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United Kingdom Laws and egulations on Safety in the Workplace
The objective of this study is to examine workplace safety specific to the United Kingdom and to review the laws in the UK on what constitutes safety in the workplace. Included in the issues addressed are such as lack of ventilation, high workloads, as well as safety rails requirements and material storage issues. This work will describe the benefits to management of a safe controlled working environment and describe the concept of hazard and risk control. This study will additionally describe the management system that may be introduced to plan, control, and monitor the working environment and provide an explanation of the concept of total loss control and cost/benefit analysis when applied to hazard and risk management in Health and Safety.
Legislation for Occupational Health and Safety in the UK
It is reported that the primary legislation that covers occupational…
Health & Safety Law (2013) Prospect. Retrieved from: http://www.prospect.org.uk/advice_and_services/health_and_safety/about/law
Health and Safety Regulations -- Laws in the Workplace (2013) Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/legislation/index.htm
Safety representatives and safety committees - Brown Book (2009) TUC/Prospect Publishers 16 Apr 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.prospect.org.uk/library/documents/200900422_safety_representatives_and_safety_committees_-_brown_book
Successful Health and Safety Management (2008) Health Safety Executive. HSE Books. Crown 2008. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CDsQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sh168.org.tw%2FgetRef.ashx%3Fid%3D176&ei=PEQ-UdibLaTBygGk_oBw&usg=AFQjCNEBH557wV_wMxZjpgrLGpmnr4th9Q&bvm=bv.43287494,d.aWc
United Kingdom Government esponse to Post-9/11 Attacks of Islamic Terrorism
Terrorism, in the context of the United Kingdom, is not new. Developed through the past century in response to the increasing rates of terrorism, the United Kingdom's modern counter-terrorism strategies encompass elements of continuity and change. Despite the significant development, there is no change to its fundamental structure as its terrorism agencies carry out similar functions in response to the challenges of globalization and the Islamic radicalism that increases the rates of terrorism (Curtis, 2010). The effects of terrorism are varied. They range from social, economic, and political effects that affect the overall performance and competitiveness of the economic prospects of a state. Basing on this, the question in focus for most across the United Kingdom, as well as, the other regions of the world has been the readiness of the agencies "modus operandi" in countering the effects of Islamic…
Andrew, C.M. 2009. Defend the realm: the authorized history of MI5. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Bamford, B. 2004. The United Kingdom's "War Against Terrorism." Terrorism and Political Violence, 16(4), 737-756.
Benthem, J.F. 2001. Proceedings of the eighth Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Rationality and Knowledge 2001, Siena, Italy, July 08-10, 2001. San Francisco, Calif.: M. Kaufmann.
Celso, A. 2014. Al-Qaeda's Post-9/11 Devolution The Failed Jihadist Struggle Against the Near and Far Enemy.. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
In Germany, the idea that financially conservative Germans might have to contribute to a bailout of a nation that 'cooked its books' has been difficult to sell to the public, and British politicians would have faced even more criticism, had Britons been forced to shed their beloved pound.
Great Britain can congratulate itself because it did not throw in its fortunes with the unstable euro, although some Britons protested this action at the time. British car manufacturers, for example, feared losing jobs to EU-member nations, and argued that refraining from participating in EU membership would make the cost of labor in Britain seem exorbitant: "Management and unions in Britain's embattled car industry joined forces…to urge changes in key European policies that might keep plants open and save exports and investment which are threatened by the high level of the pound against the euro" (hite 2001). Nissan and Ford both stated…
So, while the EU may currently model "ideal" law for Parliament, it is Parliament who has the ultimate power to legislate.
The second external restriction on Parliament is the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The ECHR was enacted in 1953 and meant to protect the basic human rights of all citizens of European nations. This act permits the citizen of any country to bring a case before the ECHR court and should the action of the nation be found in violation of human rights, there is a penalty applied to that nation and whatever law violated the right must be removed (Ovey 50). So, similar to the EU issue, this limitation would seem to remove power from Parliament, however, it is removing power that in actuality Parliament never had, the power to violate inherent human rights.
In recent years, there has been one primary internal limitation placed on Parliament,…
A.V. Dice. Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution. 1885.
Chrimes, SB. "English Constitutional History." Oxford University Press. 1967.
Haughwout Folsom, Ralph, Lake, Ralph B., Nada, Ved P. European Union law after Maastricht: a practical guide for lawyers outside the Common Market (2nd ed.). Kluwer Law International. 1996.
Himsworth, C.M.G. "In a state no longer: the end of constitutionalism?" Legal Jounals Index. 2012.
Life Imprisonment in the United Kingdom
Life imprisonment is the most severe punishment in relation to critical or serious criminal activities in countries that do not have death penalty. Life imprisonment in the United Kingdom falls under two categories with unique meanings depending on the severity of the criminal activity: life imprisonment and whole-life sentence. In this research, the focus will be on the examination of the essence of life imprisonment in the United Kingdom. The exercise will also focus on the evaluation of the view of the European Court of Human Rights on the concept of life imprisonment.
Life imprisonment is the most severe punishment in relation to critical or serious criminal activities in countries that do not have death penalty. There is a variation on the types of offences that are eligible for the imposition of life imprisonment (Gibson et al., p. 38). Most nations are showing trends…
Appleton, Catherine. Life after Life Imprisonment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Ashworth, Andrew. Sentencing and Criminal Justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 2005. Internet resource.
Target in the UK: Economic factors to consider for Target in the United Kingdom
The American general retailer Target is considering expanding into the UK in the near or far future. The UK has several potentially attractive features for the American retailer, namely an English-speaking populace and recent GDP growth. "The Bank of England forecasts that Britain's economy will grow by 3.5% this year, which would be its best rate of growth in around a decade, given recent downward revisions to growth in the run-up to the financial crisis" ("UK consumer confidence," 2014). However, despite this fact, British consumer confidence appears to be declining, rather than increasing. "British consumer morale edged down from a recent nine-year high this month as households became slightly less upbeat about the outlook for the economy and their personal finances, a survey from researchers showed" ("UK consumer confidence," 2014).
The UK discount market is extremely…
Davey, J. (2014). Britain's Asda says sales growth shows price cuts are working.
Reuters. Retrieved from:
Economy tracker: Inflation. (2014). BBC. Retrieved from:
The primary political parties found in Australia, the Labor Party, Liberal Party and National Party, are also found in the United Kingdom. Both countries' political heads of state are Prime Ministers.
The primary differences in the two countries, however, are the growing disparities in culture. Australia's native people, the Aboriginees, have increasingly become a cultural factor, especially after the ending of the government's assimilation policy. The large influx of immigrants from Italy, Greece, and a variety of Asian countries has changed the cultural composition of the country. Although the United Kingdom is less homogeneous than it was fifty years ago, the number of immigrants in Australia is far more significant. "Today, nearly 25% of Australians were born overseas, and 40% are immigrants or children of immigrants" ("Commonwealth").
It's an interesting dichotomy of two interconnected countries. Australians consider themselves subjects of the British monarch, yet they are politically independent. Much of…
"Australia's Political Structure - Macquarie International - Macquarie University." Study in Australia - Macquarie University Sydney. N.p., 16 Jan. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. .
"Commonwealth of Australia." CultureGram (2010). CultureGram. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.
"History." CountryWatch (2010). CountryWatch. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.
However, partially because of its colonial history, Britain has never been entirely able to close its borders. After the Ugandan dictator General Idi Amin expelled 80,000 African Asians, who had settled there when the land was part of the Empire, many Ugandans held British passports and were forced to flee to the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom admitted 28,000 refugees within a span of two months ("Short history of immigration," BBC, 2010).
Currently, Prime Minister Gordon Brown's incumbent Labour Party supports immigration controls. It wishes to prioritize admitting immigrants with special skills from outside the European Union by according them preference according to a 'point' system. Immigrants will be only eligible for citizenship after living in the country for five years and being subjected to a test of "British values and traditions" (Jupp 2010). hile the Conservative Party also supports similar restrictions, "the Labour dilemma is that most Muslim, Black…
Jupp, James. "Race and the British election." Inside story: Current affairs and culture.
May 3, 2010. May 5, 2010. http://inside.org.au/immigration-race-and-the-british-election/
"Short history of immigration." BBC. May 5, 2010.
The United Kingdom is one of the best beer markets in the world, and it is from this rich brewing tradition that Alexander Keith's flagship IPA draws its origins. The first thing to consider is the political and economic characteristics of the environment. The United Kingdom's political environment is generally favourable for the beer industry, owing in part due to the nation's pub tradition and the importance of the brewing industry in the country. The environment is expected to be particularly favourable for A-B InBev because the company already owns three breweries in the UK, including the main Bass plant in Lancashire. In total A-B InBev employs 1400 people in the United Kingdom, and its distributors employ many thousands more. (A-B InBev, 2012). This should give the company a favourable political environment going forward.
The economic environment in the United Kingdom is somewhat challenging. The country,…
A-B InBev. (2012). Website, various pages. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from http://www.ab-inbev.com
BBC. (2012). UK economy shrank 0.2%, revised data confirms. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17152253
BBC. (2012, 2). UK unemployment rises by 28,000 to 2.67m, ONS reports. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-17364461
Champ, H. (2010). Budweiser's Mortlake brewery given temporary reprieve. The Publican's Morning Advertiser. Retrieved March 20, 2012 from http://www.morningadvertiser.co.uk/Brands-News/Budweiser-s-Mortlake-brewery-given-temporary-reprieve
Geological Model for Jackfield
Location of Jackfield
The Jackfield site is bounded by the iver Severn to the north, the Jackfield Tile Museum to the west and the footbridge across the Severn near The Boat Inn to the east; the southern boundary runs approximately NW-SE through Woodhouse Farm. The slopes on this side of the river are used for pasture and have little or no trees except for either side of Salthouse oad and the lower valley sides which are situated towards the westerly and easterly boundaries.
Jackfield lies on the southern bank of river Severn within the Ironbridge gorge. The village is located in an unstable part of the Ironbridge Gorge, where several landslips have been recorded (Scatena & Lugo, 1995). In line with this, in April 1952, a mega landslip occurred in the Ironbridge Gorge at Jackfield leading to the destruction of more than 20 households with other…
Bentleya, S.P., & Siddle, H.J. (1990). The Evolution of Landslide Research in the South Wales Coalfield. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association Volume 101, Issue 1, 47-62.
deBoer, DH (1992). Hierarchies and spatial scale in process geomorphology: a review. Geomorphology, Volume 4, Issue 5, 303-318.
Meyer, W., Schuster, R.L., & Sabol, M.A. (2002). Discussion of Potential for Seepage Erosion of Landslide Dam. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Volume 121 Issue 9, 673-674.
Scatena, F.N., & Lugo, A.E. (1995). Geomorphology, Disturbance, and the Soil and Vegetation of two Subtropical wet Steepland Watersheds of Puerto Rico. Geomorphology, Volume 13, Issues 1-4, 199-213.
Social unit a country: Japan, United Kingdom You complete assignment order: Step One: Write a paragraph redefines social unit concisely articulates related globalization -- affect affecting. Step Two? Find a total FOUR (4) peer-reviewed sources relate social unit globalization regard culture, population, and environment.
The social unit and the impact of globalization: Japan
Social unit: Japan
Japan has historically been considered a 'closed' nation in relation to the West. As an island, it had the luxury of relative isolation for many years when its leaders wished to shield it from outside influences. After World War II, however, Japan became increasingly subjected to outside influences and became a global economic power even though its military was significantly diminished. Japan has been tremendously influential on the global economy in terms of its corporate managerial philosophy as well as its product base yet it still remains uniquely 'Japanese' in many respects.
Confucianism, or honoring the ancestors, has been an ethos strongly associated with Japanese culture. However, the influence of globalization has caused the influence of this ancient philosophy to be considerably less marked amongst the worldview of young people. Part of this may be due to an erosion of respect for hierarchy in the wake of a number of government scandals exposing "corruption, protection of weak sectors in the economy, and pork barrel projects for favoured interest groups in return for campaign support" (Rozman 2002). The stress upon social exchanges and familial respect vs. formalized and impersonal rules is less accepted than in previous eras, as is a paternalistic attitude of employers. Finally, more women are seeking out employment and leaving home before marriage, leading to a questioning of traditional Confucian gender relations.
Social unit redefinition
As a nation, Japan continues to have a strong sense of itself as a unique social unit. Globalization was imposed in a very top-down fashion upon the nation and Japan still has a unique corporate culture which is very insular. However, the paternalism and cradle-to-grave employment expected by so many Japanese men is no more. This has caused many Japanese men to question their senses of self. More women are in the workforce and more children are living away from their parents even if they are unmarried. The traditional Confucian values of a close-knit family and also close-knit political and corporate allegiances are unlikely to be sustained in the near future, given changes in the Japanese economy as well as shifts in Japanese social expectations in the wake of economic instability and globalization.
Unemployment on Voter Turnout ates in Britain's Elections
In many countries where voting is a right but not compulsory, voter turnout levels have declined precipitously in recent years, causing a growing number of political scientists to examine the effects of various variables on these rates. By contrast, in countries where voting is compulsory such as Australia, Belgium and Italy, voter turnout levels approach 100% (Forman, 2002). The research on political behavior to date has analyzed a wide range of variables that affect voter turnout positively (such as mail ballots or electronic voting from home) or negatively (such as poll taxes or voter identification requirements) (Childers & Binder, 2012). There has been far less research, though, concerning the potential impact of other variables such as employment status on voter turnout levels. For example, Incantalupo (2015) emphasizes that, "At present, gaps exist in our understanding of how unemployment affects political attitudes and…
Abramson, P. R. & Diskin, A. (2007, September). Nonvoting and the decisiveness of electoral outcomes. Political Research Quarterly, 60(3), 500-503.
Ali, S. N. & Lin, C. (2013). Why people vote: Ethical motives and social incentives. American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, 5(2), 73-98.
Boisvert, P. & Smith, A. (2015, Annual). Bringing down the House: Why the United Kingdom should adopt a regionally representative senate. Kennedy School Review, 15, 47-50.
Childers, M. & Binder, M. (2012, March). Engaged by the initiative? How the use of citizen initiatives increases voter turnout. Political Research Quarterly, 65(1), 93-96.
Post Qualification outes
In the United Kingdom (U.K.) there are different routes to graduating secondary school and university entrance requirements. The two routes discuses in this paper are the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and the diploma program. The GCSE are the first formal qualifications that many people obtain in England, and they are known and respected internationally (Suto & Greatorex, 2008). The diploma program is fairly new in the UK and it is equivalent to up to seven GCSE subject passes, depending on the type of diploma (Warwick, 2007). The diploma program has been introduced in 2005 as an alternative for students who do not want to take the GCSE, it does not replace the GCSE. The diploma program was developed to give student education choices, a more practical approach to learning. In this paper I will discuss the GCSE and diploma program, how they work, some criticisms…
Boston, K. (2007). Diplomas to usher in a brave new world. Times Educational Supplement. 4730 5-6
Chamberlain, S. (2008). Sleeping in or selecting out? Candidates absence from GCSE examinations. Research in Education. 79 53-66
Crossley, R. (2008). Diploma Disaster? The Chemical Engineer. 809 60-61
Education and Learning . (2010). Directgov. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/EducationAndLearning/QualificationsExplained/DG_070676
Discuss how you would rate this country in health care quality, access, and cost. How do you think the U.S. compares to other first world countries?
I think, as mentioned above, that the U.K. is among those rare countries that have only minor problems with the healthcare system. Quality and cost do sometimes become issues, but access is never a problem and often times the latter issues will be resolved as well. Thus, if one looks at it this way, the public system seems to work here. Yet the English system in particular has received much criticism. This relates to the financial problems that the country is facing in the aftermath of the global economic crisis. Yet the country's ministers have assured that they "will not make the sick pay for Labour's debt crisis […] and ministers could not 'sit back' and put more taxpayers' money into an…
Mulholland, H. (2010). Health Secretary Defends NHS Reforms as Criticism Grows. The Guardian. Retrieved January 9, 2012, from .
No Author. (2012). NHS Choices: Your Health, Your Choices. NHS.uk. Retrieved January 9, 2012, from .
There are a number of methodologies available in today's literature that provides data on innovation and inventiveness. A number of those methodologies are contained herein, with a special emphasis on the TIZ approach to innovation. The TIZ approach is appealing to many experts because of the 40 principles developed by Genrich Altshuller. These principles provide direction to civil engineers (or anyone who wishes to address a problem with innovation) regarding a myriad of problems in all areas. The principles have been used in construction, design, education, business and everyday life. It would seem that TIZ can be a useful approach to any individual willing to learn the principles and apply them to problem solving.
Other approaches have also been addressed in this literature review including Metaplanning, Moderation, CPT, and Gaussian approaches. However, it seems as if the most efficient and productive overall approach is the TIZ method of…
AI EDAM, 2008, 'Human competitive machine invention by means of genetic programming, AI EDAM, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 185-193
Badran, I. 2007, 'Enhancing creativity and innovation in engineering education', European Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 32, Issue 5, pp. 573 -- 585
Bartholomew, K. & Ewing, R., 2009, 'Land use-transportation scenarios and ruture vehicle travel and land consumption: A meta-analysis', Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 75, Issue 1, pp. 13-27
Chatterjee, S., Nigam, S., Singh, J., Upadhyaya, L., 2011, 'Transfer function modeling in software reliability, Computing, Vol. 92, Issue 1, pp. 33 -- 48
UK Public Limited Company
Goals, mission of the company
The vision of Vodafone PLC is to enrich customers with products and services that are unique through power mobile communication. This vision spells the innate intention of the company from its generation up to any near future. The vision statement lets the company anticipate for global existence and dominion through its profit elicitation while delivering quality products to customers. The vision brings to us the real picture of the organization. It is made up of the aspirations and hopes the organization aims to achieve after a certain period. It is a framework for the present and future performance of the organization. The vision of Vodafone PLC is to make mobile network systems a "nervous system" that incorporates connected markets within Europe, U.S. And Japan.
The mission statement of Vodafone PLC helps to explain the reason why the company exists…
Antill, N., & Lee, K. 2005, Company valuation under IFRS: interpreting and forecasting accounts using international financial reporting standards. Petersfield: Harriman
Balmer, J.M.T., Mukherjee, A., Greyser, S.A., & Jenster, P. 2006, Corporate marketing insights and integration drawn from corporate branding corporate identity corporate communication and visual identification. Bradford, England, Emerald Group Pub.
Retrieved on 28th January, 2013, from
UK anking Services
Use Michael Porter' diamond model to determine the specific sources of national competitiveness that have boosted/hindered the success of UK banking product/service's?
Related and supporting industries
Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry
Suppose you were the international marketing manager of a UK bank, what would you recommend to your government on how it could boost the elements of competitiveness?
Expanse in the market
Study of the mechanisms of production
Influencing merger options within the diverse market
Appreciating change in the organization
Discuss which international trade theory best explains the pattern of international trade development in UK banking and why
anking is a lucrative activity that must be understood to have varying avenues of performance in the world. The UK anking services organization has an expanse of services that have been beneficial to many businesses and monetary exemplifications in…
Buckle, M., & Thompson, J. (2004). The UK financial system: theory and practice.
Manchester [u.a.], Manchester Univ. Press.
Great Britain. (2011). The Government response to the Independent Commission on Banking.
London, Stationery Office.
UK's Membership of EU and its Impact on Insider Trading
The European Union has recently introduced criminal sanctions in all its member countries in cases of market manipulation and insider trading. The new regulations are quite strict and are essential in reforming the financial markets. There are two directives Market Abuse and Criminal Sanctions [footnoteRef:1]and MFID [footnoteRef:2] have been introduced recently by EU in their pursuit to eliminate market manipulation and insider trading. [1: Criminal sanctions include fines up to £5million with a limit of the minimum amount of all the profits that are made through insider trading. ] [2: MFID stands for Markets in Financial Instruments Directive, this directive was introduced to protect insider trading dealings]
The criminal sanctions already exist in UK laws, however these sanctions are meant to have a greater impact on those member countries where leniency have been obtained in cases o insider trading and…
In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…
ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html
Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/
Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.
UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
This report discusses the market attractiveness of the United Kingdom. In particular the report explores the attractiveness of the Vodka segment of the Spirits industry. The industry has experienced a tremendous amount of growth in recent years and is not the fastest growing segment of the industry. The industry also employs thousands of people in the UK. Our report found that most of the Vodka that is sold in the UK is produced in Scotland.
We also found that the United Kingdom has a solid economy and an excellent infrastructure. The country has a national and international communications system that is technologically advanced. In addition, the countries transportation system is extremely efficient with railways, highways, airports and ports. These facts and the growth of the Vodka segment of the industry, make the United Kingdom an attractive market.
We recommend that the Polish company focus on the Vodka segment…
Annual Report. (2000). Gin and Vodka Association.
Consumer Profiles. (2003) Gin and Vodka Association. Retrieved May 23, 2003 at http://www.ginvodka.org/sales/conprofiles.html
Revenue Taken by the UK government. 2003. Gin and Vodka Association. Retrieved May 23, 2003 at http://www.ginvodka.org/sales/chancellor.html
United Kingdom. (2002) CIA World Factbook. Retrieved May 23, 2003 from, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/uk.html
In favor of joining is the fact that the large eurozone will integrate the national financial markets, leading to higher efficiency in the allocation of capital in Europe. The Treasury's official assessment of its five economic tests acknowledged that EMU membership for the UK could enhance productivity by increasing trade flows between the UK and other EU nations; boost investment and stimulate competition in product markets. (Artis 2000)
EMU may help UK households with lower prices and higher wages. It may promote supply-side reforms in the EU, aid specialization and enhance the UK's comparative advantage in a host of industries over time. Britain's excellent labor market would be highly effective inside a single currency area, yielding increased investment from outside the EU. Britain has been a major recipient of foreign direct investment in recent years. By removing a money-obstacle and improving access to funding, EMU could also facilitate the development…
Artis (2000) Should the UK Join Emu? National Institute Economic Review, Vol. 171,
No. 1, 70-81
Garganas (2003) Exchange-Rate Regimes on the Road to EMU: Lessons from Greece's
Experience, Seminar on "Monetary Strategies for Accession Countries," Hungarian
UK Social Policy
Compare and contrast the trends in the 'settling' & 'unsettling' of the political, economic & social settlements for the UK social policies relating to health care and social housing. (Approx 2 pages) Explain and illustrate the broad nature of the UK post-war welfare settlements (namely political, economic, social & organizational) and their reconstruction in the 1980s and 1990s. In what ways has the discourse of management affected the above two areas of social policy (i.e. health care & social housing).
In the United Kingdom, after the destruction weathered by the British populace during orld ar II and the subsequent poverty weathered by so many of the British peoples, the argument for the right of universal public services or the creation of an all-encompassing welfare state became popular. The idea that all British citizens had the innate right to accessible roads and a clean and healthy environment was…
"Health Care." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/health.htm#UKH
'Housing and Urban Policy." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/housing.htm
'Social Policy." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/socpolf.htm
'Social Policy in the United Kingdom." An Introduction to Social Policy Website. Last updated 2005. Retrived 19 Aug 2005 at http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm #Welfare%20State%20in%20Britain
The following review of current literature is categorized by a number of variables. Statistics and Data initiate the report and is quickly followed up with Policy Literature. From there, an Academic Literature Review focusing on five articles (with corresponding studies and citations) takes place. After the Academic Review comes a Relevant Campaigning Review and a Media Review. Finally, a quick conclusion ties the literature together in a neat little bow.
The charts below provide data that allows researchers to understand exactly how significant the problem is. Chart A (see below) shows the rates of pregnancies in the UK broken down by age. As is evident, since 1990 pregnancy rates for older women have been rising significantly, while the rates for those woman under 29 years of age (including teenagers) have been holding steady, or slightly declining for the most part. Since current public policy was first initiated in…
Arai, L.; (2003) British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: The limitations of comparisons with other European countries, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 89 -- 102
Bingley, P.J., Douek, I.F., Rogers, C.A. And Gale, E.A.M. (2000) Influence of maternal age at delivery and birth order on risk of Type 1 Diabetes in childhood: Prospective population-based family study, British Medical Journal, Vol. 321, pp 420 -- 424.
Brewer, M.; Ratcliffe, A.; dSmith, S.; (2011) Does welfare reform affect fertility: Evidence from the UK, Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 245 -- 266
Doling, J. & Ford, J.; (2007) A union of homeowners? European Journal of Housing Policy, Vol. 7, pp. 113 -- 127.
6% holding in Lloyds following huge losses at both during the credit crisis" (Gupta. S. March 16, 2011) point to the need for stronger regulation of the financial sector. The UK banking system which is one of the most successful and innovative in the world must continue to have autonomy in its operations. Over regulation will only stifle an industry which is a key to the return of a strong economy, particularly in light of the austerity measures of the coalition government which will slow government expenditures to buttress an economic recovery. A greater emphasis on firm specific activities which will encompass leverage, capital ratios, balance sheet assets and liabilities is not over regulation but rather smarter regulation.
In contemplating reform the FCA will ensure that the focus of the financial sector is on the individuals who utilize their products not the shareholders who reap the gains from profits. The…
BBC News.com. (N.D.). Timeline: Credit crunch to downturn. BBC News.com.
Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7521250.stm
Gupta, S. (March 16, 2011). UK should get "handsome return" on RBS and Lloyds.
Reuters. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/03/16/uk-lloyds-rbs-idUKTRE72F6EP20110316
From even the brief analysis of Dicey's doctrine examined above, it can be seen that the concept of parliamentary supremacy has never been practically implemented to its logical conclusion, and it is all but inconceivable that it ever would be. n addition to the sheer logical absurdity of a parliament answerable to absolutely no one, however, the modern era has provided many other concrete, explicit, and practical impediments to true parliamentary sovereignty. Some of these impediments have been domestic in nature, and thus could be considered untested if practically apparent; others, however, are international in nature and can be seen as constituting a conscious, willing, and explicit reduction of parliamentary supremacy.
Domestically speaking, there have been a series of judicial decisions that would seem to limit parliamentary supremacy, insisting that judicial review is necessary in the case o fcertain legal formations and applications (Allan, 2011). Others have noted…
It is in the international arena that the most significant and concrete limitations on parliament's supposed supremacy have been made, from many different angles and at varying degrees of concession or agreement by the United Kingdom and its parliament. The Human Rights Act passed by the European Union, for example, is a major piece of legislation that explicitly sets up courts and certain other bodies external to the United Kingdom that are explicitly granted sovereignty over certain issues (Anthony, 2002). There are other agreements with the European Union and other member nations, as well as decisions made within other European Union member nations that have been made applicable to other member nations and the European Union as a whole, that further limit the true sovereignty or supremacy of the United Kingdom's parliament both when it comes to the nation's external actions and in some of its domestic affairs (Weatherhill, 2007; Harker et al., 2011). All such agreements explicitly and directly negate the notion of parliamentary supremacy.
It is clear from even a basic analysis that the concept of parliamentary supremacy is not applicable in the modern era, and was ultimately incorrect when the doctrine was first advanced. While parliament holds supremacy in that it is the highest body within the government in the United Kingdom, in practice the parliament is limited by certain codified and un-codified laws and principles. Understanding this is essential t properly understanding UK constitutionality.
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
UK Social Trends
Quantitative and Qualitative Discussion on Residency
Table I provides a basic breakdown of the types of residences in which Britons live and how these are distributed based on region. This denotes that specific selected regions are predisposed toward certain residential options. In a chart which accounts for roughly 22% of all residents in England, the table notes that detached homes are most common in the regions of the East Midlands and the South est, suggesting greater open spaces and a more suburban distribution of homes, whereas terraced homes are most common in Yorkshire, Humber and London, implying a denser cluster of urban dwellers.
Among the Tables relating information about residential and demographic distribution in the U.K., perhaps the most compelling of these is Table 2, which offers some examination of the ownership and rental distribution of Britons according to ethnicity. Here, we can see that there are…
Byford, J. (?). Chapter 6: Living Together, Living Apart: The Social Life of the Neighborhood. .
Statistics.gov.uk. (2011). Social Trends No. 39. TMA 03.
Taylor, S. (?). Introduction: Connected Lives. .
Taylor, S. (?). Chapter 4: Who Do We Think We Are: Identities in Everyday Life. .
Outsourcing means other smaller companies will be tapped to do certain jobs for the company while hiring temporary or casual employees means that there will be a contract that will state just how many months an employee will be working in the company.
By doing these two strategies, the company will minimize the costs for providing benefits (such as medical benefits, insurance, retirement benefits, etc.) to the employees. These are beneficial for the employer or the company but a big challenge for the employees. Because of this, workers will not be assured about their medical expenses when needed. More so, because of such company strategies, employees will always be in the look out to looking or the next possible employers for they know that their time with the present company is limited. This of course brings stress and worry for the workers. Instead of enjoying the perks of the work…
M2 Presswire. 21 May 2003. "Work-related worries threaten the well-being of the UK's workforce; 67% of employees can't leave stress in the office." M2 Communications Ltd.
PR Newswire. 4 November 2003. "New Research Reveals 75% of UK Suffer from Stress." PR Newswire Association, Inc.
The UK economy was one of the major victims of the recent global economic downturn. This is in no small measure to blame on the country's significantly sized banking sector, where giants like HSBC and Barclays were generally assumed to be "too big to fail." Today, after being the subject of both economic and political scrutiny, the very same reasons are being used to claim that these giants are "too big to save." Both concepts have enjoyed significant critical attention since the economic downturn. Although little has been offered by way of a cure for the failures of the current UK banking system, the general consensus appears to be that something needs to change if future economic disaster is to be averted.
According to Preston (2010), there can be little argument about the phrase "too big" when applied to the UK banking giants. When comparing the market share…
Figg, S. (2011, Feb 2). Britain's Banks: Too Big to Save? The Socialist. Retrieved from: http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/pdf/issue/655/10.pdf
Henderson, R. (2011, Mar 7). All British banks are "too big to fail." Living in a Madhouse. Retrieved from: http://livinginamadhouse.wordpress.com/2011/03/07/all-british-banks-are-too-big-to-fail/
Preston, R. (2010, Sep 24). Commission tackles too-big-to-fail banks. BBC News. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2010/09/commission_tackles_too-big-to-.html
Reece, D. (2011, Mar 7). Barclays chief Bob Diamond says let banks fail. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk /finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/8365101/Barclays-chief-Bob-Diamond-says-let-banks-fail.html
Carrabine, Lee and South 193)
As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.
Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.
They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.
ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…
Though this research will not provide all necessary data for such a project to be undertaken, it will explore the issue form a side and perspective not often utilized, shedding light on an essential yet often-overlooked aspect of the foreign trade relationship.
Qualitative research is perhaps not the first thing thought of when conducting a trade analysis, but its importance to a proper understanding of the trade relationship cannot be overstated. Such research and analysis requires that the situation be examined in its human terms in addition to the numeric values and inferences drawn from quantitative research and analysis. In determining the perceived motivations and barriers to direct investment, this research will essentially be attempting to analyze and predict responses to changing business situations, and such research almost necessarily takes on a qualitative form (Bavdaz 2009). The predictive value of the proposed qualitative research is, in this instance,…
Bavdaz, M. (2009). "Conducting research on the response process in business surveys." Statistical Journal of the IAOS 26(1/2), pp. 1-14.
Diefenbach, T. (2009). "Are case studies more than sophisticated storytelling?: Methodological problems of qualitative empirical research mainly based on semi-structured interviews." Quality & Quantity, 43(6), pp. 875-894.
MOFA. (2003). "Saudi-British Relations." Ministry of foreign affairs. Accessed 6 March 2010. http://www.mofa.gov.sa/Detail.asp?InSectionID=2306&InNewsItemID=28862
Lavery, B. (2005). "World Business Briefing | Europe: Britain: Saudi Prince Buys the Savoy." NY Times 20 January, pp. 6.
UK Wine Import Industry
Within this report, an analysis will be provided of the wine import industry in the UK. Initially, an environmental analysis will be provided. This will be followed by a competitive analysis of the UK wine import market. The report will conclude with a summary of key findings.
The history of grapevine cultivation, wine production and wine importing/exporting is both interesting and relevant to understanding the current marketing mix and importation of wine into the UK. While an in-depth historical analyses is beyond the scope of this paper, a brief overview of historical issues of relevance to the importation of wine into the UK and the globalization of the wine industry today will be provided.
Anderson, Norman and Wittwer (2001) have provided a succinct historical analysis of critical issues related to globalization and the wine industry. As described by the authors, grapevines were first cultivated…
Anderson, K. & Norman, D. (2001), Global Wine Production, Consumption and Trade, 1961 to 1999: A Statistical Compendium, Adelaide: Centre for International Economic Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AU.
Anderson, K., Norman, D. & Wittwer, G. (2001). Globalization and the World's
Wine Markets: Overview. Discussion Paper No. 0413. Adelaide: Centre for International Economic Studies, Adelaide University, Adelaide, AU.
Berry Bros and Rudd (2003). UK Wine Consumption Soars. Wine News, (February 23, 2003). Found at http://www.bbr.com/GB/db/newsitem/457?ID=null&first_news_F=1 .
Brexit and British Trade: Advantages and Difficulties
In June 2016, the UK voted to leave the European Union (EU). Commonly called "Brexit," the decision has raised a number of questions regarding Britain's current trading arrangements as well as possibilities and obstacles that await the UK post-EU (Hatzigeorgiou, Lodefalk, 2016). From a trade theory and policy perspective, this paper will assess the UK's current trading arrangements along with the potential advantages and difficulties it will likely face as a result of being outside the EU.
From a mercantilist trade theory perspective, Britain's current trading arrangements are based on what is good for the EU member states (Britain formerly being one of them). It is less protectionist from a nationalist point of view and the idea that a country might import less than it exports and thereby have a trade surplus. In the EU, the UK had a 24 billion pound trade…
UK student / a suitable candidate Information Personal Information First Name: Rasoul Last Name: Abousaeedi Birth Date: January 28th 1984 Born: Kerman, Iran. Hometown: Kerman, Iran Education B.ID
Why studying in the UK would help me and why I am a suitable candidate
The focus of my education has been on plant protection and plant pathology. I received my B. Sc. In Plant Protection and my M. Sc. In Plant Pathology. Understanding how to grow healthy, disease-resistant plants are a crucial component of creating a better food supply for the world. My thesis was on the "Induction of systemic acquired resistance against Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens in barley plants by chemicals."
Biotechnology can provide ample opportunities to ensure that healthy, nutritious vegetables, fruits, and grains are more available and are more resistant to pests, diseases, and the elements. My most recent publication delivered to the 7th National Biotechnology Congress of…
It is administratively aggravated which will only assist European policy makers. Account means a continuing shift of domestic monetary autonomy to the European Central Bank indicating providing elasticity on exchange rates and interim interest rates. Domestic monetary policy would in no case be able to react supplely to exterior economic alarms like the increase in goods price increase. The prospect for lessening local economic problems will be more narrowed by the shortage of any organization between European monetary policy, rising from a board of central banks, and European fiscal policy, rising from a committee of finance ministers. (What are the arguments for and against joining the Euro?)
This is clearly illustrated by the south-North immigration of millions of Americans and Italian citizens in the early period of their currency unions. The European financial system has not congregated wholly in a valid structural sense and at some point in the future…
Brittan, Samuel. Blair should forget the euro for 5 years. The Financial Times. 2 February 2000. Retrieved at http://www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text30_p.html. Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Browne, Anthony. How to make sense of the euro debate. February 18, 2001. Retrieved at http://observer.guardian.co.uk/business/story/0,6903,439386,00.html . Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Currie, David. The Pros and Cons of EMU. July, 1997. Retrieved at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/mediastore/otherfiles/emupc.pdf . Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Government would be right to look before euro leap. 15th May, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.ippr.org.uk/press/index.php?release=219¤t=2003Accessed on 11 December, 2004
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…
A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.
Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.
Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896
City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
UK Pensions Policy" - Social Policy Area
The pension policy of the UK is one that is followed as a model by various other parts of the world for its efficient dealing with the problem of pensions for the aged of the UK. The government takes a ken interest in reforms in the area of pensions, and it was for this reason that it announced the latest set of reforms in the year 2000, in its 'pre-budget report' that was released in the month of November of the same year. The report contained a series of reforms and improvements for pensioners. Some of the measures were: increases in the pensions according to the above- inflation rates, above inflation increases in the rates of the 'minimum income guarantee', also known as the MIG, and the introduction of the newly formulated 'pension credit' that was basically a means tested benefit for the…
An Introduction to Social Policy. Social policy in the UK. Retrieved from http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/introduction/uk.htm Accessed on 3 November 2004
Clark, Tom. Pensions Policy and pension Credit. The Institute for Fiscal Studies. Briefing Note: No: 17. Retrieved From http://www.ifs.org.uk/pensions/bn17.pdf
Accessed on 3 November 2004
Contractors Face Bleak Retirement. Contractor, UK. Retrieved From
(Minford; Walters, 2004, p. 306)
(xii) Competition to the U.S. dollar: In the likelihood of UK joining the EMU and adopting the single currency, the threat posed by the only international competitor to the U.S. dollar, the euro, would become real. Therefore, the U.S., at least would not encourage such a move and witness a downturn to its currency, the only true international currency. (Minford; Walters, 2004, p. 306) However, not all economic issues go against UK's joining the currency union. There are several factors which may benefit the UK if it joins the EMU.
Arguments in favor of joining the EMU
Some of the factors which support UK's joining the EMU are:
(i) A unified Europe where trade barriers are abolished and specialization and economic transactions occur as per the "Law of Comparative Advantage" will result in enhanced production and increase in the level of living standards. Increase in…
De Grauwe, Paul. 2007. Economics of Monetary Union. Oxford University Press.
El-Agraa, A.M. 2007. The European Union. Cambridge University Press.
Harris, Neil. 2001. Business economics. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Mankiw, N. Gregory; Taylor, Mark P. 2006. Economics. Cengage Learning EMEA.
A month later, the U.S. used a drone missile to kill top one of the top al Qaeda operatives in Pakistan, Ilyas Kashmiri, on June 3 (CNN, 2011). Kashmiri was considered the possible replacement for bin Laden, and is also believed to be the brains behind the bloody attacks in Mumbai, India, in 2008.
The Response by Israel
One of Israel's security problems is the fact that they share a border with a known terrorist organization, Hamas, a group that has launched rockets into Israel and has sent suicide bombers into Israel to viciously kill innocent civilians. Israel's response to the terror launched against it in March, 2002, is worth noting. It was a violent month as eleven times during March, 2002, suicide bombers worked their evil, killing 81 Israelis and injuring 579 (Perliger, 2009). But when a Hamas operative Abd al-Basset Muhammad Odeh walked into the Park Hotel ballroom…
CNN. (2011). Top jihadist leader killed, followers say. Retrieved June 4, 2011, from http://www.cnn.com/2011/world/asiapcf/06/04/pakistan.jihadist.killed/index.html?hpt=hp_t1 .
Directgov. (2011). Government, Citizens and Rights / NATO. Retrieved June 6, 2011, from http://www.directgov.uk .
Evans, Jonathan. (2010). Jonathan Evans' Terrorism Speech. The Telegraph. Retrieved June 5,
2011, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk .
university quality assurance in the UK
What were the objectives of the British government in passing the Further & Higher Education Act in 1992 and in establishing the Quality Assurance Agency five years later?
The objectives of the British government in passing the Further & Higher Education Act in 1992 were to dissolve the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council (PCFC) and the Universities Funding Council (UFC). In turn, the Act instigated the creation of new institutions that would provide funds and capital to all higher education institutions in their corresponding expanses within the United Kingdom. For instance, with regard to Scotland, there is the Scottish SHEFC (Higher Education Funding Council), for England, there is the HEFCE (Higher Education Funding Council for England); while on the other hand, for Wales, there is the HEFCW (Higher Education Funding Council for Wales) (The UK Academic Infrastructure, n.d). The main objective of the British…
(n.d) The UK Academic Infrastructure may be accessed at http://www.qaa.ac.uk/assuringstandardsandquality/academicinfrastructure/Pages/default.aspx
Brown, R (2004), Quality Assurance in Higher Education: The UK Experience since 1992 (Routledge Falmer; ISBN 0415334926) [Chapter One: Background]. Retrieved March 2, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/ read/108947028
Palfreyman, Quality Assurance & Accreditation in UK Higher Education (OxCHEPS occasional paper, 2006) Retrieved March 2, 2012 from http://oxcheps.new.ox.ac.uk/MainSite%20pages/Resources/OxCHEPS_OP25.pdf
Stiles, D.R. (2004). Higher education funding council (HEFC) methods in the 1990s: national and regional developments and policy implications. Public Administration Vol. 80 No. 4, 2002 (711-731).
I have found no evidence to suggest that those punitive measures have any long-term impacts on school attendance levels" [C]
In both the authorities under study, the class teachers reported the absence of any induction or CPD training to help them during the transition phase. Thus, this research study has helped in identifying the problem areas and in pointing out the measures needed to redress the situation. In special schools, head teachers expressed a need for more support from LEA and to be included in meetings regarding important policy decisions. Research attests that intervention programs for mentally and physically challenged students are very promising. A recent study by Jackie Micklethwaite at the Swanwick Primary School in Derbyshire showed that INPP exercise programs had a remarkable positive influence on children "the children enjoyed the discipline of performing an exercise routine at the beginning of the morning. It appeared to both calm…
1) Ken Reid, 'The views of Head Teachers and Teachers on Attendance issues in Primary Schools', Swansea Institute of Higher Education
DfES, "Every Child Counts', Accessed Apr 21st 2007, available at http://www.dfes.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/EveryChildMattersNextSteps.pdf
Jane Bruccoleri, "Primary School Puts End to High Truancy," Accessed Apr 21st 2007, available at http://www.croydonguardian.co.uk/education/educationnews/display.var.1076255.0.primary_school_puts_end_to_high_truancy.php
Sally Goddard Blythe, "the INPP School Program," Accessed Apr 21st 2007, available at http://ngfl.northumberland.gov.uk/sla/CPD%20SLA%2006-07/Behaviour%20Support/INPP%20School%20Programme.htm
During the concert, care should also be focused upon the bar, as well as concert goers with alcoholic refreshments in their hands while enjoying the concert. Such monitoring should include an assessment of possible danger and violence as a result of excessive drinking. Concert goers should then be encouraged to supplement their drinking with non-alcoholic substances or food. Criminal activity or medical emergencies during the concert should then also be handled with the necessary discretion, taking care to cause as little disruption as possible for the rest of the concert goers. Criminal activity and illegal substances can be controlled by means of entrance monitoring. Security personnel should carefully monitor incoming concert goers to ensure that they are not carrying illegal or harmful substances. If such items are found, they are to be confiscated before allowing offenders to attend the concert. In order to ensure continuing security, such offenders should be…
Cheltenham Borough Council. 2006. Cabinet, 29 March: Cultural Review; Implementing Changes. http://tivoli.cheltenham.gov.uk/.../2006/reports/2006_03_29_Cabinet_Cultural_Review_Implementing_Changes.pdf
Edinburgh International Festival. 2006. Press Release: 13 Dec. http://www.eif.co.uk/N99_PRESS_RELEASE_Private_donor_and_Scottish_Arts_Council_partnership_puts_Festival_on_firmer_footing.php?PHPSESSID=e7650f0a
Sentencing, and Punishment
England and Wales work on an adversarial principle when it comes to law enforcement. The adversarial principle states that "that a person is not considered to be guilty of a crime simply on the word of a government official" or any other means other than a guilty verdict given by a court of law (Davies, 2000). Thus, when a suspect is arrested, arraigned, and questioned, he or she must be treated as if there is no guilty ruling on the case. This is meant to provide the best possible defense in a given scenario. In fact, "conviction in a court requires presentation of admissible evidence that convinces the fact finder -- a jury, in the case of serious crimes; for less serious crime, a stipendiary (professional and salaried) magistrate (renamed District Judges in 2000), or a panel of lay magistrates -- that the evidence demonstrates the guilt…
Crown Prosecution Service. (2015). Section 17 of Firearms Act 1968. Sentencing Manual. Web. http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/s_to_u/sentencing_manual/section_17_firearms_act/
Crown Prosecution Service. (2007). Sending Indictable Only Cases to the Crown Court and Committal Proceedings. Legal Guidance. Web. http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/s_to_u/sending_indictable_only_cases_to_the_crown_court/
Davies, Malcolm. (2000). England and Wales Law Enforcement: The Police and Prosecution. Comparative Criminal Law and Enforcement. American Law and Legal Information. Web. http://law.jrank.org/pages/660/Comparative-Criminal-Law-Enforcement-England-Wales.html
Doc Lecture. (2013). County Courts. Subordinate Courts. Web. http://doclecture.net/1-6823.html
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for people to freely express their views, share information, and interact. Indeed, as McGoldrick (2013, p. 49) observes, “Facebook and other internet-based social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized modern communications.” Some of the most popular social media platforms in the country include, but that are not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. It is important to note that unlike in the physical world where relations between people are governed by various social rules and etiquette standards, relations on social media tend to present a limitless and unrestricting facade. In recent times, some countries have attempted to limit the way people relate on social media – even closely monitoring content in an attempt to ensure that freedom of expression in social media is…
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…
Baue, B., 2013. Threading the Needle: How BT Integrates Climate Stabilization with Economic Prosperity (Economics). [Online]
Available at: http://www.sustainablebrands.com/news_and_views/new-metrics/bt-climate-stabilization-economic-prosperity [Accessed 30 March 2014].
BT, 2014. BT Trace. Supply chains that flow. [Online]
Available at: http://www.globalservices.bt.com/uk/en/products/bttrace [Accessed 30 March 2014].
Tesco UK -- Strategic Report
Tesco's Strategic Position (UK Market)
Tesco's Competitive Strategy - Diversification
Domestic U.K. Market
Non-food Goods and Services
Evaluation of Tesco's UK Strategy
Tesco's growth curve over the last quarter century has involved a revolution in its strategy and image. The company's initial success was grounded on the "Piles it high, sells it cheap" approach (Liptrot, 2005). The company realized that this strategy caused serious disadvantages among certain profitable market segments such as with middle-class customers. In the late 1970s, Tesco's brand image had become perceived as a low quality brand and consultants actually advised the company to change the name at the time. Although Tesco decided not to change its name to change brand perception it was still able to become the largest retailer in the United Kingdom, with close to a thirty percent market share. The next two largest competitors…
Baker, R., 2011. Asda sales up despite fall in shoppers. [Online]
Available at: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/asda-sales-up-despite-fall-in-shoppers/3029355.article
BBC News, 2006. Tesco accused of 'near monopoly'. [Online]
Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/4618972.stm [Accessed 18 March 2012].
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…
Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: http://www.artsinleicestershire.co.uk/architecture/historic_buildings.htm
Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Geolocation.ws Web site: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Leicester_Free_Grammar_School_west_side.jpg
Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.
Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany
The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.
Criminal Justice in the United States
The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…
On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).
In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.
An analysis of the latest figures for key economic indicators and the factors which have affected these indicators. This should include the figures for unemployment, inflation and economic growth.
The unemployment rate is a very important indicator of the overall health of the economy. Currently the unemployment rate is at 7.8% (Office for National Statistics, 2012). However, this figure does not affect the population equally. Different segments of the population have different employment rates. Furthermore, the unemployment rate does not include people that are not actively seeking employment. In the chart these people are considered to be "inactive." Another interesting item listed in the report is that the unemployment rate for the youth demographic was falling due to a record number of 16 to 24-year-olds being enrolled in some type of educational program.
Employment in the UK has suffered from recession. In 2008 there was a…
Financial Times, 2013. Question 3: Fiscal Policy. [Online]
Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/1115c770-545a-11e2-9d25-00144feab49a.html#axzz2IAShLpER
[Accessed 1 January 2013].
Kirka, D., 2011. UK recession fears grow as manufacturing drops. [Online]
innocentdrinks..uk / 1 introduction: a general overview business, business sector, size, history, product rage, location, information interesting 2 organizational chart 3 recrutements career opportunities, organisation secrets stuff 4 selection: selection process, qualities experience a candidate 5 rewards benefits 6 Training - details training personal development programmes company
Innocent Drinks was founded in 1999 in London, United Kingdom. It is a small size company, employing slightly over 200 staff members, but generating impressive revenues of over £120 per year (Website of Innocent Drinks, 2012).
The success of the organization is based on the powerful management and business model, with primary emphasis on the products they sell. Innocent Drinks produces and retails beverages and foods products created in the most natural manner possible. The ingredients are naturally grown and the end products do not contain any preservatives, water, sugar or other sweeteners, concentrates and so on. "Innocent's products are as…
2010, BCG growth-share matrix, Quick MBA, http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/matrix/bcg / last accessed on March 11, 2012
2012, Innocent Ltd. Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/company/innocent_ltd/ryyhrif-1-1njht4-1njfaq.html last accessed on March 11, 2012
2012, Website of Innocent Drinks, http://www.innocentdrinks.co.uk / last accessed on March 11, 2012
2012, Market research for the soft drinks industry, Euromonitor International, http://www.euromonitor.com/soft-drinks last accessed on March 11, 2012
While it was generally agreed that the increase in prices was due mainly to an insufficient offer as the stock house was limited, opinions have also been forwarded according to which the buy-to-let purchases have contributed to the inflation of the house prices (Property Mark).
The debate concerning the reasons for the massive price increases for residential properties (materialized mostly between 1996 and 2005) is however still ongoing. On the one hand, there are the property bulls, who argue that the increase in the prices of residential builds is the result of natural processes of economic growth and development. In other words, they state that the increase in prices was the natural reaction to higher levels of employment, economic stability and lower interest rates. On the other hand however, sit the property bears, who claim that the increase in property prices is not linked to any economic processes, but is…
Billington, I., 2010, 2011 set to be slow year for U.K. market, the Source, http://blogs.wsj.com/source/2010/12/23/2011-set-to-be-slow-year-for-uk-housing-market / last accessed on January 14, 2011
Blackson, S., 2005, the practical guide to total financial freedom, Volume 3, Lulu Press Incorporates, ISBN 1411620569
Blackson, S., 2005, the guide to real estate investing, Lulu Press Incorporated, ISBN 1411623835
Booth, T., 2003, the buy to let guide: how to invest for profit in residential property and manage the letting yourself, 2nd Edition, How't Books, ISBN 1857038649
The author of this report will offer a summary of two important laws and regulations when it comes to employment in the United Kingdom. Those two pieces of law will be the Employment Rights Act of 1996, commonly known as ERA 1996, and the Equality Act of 2010, commonly known as the EA 2010. For both laws, the particulars, specifics and common requirements for all parties involved, both employee and employer, will be covered. While the two laws covered in this report were pass nearly a generation apart, both of them hold a very important place in the employment law paradigm in the United Kingdom.
Employment Rights Act of 1996
Scope & Summary
There are several important requirements and regulations when it comes to the Employment Rights Act of 1996. When an employee starts work with an employer, they are obligated to get a summary of terms and requirements. As…
ith Domino's UK, the company has in its annual report and in its press releases outlined its future expansion plans. There are figures readily available with respect to trends in its same store growth and with respect to its dividend policy. All of these factors should, in theory at least, be included in the current share price. The first step in valuing the company will be to ensure that this is the case.
Given that the price of the company today is expected to be the fair value of the company's future earnings, an acquiring firm would need to consider in its valuation the worth of Domino's as part of its operations. Thus, a bid would need to be done on the belief that its acquisition of Domino's would make Domino's more valuable than it already is. This is the concept of synergy, defined as "the specific increases in performance…
Damodaran, a. (2005). The value of synergy. Stern School of Business working paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=841486
Domino's Pizza Annual Report and Accounts 2009. In possession of the author.
Domino's press release. (2009). Domino's launches 'store on wheels' to deliver pizza at top UK events. Domino's UK & IRL plc. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from http://www.dominos.uk.com/media_centre/pdf/Mobile%20unit%20090609.pdf
Domino's UK & Ireland Investor Relations. (2010). Financial Performance. Domino's UK & Ireland Investor Relations. Retrieved April 29, 2010 from http://ww7.investorrelations.co.uk/dominos/financial/index.jsp
The United Kingdom is one of the largest markets in the world for Starbucks, with over 700 stores, by far the largest in Europe. The company ran into a scandal, however, when it was revealed that the company was not paying taxes in the UK, but was rather paying the taxes in the Netherlands and Switzerland, which has a much lower tax rate. Some politicians decided to make a name for themselves by attacking the foreign company (Starbucks' major competitors in the UK are local chains Costa and Caffe Nero, both domestic companies). The ensuing negative publicity hurt Starbucks' sales, which fell below ?400 million for the first time since 1998 (Campbell, 2014).
At issue is the fact that the UK signed into membership with the European Union. The EU established rules that allowed companies to headquarter in one European country and operate subsidiaries in another…
Bergin, T. (2012) How Starbucks avoids UK taxes. Reuters Retrieved December 18, 2014 from http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/10/15/us-britain-starbucks-tax-idUKBRE89E0EX20121015
Burnett, J. (1999). A strategic approach to managing crisis Public Relations Review. Vol. 24 (4) 475-488.
Campbell, P. (2014). Sales slide as Starbucks feels tax backlash. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 18, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2612668/Sales-slide-Starbucks-feels-tax-backlash-Coffee-chain-axes-six-shops-14m-drop-business-past-year.html
Campbell, P. (2014, 2) Anger as Starbucks boss says may not pay UK tax for up to three years. Daily Mail Retrieved December 18, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2856284/Starbucks-chief-reveals-coffee-giant-not-pay-normal-tax-THREE-YEARS.html
The relevant topics include mental workload, cognition, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress, training, cultural differences, attitudes, pleasure and motivation.
Organisational ergonomics: Concerned with the optimisation of socio-technical systems, including their organisational structures, policies, and processes. The relevant topics include communication, staff resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, co-operative work, new work paradigms, organisational culture, virtual organisations and quality management. (David, nd)
usinesses have responsibilities to those who work for them as well as to those who visit the organization. In the public sector ergonomics are "extremely important n defining standards and legislation and in ensuring compliance with the standards and legislation.
VI. Ten Top Tips for Ergonomics
Ten top tips provided by David (nd) are the tips as follows: "(1) Ergonomics should be an integral part of the design process, preferably involving qualified ergonomists within the design team. Most…
Coleman, Roger (2006) From Margins to Mainstream: Why Inclusive Design is Better. Helen Hamlyn Research Centre, Royal College of Art, London. Online available at http://www.ergonomics.org.uk/espdfs/ErgSocLecture.pdf .
Rennie, Claire (2006) Some Talk of Alexander. Ability. Issue 61 Spring 2006. Online available at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:MysQIVQQ_6UJ:www.ni-libraries.net/app/content/docs/ability61.pdf+Ergonomic+needs+of+users+and+employees+of+UK+Local+Authority+Leisure+Centres&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=56&gl=us.
Mid Devon District Council Annual Report on Health and Safety; 1 April 2005-30 April 2006. Online available at ( http://www.middevon.gov.uk/media/pdf/j/k/Agenda_Item_4 (a).pdf
Employer's Forum Update September (2002) Online available at http://www.employers-forum.co.uk/www/guests/update/september2002/up0902.doc.
Global Credit Crisis on UK Northern ock Bank
The lingering effects of the Great ecession of 2008 still remain, but most authorities appear to agree that the corner has been turned and global economic recovery is well underway. The cause of the Great ecession of '08 was primarily the sub-prime mortgage meltdown that occurred in the United States, and its effects were already being experienced as early as September 2007, when the United Kingdom experienced a mass market run on Northern ock Bank, the first in the nation's history. The global credit crisis that resulted from these events has been felt in differing degrees by the nations of the world, but few countries in the increasingly globalized international community have been entirely immune from its effects. To gain new insights into this fiasco, this paper provides a corporate profile for Northern ock Bank, followed by a review of the relevant…
'Corporate Profile.' (2011). Northern Rock Bank. [online] available: http://companyinfo.
'Directors' report and financial statements for the period 3 July 2009 to 31 December 2009.'
(2010). Northern Rock Bank. [online] available: http://companyinfo.northernrock.co.uk / downloads/2009_NR_plc_Financial_Report_and_Accounts.pdf.
Tesco UK food department
a.) Legislative risks: The decision to provide healthier food by labeling the ingredients on the packages to include the calories, sugar, fat, sodium, and saturated fat content needs to also comply with the U.K. food and labeling law. According to the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of eading, "In most cases, ingredients have to be listed in weight descending order determined as at the time of their use in the preparation of the food. This is commonly referred to as the 'mixing bowl stage'. The following exemptions are however permitted" (A Guide to UK egulations, 2011)
Water and volatile products used as ingredients have to be listed in order of their weight in the finished product. The weight of water is calculated by subtracting from the weight of the finished product the total weight of the other ingredients used.
If an ingredient is…
CSPI Reports International (1998) Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery? http://www.cspinet.org/reports/functional_foods/uk_regltry.html
Feindt, P.H. & Flynn, A. 2009, Policy stretching and institutional layering: British food policy between security, safety, quality, health and climate change, Palgrave Macmillan.
Food Labels: A Guide to the UK Regulations. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/label/index2.htm
Lacey, R. 1992, Scares and the British Food System: Problems and Policies in Relation to Food-Related Health Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Limited.
..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:
(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."
(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."
(3) Article no. 133 states "The…
Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml
Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.
Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
market values" UK Listed Companies evaluate companies Investor atios Profitability atios. With reference statement: require critically appraise importance market balance sheet UK listed companies critical assess a relevant range investor profitability ratios measuring performance.
Market value and balance sheet value
A British firm listed on the market is generally traded at its market value, regardless of its balance sheet value. At a simplistic level, the balance sheet value represents the value of the firm as it is computed within the organization and in terms of the company's resources, revenues and other internal values. The market value on the other hand is the value of the company as it is assigned by the multitude of players in the market, and which is often computed based on elements intrinsic to the market, such as profitability of the company, risks and so on.
At a more specific level, the two concepts…
2010, Investor ratios, Bized, http://www.bized.co.uk/compfact/ratios/investor2.htm last accessed on December 15, 2010
2010, Profitability ratios, Morningstar, http://news.morningstar.com/classroom2/course.asp?docId=145093&page=6&CN=COM last accessed on December 15, 2010
2010, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com last accessed on December 15, 2010
Investment tips: what are key investment ratios? Essortment, http://www.essortment.com/career/keyinvestmentr_sape.htm last accessed on December 15, 2010
The aged can also be accommodated near the bottom of the building, with low-impact aerobics and other targeted activities offered here. The medical and emergency facilities should also be incorporated close to these locations.
Young children, on the other hand, can be accommodated closer to the top floor of the facility, as they should have no difficulty accessing the higher levels of the building. Employees should be trained in providing them with adult supervision while they take part in the activities here. wimming pools of various sizes and depth levels can be included in this location. Daycare facilities can also be located on this floor, or close to it. It is important to include an intercom system from the children's and daycare floors, so that parents can be notified instantly if a child is in need of direct parental intervention. Baby changing rooms, and breastfeeding space can also be provided…
Dudley Metropolitan Borough Council. (2005-2007). "Crystal Leisure Centre - Facilities for the Disabled." http://www.dudley.gov.uk/leisure-and-culture/sports-clubs-and-centres/dudleys-leisure-centres/crystal-leisure-centre/facilities-for-the-disabled
North Ayrshire Leisure (2006-2007). "Magnum Leisure Centre. http://www.naleisure.co.uk/default.aspx?pageID=48
Public Employment Office (1999, May) "Workplace Adjustments for People with a Disability." Fair Ways Newsletter, Iss 1320-5471. http://www.eeo.nsw.gov.au/disabil/adjust.htm
Report of the Head of Property Services (2004, March 2). "North Lincolnshire Council; Leader of the Council; Disabled Access." h ttp:/ / www.northlincs.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/1F293BD4-2CA0-4354-9D9A-F3B89AA2E6B4/4409/DisabledAccess.pdf.