000). Ethical Relativism. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University, Retrieved February 8, 2015, from  http://www.scu.edu .

Vanity and Unethical Action of a Human Being
Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37592057
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Tono-Bungay diverges from the author's more popular science fiction (Costa 89). Tono-Bungay is ripe with social commentary, and many literary critics have gone so far as to describe the novel as a "galvanic fictional chronicle of the intellectual and moral history of England at the close of the 19th century," (Costa 89). Indeed, ells does capture prevailing trends in political, economic, and social thought, as well as currents in English history. A preoccupation with issues related to social class status and capitalism permeate the Edwardian novel. Although ells deftly refrains from overtly didactic or pedantic moralizing, Tono-Bungay cannot be understood without reference to the author's message related to ethical egoism, vanity, and human behavior within a capitalist system.

One of the overarching themes of Tono-Bungay is upward social mobility, and the ethical tradeoffs taken to achieve a boost in social status. George's upward social mobility takes place on a weak…

Works Cited

Costa, Richard Hauer. "H.G. Wells's Tono-Bungay: Review of New Studies." English Literature in Transition. Vol. 10, No. 2, 1967, pp. 89-96.

Dirda. Michael. "Revisiting H.G. Wells' Literary Masterpiece." Salon. 15 June, 2011. Retrieved online:  http://www.salon.com/2011/06/16/tono_bungay_hg_wells/ 

Liu, Sai-xiong. "On the Symbol Consumption of H.G. Wells' Tono-Bungay." Retrieved online:  http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-QQHD201106036.htm 

Newell, Kenneth B. "The Structure of Wells's Tono-Bungay." English Literature in Transition. Vol. 4, No. 2, 1961, pp. 1-8.

Unethical for Employees to Use Facebook During
Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 272289
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unethical for employees to use Facebook during work hours provided that 1. It does not interfere with their work duties and 2. They are not expressly forbidden from doing so according to company policy. However, the issue is not employers exercising their legitimate rights to monitor employee posting on work computers, but what prospective employees (and existing employees, depending on the policy) say and do on their social media accounts away from work, on their home computers and mobile phones.

It is not 'easy' to find out personal things, necessarily, online. Some people do attempt to enact a certain amount of screening in terms of how much is visible to the public on Facebook. Some people use privacy settings so that only close friends and relatives are privy to what they post. When employers ask for Facebook passwords they are intruding into a private sphere in which there is a…

Unethical Management Practices Have on
Words: 2890 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 13270444
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These benefit the local company as well as the entire region.

Leverage financial and other investments in the community. ecause nonprofit organizations mobilize vast reserves of goodwill, corporate investment in the community can have tremendous reach in building a better corporate profile and in strengthening public support of the private sector. (Kanaga, 1998)

The work of Nae and Grigore (nd) entitled: "An Overview of European Multinational Corporations" the social and political changes brought about by globalization have raised new questions as well as expectations about governance and social responsibilities. More and more companies of all sizes and sectors are recognizing the importance of their role in society and the real benefits of adopting a proactive approach to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)." (Nae and Grigore, nd)

V. FIDUCIARY DUTIES as a GUIDE to ETHICS

The work of Young (2007) entitled: "Fiduciary Duties as a Helpful Guide to Ethical Decision-Making in usiness"…

Bibliography

Charoenpong, Kittiyaporn (nd0 Technology Effect on Ethics in the Workplace. Dusit Thani College Academic Resource Center. Web Opac. Online available at http://lib.dtc.ac.th/article/dtc/0007.pdf

Okpara, J.L. (2003) Can Corporate Ethical Codes of Conduct Influence Behavior? (an Exploratory Study of Financial Managers in a Developing Economy. XI International Conference Brussels, Belgium July 11-13, 2003)

Kanga, W.S. (2004) Corporations Must Act Ethically CIPE's Board of Directors, delivered in Bucharest in 1998 at a conference on the "Role of the Corporation in Today's Society. Economic Reform Today. No. 1 19999. Economic Reform Today.  http://www.cipe.org/publications/ert/e31/e31_1.pdf 

Fiduciary Duties as a Helpful Guide to Ethical Decision-Making in Business (2007) Journal of Business Ethics 74:1-15 DOI 10.1007/s10. Springer 2007.

Following Military Orders That May Be Unethical
Words: 2804 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10534110
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Military Orders That May be Unethical

Military orders are seen as non-optional when they are given. In other words, they cannot be ignored or discarded by those they are given to if the person does not want to follow them for any reason at all. They are not negotiable in any way, under any circumstances. But, are these orders always ethical? In some cases, it would seem as though these orders are not ethical. However, that depends on the person who has been asked to follow those orders and what he or she sees as being ethical. People have very different opinions about ethics, and they are more guidelines than rules when they are looked at by the majority of people. Because ethics are not completely static across a lifetime and because they can change from person to person, it is important to realize that ethics, as a concept, can…

References

Baghramian, M. (2004). Relativism, London: Routledge.

Crisp, R. & Slote, M. (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Darwall, S. (2003). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: B. Blackwell.

Devettere, R.J. (2002). Introduction to Virtue Ethics. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Organization Behavior Business Ethics in an International
Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56652587
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Organization Behavior

Business Ethics in an International Environment

Business Be constrained

To what extent should a business be constrained by the moral norms of a society?

A business organization does not exist with the sole purpose of maximizing its profits; it is also supposed to be a socially responsible corporate citizen. Incorporating a sense of respect for social and cultural norms of the society is essential for business organizations if they want to achieve a sustainable future in the industry. Social norms of the society should be followed by every business organization; irrespective of its size, nature of business, type of industry, or geographical location. It becomes even harder for organizations to mold their policies, procedures, and operations according to the cultural, social, and moral norms shared by the members of the society in an international environment.

This paper has been written with a view to discuss the importance of…

Bribing Unethical and Illegal or Just a
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bribing" unethical and illegal or just a cost of doing business?

Bribery is unethical and illegal in some societies and a regular part of business in others. Whether or not an activity is unethical is largely dependent on the culture, customs, norms, values, and laws of the country where the activity takes place. It's a matter of perspective. When you consider that the act of bribery is intended to supplement the income of underpaid officials or increase the power of a nation's governments, the outcome of the bribe is a negative one. Most economists and ethicists agree that bribery's effects are largely detrimental (Weber and Getz, 2004). If the effect of the act is detrimental, then it can be argued that it is unethical to engage in bribery even if it is only a cost of doing business.

There are different types of corruption: bureaucratic corruption where officials take bribes;…

References

ABC News Productions (2002, November 20). Inside the Kingdom: Saudia Arabia. [Television broadcast]. New York: Nightline.

Gerasimova Ksenia. (2008). Can corruption and economic crime be controlled in developing countries and if so, is it cost-effective? Journal of Financial Crime, 15(2), 223-233. Retrieved January 13, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1472787421).

Daniels, John, Radebaugh, Lee, Sulliven, Daniel (2010) International Business: Environments and Operations (13th Edition). Place of Publication needs to be inserted here: Prentice Hall.

Weber, J., & Getz, K. (2004). BUY BRIBES OR BYE-BYE BRIBES: THE FUTURE STATUS OF BRIBERY IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(4), 695-711. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy
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Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry

The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…

References

Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.

Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.

Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.

Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.

Values Ethical Behavior Is Guided
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Our society values tolerance, diversity, and the American Dream. Illegal immigration is not immoral, nor even unethical except for the fact that working illegally breaks the law. Following the law is usually considered a moral and ethical act. Firms that hire illegal immigrants may do so in spite of how the general culture feels about the behavior. A firm that values profit, for example, might hire illegal immigrants in order to pay them less than minimum wage and save labor costs. or, a firm that values human rights might help their illegal immigrant employees apply for residency. In either case, the firm's values do not necessarily correspond with those of the dominant culture. Basically, individuals and firms often act with self-interest in mind rather than obey the moral and ethical codes of the society.

eferences

ieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. etrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm…

References

Rieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at  http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm 

Values, Morals, and Ethics." Changing Minds. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at  http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm

Ethical and Moral Behavior and
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The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)

Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…

References

An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005

Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has

Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at  http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005

Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from  http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2&notFound=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005

Organisational Behaviour Organizational Behaviour Organizational Behavior -
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Organisational Behaviour

organizational behaviour.

Organizational Behavior - pages answers questions: Why ethical issues a major concern organizations? What individual influences impact ethical behavior? How organizations influence ethical behavior employees? MUST a recent article Wall Street Journal, reputable publication, ethical issues addressed a corporation today.

Organizational behavior

In every organization there is a code of ethics that is to be followed by the employees so as to ensure co-existence and smooth running of the organizations activities. Organizational behavior refers to the examination of individual actions in relation to the workplace setting comprising of the fields of management, communication, psychology and sociology. Within any social setting interactions, varied factors come up that bring about a lot of controversy over what is the standard code of ethics for organizations. The workers who co-exist effectively enhance organizational development whereby individual and organizational performance is improved, the workers feel motivated, satisfied and committed eddy, 2004()…

References

Bowie, N.E., & Schneider, M. (2011). Business ethics for dummies. New Jersey: John Wiley.

Isbister, J. (2001). Capitalism & Justice: Envisioning social and economic fairness. Virginia Reddy, R.J.P. (2004). Organizational behaviour. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.

Paulson's Unethical Blurring of Public
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On the other hand, the need to promote productivity exerts pressure in favor of incentive schemes that have the foreseen consequence of material inequality (Ibid., 8). Yet, none of these policies exist in a vacuum -- instead, the synthesis of economic tendrils and market fluctuations act in congruence to a larger paradigm of causality -- one that takes on an almost philosophical regimine.

his ideology would be little more than rhetoric for Secretary Paulson and the Bush Administration, who would operate with a much clearer intent to benefit the irresponsibility of bank owners and administrators. his would be initiated during Paulson's tenure with Goldman-Sachs, when he would help to broker the conditions by which America's banks could lend frivolously to high-risk loan candidates. Simultaneously, banks were being allowed to voluntarily abide or resist reasury oversight requiring such firms to demonstrate the reserve funds to back up these loans. (ong, 1)…

This ideology would be little more than rhetoric for Secretary Paulson and the Bush Administration, who would operate with a much clearer intent to benefit the irresponsibility of bank owners and administrators. This would be initiated during Paulson's tenure with Goldman-Sachs, when he would help to broker the conditions by which America's banks could lend frivolously to high-risk loan candidates. Simultaneously, banks were being allowed to voluntarily abide or resist Treasury oversight requiring such firms to demonstrate the reserve funds to back up these loans. (Tong, 1) With the initiation of the sub-prime mortgage crisis, where countless home and business owners found themselves unable to contend with skyrocketing interest rate terms, the banking system collapsed. (Brinsley, 1)

After helping drive these destructive policies, Paulson was appointed to the Secretary of Treasury office, where he adapted a new position in support of massive government interventionism. To some accusers, Paulson may be said to have authored independent of oversight the largest 'bailout' in U.S. history. The Wall Street Journal would report a price tag on the Emergency Economic Stimulation Act as totaling over $700 billion, much of it going through the Troubled Assets Relief Program [TARP] and into the coffers of the banks and financial firms which have created the current turmoil. (Shindelar, 7). Paulson's commitment to the procedure he used to sell all his stocks at Goldman's and his effort to reach some outcomes states the uneasiness about the ethical misconduct which is evident due to the fact that Paulson was a senior member of the government and also his former company was collapsing. Paulson assisted both Bear Sterns and Lehman Brothers - direct the competitors of Goldman Sachs. Indeed, the choice to let Lehman collapse and bail out American International Group trading associates was baffling to members of congress and the market affiliates (Clemmens, 2009). Although Paulson had no financial gain in Goldman Sachs the company had to excel. Paulson was questioned about the part he played in making Goldman Sachs get $13 billion in taxpayer funds as an outcome of bailout of the American International Group (Gretchen, et.al., 2009).

When AIG collapsed, for instance, it would cost billions of dollars to its attendant relationship

Organization Behavior Ethics in Marketing Ethics of
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Organization Behavior

Ethics in Marketing

Ethics of Marketing

Ethics in Marketing

In order to realize themselves as socially responsible corporate entities, business organizations have to maintain a sound ethical track record in every aspect of their business (Arnold 2009). They have to formulate their business policies and strategies in such a fashion that no societal values are exploited and no human being is harmed in any way (Crane & Matten 2007). It is essential for organizations to keep themselves on the safest ethical path in their marketing, promotional, and general operational activities (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). It cannot only save them from severe criticism by their stakeholders, but also contribute towards a sustainable future in their industry. especting the ethical values and social norms of a society helps an organization in standing on competitive grounds among its competitors and strengthening its public image (Abela & Murphy 2008).

This paper…

REFERENCES

Abela, A.V., & Murphy, P.E., 2008, Marketing with Integrity: Ethics and the Service-Dominant Logic for Marketing, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36 (1): 39-53

Arnold, C., 2009, Ethical Marketing and the New Consumer. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons

Crane, A., & Matten, D. 2007, Business Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization. 2nd Edition. Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford University Press

Kurtz, D.L., 2012, Boone & Kurtz Contemporary Marketing. 15th Edition. Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning

Investigate Unethical Illegal Business
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companies operating inside the United States attempt to conduct this business legally have become far and few between. The issues that will be investigated will include outsourcing the work offshore by these to places such as Pakistan, the Ukraine and the Philippines, the legal and ethical issues facing the students who use the service and the mechanics of the term paper writing industry. Frankly, due to these legal and cost issues, it is becoming less and less profitable for stateside companies to exist and this as much as legal pressure is propelling the offshore exodus. hile the laws may have not been totally effective, the lure for these companies for cheaper operating costs overseas is making the decision to leave the borders of the U.S. easier and making student term-paper cheating an international phenomenon.

Analysis

Detection Tools

Simple cut and paste plagiarism is an issue that technology has dealt with…

Works Cited

Costello, Carol, perf. CNN American College Students Outsource Their Essays to India, Pakistan and the Philippines . You Tube, 2009. Film. .

"The Plagiarism Checker." Dustball. Dustball.com, 2010. Web. 13 Dec 2011. .

"S1940-2011: Relates to the Unlawful Sale of Dissertations, Theses and Term Papers ." New York Senate. Nysenate.gov, 02 March 2011. Web. 13 Dec 2011. .

Shvartsman, Shulamit. "Term Papers for Sale Text Size:." Lawyers.com. Education-law.lawyers.com, 2011. Web. 13 Dec 2011. .

Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
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Management

Organizational Behavior and Teamwork

CASE ASSIGNMENT

Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.

Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?

Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…

Works Cited

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site:  http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html 

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site:  http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html 

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site:  http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e= 

IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html

Ethical Behavior Is Essential to Conduct in
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Ethical behavior is essential to conduct in business. In that business executives employ ethical behavior, relationships are predicated on trust and the maintenance of standards. However, the standards that are agreed to by a business are not established in a vacuum; they must be grounded in commonly held social principles in order to be valid in the context of a business environment. Many communities in the United States are predicated on a Christian value system. Even when community residents do not profess faith in the teachings of Christ, the residual effect of centuries of Christianity creates an intuitively Christian world-view in America and many other countries.

However, common perceptions about Christianity and the perceived adverse effects of 'fundamentalism' within Christian communities has resulted in a re-questioning of Christianity in the workplace; active measures have already been taken to eradicate it from many schools. However, the manager is still able to…

Whereas Hess implies that individual and social interests are in accordance, Burkett points out that certain businesses consistently act unethically and are able to get away with it. He likens this to a personal struggle with vice and a test of the Christian's faith; we see that Burkett assumes that his audience is Christian and that they are faced with temptations to engage in un-Christian behavior that may seem financially or socially amenable. Ultimately, Christianity is more than just a methodology of business conduct as are the conventional ethics of business. It is fortunate that the latter, in principle, attemps to accommodate the former.

Larry Burkett. Business by the Book. Thomas Nelson; 1998.

Peter Hess. Management: Responsibilities for Performance. McGraw-Hill; 1996.

Organization Behavior Strategic Management of Human Resources
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Organization Behavior

Strategic Management of Human esources

This paper acquaints the reader with the Human esource Management at the largest fast food brand in the World -- McDonald's. It describes the core HM practices which are currently in use at the company and discusses them in the light of modern International H Management practices. The paper also contains recommendations on how McDonald's can improve its H practices.

MCDONALDS: INTODUCTION

McDonald's is the World's largest fast food service retailer. Head quartered in Oak Brook, United States; it operates with almost 33,000 fully functioning fast food outlets in 119 countries. It was incorporated as a barbecue restaurant by ichard and Maurice McDonald in 1940. Initially, McDonald's was just offering beef burgers, drinks, and fries. In 1955, McDonald brothers sold it to aymond Albert Kroc who was a franchising agent at that time. ay Kroc took this business to the heights of success…

REFERENCES

Anca, D.C., & Vazquez, A., 2007, Managing Diversity in the Global Organisation. New York: Palgrave: Macmillan

Ashamalla, M., H., 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63

Bloom, M., C., & Milkovich, G., T., 1997, Re-thinking international compensation: From expatriate and national cultures to strategic flexibility. NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, pp. 1-2

Chain, P., H., 2000, What Real MNEs are doing in Managing Expatriate Assignments: Trends and Strategies, International Management, IS 6670, pp. 2-4

Organizational Behavior and the Enron
Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8530042
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They were rewarded excessively for high performance and punished excessively for poor performance. The management style fostered a tremendously competitive environment among employees through a "rank or yank" policy in which all employees were evaluated every six months and categorized into three performance ranges of whom everybody in the lowest ranking was subject to termination unless performance improved satisfactorily in the subsequent evaluation period

As in the case of cults, the Enron initiation phase was followed immediately by the indoctrination and conversion phase during which employees were simultaneously rewarded with excessive luxuries and also subjected to the intense pressure to surrender their psychological independence, conform to corporate values, and also to a highly competitive work environment. More specifically, the organizational culture at Enron continually promoted the notion that all of its employees were the best and most talented in the world. Yet, they were also subjected to a punitive culture…

Phillips, K. (2008). "Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis

of American Capitalism" New York: Viking.

Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York: Random House.

Organization Behavior a Report on Advertising Industry
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Organization Behavior

A eport on Advertising Industry

This paper presents a detailed report on the environmental factors, competitive environment, and current trends in the advertising sector. The purpose of this report is to highlight and discuss the major challenges which companies in the advertising sector are facing in the present business landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the advertising industry; its introduction, functions, and purposes, and proceeds by discussing the major environmental forces that impact the companies in this industry. These are political, economic, social and technological forces. The later section explains the competitive environment in detail. That is, how advertising companies are managing to compete in the presence of a stiff competition from existing competitors, new entrants, and substitute services. The report also discusses the introduction and role of the five key players of the advertising industry. Moreover, the trends, opportunities for graduates, Gap analysis and action…

REFERENCES

Clark, C.R., Doraszelski, U., & Draganska, M. 2009, The Effect of Advertising on Brand Awareness and Perceived Quality: An Empirical Investigation Using Panel Data, Quantitative Marketing and Economics, 7 (2): 207-236

Doole, I., & Lowe, R. 2008, International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation. 5th Edition. London: Cengage Learning

John, G., & Reve, T. 2010, Transaction Cost Analysis in Marketing: Looking Back, Moving Forward, The Journal of Retailing, 86 (3): 248 -- 256

O'Guinn, T.C., Allen, C.T., & Semenik, R.J. 2012, Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion. 6th Edition. Mason: Cengage Learning

Organization Behavior and Theory
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Organizational culture theory and the role and impact of both formal and informal groups on the functioning of modern day organizations.

Organizational culture is the way organizations conducts its business transactions. It also refers to the different perspectives that a company sees things. An organization builds its own organizational culture through structure, history and the traditions of the company (Shafritz 2005). Theories of organizational culture suggest that culture gives an organization a sense of identity and defines what the company stands for. It also tells us what the company is. Culture also gives details to the principles of the company. Organizational culture in broader terms is the collective behavior of humans and the meaning of the actions that people do.

It involves the vision, norms, systems, beliefs and the organization values. Organizational culture contains values accepted by the employees of an organization. There are four main categories of organizational culture.…

Men and women perform different tasks in the society. There are tasks that women cannot do whereas the men are competent. Other tasks are hard for men to perform while the same tasks are easy for the women. The changing world enables women to work in the fields that many people regarded as belonging to the men. Women are now working in construction companies as a form of employment. The tasks affect positively in a bureaucratic performance since women incorporate their skills with that of men to work towards the achievement of an organization's goal. Strong and good working relationships between the employees in a bureau are beneficial (Gormley 2008). The strong relationships ensure that there is competence and effectiveness in performance of the employees.

Political support is crucial for any bureaucracy to thrive. Political stability and support are the main determinant factor that will enable a bureaucracy to thrive in its activities. Political support enables the bureaucracy to work without any hurdles. This ensures that the bureaucracy works with ease. Political support enables the bureaucracy to receive help and assistance from politicians (Gormley 2008). Political interference is the main factor that leads to the collapse of bureaucracy. Negative working relations between a bureau and politicians are a negative factor that will make the bureau not to function accordingly.

Good leadership helps bureaus to work effectively. Good leadership ensures that there are no corruption cases in many bureaus (Gormley 2008). Bad leadership results in the misappropriation of funds and corruption in the bureaus. Good leadership is a motivator to the junior staffs who look up to the leaders and follow the examples set up by the leaders. This enables the employees in the bureau to perform excellently in all sectors. Good governance and leadership by the officials enable the organization to get funding from the government that helps it in carrying outs its tasks.

Internal and External Challenges to Organizational Behavior
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successful leadership styles, strategies and traits.

Two leadership styles that I believe are successful and effective styles are servant leadership and transformational leadership. Both of them emphasize strategies of helping followers to become better overall, and both build on positive traits of trust and integrity. Servant leadership focuses on putting the needs of the other ahead of one's own. It is truly about serving one's followers and thereby building an organization that is grounded in compassion, empathy, and the desire and ability to actually help other people overcome the obstacles they face, whether they are in a particular work habit, a personal problem, or a financial difficulty. Servant leaders look out for their followers as though they were their sheep.

Transformational leaders focus on using Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Social Intelligence (SI) to build relationships and transform their followers into the kind of workers that the organization needs to succeed.…

References

Eichenwald, K. (2005). Conspiracy of Fools. NY: Broadway Books.

Sanders, T. (2006). The Likeability Factor. NY: Three Rivers Press..

Whistleblowers Are in the Minority in a University Study of Behaviors
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disobedience between individuals and it deals with unjust authority. An experimental scenario was set up by the authors in order to see -- from a group of 149 individuals -- how many of them would obey an "unethical request" and how many would not obey, and would instead blow the whistle on the request.

The authors did this study because they believe that there has not been enough research into the "nature of disobedience to unjust authority," and the bottom line it seems is this: who are the whistleblowers and how are they different from those who go along with unfair, immoral, or unjust demands?

Summary of the procedure used by the authors: The authors explain on page 37 that the whistleblower doesn't get off just because he revealed a situation that is wrong or unjust; rather, the whistleblower must expect to have "future involvement" with the authorities that he…

Works Cited

Bocchiaro, P., Zimbardo, P.G., and Van Lange, P.A.M. (2012). To defy or not to defy: An experimental study of the dynamics of disobedience and whistle-blowing. Social Influence, 7(1), 35-50.

How Is Bad Behavior Dealt
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Internal Disciplinary Practices

How bad behavior is dealt with Critique the criticism of internal disciplinary practices. Discuss which criticism seems illogical and why? Building on this, discuss the external methods of police accountability and consider which monitoring strategy seems the most reliable and why.

Because of the internal culture of the police department, it is argued that effective self-regulation and discipline is very challenging, because police officers will always sympathize with fellow officers. Issues pertaining to police misconduct are rarely clear-cut, and the natural impetus is to give the officer, rather than the civilian, the benefit of the doubt. Officers know the tremendous strain involved in police work, and are inclined to give fellow officers some leeway so they are able to be as safe as possible when enforcing the law.

Having external internal affairs departments that are separate from the rest of the police force is one way to…

Internet Over the Last Several Years a
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Internet

Over the last several years, a wide variety of corporations have been facing increasing amounts of pressure to follow various environmental regulations. In the article titled the Determinants of Firm Compliance to Environmental Laws, Dao (2008) is focusing on how this impacting Vietnamese businesses. The way that this is accomplished is through using the Three Pillars Theoretical Framework. This is a theory stating that all firms will follow different environmental regulations based upon three criteria to include: regulatory, consequential and social cognitive pillars. (Dao, 2010, pp. 91 -- 112)

To determine how this is impacting businesses a study was conduct surveying 63 managers in Vietnam. The results were that executives are mostly focused on: the consequences, regulations and the social cognitive factors. The reason why, is from the fear of the negative impact on the firm. This is what pushed most managers to follow particular policies. In some cases,…

References

Dao, M. (2010). Determinants of Firm Compliance to Environmental Laws. AEJ, 8, 91 -- 112.

Corporate Ethical Breaches in Recent Times Assess
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corporate ethical breaches in recent times, assess whether or not you believe that the current business and regulatory environment is more conducive to ethical behavior. Provide support for your answer.

Unethical behavior has drawn the attention of the public for the few last decades in all kinds of business. Many transformations in the business environment have taken place, including immoral conducts and the tendency for corruption. Unethical accounting behavior is also included as a consequence. So the government has been forced to increase regulations and inspect actions taken in business, most especially after the Enron, Tyco, WorldCom and other unethical accounting scandals. As a result of the mentioned scandals, the government then passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002 providing regulatory requirements for better precision in business action, accountability and assurance of ethical accounting behavior by publicly held companies and accounting firms. According to Calle (2000), the total number of boards…

References

Academy Of Management Learning & Education, Beenen Gerard, & Pinto Jonathan (2009). Resisting Organizational-Level Corruption: An Interview with Sherron Watkins. Academic Management Learning & Education, 8(2), 275-289.

Calle, J. (2000). Ethics in Business. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from  http://www.pro2net.com 

Gilman, S., Harned, P., Navran, F., & Brown, J. (2009, May 29). Ten Things You Can Do to Avoid Being the Next Enron. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from  http://www.ethics.org  / resource/ten-things-you-can-do-avoid-being-next-enron

Krugman, P. (2002, January 18). New York Times. System Corrupted., pp.A-23.

Exxon Valdez Case Analysis Common
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Like most litigations on such complicated issues the company had little to do but show reasonable accommodation, adopt better surface practices and wait out a lengthy period before their liability was reduced substantially by the courts.

Ethical analysis:

The key ethical issues of the case are pretty clear, did the captain knowingly endanger the environment by continuing to retain his position and navigate tankers through the area and did the company know that such was the case. Both ethical dilemmas are clear and were ruled upon by many hours of court time and subsequent appeals, though the final Supreme Court ruling on Exxon's liability for the spill was split 4:4 every other deciding body laid full responsibility on Exxon's lap. ("Exxon Valdez Damages educed," June 2008, NP). An additional ethical issue, though much less openly understood or known by the average American is weather it was ethical to pay fishermen…

References

Feinman, J.M. (2000). Law 101: Everything You Need to Know about the American Legal System. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Exxon Valdez Damages Reduced," June 2008, Business Law Prof Blog Retrieved November 18, 2008.  http://lawprofessors.typepad.com/business_law/2008/06/on-wednesday-th.html 

Greely, J. (1989, May 29). Alaska over the Barrels: The Spills and Spoils of Big Oil. The Nation, 248, 721.

Jasanoff, S. (2006) "Transparency in Public Science: Purposes, Reasons, Limits." Law and Contemporary Problems 69.3, 21.

Business Ethics in His Book
Words: 1739 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17690004
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However, she will either not feel comfortable in the culture and leave or, she will at least give thought to her actions at work and behave ethically so she is not fired.

Outline:

Introduction

Thesis statement: How a person acts in their personal life is indicative of how he/she will act in business.

Need more involvement from secondary schools and companies as role models.

Personal situation at work with unethical employee.

A. Anomie outside of work will remain or get worse in work situations.

Personal situation at work with ethical employee

Like first supervisor, his work ethics the same as personal ethics.

My personal values. Do not always meet expectations for myself or others.

What can be done?

A. Companies and universities have to work together to instill ethical values in employees.

eferences

Frederick, William C Corporation, be good!: the story of corporate social responsibility. Minneapolis: Dog Ear, 2006.

Andrews,…

References

Frederick, William C Corporation, be good!: the story of corporate social responsibility. Minneapolis: Dog Ear, 2006.

Andrews, L.W. (2005) the nexus of ethics

HR Magazine. [electronic form].

Beggs, J.M., and Dean, K.L. (2007) Legislated Ethics or Ethics Education?:

Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation
Words: 1683 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68472650
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Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research

Ben is a professor and Alyssa is his graduate student in health sciences. Ben is the program chair for a conference with publications that are "refereed" or reviewed by an expert board of editors before publication. The conference has a policy that accepted papers must be presented by their authors but Ben does not mention this policy to Alyssa. He suggests that Alyssa submit a paper to the conference and that he will present it because the conference is being held abroad and he cannot support her trip to the conference. Alyssa writes the paper entirely with her own research while funded by an external fellowship, and submits it with herself as the sole author. She gives several drafts to Ben, who does not comment on any of them. Alyssa's paper is accepted by the conference, she is then advised of their…

Works Cited

American Evaluation Association. (1994, revisions through 2004). American Evaluation Association guiding principles for evaluators. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from www.eval.org Web site:  http://www.eval.org/Publications/GuidingPrinciples.asp 

Kass, N.E. (2001, November). An ethics framework for public health. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from search.proquest.com Web site:  http://search.proquest.com/docview/215114044/13B0743D48B182F5BD9/1?accountid=28844 

Public Health Leadership Society. (2002). Principles of the ethical practice of public health, version 2.2. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from www.apha.org Web site:  http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf 

Thomas, J. (2004). Skills for the ethical practice of public health. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from phls.org Web site:  http://phls.org/CMSuploads/Skills-for-the-Ethical-Practice-of-Public-Health-68547.pdf

Business in an Ethical Way
Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 8518464
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The sales representative reiterated what the signage stated, that the sale ended that coming Sunday. Deciding to wait on the purchase, I came back two weeks later to find the set no longer $400 off, but instead 15% off, which just happened to be about a $400 savings. A new salesperson pushed the fact that this sale was ending, again on Sunday. Once more I waited and came back a few weeks later. This time, the set included the two arm chairs for free, an approximately $400 savings. I finally asked a salesperson about these 'sales' and she admitted that their sales change, because people like to think they're getting a 'deal', but they always are about the same amount off, all of the time.

This unethical behavior hurts the company in a variety of ways. First, they lost my potential business, not only on the dining room set but…

References

Corporate crackdown: Enron. (No date). [Motion picture]. United States: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Villanova, M., Lozano, J., & Arenas, D. (2009). Exploring the nature of the relationship between CSR and competitiveness. Journal of Business Ethics, (87). p. 57-69.

Ethics and Risks Exercise 1 How Would
Words: 488 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95592422
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Ethics and Risks

Exercise 1 How would you measure the unethical behavior in an organization?

"In its simplest terms, measuring performance means assessing business results to determine how effective a company's strategies and operations are and make changes to address shortfalls and other problems." (Performance Measurement) Performance is a good measurement against unethical behaviors. The process includes defining objectives, or setting clear objective goals, defining critical success factors, actions that must be taken to achieve the objectives, and define performance metrics, measures used to assess the amount of accomplishment. For example, if you use 10 unethical behaviors as 100% and want to target 1 unethical behavior, you would set a ratio of 99 to 1. The 99 would be performance and the 1 would be unethical behaviors.

Exercise 2 Find an article/report related to an external environmental factor that affects business and analyze how the subject would impact your current…

Bibliography

Dube, L. e. (2007, Sep 01). Information Resource Management at Hydro-Quebec. Retrieved from Harvard Business Review:  http://hbr.org/product/information-resource-management-at-hydro-quebec/an/HEC023-HCB-ENG 

Farrell, J.M. (2009, May 12). What's Your Company's Risk Culture? Retrieved from Bloomberg Businessweek:  http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/may2009/ca20090512_720476.htm 

Performance Measurement. (n.d.). Retrieved from Harvard Manage Mentor: http://ww3.harvardbusiness.org/Corporate/demos/hmm10/performance_measurement/performance_measurement.html

King Jewels Ethical Leadership in Practice
Words: 958 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90124998
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King Jewels: Ethical Leadership Case

Leadership style may have contributed to unethical behavior because:

a) There was no leader providing guidance and keeping a watchful eye on employees for last three years.

b) Andy Wong had been busy travelling and expanding business and hence failing to provide the much-needed guidance and supervision

c) Company had become overly ambitious and leadership was more interested in excessive expansion and big plans than in checking quality,

d) Ho like most other Chinese and Hong Kong leaders mainly had a dictatorial style of leadership. He would dictate terms without engaging in meaningful dialogue with his key personnel

e) Setting huge sale targets without consulting employees had led to this unethical behavior by Clement Tam

Excessive meshing of duties and responsibilities was one of the key reasons for generating such wrongful behavior. Proper segregation of duties could have prevented this problem. This is because division…

Ethical Leaders Known in My
Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 30458946
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Going on vacation or taking a day off resulted in coming back to a flood of emails about "mistakes" she had uncovered while you were away, so time off was not even seen as an incentive any more.

As shown, there was really very little in comparison between my classroom and this department. One was a toxic environment due to poor leadership, while the other was a positive and nurturing environment due to leadership. Another writer states, "Successful leadership -- and the trust of those led -- demands a true partnership between leader and followers to create a team that advances our society toward the common good" (Erickson, 2006). In my experience, there was no team with the unethical leader, the staff was divided into "us" against "them," and the leader had no clue that her actions were causing such dissension in the staff.

In conclusion, comparing these two leaders…

References

Ciulla, J.B. (Ed.). (2004). Ethics, the heart of leadership (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Erickson, a.L. (2006). Ethical leadership and the public trust: The winner of the 2006 ASPA Wallace O. Keene Conference Scholarship shares her thoughts on four important characteristics of leaders. The Public Manager, 35(1), 62+.

Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. 163+..

Unresolved Issues That Need to
Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 38718808
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Clearly however, if the second e-mail is to be believed, this is not the case. The root problem here, as mentioned, is trust. Messages such as the second e-mail are designed to undermine what trust might have remained from employees towards management. Such trust would however have been stronger if management had been ethical in the first place and honest in the second. There would have been no rumors if there were not a seed of truth in them. Furthermore, the facts and figures relating to the company's performance and the actions of management tend to speak for themselves. This remains unresolved, because management refuses to face up to its mistakes.

The main player in the dilemma is Jeremy Campbell. He appears untouchable, continuing his practices and encouraging those working directly with him to act in a similar manner. Other players include the members of the "ethics committee," interestingly enough…

Understanding Business Ethics
Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82200164
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Business Ethics

A corporate ethics officer is a relatively new position in terms of modern corporate structure. However, in an age of such ethical uncertainty, this position is becoming more necessary than ever thought of. Overall, the ethics officer has three major roles in the corporation: company security, counselor, and compliance officer.

First and foremost, ethics officers are a major part of any corporation's security force. Essentially, "an ethics officer is the first line of defense for the firm as it relates to company security" (Stanwick & Stanwick, 2013, p 243). From this position, ethics officers must have both technical and business experience to be able to understand security issues as they arise and respond with swift and efficient actions. Breaches in security and ethics are thus tied in the modern work environment. Thus, "the ethics officer is responsible for making sure that appropriate actions are taken if unethical activity…

References

Stanwick, Peter & Stanwick, Sarah. (2013). Understanding Business Ethics. SAGE Publications.

Ethics and Morality Should Congress
Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 690482
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f this group thinks that these laws are needed for all the rest of the businesses in the America then they should ethically think that these laws should apply to everyone including them. The fact that Congress is not held to the same standards as everyone else makes them appear untrustworthy and unethical, which undermines the government process as a whole.

4) in your opinion is it necessary to create laws to prevent unethical behavior?

There should be laws put into place in order to stop this type of unethical behavior from going on. There should not be a group of people that have an advantage over others just because of the job that they hold. There was a rule passed in the Senate in 1968 that requires lawmakers and aides to reveal information about their assets. The House of Representatives forced similar necessities at about the same time. The…

It is necessary to create laws to prevent insider trading within Congress because it is not fair to the public in general for the body of legislature that creates the laws in this country to then be exempt from those same laws. If this group thinks that these laws are needed for all the rest of the businesses in the America then they should ethically think that these laws should apply to everyone including them. The fact that Congress is not held to the same standards as everyone else makes them appear untrustworthy and unethical, which undermines the government process as a whole.

4) in your opinion is it necessary to create laws to prevent unethical behavior?

There should be laws put into place in order to stop this type of unethical behavior from going on. There should not be a group of people that have an advantage over others just because of the job that they hold. There was a rule passed in the Senate in 1968 that requires lawmakers and aides to reveal information about their assets. The House of Representatives forced similar necessities at about the same time. The regulations necessitate all members of Congress and several of the highest-paid congressional aides to reveal information yearly in regards to their finances. This includes their assets, debts, spouse's employment and other supplies of profits they earn, including capital gains from trading stocks. Not like many Executive Branch employees, lawmakers and aides don't have limitations on their stock holdings and possession interests in businesses that they supervise. Congressional rules state that necessitating employees to do so could protect a legislator from the individual and monetary benefits that their electorate, or society in general, has in governmental choices and strategy (Mullins, McGinty, and Zwig, 2010). These laws and regulations that have been put into place are a good start but they don't go far enough in order to prevent unethical behavior from taking place. There needs to be stronger, more specific laws enacted in order to make this unethical behavior illegal so that just like with other companies the people who work there cannot take advantage of inside information for their own personal gain.

Ethics-Criminal Justice System Details of the Source
Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67098573
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Ethics-CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Details of the Source

When does police mistake become murder?

The Christian Science Monitor,

Date of publication: 04-05-1999,

Summary of Facts

Racial profiling is probably the biggest concern of minorities groups in our country because it has been the cause of numerous injustices against them. Our law enforcement agencies appear to be ruthlessly biased in their exercise of duty as is clear from this article. The author shows that racial profiling has resulted in prosecution and death of many innocent immigrants. The article argues that when death results from irresponsible actions of the police, it should be counted as murder because it violates basic civil rights provided by the constitution to every citizen regardless of color or creed. However it has been noticed that our police would open fire on any immigrant who appears to be a threat. The author asks: "Should the police officer be tried…

Internship Ethics
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81023779
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Ethics

In "After 'I'll Break You in Half,' Grimm Apologizes," heaton and Santora address the ramifications of ethical misconduct in the workplace. The issues addressed in this article pertain directly to the chapter on ethics in practice. The article describes Michael Grimm, a Tea Party Representative from Staten Island. He delivered "unusually vitriolic threats" to a reporter at the United States Capitol building, and the outburst attracted scorn (heaton and Santora). Since the outburst, Grimm has apologized, but the apology does not make up for the fact that the reporter's questions were related to a deeper type of ethical misconduct. In particular, Grimm is under investigation for campaign fundraising fraud. The allegations have thus far resulted in at least one arrest: that of Diana Durand "on charges that she illegally funneled more than $10,000 into his campaign," (heaton and Santora). At least one other member of Grimm's campaign fund raising…

Works Cited

Wheaton, Sarah, and Santora, Marc. "After 'I'll Break You in Half,' Grimm Apologizes." International New York Times. 29 Jan, 2014. Retrieved online:  http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/30/nyregion/rep-michael-grimm-threat-ny1-reporter.html?smid=pl-share&_r=0

Nortel Case Study
Words: 2701 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 96793567
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Nortel Case Study

Nortel Networks Corporation, more commonly referred to as Nortel, was a global company of Canadian origin that at its peak in the early 2000's had comprised of one-third of the total valuation of the companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX). Nortel was founded in 1895 in Montreal, Quebec, with its manufacturing headquarters currently located in Mississauga, Ontario. The company manufactured data networking equipment along with offering telecommunication services. It employed over 94,500 employees worldwide.

Nortel's troubles began in the 1990's when under CEO John Roth, the company expanded into the internet technology market. Roth used media to alter public perception of the company. The sale of the optic fibre networking gear by the company from then on was hyped up by the speculators in the market, driving the share price of the company up, even though the company failed to produce overall annual profits. This…

Ethics the Question of Whether the Behavioral
Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4227381
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Ethics

The question of whether the behavioral school of management or the classical school of management would be a better style for General Motors in its present state is one that is quite interesting. The unions would have the public (and the governments that bailed out the company) believe that the workers are the most important cog in the wheel of productivity at GM.

However, upon further study, it could be determined that the unions were actually the wrench in the machinery of profitability at GM instead of being an important part of the overall growth and productivity of the company. In GM's case, the unions pulled the wool over everyone's eyes (and still continues to do so) regarding the use of classical or behavioral management styles.

The union leadership would have everyone believe that behavioral management would work well at GM due to its compassion, caring and motivating factors…

References

Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3

Ethical Analysis Holding an Ethical
Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81585910
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According to research, "Each man deserves respect because only he has had those exact life experiences and understands his emotions, motivations, and body in such an intimate matter," (ainbow 2010). Thus, Broadway was respecting the individual decisions of its players to decide whether or not the game was ok to play.

However, this was only followed outside of the United States. The decision locally was much different. Because of the nature of the young audience, there was the moral dilemma for the insertion of such sexually explicit references. And so, Broadway was not acting ethically when they failed to uphold local ethics abroad. According to research, "A winking tolerance of other's unethical behavior is in itself unethical," (Jennings 2007:14). ather than acting out of ethical obligation to others as they did to their own, Broadway let it slide and moved sales elsewhere, where they knew they could get away with…

References

Alexander, Larry & Moore, Michael. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ 

Jennings, Marianne Moody. (2007). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage Learning Publishing.

Newton, Lisa H. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society. 10th ed. McGraw Hill.

Rainbow, Catherine. (2010). Descriptions of ethical theories and principles. Davidson College. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from  http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm

Rise and Fall of Enron
Words: 1223 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35883442
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ise and Fall of Enron

Enron grew to become one of United State's largest firms within a relatively short period of time. Having a global reach and employing approximately 25,000 employees at one time, the company was largely considered successful. However, this was not the case. In this text, I concern myself with the rise and fall of Enron. In so doing, I will explain amongst other things the history of Enron, the business it was involved in and the unethical behavior that led to its fall. Further, I will also take into consideration people implicated in the scandal and the legal actions that were taken against them.

Enron: An Overview

In basic terms, the 1985 merger between InterNorth and Huston Natural Gas informed the formation of Enron as we know it (Fernando, 2009). The merger which took place in Omaha, Nebraska was headed by Kenneth Lay who at the…

References

Fernando, A.C. (2009). Corporate Governance: Principles, Policies and Practices. Delhi: Pearson Education.

Sims, R.R. (2003). Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility: Why Giants Fall. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.