Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
United States Congress:
The legislature of the United States was established in 1789 under the country's constitution and divided structurally from the judicial and executive arms of the government. This legislative arm in separated into two houses which are the Senate and the House of Representatives. hile the Senate requires that each state is represented by two senators regardless of its size, the House of Representatives consist of members who are elected on the basis of population. The Congress was created by the pioneers of the American Constitution on the basis that a huge portion of the powers of the government needs to be on the legislative branch. hereas the two Congressional chambers are separate and distinct, they tend to have an equal role in the enactment of legislation in most cases. Representation, lawmaking, oversight, service to constituents, conflict resolution and public education are the six basic functions of the…
"Chapter 11: The Congress." Faculty and Staff, Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter College. Web. 24 May 2011. .
"Congress of the United States." History.com - History Made Every Day. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Web. 24 May 2011. .
United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent body of the federal government that is mandated with the responsibility of providing postal service in America. The agency was known as the U.S. Post Office Department in 1971 when it was totally managed by the United States government. In addition to be referred to as Post Office, Postal Service or U.S. Mail, USPS is one of the few agencies of the government that are clearly authorized by the U.S. Constitution. Since its inception, the United States Postal Service has developed to an extent that it is the largest post in the world since it provides more mail to more addresses in a bigger geographical region. The success of this organization can partly be attributed to its strategy to fulfill or realize its mission, organization design and structure, and its organizational culture and its cultural values.
USPS Mission and Strategy
Matsch, R.P. (2013, July 9). In the United States District Court for the District of Colorado.
Retrieved October 4, 2014 from http://smartgunlaws.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Bonidy-Docket-Version.pdf
United States Postal Service. (2014, April 3). ELM Revision: Organizational Structure Policies
and Job Evaluation Processes. Retrieved October 4, 2014, from http://about.usps.com/postal-bulletin/2014/pb22386/html/updt_005.htm
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…
"..three asymmetric methods that could be used to exploit the Court: (1) misusing the Court's investigative processes, (2) filing questionable or fraudulent complaints, and (3) manipulating mass media (Austin, W. Chadwick, Kolenc and Anthony Barone, 2006, p. 291)."
Finally, the issue of how the court might deal with the problem of international terrorism is not well understood (Yarnold, Barbara, 1991). The court's authority to extradite and prosecute terrorists from third world countries needs to be better defined Yarnold, p. 1). The United States has not signed on to the ome Statute, and understanding the U.S. role of protecting its own, should the U.S. continue to reject
The ome Statute is becoming clouded by the strength and power of the international community and courts (Dietz, Jeffrey, 2004, p. 137). Under the powers of the ICC, any American prosecuted in the court would be denied the protections guaranteed Americans under the Bill…
Aksar, Y. (2004). Implementing International Humanitarian Law: From the AD Hoc Tribunals to a Permanent International Criminal Court. London: F. Cass. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108538096
Austin, W.C., & Kolenc, a.B. (2006). Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? The International Criminal Court as a Weapon of Asymmetric Warfare. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 39(2), 291+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016812758
Danner, a.M. (2003). Navigating Law and Politics: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and the Independent Counsel. Stanford Law Review, 55(5), 1633+. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006263
United States Army Corps of Engineers issued a report in 2012 that was known as the Human Capital Strategic Plan. It was meant to serve as a benchmark and projection for what was to come from 2012 through 2017. Of course, the United States Army Corps of Engineers is a public safety-oriented organization and their plan will be analyzed in terms of resource allocation, budgeting efficacy and overall quality. The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a very competent organization but no organization's plans, especially those organizations whose funding involves taxpayer dollars in whole or in part, is beyond reproach.
Strategic Plan Analysis
The author of this report has been charged with the analyzing the Human Capital Strategic Plan for 2012-2017 as issued by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in April 2012. The report is about fifty pages in length and will be analyzed cover to cover.…
CDC. (2015). Products - Vital Statistics of the U.S. - Homepage. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsus.htm
Census.gov. (2015). FFF: Hispanic Heritage Month 2014: Sept. 15 -- "Oct. 15. Census.gov. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from http://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2014/cb14-ff22.html
Kessler, G. (2015). Do 10,000 baby boomers retire every day?. Washington Post. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/fact-checker/wp/2014/07/24/do-10000-baby-boomers-retire-every-day/
Krumrie, M. (2014). How To Incorporate Diversity Hiring Goals and Strategies. ZipRecruiter. Retrieved 5 June 2015, from https://www.ziprecruiter.com/blog/the-right-way-to-incorporate-diversity-hiring-goals-and-strategies/
The Supreme Court is the most powerful body of men in the United States, contrary to what many people believe.
The powers of the three branches of government are enumerated in the three charters of freedom: The Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of ights. Together, these documents enumerate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the United States, inherent by virtue of their citizenship; and they enumerate and limit the powers of the three branches of government in such a way as to create a system of checks and balances that cause the actions to be scrutinized by the other branches, and, if the office of the President, or the president, does not agree with legislation crated by the House of epresentatives, sent to the United States Senate for approval, the president can veto the bill containing the legislation. Likewise, the president's veto…
U.S. Federal Government, located online, found at http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml , retrieved 1 February 2008.
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism is the extended terminology that refers to the U.S.A. Patriot Act which, following the events of 9/11 was passed by the Senate immediately and almost unanimously. When the Pentagon and the World Trade Center were attacked in 2001, concerns over national security and America's susceptibility to terrorist threats emerged more so as the country remained baffled at what had just happened. Governmental figures needed to address people's concerns and overall, the issue of law enforcement being able to prevent such attacks from ever happening again. With Assistant Attorney General Viet Dinh having authored the act shortly after the events and upon reviewing existing practices and methodologies, Jim Sensenbrenner, member of the epublican Party, presented it to Congress. It should be noted that, generally, the Patriot Act is embedded in America's history of electronic surveillance that emerged…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Reclaiming patriotism: A call to reconsider the Patriot Act. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/safefree/patriot_report_20090310.pdf
Democratic Policy Committee. (2011). H.R. 514, Patriot Act extension. Legislative Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/docs/lb-112-1-14.pdf
Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot's Act impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52, 179-209. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1168&context=dlj
Roundy, M.D. (2006). The Wiretap Act -- Reconcilable differences: A framework for determining the "interception" of electronic communications following United States v. Councilman's rejection of the storage/transit dichotomy. Western New England Law Review, 28, 403-438. Retrieved from http://assets.wne.edu/164/19_note_Wiretap_.pdf
With a lower interest rate, that incentive no longer exists and this is usually an instrument by which private entities can be driven out of saving and into investing into new business on the market. Obviously, such an action usually creates the appropriate momentum for economic development, creating jobs, increasing governmental revenues through revenues from taxation and helping the country out of the economic recession.
In terms of fiscal policies, the measures that the government needs to take will all attempt to move the IS curve further to the right and, in this sense, to stimulate the national economy, reduce the period that the country will pass through the recession and determine a national economic growth. There are two important means by which this can be done: increased governmental spending and decreased taxes, with a less restrictive taxation policy. As we can see on the IS - LM graph, both…
The result is thousands of people denied the necessary refuge that they seek. Clintora condemns this as a "major policy gap (that) threatens not only human rights in individual countries but also jeopardizes international and regional stability and American regional influence and economic interests."
Kreimer (2007) expounds upon the fact that few legislators had time to fully read the PATIOT Act, when it was first proposed. Once enacted, there was significant concern about the expansion of powers for unchecked surveillance. However, many of the Acts provisions were subject to a four-year sunset requirement. It was believed that Congress would carefully examine how organizations, such as the FBI, utilized their power under the PATIOT Act, when deciding whether or not to certain provisions would go by the wayside come 2005. Yet, in 2006, after much political wrangling, most of the PATIOT Act was reenacted, with little change to the original wording,…
Clintora, E. (2008). Refugees or terrorists? Kennedy School Review, 8. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Kreimer, S. (Winter 2007). Rays of sunlight in a shadow 'war': FOIA, the abuses of anti-terrorism, and the strategy of transparency. Lewis & Clark Law Review, 11(4). Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Yager, L. (30 Oct 2008). USA PATRIOT Act. GAO Report. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from MasterFILE Premier database.
The USA PATRIOT Act
However, this Court also recognizes that mental illness oftentimes differs from other immutable characteristics, such as mental retardation and age, in that a defendant oftentimes has the ability to control mental illness through medical interventions. hile there is tremendous evidence of Panetti's deteriorated mental state, there is very little evidence to support Panetti's assertions that he was insane at the time of the murders. Though there are serious questions regarding Panetti's competency to stand trial, much less his competency to represent himself in that trial, there simply does not appear to be any evidence that he was insane at the time of the murders. Panetti engaged in preparations that were rationally aimed at accomplishing the murder of his in-laws, but was able to refrain from killing his wife and child. In addition, he engaged in a stand-off with police that resulted in him escaping the stand-off without being killed and…
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 322 (1976).
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 299 (1976).
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399, 409-10 (1986).
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
This leads to a high degree of autonomy for some subcommittees, while other subcommittees have only limited autonomy. Those with a high degree of autonomy will play a more direct role in legislative issues.
In addition to the committees, Congress has an entrenched leadership system. The highest rank is the Speaker of the House. Each party also has a Leader and a hip. The leader runs the party's activities in the House. The hip keeps track of legislation and works to make sure that party members vote in the manner desired by the party leader. The Speaker is the leader of the majority party; while the Majority Leader is second-in-command of the party. The Minority Leader is the leader of the minority party.
Leadership of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States. The party leaders have more power, however. Each party has a leader, as well as…
Heitshusen, V. (2007). Committee Types and Roles. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://www.rules.house.gov/archives/98-241.pdf
Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States
Regulation of etlands in the United States
Defining etlands and their Value
A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…
Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010
Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:
Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.
Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
In cases of treason accusations, the testimony of two additional parties, or an open court testimony of the defendant is required: "No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court" (Section 3).
- No national or international party is exempt from following the legislations and all those who break the laws will as such be trailed in front of the Supreme Court or other inferior courts: "The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; -- to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; -- to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; -- to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; -- to…
Ginsberg, B., Lowi, T.J., Weir, M., 2009, We the People: An Introduction to American Politics, 7th Edition, WW Norton & Co Inc., ISBN 0393932141
The United States Constitution, Retrieved from www.constitutioncenter.org/633876696043236250.pdf on September 14, 2009
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Online Version, http://www.ldoceonline.com last accessed on September 14, 2009
The article concedes, however, that declining business confidence is an absolute danger that must be dealt with and the government not being an active partner with businesses and in favor of the recovery will just make things worse (Pollin, 2010).
A similar point is made in a different article that states that the role of fiscal policy in pushing an economy towards recovery cannot be over-estimated or over-analyzed because of the vital role fiscal policy plays in said recovery. The article notes that the impact (or lack thereof) of programs like Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Medicare, tax credits, Social Security, direct subsidies, unemployment insurance and such are often included in any analysis of fiscal policy but it also noted that many parties that look at this topic glaringly omit are transfer payments and other assistance paid directly to financial institutions (Tcherneva, 2012).
This perhaps became a much less…
2012 Forecast: Recovery…or Recession?. (2012). Financial Executive, 28(1), 21-23.
Auerbach, a., Gale, W., & Harris, B. (2010). Activist Fiscal Policy. Journal of Economic
Perspectives, 24(4), 141-164. doi:10.1257/jep.24.4.141
Baily, M., & Lawrence, R.Z. (2004). What Happened to the Great U.S. Job Machine?
The people of Puerto Rico have a unique history in the US immigration. Indeed, Puerto Rico has a special, if not distinct place in the civil society of the American nation. Puerto Rico has been owned by the US for over a century. However, it has not ever acquired a state status. Puerto Ricans have been part of the US population for over a century. Puerto Ricans do not have a vote in the US congress. Puerto Ricans can move freely throughout the US states. Such movement is regarded as internal migration. However, when Puerto Ricans move to the mainland, they leave a distinctive homeland and a culture. Such a movement comes with numerous cultural transition conflicts. Indeed, the movements come with similar conflicts that occur with actual immigration (History Team, 2017).
According to the census conducted in 2010, Puerto Ricans are some of the most densely populated communities in…
The United States of America is a democracy, a form of government which is supposed to be controlled by the people of this country. It is not a true democracy where the people vote on every issue, but a representational democracy the citizens vote for other people who will be responsible for the running of the nation as well as for the creation and passing of most laws. On the federal level, the functions of the government are broken into parts, each responsible for different functions. America's government is composed of three separate branches: the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial (Greenberg & Page 2010). The separation of powers as written in the Constitution is designed so that each branch can give their attention to the functions of their branch and also prevents any of the branches from becoming too powerful which would then lead to the destruction of the democracy…
Barrett, T. & Cohen, T. (2013, April 13). Senate rejects expanded gun background checks. CNN.
Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/17/politics/senate-guns-vote/
Greenberg, E. & Page, B. (2010). The Struggle for Democracy. Pearson.
Madison, J. (1778). Federalist no. 51: the structure of the government must furnish the proper checks and balances between the different departments. Retrieved from http://www.foundingfathers.info/federalistpapers/fed51.htm
Some feel that this is a union backed bailout and that the union has no interest in protecting the American tax payer. These people feel that the USPS should be left to sink or swim and that if they fail this would be the beginning of government employee reduction. Other believe that it has been proven that things cannot go on the way they are ultimately, far-reaching changes are essential for survival.
Rebuttal to Reasons for Non-Passage
The passage of HR 1351 is a good first step in enabling the USPS to survive. The current crisis is basically a result of HR 6407. In 2006, the United States Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006 (PAEA). This bill required that the USPS prepay its potential health care benefit payments to retirees for the next seventy five years in a ten-year time span. The deep hole of debt…
"H.R. 1351: United States Postal Service Pension Obligation Recalculation and Restoration
Act of 2011." 2011. Web. 3 November 2011. Available at:
Nader, R. (2011). "Letter to Congress." http://nader.org/uploads/USPS-ltr.pdf
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves.
However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to live up to its high standards of personal liberty. In a prisoner of war camp located at a military base in Guantanamo Bay, American soldiers violated international prison code standard during a humiliating act of submission where prisoners were forced to perform unlawful acts and behaviors at the behest of the soldiers on duty, (Sullivan, 2008). The very rights which were being so violently being protected in the eyes of the American public were actually being violated in our backyard.…
National Security Council. (2008). The national security strategy of the United States of America. www.whitehouse.gov.17 May. 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
Radelet, Steve. (2005). Think again: U.S. foreign aid. www.foriegnpolicy.com.18
May, 2008. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2773
Shah, Anup. (2006). Criticisms of current forms of free trade. Free Trade and Globalization. 18 May. 2008. http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Criticisms.asp#ErodingWorkersRights
Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.S. military organization.
Anti-female bias in the military
The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire for a larger, stronger military, in 1948, the Women's Armed Services Integration Act was enacted. This act made it possible for women to become permanent members in the military.
Once again, as with African-American men, that act alone was not enough to ensure integration thus leading to a multitude of policies designed to accomplish that end. Almost immediately following this act, in 1949, it was changed to eliminate women with dependent children. This was not changed until the 1970's.…
Borlik, A. (1998, June). DOD Marks 50th Year of Military Women's Integration
Retrieved January 12, 2012, from U.S. Department of Defense website:
Blumenson, M. (1972). Eisenhower
United States Bomb its Way to Victory in Vietnam?
What was John F. Kennedy's "New Frontier" in American foreign policy? What approach did his administration take to the Third World?
The New Frontier policy was a plan to provide aid to foreign countries. He wanted to help Third World countries by increasing their levels of education and boost their economies thereby eventually making them self-sufficient.
Describe and analyze the circumstances and outcomes of the Kennedy administration's crises with Cuba.
The major issue between the United States and Cuba was the Cold War which divided the countries politically. Cuba, being Communist sided with the U.S.S.R. against the U.S. And allowed the U.S.S.R. To have nuclear missiles on their island, pointed at the U.S.
In what ways did Kennedy deepen U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Why did Kennedy believe U.S. engagement/influence in Vietnam was crucial to his foreign policy? How were Kennedy's attitudes…
President Johnson "Americanized" the Vietnam War by introducing more troops into the country and limiting the use of Vietnamese troops. In the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964, Vietnamese weapons supposedly fired on American ships. This account has since proven to be false. It is important because Johnson, very well knowing the truth, intentionally misled the government and the American people. Congress never officially declared war on Vietnam.
6. In what ways was the American nation polarized by the war in Vietnam? What effect did the anti-war movement have on American society? Describe the ways in which 1968 was a year of upheaval (in the U.S., and elsewhere in the world)? How did the Vietnam War shape the election of 1968?
The people of the United States were divided over the American involvement in the Vietnam War. Some viewed it as necessary to protest Communism and others considered it an immoral war that the country should not be involved in. The anti-war movement served to divide the country along the lines of Vietnam support and to further the hippie and counter culture movements. 1968 was a year of upheaval because of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the assassinations of both Martin Luther King, Jr. And Robert F. Kennedy. The war shaped the U.S. election
4 trillion and $3.6 trillion, an impressive boost to the U.S. economy in those years, the IPC explains. A study conducted by Arizona State University determined that when a person has a bachelor's degree that person earns about $750,000 more over the course of a lifetime of earning than a person with just a high school diploma earns.
The data from that study indicates that as of 2006, those working without a high school diploma earned approximately $419 per week and had an unemployment rate of 6.8%, the IPC explains. Those with a bachelor's degree earned approximately $962 per seek and their rate of unemployment was only 2.3%; over their careers college graduates earn "in excels of 60% more than a high school graduate, and workers with advanced degrees earn two to three times as much as high school graduates" (IPC, p. 2).
The Dream Act would remove the uncertainty…
Associated Press. (2011). Court rules against Arizona immigration law. Justice Department filed suit to block law it says violates U.S. Constitution. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com .
Barreto, Matt. (2010). Senators who opposed DREAM Act may fact Latino roadblocks in 2012.
Latino Decisions. Retrieved May 7, 2011, from http://latinodecisions.wordpress.com .
Bennett, Brian. (2011). GOP drafts legislative assault on illegal immigration. Los Angeles
Jefferson asked Lewis to fully explain to the Indians that the white explorers were interested in trade, not in seizing their lands (Ambrose 154). This showed that Jefferson used a steady hand and smart policies regarding the estern frontier and that he understood diplomacy with the Native Americans, whom he respected very much.
The Civil ar: The fact is, most Americans probably believe that the only issue that precipitated the Civil ar was slavery, and though slavery was at the center of the north-south feud, it was not alone as a spotlighted issue. The bottom line issue that tore the country apart was state's rights; in other words, did states have a right to go against the will of the national government? Could a Southern state continue to keep slaves in bondage because their cotton crops (hence, their economic power to survive) depended on slave labor? The answer of course…
Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson,
and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jones, Robert Francis. (2002). George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinary leader.
Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press.
("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1970s-1980s").
President Regan's successor, President George H.. Bush, continued to adhere to the Mexico City Policy. In 1993, it was rescinded by President Clinton. President George . Bush reinstated the policy in 2001 by establishing conditions in the grants awarded to USAID. In addition, President George . Bush extended the policy to apply to any "voluntary population planning" assistance provided by the Department of State. (Obama).
Progress in family planning policy was made in other areas. The federal government recognized that special attention in providing family planning counseling should be paid to countries where overpopulation threatened biodiversity or endangered species. ("USAID Family Planning Program Timeline: 1990s-2009").
In addition, the federal government, especially USAID, worked to use family planning policy to promote the awareness of HIV disease and to promote health practices that would restrict the spread of such diseases. In 2003, USAID established new guidelines…
Clinton Hillary. Foreign Policy Address at the Council on Foreign Relations, May 5, 2009. U.S. Department of State. Web. May 24, 2010.
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Jones K.A. "New Complexities and Approaches to Global Health Diplomacy: View from the U.S. Department of State." PLoS Med 7(5). Web. May 24, 2010
Obama, Barack. "Memorandum to the Secretary of State: Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning," January 23, 2009. Web. May 24, 2010.
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
United States in decline -- again? The answer if one is looking at the question during the year that this article was published (2007) is yes, the U.S. was in decline in many ways -- and continues to be in decline. In Michael Cox's scholarly article clearly points out that following orld ar II, and the subsequent Cold ar years, the U.S. was considered hands down the strongest nation in the world. Communism was on the decline, which was a point in America's favor after those Cold ar years of outreach by both capitalism and communism to try and impose influence on nations all over the world.
Cox is correct when he says that Ronald Reagan has been "almost completely rehabilitated by a new generation of historians" who, when comparing Reagan to George . Bush, see Reagan in a different light altogether. Maybe it is the fact that "hindsight is…
Cox, Michael. "Is the United States in decline -- again?" Royal Institute of International
Affairs 83, no. 4 (2007): 643-653.
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
United States immigration. The writer explores the topic and history of immigration and discusses some of the changes that have taken place over time. There were seven sources used to complete this paper.
The United States has proudly opened its arms to immigrants since its inception. There are millions of American residents who live in the states by way of immigration, and they have come here to make a new life for themselves. America has been known as the land of opportunity for over 200 years, which draws immigrants around the globe to its borders. Over the years the government's immigration policy has undergone several changes to accommodate political, economical and other needs. The history of immigration has been driven by the way the federal government felt about other nations. Those feelings used to control that was and was not allowed in the states, but in the last four decades…
The Associated Press, Important events in the history of Angel Island., AP Worldstream, 04-08-2002.
L. Edward Purcell, Chapter: 7: The Decline of Immigration. Vol. 1, Immigration: Social Issues in American History, 01-16-1995.
Siobhan Gorman, IMMIGRATION: Reframing the Debate., National Journal, 03-02-2002.
Lynch, Mike, Immigration advocate., Reason, 06-01-2002, pp 15.
Because of the newer mobility of a significant amount of suburban America, driving to national parks was even more an option. The more people visited the Parks, it seemed, the more of a synergistic effect upon their funding and use (Jensen and Guthrie, 2006).
By the Johnson Administration in the 1960s, coupled with more media attention, there was increased public awareness of America's natural treasures. This was now that "Parks for People" Campaign. During this period there was also a fairly significant new awareness about ecology and the natural environment. The mission of the National Parks Service was called into question. eacting to this, Congress passed the General Authorities Acts of 1970, which became known as the "edwood Amendment," since a large part of the Act was devoted to conserving edwood National Park. Based on political pressure from citizens, Congress was also forced to provide a rather significant funding increase…
The National Park Service. (2002, March). Retrieved October 2010, from U.S. History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1605.html
National Park Services Almanac. (2008). Washington, DC: National Parks Service, GPO.
Blackburn, S. (2007). Plato's Republic. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.
Brown and Pozner. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Develpment, 68(2), 274-80.
The ar on Drugs was likely bad public policy from the beginning. It was an over-reaction to what politicians believed was a major social problem. The major social problem was society's method of dealing with the perceived problem and not the actual problem of drug use. Through the Controlled Substance Act Congress created a whole new class of criminal and a black market industry that makes the bootlegging of the 1930's look amateur in comparison.
Drug abuse is a problem just like alcoholism is a problem. Prohibiting the sale of alcohol did nothing to affect the rate or treatment of alcoholism and, as history has now shown us, prohibiting the sale of certain drugs has not affected the rate or treatment of drug abuse either. Such treatment is best left to the experts educated to provide such treatment and criminalizing the behavior only serves to make a bad situation worse.…
Drug Enforcement Admininstration. U.S. Drug Enforcement Admininstration. 1999. 18 May 2011 .
Encylopedia Brittannica. "Prohibition." 2011. Encylopedia Britannica. 18 May 2011 .
Frone, Kristin E. Voelkl and Michael R. "Predictors of substance abuse at school among high school students." Journal of Educational Psychology (2000): 583-592.
Global Commission on Drug Policy. War on Drugs. Research. Rio de Janiero: Global Commission on Drugs, 2011.
The Executive Branch (President and Cabinet) executes spending and Congressional instructions, makes appointments to certain governmental posts, and is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. The Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) exercises judicial review over the constitutionality and interpretation of laws; determines how Congress meant the law to apply, and has a panel that serves for life (Constitutional Topic: Separation of Powers).
There are a number of criticisms focused on the actual level of democracy or even democratic representation in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. First, many governmental officials (Supreme Court justices, etc.) are appointed, not elected, and therefore may operate outside the will of the populace. Second, in order to be elected to a state or national office now requires a huge amount of funding; putting elected office outside the purview of most people. Thus, it is not necessarily the "best" people…
Cassier, E. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968.
"Constitutional Topic: Separation of Powers." March 2009. U.S. Constitution.net. December 2010 .
Dahl, Shapiro and Cheibub. The Democracy Sourcebook. Boston: MIT Press, 2003.
"Democracy vs. Republic." June 2004. Albatrus.org. December 2010 .
Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.
Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.
Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…
Minter, Stephen G. (2002). "Does Your Hearing Conservation Program Measure Up? Once Described as "Sleep Aid Material," the Dry Topic of Hearing Conservation Metrics Draws Increased Interest as OSHA's STS Trigger Undergoes Review." Occupational Hazards, 3/1/2002.
Mosley, Gerry L. (2004). "National Guard and Reserve Unit Health Protections." Congressional Testimony, 3/30/2004.
PR Newswire (2003). "Compound Licensed by American BioHealth Group From U.S. Navy Shown to Protect Against Hearing Loss From Impulse Noise; - New Data Presented at Association for Research in Otolaryngology Meeting." PR Newswire Release, 3/3/2003.
Rabinowitz, Peter M. (2000). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. American Family Physician, 5/1/2000,.
They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.
The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…
Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.
Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.
Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
The U.S.A. Patriot Act was passed because of the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. e realized that our current body of laws did not completely address the task of finding terrorists before they take action. The Patriot Act was passed to make it easier for us to protect ourselves from future terrorist acts. The Act has been controversial because although most people recognize the need to effectively prevent future attacks, some people feel the law has gone too far and infringed on civil liberties. Other critics contend that the law doesn't give government enough power (Doyle, 2002).
The Patriot Act makes various actions by the government when trying to identify who might be a terrorist easier to execute. It extends wiretapping to email, provides for nationwide permission to use wiretapping and related investigatory techniques rather than having to get those permissions on a…
While obviously we have to protect ourselves from terrorism, I have some concerns about some of the provisions. I think that for the most part our legal system has functioned very well. I wonder if it's really necessary to suspend due process for an entire group of detainees without any checks and balances. Once a person has been detained under the Patriot Act, the government does not have to justify it or explain it, and they don't even have to tell the person's relatives where he or she is. In addition, the protection against double jeopardy has been of major importance in our country. Because of that part of the Constitution, police or other law enforcement agencies have to have solid evidence before arresting someone, and prosecutors must be sure they have a strong case before bringing someone to trial. If a person is acquitted, that person can get on with his or her life without worrying about being tried again. I personally think our legal system is up to the task of trying and convicting terrorists without taking these steps.
Doyle, Charles. CRS Report for Congress. April 18, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04.
, 2005). At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment. Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility. Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age.
Reason # 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21
At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…
Centers for Disease Control (2007) Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 22,
2011, from the CDC public website, at:
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
After the attacks on September 11, 2001, the government passed legislation designed to protect the country. Included amongst these was the Patriot Act which has become the center of debate by parties who are either in favor of or against the legislation. There are many provisions to this act and the ones that are most debated include: reducing certain limits on law enforcement, giving additional powers to the Secretary of the Treasury, and giving law enforcement the ability to arrest, detain, or deport any immigrants who are suspected of involvement with terrorism (Schulhofer 2005). After 9/11, America was in a frenzy of fear and patriotism which allowed laws to pass which have seriously infringed on the civil rights of citizens as well as allowing for unlawful activity to be performed by members of the government who claim they are doing it for the good of the country. In…
Baker, S. (2005). Patriot Debates: Experts Debate the U.S.A. Patriot Act. American Bar
De Londras, F. (2011). Detention in the 'War on Terror': Can Human Rights Fight Back?
Cambridge: Cambridge, UK.
Sealing Up the Cracks
Security in a Post-9/11 World
On September 11, 2001, America was changed forever. From out of the ruins of the World Trade Center, and over the unmarked graves of nearly three thousand innocent people, a new world took shape. It was a world in which the citizens of the United Sates found themselves suddenly vulnerable to the murderous plots of a handful of fanatics. A trip to the mall, a drive over a bridge, a meeting at the office: an everyday event could spell disaster. Americans were discovering for the first time what so many around the globe had known for years, that the scenes of daily life could become the settings of terror. ut what was to be done? Were the people of the United States to spend their lives looking over their shoulders? Was the free and open society so cherished by each and…
American Civil Liberties Union. "USA Patriot Act Boosts Government Powers While Cutting Back on Traditional Checks and Balances." American Civil Liberties Union Freedom Network: In Congress. American Civil Liberties Union. November 1, 2001.
Ashcroft, John, Attorney General of the United States. "Reorganization and Mobilization of the Nation's Justice and Law Enforcement Resources." Address given November 8, 2001. http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/speeches/2001/agcrisisremarks11_08.htm
EFF Analysis of the Provisions of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act that Relate to Online Activities." Electronic Frontier Foundation. October 31, 2001. http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/Terrorism_militias/20011031_eff_usa_patriot_analysis.html
Evoy, Susan. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. "Comments on Legislative Proposals to Protect National Security and Their Impact on the Communications Infrastructure." October, 2001.
Immigration to America
An Introduction and Claim
Over the years, the issue of immigration in America United States has raised complex demographic issues. Elements of population increase and cultural change on the native societies in the United States are evident characteristics of immigration. The social, political, and economic components of immigration cause controversies on issues of employment, settlement patterns, ethnicity, and economic benefits for non-immigrants. The government works on developing social mobility, reducing crime, and controlling voting behavior. This paper intends to outline the negative issues surrounding immigration in the U.S. The United States has fewer immigrants on per capita consideration comparable to half the OECD countries. Policies had developed before 1965 focused on establishing a working formula for limiting naturalization and immigration opportunities for persons without native claim.
The exceptional economic status of America makes it a haven for immigrants (David & Okazaki 887). However, globalization is fast…
David, Richards, and Okazaki Stephens. Activation and automaticity of colonial mentality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40.4(2010), 850 -- 887. Print
Mossakowski, Kilchenmann. Are immigrants healthier? The case of depression among Filipino Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70.3(2007), 290 -- 304. Print
Picot, George. Hou, Farou., & Coulombe, Silva. Poverty dynamics among recent immigrants to Canada. The International Migration Review, 42.2(2008), 393 -- 424. Print
Stickels, Jackie. The Victim Satisfaction Model of the Criminal Justice System, Criminology and Criminal Justice Research and Education, 2.1 (2008), 1-19. Print
U.S. President James Buchanan
James Buchanan, fifteenth President of the United States (James Buchanan, n.d.), was born on April 23, 1791 in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania (BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868), n.d.). He moved when he was five to Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He was born into an affluent merchant family. He went to school at the Old Stone Academy prior to going to Dickinson College in 1807. He then learned law and was admitted to the bar in 1812. He began his career as a lawyer prior to combination the military to fight in the ar of 1812. He was then selected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives and then to the U.S. House of Representatives. In 1832, he was chosen by Andrew Jackson to be the Minister to Russia. He came back home to be a U.S. Senator in from 1834-35. In 1845, he was selected Secretary of State under President James K.…
"BUCHANAN, James, (1791-1868)." Bio Guide Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.
"James Buchanan." Answers, 2011. Web. 29 April 2011.
"James Buchanan." Tulane, n.d. Web. 3 May 2011.
Kelly, Martin. About.com, 2011. "James Buchanan - Fifteenth President of the United States."
U.S. And Supreme Court
Contrast the U.S. Circuit Courts with the U.S. Supreme Court in terms of their authority to strike down an act of congress or of the states?
The United State Supreme Court is the highest judicial body of the U.S. The Circuit Courts on the other hand are the intermediate courts which make rulings before an issue reaches the Supreme Court. There are nine circuits which divide the country. Each state belongs to one of those nine circuits.
hereas the United States Supreme Court has the ability to review any law brought before them, the circuits can only review laws which affect the states under their jurisdiction. A circuit court may rule a law unconstitutional-based either on the constitution of the state or based on the national constitution. Both bodies have the ability to review any legislation created to check its lawfulness.
However, a decision made by…
"Roe v. Wade" (1972). 410 U.S. 113.
Privacy & Civil Liberties
needs to communicate goals to the American public that include protecting the nation against threats to national security, ensuring the safety of citizens, friends, allies, and nations with cooperative relationships (Clarke, 2013). Promote national security and foreign policy interests, including counterintelligence, counteracting, and international elements of organized crime. Protect the right to privacy. Protect democracy, civil liberties, and the rule of law, eliminating excessive surveillance and unjustified secrecy. Promote prosperity, security, and openness in a networked world adopting and sustaining policies that support technological innovation globally and establish and strengthen international norms of Internet freedom and security. Protect strategic alliances that preserve and strengthen strategic relationships, protect those relationships, and recognize the importance of 'cooperative relationships'.
The U.S. government must protect national security and personal privacy that includes Fourth Amendment rights. Risk management should involve the rights to privacy, freedom and liberties on the internet and…
Clarke, R.A. (2013). Liberty and Security in a Changing World. The President's Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies.
Farmers are stated to have become "risk takers, created new markets, developed rural industries and migrated to urban areas. Farmers were no longer slaves to the state..." (1996)
Dorn notes the statement of Jianying Zha (1994:202) in the book "China Pop" that:
The economic reforms has created new opportunities, new dreams, and to some extent, a new atmosphere and mindsets. The old control system has weakened in many areas, especially the spheres of economy and lifestyle. There is a growing sense of increased space for personal freedom."
Dorn states that the optimism of Zha would certain be shared by anyone who has: "...seen the vibrancy of the market, the dynamism of the people, and the rapid growth of urban areas..." (1996) Dorn states: "Commercial life in China is evolving naturally as people flee the countryside for improved living conditions and the chance to strike it rich in the growing nonstate…
Daniel T. Griswold, CATO Institute, (2005)"Trading Tyranny for Freedon: How Open Markets Till the Soil for Democracy."
Dorn, James a. (1996) Trade and Human Rights: The Case of China. The Cato Journal Vol. 16 No.1. Spring-Summer 1996 Online available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj16n1-5.html
Fewsmith, Joseph (2007) the Political Implications of China's Growing Middle Class. China Leadership Monitor. No. 21 the Hoover Institution. Online available at http://www.hoover.org/publications/clm/issues/8535722.html
Gresser, Edward (2006) Trading in Myth - Blueprint Magazine 9 February 9, 2006. Progressive Policy Institute. Online available at http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=108&subsecID=206&contentID=253726
Temperatures and tempers are soaring in Iraq, and every day the news flashes tell the stories of one, two, three, or more American soldiers who died in combat. hether it was justified or not, the actual war to seize power from Saddam Hussein came and went in a matter of weeks. On a high note, the United States public rallied behind the President and imagined throngs of joyous happy smiling Iraqi men, women, and children. The mews media has cooperated gracefully, and CNN, Fox, NBC, and every other major news network delivers exactly what the hite House wants us to hear: that Iraq is better off with the Americans in control. Granted, Saddam was a dictator. He and his minions grew fat off his nation's main natural resource: petroleum, while most Iraqi citizens lived without some basic human rights and freedoms. Hussein and his regime also systematically persecuted whole ethnic…
Garamone, Jim. "Security Will Set Stage for Iraqi Economic Growth, Bremer Says." DefenseLink. U.S. Department of Defense. 20 June 2003.
Hertzberg, Hendrik. "?
" The New Yorker.
Jiminez, Marina. "Iraq: Going Home." National Post. 27 March 2003.
Spending more on prisons means spending less on other public purposes" (2008, p. 120). The area most affected by the ex post facto application of the revised sentencing guidelines would be northern Virginia where almost 900 inmates (fully twice as many as any other region of the nation) would become eligible for early release (McCabe, 2011). The retroactive application of the revised sentencing guidelines in this area alone would realize more than $1 billion in cost savings and help reduce the overcrowded conditions of Virginia's prisons (McCabe, 2011).
The research showed that previous sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine-related offenses were far harsher than comparable penalties for other preparations of the drug. The research also showed that the revised sentencing guidelines contained in the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 address these disparities but the question remains whether to apply these provisions retroactively to currently incarcerated crack cocaine offenders. Proponents maintain…
A step backward on sentencing. (2011, June 11). Corpus-Christi Caller-Times, A8.
Get out of jail early. (2011, June 11). The Wall Street Journal, A12.
McCabe, S. (2011, June 2). Crack law could spring 1,200 D.C.-area criminals. The Examiner, 37.
Welch, W.N. & Harris, P.W. (2008). Criminal justice policy and planning, 3rd ed. Anderson
U.S. Selective Service System
Conscription is the term used to describe what we today know as a military draft, or compulsory military service. The United States has a long history of attempts at the institution of conscription for all male citizens. It began in 1863 during the U.S. Civil war but was extremely unpopular. Furthermore it allowed those who could find them to offer the military a replacement, such as an indentured servant or slave, or early on they could pay a $300 fee to be exempted from service. ("Selective Service" Columbia Encyclopedia)
Another attempt was made during I (1917) to establish a selective service registration system the but again the response was poor with 50,000 men applying for exemptions and 250,000 simply failing to register at all. After the close of I when the country and congress were still hoping that I was the last war we would ever…
Charlotte Observer "From WWI to Today." July 18, 2004.
Mehren, Elizabeth "Winds of war could lead to return of draft." Los Angeles
Times, July 17, 2004.
Selective Service" The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2003.
History Of America
The governance systems in the American history
has a rich history that has seen three different types of governance systems rule the country with the American colonists under the British colonial governance system, revolutionaries under the confederation governance system and the citizens of new epublic under the constitution governance systems. Each of these had distinct characteristics and the positives and the negatives as will be discussed below.
The British colonial governance system was established through political and commercial interests as well as emigration movements into America. The British command of the seas saw the establishment of the control of America as an agricultural land and the government was controlled from Britain with the King and the parliament in Britain making the important decisions and passing them down to the governor who represented the King in America. It was a relationship that was quite exploitative since the minerals…
E&A Television Networks, (2015). Confederate States of America. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/confederate-states-of-america
The Library of Congress, (2015). Primary Documents in American History: United States Constitution. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Constitution.html
U.S Department of State, (2015). Milestones: 1776-1783. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/declaration
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…
Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
United States War Analysis 1877-To Date
Many wars have been fought in the world since 1877 to date and the U.S. has not been spared from these wars. The main wars have been the World War One and World War Two. However, America has also been involved in the Cold War, the War in Vietnam and the Korean War. These wars have had a major impact on the economies of many nations. Whether the impact has been good or bad has remained a question yet to be answered. Ashby and Babson (2011) state that a large number of people in the United States believed that the economy improved during times of war when there was heightened military spending.
This paper will thus aim to highlight the effects of war on the economy, the social environment, the political environment and the intellectual environment, as these are inevitably always affected by war…
Ashby, S., & Babson, S. (2011). The Unfinished Struggle: Turning Points in American Labor, 1877-Present. The Journal of American History, 88(1), 241. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2675005
Browne, R., & Kreiser, L. (2010). The detective as historian. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
Davidson, J. (2010). After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection, Volume II, 6th ed (6th ed.).
Digital History. (2014). The War's Consequences. Retrieved from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3469
Previous to 1776, the United States of America was formed by colonies ruled by British government. The colonists were no longer willing to be ruled by England, and as a result they started to fight for their independence. There were a series of important events which drove to the unification of the colonies into United States of America. Colonist complaints drove to a revolution which soon transformed into a full-scale war.
The colonists were unhappy because the British government denied them a series of essential rights. They could not trade resources with any other country but England, and in addition to that British government increased taxes significantly. In 1770 colonists started to protest against the British government. In 1773 England issued a law meant to have colonists pay taxes on tea and send the money to England. In December 1773 a group of colonists dressed as Native American…
1. America's Fight for Independence, Retrieved December 17, 2012 from the San Diego Community College District website: http://programs.sdce.edu/elcivics/resources/independence
2. Conway, Stephen, American War of Independence (1775-1783), November 13, 2011, Retrieved December 17, 2012, from the Wiley Online Library website: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow016/pdf
3. Barnes, Dr. Ian, Royster, Charles, The Historical Atlas of the American Revolution, Routledge, 2000
United States had been involved with the world affairs from 18th century to the present and its most prominent role was during the pre-world war era and post-world war affairs of the world.
Particularly when President Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy ruled, the economic prosperity of the United States began to grow on a vast scale. Their eras were considered the most successful era for United States in relation to economic prosperity. President Eisenhower and Kennedy ruled United States from 1953 to 1961 and 1961 to 1963. In their time of governance, United States took a revolutionary step in bringing change in the way people brought up lives in America (Moss & George, 2010). These Democrats controlled Congress for a period however; they could not pass liberal legislations due to the enforcements of Conservative Coalition.
The involvement of United States with worldly affairs in the light of President Eisenhower…
Bush, G.W. (2001). Public paper of the presidents of the United States. Chicago: Government Printing Office.
Moss, & George. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Shapiro, R.Y., Kumar, M.J., & Jacobs, L.R. (2000). Presidential Power. New York, NY [u.a.]: Columbia Univ. Press.
Diversity in the United States
Diversity has contributed to America's culture ever since the country was founded. In the beginning, the country consisted of various immigrant groups who brought their individual beliefs, religious practices, unique craftsmanship and inventiveness from all over the world. The United States was considered a melting pot because of its inherent diversity due to the vast immigrations from all over the world. However, even despite the vast amount of immigration and the concept of the melting pot, the country has always had to struggle to appreciate the advantages that diversity has provided for the country. Inequality and racism has been a persistent issues with the American society.
Today the country is still struggling with similar problems despite the fact that major struggles for equality have manifested. Diversity in the United States today includes many more different types of groups who are still struggling for their acceptance…
Keita, G. (2007, April). U.S. diversity breakthroughs and challenges. Retrieved from American Psychological Assoication: http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr07/itpi.aspx
Leweling, V. (1997, May). Official English and English Plus: An Update. Retrieved from Center for Applied Linguistics: http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/lewell01.html
United States Census Bureau. (2008, August 14). An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury. Retrieved from United States Census Bureau: https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb08-123.html
independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically
Political and Economic Unity
In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
Mill and U.S. Constitution
None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…
Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.
Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.
Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.
Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
Legal Immigration Is Good for the United States
With the United States opening its boarders to thousands of legal immigrants each year, immigration has become one of the most hotly debated issues in the country. However, what has largely fueled this debate has to do with the impact of both illegal and legal immigrants on the United States' economy, crime rates as well as education and environment. While some continue to advocate for the reduction of immigration within the U.S., others are of the opinion that legal immigration impacts positively on the U.S. In terms of diversity and economic gains amongst other unique benefits. It is important to note that when legal immigration is viewed from a critical perspective, the United States does benefit greatly from the same. This text will clearly and concisely highlight some of these benefits.
Immigration in the United States: An Overview
Considered a complex demographic…
Arnold, K.R. (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. California: ABC-CLIO.
Estrom, P. (2007, June 7). Immigration: Google makes Its Case. Retrieved February 12th, 2012, from Business Week website: http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jun2007/db20070606_792054.htm
Geigenberger, J. (2008). The lasting Value of Legal Immigration for the United States of America. Norderstedt Germany: GRIN Verlag.
Griswold, D. (2009, July 21). As Immigrants Move in, Americans Move Up. Retrieved February 14th, 2012, from CATO Institute website: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=10650
Economic Crisis Policies
US current economic crisis is considered to be started from real estate sector. The real sector started to decline in 2006 and it accelerated in 2007 and 2008. Housing prices have fallen from the peak from about 25% so far. The decline in prices left homeowners with no option and they were unable to refinance their mortgages and causes default of mortgages. This default of mortgages and loans swallowed the banks and financial markets such as falling of Lehman's brothers and other anks and blow to rest of economy happened as the whole economy was relying on banks and ultimately it slows down investment in the country and capital flows to other parts of the world like China and India. ank losses cause reduction of bank capital which in turn requires capital reduction thus saving bank from lending. It is estimated that every $100 loss and reduction…
ISR international socialist review. (2009, april). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis:causes and solutions: http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml
Journal of accountancy. (2009, october). Retrieved from The U.S. economic crisis: root causes and road to recovery: www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Oct/20091781
Eyes on wall street. (2011, april). Retrieved from Levin coburn investigates casues of financial crisis: http://www.eyesonwallstreet.com/2011/04/articles/financial-crisis/levincoburn-report-investigates-causes-of-the-financial-crisis/
Rude, C. (2009). World Economic Crisis and Fed Reserve Response to it. Studies in Political Economy.
German immigration to the United States prior to 1877. Specifically, it will discuss to what extent and how did they influence life in the U.S.A. German immigrants to the United States influenced thought and culture in a variety of ways, but they have nearly always managed to hold on to their own culture while adapting to their surroundings.
While America has always been a melting pot of different cultures blending to form a whole, Germans have always managed to blend into society while nevertheless retaining their own special culture and society. The Germans are one of the few races to hang on to their culture so powerfully, while still successfully merging with U.S. culture. One of the most important ways they held on to their culture was by continuing to speak German, especially in the homes, and raising their children to also speak the native language. They also tended to…
Editors. "Germans in America: Chronology." Library of Congress. 1 May 2001. 10 March 2003. http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germchro.html
Hoyt, Dolores J. "19th Century German Immigration in Historical Context." Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. 8 Oct. 1998. 10 March 2003. http://www-lib.iupui.edu/kade/nameword/context.html
Spencer, Aaron Fogleman. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Wittke, Carl. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1952.