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United States and the Trans-Atlantic Powers during the Civil War
Prior to and during the earliest months of the U.S. Civil War, the Confederacy banked heavily on the intervention of Britain and France. Relying on the importance of Confederate cotton for the textile mills and related industries of Britain and France, the Confederacy maneuvered in several ways to achieve European intervention. While the earliest years of the War brought Britain, in particular, very close to entering the War, circumstances and Union maneuvers worked against intervention and the Confederacy's hopes were eventually destroyed.
any Confederates believed that Britain and France were almost certain to intervene in the war and secure Confederate independence. In retrospect, we know that the Confederacy's efforts failed to attain intervention. However, the Confederacy's efforts came very close to success, particularly regarding Britain. Several factors worked for and against intervention and the anti-intervention factors eventually became so powerful…
Many Confederates believed that Britain and France were almost certain to intervene in the war and secure Confederate independence. In retrospect, we know that the Confederacy's efforts failed to attain intervention. However, the Confederacy's efforts came very close to success, particularly regarding Britain. Several factors worked for and against intervention and the anti-intervention factors eventually became so powerful that there was no intervention.
One important factor was Britain's and France's heavy reliance on the cotton exports from the South for their textile mills.[footnoteRef:1] Cotton production and export from the Southern states had steadily grown until it became a significant supplier of cotton for the mills of Britain and France by the mid-Nineteenth Century.[footnoteRef:2] In the Confederacy's estimation, stoppage of cotton exports would create financial "upheaval" for Britain and France, as hundreds of thousands of workers were thrown out of work by the lack of cotton.[footnoteRef:3] While it is true that the North established naval blockades to prevent the Confederacy's export of cotton and import of arms, ammunition and other vital supplies,[footnoteRef:4] and while it is also true that the blockade eventually became a highly effective weapon against the Confederacy, [footnoteRef:5] in the war's initial months, the blockade was "notably porous."[footnoteRef:6] Consequently, in the earliest months of the war, the Confederacy could have successfully exported most of its 1860 cotton crop.[footnoteRef:7] Nevertheless, the Confederacy abruptly stopped exporting cotton to Britain and France, believing that an abrupt and total stoppage would make it much likelier that those two countries would diplomatically recognize the Confederacy, intervene in the U.S. Civil War and either fight on the side of the Confederacy or force the Union to negotiate peaceful secession for the Confederacy.[footnoteRef:8] [1: Steven E. Woodworth, This Great Struggle: America's Civil War (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2011), 67.] [2: Ibid.] [3: Ibid.] [4: Ibid., 68.] [5: Ibid.] [6: Ibid.] [7: Ibid.] [8: Ibid., 68-9.]
Other than the Confederacy's reliance on the importance of cotton, there were several factors working for and against intervention. A second factor, this one working against Britain's and France's intervention, was official neutrality. Britain and France officially adopted stances of neutrality during the U.S. Civil War;[footnoteRef:9] however, the lack of Confederacy cotton did cause considerable hardship to the textile workers and related industries in France and Britain. A third factor or set of factors, these supporting intervention, were that Britain's upper class noticed and resented America's growing wealth and power, exerted considerable influence over British government, believed that the U.S. would surpass Britain as a world power if the growth continued unchecked,[footnoteRef:10] and British governmental leaders were reportedly secretly happy about Lee's early victories in Virginia.[footnoteRef:11] After those victories, there was some discussion among British leaders about finally diplomatically recognizing the Confederacy; however, British leaders decided to wait and see whether Lee would continue to be victorious.[footnoteRef:12] A fourth factor, this working for intervention, was a diplomatic incident called "The Trent Affair" between the Union
United States Postal Service is an efficient organization. However, its operational efficiency is not enough for survival in the contemporary competitive marketplace thereby making it hard for the organization to be successful. USPS has been affected by a considerable shift in the market with internet becoming a good choice for most customers. Apparently, mobile devices give access to social media and texting, an aspect that has changed the need for physical letters (Palepu & Peek, 2007). Few persons write letters and pay bills through physical letters (Kamel, 2003). While the post office did nothing wrong, its management failed in embracing change that would have allowed it to match the changing market needs.
The USPS prospects could be enhanced through offering effective services to government storage and delivery services as well as the under-served users who include the elderly and low-income earners. Nevertheless, the mandate of the organization fails to encompass…
Coyle, J., & Novack, R.(2006). Transportation. Texas: Thomson/South-Western
Crew, M., & Kleindorfer, P.(2011). Reinventing the postal sector in an electronic age. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Harrell, G.(2008). Marketing: Connecting with customers. London: Chicago Education Press.
Herr, P. (2009). U.S. postal service: Network rightsizing needed to help keep USPS financially viable: Congressional testimony: New York: DIANE Publishing.
United States Federal eserve System
Factors that influence the Federal eserve in adjusting the discount rate
Interest rates are charged for loans to commercial banks. In accordance to the rules and regulations of the Federal eserve, this is a principle that can be used as a means of controlling the money supply. An increase in the level of the money supply is achieved when the Federal lowers the rates of discount. A decrease for money supplied is achieved by raising the amounts of loans issued by the Federal eserve. The board of governors is subject to scrutiny and approval of the levels of discount rates that are set by the Federal eserve. The Federal eserve does not work on its own. It operates under strict guidance from the board of directors within the organization. The decisions made by the board of governors through the Federal eserve are directed at maintaining…
Brown, E.H. (2008). Web of debt: The shocking truth about our money system and how we can break free. Baton Rouge, LA: Third Millennium Press.
Meltzer, A.H. (2009). A history of the Federal Reserve: 1970-1986. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wells, D.R. (2004). The Federal Reserve system: A history. Jefferson, NC: McFarland
Therefore, it meets the threshold requirement for limited safe haven. Moreover, the provision of medical services appears to fall under the qualifications of the SCM that services be a controlled service transaction or a group of transactions. This provision of services is not one of the prohibited services including manufacturing, production, extraction of mineral resources, construction, reselling, research and development, engineering, financial, or insurance.
In United Parcel Service of America, Inc. v. Commissioner, 254 F.3d 1014 (11th Cir. 2001), the plan seemed designed for the purposes of tax evasion. UPS sought to shift income to a wholly owned subsidiary in Bermuda through the purchase of insurance on excess value charges for parcels with a value greater than $100. UPS distributed shares of the Bermuda subsidiary (OPL) as a taxable dividend to UPS shareholders. UPS then purchased an insurance policy for its customers from National Union, which then entered into a…
26 C.F.R. § 1.482(d)(3)(i).
26 C.F.R. § 1.482(d)(3)(ii).
Clark, R. (1993). Comment: Transfer pricing, section 482, and international tax conflict: Getting harmonized income allocation measures from multinational cacophony. The American University Law Review, 42, 1155-1212.
M.S.R. (1981). Note & comment: Du Pont and U.S. Steel: Different approaches to Section 482
United States and the International Criminal Court
i request writer "jonsmom2" topic: "The United States International Criminal Court." paper reflect research explain U.S. association ICC. Also briefly examine goals ICC, review U.S. attitude joining outline problems U.
The United States and the International Criminal Court
The ICC (International Criminal Court) was founded in July of the year 2002 on the day that the ome Statute which is the founding treaty of the ICC came into force. The ICC was therefore established to only prosecute those crimes that are committed after that particular date. The official seat of the court is located in The Hague, Netherlands. However, the proceedings of the court can take place anywhere. It can try individuals for crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes. The court also has jurisdiction over crimes of aggression though it cannot try for these crimes until the year 2017. It was founded…
Admire, D. (2011). The international criminal court revisited: an American perspective. Texas Review of Law & Politics, 15(2), 339-358.
Bogdan, A. (2008). The United States and the International Criminal Court: Avoiding Jurisdiction Through Bilateral Agreements in Reliance on Article 98. International Criminal Law Review, 8(1/2), 1-54. doi: 10.1163/156753608x265222
Bohien, R. (2010). Questioning authority: a case for the international criminal court's prosecution of the current Sudanese president, Omar al-Bashir. [Article]. George Washington International Law Review, 42(3), 687-712.
Elewa Badar, M., & Karsten, N. (2008). Current Developments at the International Criminal Tribunals. [Article]. International Criminal Law Review, 8(1/2), 353-379. doi: 10.1163/156753608x265330
The Myth of Homeland Security. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
Thornton, od. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and esponse in the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007
anum, Marcus. The Myth of Homeland Security. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
Thornton, od. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and esponse in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007
Thornton, od. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and esponse in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007
Thornton, od. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and esponse in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007
Lindsey, Lawrence, and Marc Sumerlin. What a President Should Know (but Most Learn Too Late): An Insider's View on How to Succeed in the Oval Office. Lanham, MD: owman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008
Thornton, od. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and esponse in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge [u.a.]: Polity, 2007
anum, Marcus. The Myth of Homeland Security. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
Thornton, od. Asymmetric Warfare: Threat…
Lindsey, Lawrence, and Marc Sumerlin. What a President Should Know (but Most Learn Too
Late): An Insider's View on How to Succeed in the Oval Office. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008
Maurer, Stephen M. WMD Terrorism: Science and Policy Choices. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,
United States' President
Comparing and contrasting the U.S. healthcare system with that of various other nations is not a simple job. There are a lot of details that are not just arranged in a variety of methods however likewise they are made use of to determine considerable and deviating elements. The conclusion will frequently rely on exactly what is thought and which elements are the most vital to the people carrying out the contrast of the various healthcare systems. Nonetheless, the U.S. is currently thinking about a variety of recommendations in reforming its healthcare system and really frequently Canada is described as a prospective model. Similarly, Canada sometimes aims to emulate the U.S. For approaches to enhance its system. As an outcome, the pursuit for renovation in both healthcare systems has actually brought about numerous however unsuitable and incompatible documents about the relative merits of the 2 systems (Madore 1992,…
Booske BC, Athens JK, Kindig DA, Park H, Remington PL. (2010). Different perspectives for assigning weights to determinants of health. University of Wisconsin: Population Health Institute.
Holt, M. (2007). International prescription drug cost containment strategies and suggestions for reform in the United States [Journal article]. Retrieved June 15, 2013, from http://www.bc.edu/dam/files/schools/law/lawreviews/journals/bciclr/26_2/07_TXT.htm
Madore, O. (1992). The Canadian and American health care systems [Article]. Retrieved June 15, 2013, from http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP/bp300-e.htm
Physicians for a National Health Program. (2010). Single Payer frequently asked questions [Site information]. Retrieved June 15, 2013, from http://www.pnhp.org/facts/single-payer-faq
United States' Involvement in the First World War
America's Involvement in the First World War
The president is well aware that Americans often face the temptation to disengage from the rest of the world, especially when the issue at hand has to do with military involvement. I, personally, expected Americans to recoil from President Wilson's proposal to join the European war and fight against Germany, first, because they usually "are skeptical about military adventures in general," (McManus, 2013) and secondly, because the United State's direct interest in this intervention was not clear. Could this issue have been more of a bona fide problem, rather than a forthright (direct) threat?
Let us first clear something up. President Wilson claimed that the leadership in Germany is self-centered, and completely insensitive of the interests of its people. That its warfare acts had to be stopped, because the peace and freedom of the world…
Doenecke, J.D. (2013). The United States in the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles: 1914-1919. In A. Thompson & C. Frentzos (Eds.). The Routledge Handbook of American Military and Diplomatic History, 1865 to the Present (pp. 65-72). New York: Routledge.
Kidner, F.L. (2012). Making Europe: The Story of the West, Vol. II: Since 1550 (2nd ed.). Burlington: Cengage Learning.
McManus, D. (2013, September 15). In America, Not Isolation, but Skepticism. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2013/sep/15/opinion/la-oe-mcmanus-column-congress-obama-and-syria-20130915
ut, these same developments place heavy pressures on rival businesses, which must keep pace or lose their competitive races. Rivals can legitimately respond by improving their own products or by lowering prices. Increasingly, however, some firms have sought to handicap their rivals' races by turning to the government for protection." (Theroux) This is significant, because it shows that Microsoft's greatest strength was their ability to innovate, as the article highlights what the perceived government actions could do. As a result, this argument would be effective in helping to have their cases against them, overturned in the U.S. Court of Appeals.
Delineate which market participants benefited from the final court decision and whose interests were harmed.
The company that benefited the most from this decision was obviously Microsoft. As they could use the final ruling to be able to maintain their market share and not have to worry about the possibility…
In United States District Court. U.S. Justice Department, 1998. Web. 31 Oct. 2010.
McCalllaugh, Declan. "Rivals Come Up Short in Decision." CNET, 2002. Web. 31 Oct. 2010.
Theroux, David. "Open Letter on Anti-Trust Protectionism." Independent, 1999. Web. 31 Oct. 2010.
MLA Format http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/
United States Federal eserve System:
The Federal eserve System or the Fed was established by President Wilson in December 1913 to promote the development of a stable, flexible, and safer financial system in the country. President Wilson enacted the Federal eserve Act, which was a conclusion of the findings of a commission that was mandated with the task of examining the 1907 severe bank panic. Since its inception, the Federal eserve System has served as the gatekeeper of the U.S. economy and the country's central bank. Furthermore, this financial institution regulates other monetary institutions, affects the economy, and controls America's money. The Fed achieves its functions by carrying out various activities that either slows down or stimulate the economy. The main duties of the Fed include conducting U.S. monetary policy, offering financial services and liquidity, and supervising and regulating banks.
Federal eserve and the Discount ate:
Discount rate can be…
Bartlett, B. (2009, January 23). Does Stimulus Stimulate? Forbes. Retrieved July 28, 2013,
Beggs, J. (n.d.). Bank Reserves and the Discount Rate. Retrieved July 28, 2013, from http://economics.about.com/od/monetaryandfiscalpolicy/a/bank_reserves.htm
"How Does Monetary Policy Influence Inflation and Employment." (2013, May 23). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved from The Federal Reserve website: http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12856.htm
The law also limits lifetime welfare assistance to five years, requires most able-bodied adults to work after two years on welfare, eliminates welfare benefits for legal immigrants who have not become U.S. citizens, and limits food stamps to a period of three months unless the recipients are working. Example: A young eighteen-year-old female who just had a child, but cannot find the father of her child, or doesn't know the father may collect AFDC for her child. However, if the child's father is located, he will be required to pay child support, and all AFDC payments back to the state.
According to the Food and Nutrition Service ( FNS) a federal agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a responsible for administering the WIC program at the national and regional levels. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children -- better knows as the WIC program serves to…
Center for Law and Social Policy. A summary of key child care provisions of H.R. 3734: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy, August 1996.
Food & Nutrition Service 2009, WIC, Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/aboutwic/
Social Security Online 2009, research, statistics, and policy analysis. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http:www.socialsecurity.gov.
United States Postal Service
A self-supporting agency of the U.S. government, USPS concerns itself with the provision of postal and mail services in the U.S. Being independent, this means that the agency isn't supported by tax dollars. Essentially, "it delivers more mail to more addresses in a larger geographical area than any other post in the world" (2014). In seeking to define its geographical reach, USPS points out that it delivers mail "to nearly 153 million addresses in every state, city and town in the country" (USPS, 2014).
The history of the USPS, as it has been pointed out on the agency's website, "is an ongoing story of enormous depth and breadth, rooted in a single, great principle; that every person in the United States -- no matter who, no matter where -- has the right to equal access to secure, efficient, and affordable mail service" (USPS, 2014).…
John, D. (2002). Organizational Learning and Effectiveness. New York, NY: Routledge.
United States Postal Service - USPS. (2014). United States Postal Service: About. Retrieved from http://about.usps.com/welcome.htm
At the same time, there were planners (who shared similar views as Rumsfeld) that this strategy was obsolete. This contention between the two sides would create a conflict in U.S. military strategy. As the country needs a sustainable fighting force that is capable of supporting the challenges of the nation. Yet, the strategies of the past cannot be utilized to fight future wars. Where, the initial successes in Afghanistan and Iraq indicate, how a large military buildup is not necessary to be triumphant on the battlefield. Instead, fighting the enemy through effective air power and ground forces could have a similar impact (without the large numbers of personnel or the preparation time). In this aspect, the strategy that is being implemented by the military; is effective for achieving initial successes on the battlefield. As it will overwhelm and destroy enemy forces to the point, that they will stop fighting (at…
Looters Ransack Baghdad Museum. (2003). BBC. Retrieved from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2942449.stm
Hurricane Katrina Relief. (2005). U.S. Army. Retrieved from: http://www.army.mil/katrina/imagery.html
Taliban Execute Pregnant Woman. (2010). Google News. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gEVgd-P4NVFFtv1D-FRE69zU-XVw
Benson, M. (2005). History. The U.S. Marine Corps. (pp. 5 -- 17). Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications.
The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency has stated that up to 50% of the heroin coming into the United States passes through Nigeria.
Concern over progress towards democracy -- that Nigeria is backsliding towards military dictatorship, and human rights violations.
In specific terms, the strategic importance of Nigeria from U.S. perspectives lies in the country's economic, political and military power (which) has provided some anchor of stability for the region. If the Nigerian state degenerates, so will regional stability.
U.S. Relationship with Nigeria Vital for West Africa and Valuable for oth Countries
"A strong Nigeria is critical for a strong Africa and a strong Africa is vital for global peace, not only in the area of conflict resolution as Africa has 70 per cent of conflicts in the world. We are fighting poverty, under development and trying to bring human and physical infrastructure up to 21st century standards. A…
Aka, P.C. "The Dividend of Democracy: Analyzing U.S. Support for Nigerian Democratization." Boston College. 3 December 2009 .
Ayam, J. "The Development of Nigeria-U.S. Relations." 2008. brittanica.com. 2 December 2009 .
Bureau of African Affairs. "Background Note: Nigeria." September 2009. U.S. Department of State. 1 December 2009 .
Campbell, J. "Richer Relationship the Result of Nigeria's Democratic Transformation (Interview)." 25 February 2005. allafrica.com. 1 December 2009 .
The reasoning of the Sixth Circuit more strongly aligns to principles of Equal Protection than the decision of the Supreme Court.
hile the Supreme Court decision made much of the freedom of prosecutorial discretion, the Sixth Circuit made it clear that invididual prosecutors "retain discretion in only three areas: whether to bring federal charges or defer to state prosecutions, whether to charge defendants with a capital-eligible offense, and whether to enter into a plea agreement." United States v. Bass, 266 F.3d 532 (2001). Furthermore, when the death penalty is sought, the prosecutor must submit a memorandum outlining the reason for seeking the death penalty, including all mitigating and aggravating circumstances. Id. Bass's discovery request would have gone to that underlying material, to help determine whether or not his allegations that his selection for death-penalty eligibility was somehow racially motivated.
Bass's evidence showed basic racial discrimination:
First, the Survey showed a…
18 U.S.C.S. 3593(f).
United States v. Bass, 266 F.3d 532 (2001).
United States v. Bass, 536 U.S. 862 (2002).
United States v. One Tract of Real Property, 95 F.3d 422 (1996).
The movement to stop apartheid in South Africa really became popular on college campuses all across the United States during that time, and it begin to spread out eventually into other areas of society as well, which brought it to the notice of the government much more strongly than it already was.
When it became obvious that there were many people in the country that were concerned about what was happening over in South Africa and thought that it should be stopped, the government and big business began to realize that they must do something to help end the apartheid. They began to boycott goods from South Africa to show their displeasure with what was taking place in that country. In addition to this, they also began to divest themselves of all of the interests that they had in that country, which meant that money that was coming into South…
Brown, D. (1988-89). "Speaking in Tongues: Apartheid and Language in South Africa." Perspectives in Education: 40.
Kashula, R.H. & Anthonissen, C. (1995). "Communicating across Cultures in South Africa: Towards a Critical Language Awareness." Johannesburg: Hodder and Stoughton: 98.
Soudien, C. (1998). "The Debate on Equality and Equity in South African Education," in Dealing with Diversity in South African Education: A Debate on the Politics of a National Curriculum, ed. M. Cross et al. Kenwyn: Juta: 128.
United States of Man
During the American Revolution, the fundamental rights of women seemed unattainable. In a period where there was relative little other choices than to obey, women grew accustom to their ill treatment -- treatment could now be likened to that of a prisoner. During this time "The United States of America" became a paradox, this name implies that all states and boundaries are equally 'United'; the irony is that 'Men' were the only ones unified. Women lived in complete obedience of their husbands and in accordance to the English law of feme-covert; however, the Deceleration of Independence and American Revolution empowered women, as seen in the powerful voices of Abigail Adams and Elizabeth Cady Stanton to help change the roles and statuses of women in the United States. The two women played major roles in stimulating the imagination of women and demanded equal rights for both men…
United States has become preoccupied with the internal affairs at the expense of the foreign affairs after the civil war. It started interfering in overseas conflicts and interacting with the World after the diplomatic inactivity from Latin America and Spain to the China and Philippines. This interaction made the America to become a major World power.
The first conflict of America was with the Hawaii in Pacific which was governed by Queen Liliuokalani. American investors were attracted to the sugarcane industry. A treaty gave Hawaiian sugar a duty-free import to America until the McKinley tariff of 1890. The sugar planters revolted and the United States was en-route to annex Hawaii until President Cleveland withdrew the offer. America bought Alaska from Russia and established an informal protectorate in the Samoan islands and this has increased the America's pacific influence.
America's industrial economy produced a surplus of products hoping to expand its…
Gitelson, Alan., Dudley, Robert and Dubnick, Melvin. 2011. American Government. Cengage Learning.
Szirmai, Adam., Naude, Wim and Goedhuys, Micheline. 2011. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and economic development. Oxford University Press U.S..
Ishiyama, John T. 2011. Comparative Politics: Principles of Democracy and Democratization. John Wiley and Sons
Swaine, Michael D. 2011. America's Challenge: Engaging a Rising China in the Twenty-First Century. Carnegie Endowment.
What Makes America Great Essay
This “what makes America great” essay will look at three aspects of American culture and character that help to explain American exceptionalism. America is unlike any other nation in the world. Its critics like to point out its flaws. But those who appreciate it for what it is recognize that America is and has always been the “land of opportunity”—more so than any other country in the world (Keuilian). From the conquistadors to the colonialists to the Founding Fathers to the Fathers of Industry, America has been the stage where the world’s imagination has flourished and found the most food for thought and fuel for innovation.
The fact that America is largely an accident is a footnote in history by now. It was accidentally discovered by Columbus. (He was shooting for India). It was considered a Great Experiment by the Founding Fathers. Washington…
The Heritage Foundation. “How Strong is the United States Military?” Heritage, 2019. https://www.heritage.org/defense/heritage-explains/how-strong-the-united-states-military
Hoover, Herbert. The Future Of American Individualism. Hoover Institution, 2011. https://www.hoover.org/research/future-american-individualism
Johnson, Paul. A History of the American People. HarperCollins, 1997.
Keuilian, Bedros. “Why America Is Still the Land of Opportunity.” Entrepreneur, March 14, 2018. https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/310208
Sherman, Andy. “Long Live American Ingenuity.” The Hill, October 19, 2018. https://thehill.com/opinion/finance/412211-long-live-american-ingenui
The Supreme Court is the most powerful body of men in the United States, contrary to what many people believe.
The powers of the three branches of government are enumerated in the three charters of freedom: The Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of ights. Together, these documents enumerate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the United States, inherent by virtue of their citizenship; and they enumerate and limit the powers of the three branches of government in such a way as to create a system of checks and balances that cause the actions to be scrutinized by the other branches, and, if the office of the President, or the president, does not agree with legislation crated by the House of epresentatives, sent to the United States Senate for approval, the president can veto the bill containing the legislation. Likewise, the president's veto…
U.S. Federal Government, located online, found at http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml , retrieved 1 February 2008.
United States Military Performance Against the British in the War of 1812
In June 1812, the U.S. declared a war against the British and their North American allies. The war, according to Smith, was motivated by America's quest to take control of Britain's North American territories, Britain's punitive trade policy, Britain's support for Native Americans, and the forced enrolment of American sailors into the British navy. As a young nation, the U.S. was eager to safeguard its newly acquired independence. Commonly known as the forgotten war (Hickey 1), the war had important lessons for the U.S. This paper briefly evaluates the performance of the U.S. military in the war.
As depicted in the film The War of 1812, the U.S. initially employed an offensive strategy against the British (Public Broadcasting Service). Since the British navy was the strongest worldwide, the U.S. paid attention to land campaigns, especially in Upper and…
3 billion and in the exports of other goods of $0.7 billion in October compared to September. However, other goods categories reported decreases, like: foods, feeds and beverages (decrease was $0.5 billion), consumer goods (decrease was $0.4 billion), and industrial supplies and materials (decrease was $0.2 billion). Exports in categories like automotive parts, vehicle, and engine remained constant.
October imports of goods increased in the following categories: industrial supplies and materials with $1.9 billion, consumer goods with $0.4 billion, and automotive parts, vehicle, and engine with $0.5 billion. Imports of capital goods decreased with $0.5 billion, while imports of foods, feeds, and beverages decreased with $0.1 billion compared to the previous month. Other goods did not show any modification regarding imports.
Exports of services also increased October compared to September. The increase was of $0.5 billion. The most significant increases were reported in other private services (including business, professional, and…
1. U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services: October (2007). U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved December 17, 2007 at http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/Press-Release/current_press_release/ftdpress.pdf .
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism is the extended terminology that refers to the U.S.A. Patriot Act which, following the events of 9/11 was passed by the Senate immediately and almost unanimously. When the Pentagon and the World Trade Center were attacked in 2001, concerns over national security and America's susceptibility to terrorist threats emerged more so as the country remained baffled at what had just happened. Governmental figures needed to address people's concerns and overall, the issue of law enforcement being able to prevent such attacks from ever happening again. With Assistant Attorney General Viet Dinh having authored the act shortly after the events and upon reviewing existing practices and methodologies, Jim Sensenbrenner, member of the epublican Party, presented it to Congress. It should be noted that, generally, the Patriot Act is embedded in America's history of electronic surveillance that emerged…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Reclaiming patriotism: A call to reconsider the Patriot Act. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/safefree/patriot_report_20090310.pdf
Democratic Policy Committee. (2011). H.R. 514, Patriot Act extension. Legislative Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/docs/lb-112-1-14.pdf
Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot's Act impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52, 179-209. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1168&context=dlj
Roundy, M.D. (2006). The Wiretap Act -- Reconcilable differences: A framework for determining the "interception" of electronic communications following United States v. Councilman's rejection of the storage/transit dichotomy. Western New England Law Review, 28, 403-438. Retrieved from http://assets.wne.edu/164/19_note_Wiretap_.pdf
Since the days of the Old West, domestic terrorism has dug its roots into the United States. From Timothy McVeigh, whose motivations for the Oklahoma City bombing ranged from his complaints over the governments' dealing with certain political situations to his anger over the violence he witnessed during his stint in the military, to eco-terrorists and animal-rights activists who use violence in order to win others to their cause, the scope of terrorism is the United States is both large and diverse. While FBI agents search large cities for Al Qaeda terrorists in the United States, small town police arrest protestors who threaten to set fire to abortion clinics and make threats to far left and right wing organizations. Because a great deal of domestic terrorism centers around political ideas and activism, targeting domestic terrorism has become a rather controversial subject. Some argue that the demonstrations that often…
Baggett, Jay. (2007). Law Would Make Minutemen Guilty of 'Domestic Terrorism.'
Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=53857 .
Bergen, Peter and Swati Pandey. (2005). The Madrassa Myth. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/14/opinion/14bergen.html .
Cooke, Jeremy. (2001). School trains suicide bombers. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1446003.stm .
United States v. Jones
Issues before the Court
Is attaching a GPS tracker to a motor vehicle, and subsequently employing it for tracking its movement on public roads, counted as a search-and-seizure operation under Amendment IV? (United States v. Jones | Case Brief Summary)
Facts of the Case
Nightclub owner and manager Jones, the defendant in the case, was suspected of trafficking narcotic drugs. From information collected using a number of investigation methods, law enforcement officials were able to procure a warrant which authorized attaching a GPS tracker to Jones' wife's Jeep (which was never driven by anyone but Jones). However, the law enforcers didn't adhere to the deadline stipulated in the warrant and attached the tracker after the deadline lapsed, employing it for tracking the Jeep's movements (United States v. Jones | Case Brief Summary). The satellite-guided tracker established the Jeep's whereabouts within 50-100 feet, conveying it to a…
he Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. heodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. his had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. his public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin…
The years between the Civil War and the New Deal were marked with major changes in policy, government structure, and the world at large. Though race policy was largely regressive following the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, other reform movements pushing for institutional change gained steam during this period. The struggle for women's suffrage and other rights was truly galvanized in 1848, but was put on hold during the Civil War and completely ignored by the Constitutional amendments following the war. By 1920, women's suffrage was finally established nationally.
The other major reform movements of this period were the Populist and Progressive movements. The Populists grew out of various labor and farm movements. Labor unions began to be discussed and formed during this period, though they would not gain a strong foothold until around the 1920s, following the same timeline as women's suffrage. Some elements of the Populist ideal were government or collective ownership of railroads and communication systems and an income tax somewhat similar to what we have today. The Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. Theodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. This had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. This public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
Cuts in defensive spending, minor reductions to social security and the aforementioned tax measures will significantly improve the economy, whereas some of the options the U.S. has pursued in recent times are doing the opposite, as the following quotation implies.
Washington is likely to make across-the-board cuts in discretionary spending, where there is much less money and considerably less waste…but reducing funds for things like education, scientific research, air-traffic control, NASA, infrastructure and alternative energy will not produce much in savings, and it will hurt the economy's long-term growth (Zakaria, 2011).
With the implementation of many of the measures that were suggested by Simpson and Bowles, the U.S. should be able to reduce its budget and increase its financial stability within approximately 15 to 20 years. However, the improved economy will not have the ameliorating effect on other important industries and areas of interest such as healthcare and unemployment if…
Carpenter, M. (2010). "Fiscal Commission CO-Chairs Simpson and Bowles Release Eye-Popping Recommendations." TPM. Retrieved from http://tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com/2010/11/deficit-commission-co-chairs-simpson-and-bowles-release-eye-popping-recommendations.php
Crumley, B. (2009). "New lessons from the old world." Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1901483,00.html
Elliott M., Schuman, M. (2011). "World economic forum at Davos: Still standing." Time Retrieved from http://business.time.com/2011/01/31/world-economic-forum-at-davos-2011-still-standing/
Zakaria, F. (2011). "Are America's best days behind us?." Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2056723-1,00.html
With a lower interest rate, that incentive no longer exists and this is usually an instrument by which private entities can be driven out of saving and into investing into new business on the market. Obviously, such an action usually creates the appropriate momentum for economic development, creating jobs, increasing governmental revenues through revenues from taxation and helping the country out of the economic recession.
In terms of fiscal policies, the measures that the government needs to take will all attempt to move the IS curve further to the right and, in this sense, to stimulate the national economy, reduce the period that the country will pass through the recession and determine a national economic growth. There are two important means by which this can be done: increased governmental spending and decreased taxes, with a less restrictive taxation policy. As we can see on the IS - LM graph, both…
The deliberation, discussion, or conference upon the terms of a proposed agreement; the act of settling or arranging the terms and conditions of a bargain, sale, or other business transaction." (688). He also argued he never acted as an agent for TBE.
Holding of the Court
Schaltenbrand's petition for a rehearing was granted. His conviction on the first statute, prohibiting former government employees from representing private parties before the government on matters in which they previously worked for the government was upheld, but not the second statute which prohibited former government employees from representing private parties before the government on matters in which they previously worked for the government
Court's Rationale or Reasoning for its Decision
By offering himself to TBE, including offering to learn Spanish, the court deemed that he was clearly 'negotiating' with the organization while still an officer in violation of the first relevant statute. "Again, there…
The result is thousands of people denied the necessary refuge that they seek. Clintora condemns this as a "major policy gap (that) threatens not only human rights in individual countries but also jeopardizes international and regional stability and American regional influence and economic interests."
Kreimer (2007) expounds upon the fact that few legislators had time to fully read the PATIOT Act, when it was first proposed. Once enacted, there was significant concern about the expansion of powers for unchecked surveillance. However, many of the Acts provisions were subject to a four-year sunset requirement. It was believed that Congress would carefully examine how organizations, such as the FBI, utilized their power under the PATIOT Act, when deciding whether or not to certain provisions would go by the wayside come 2005. Yet, in 2006, after much political wrangling, most of the PATIOT Act was reenacted, with little change to the original wording,…
Clintora, E. (2008). Refugees or terrorists? Kennedy School Review, 8. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Kreimer, S. (Winter 2007). Rays of sunlight in a shadow 'war': FOIA, the abuses of anti-terrorism, and the strategy of transparency. Lewis & Clark Law Review, 11(4). Retrieved December 4, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
Yager, L. (30 Oct 2008). USA PATRIOT Act. GAO Report. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from MasterFILE Premier database.
The USA PATRIOT Act
United States Congress:
The legislature of the United States was established in 1789 under the country's constitution and divided structurally from the judicial and executive arms of the government. This legislative arm in separated into two houses which are the Senate and the House of Representatives. hile the Senate requires that each state is represented by two senators regardless of its size, the House of Representatives consist of members who are elected on the basis of population. The Congress was created by the pioneers of the American Constitution on the basis that a huge portion of the powers of the government needs to be on the legislative branch. hereas the two Congressional chambers are separate and distinct, they tend to have an equal role in the enactment of legislation in most cases. Representation, lawmaking, oversight, service to constituents, conflict resolution and public education are the six basic functions of the…
"Chapter 11: The Congress." Faculty and Staff, Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter College. Web. 24 May 2011. .
"Congress of the United States." History.com - History Made Every Day. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Web. 24 May 2011. .
The rule of the case involves the Commerce Department's power to impose antidumping duties under 19 U.S.C § 1673.
The Supreme Court review of the issues presented in the instant case was a case of first impression but it has far reaching affects across a variety of industries. The question addressed by the Court was when does an import transaction involve a sale of merchandise and not merely a sale of service? The Court in its decision closed a loophole that had been created by the lower courts which had limited the application of the antidumping law based on the intent of the parties to the import transactions. The importance of the Court's decision in this case is whether U.S. industries can compete with foreign goods produced through arrangements in which a customer provides the raw materials. The various utility companies involved had argued that the transactions involved…
United States: A Polarized Nation
In recent decades, the United States had become a far more self-interested nation, that is, a nation in which most people are more concerned with their own interests, or their own small group's interest (e.g., the AARP lobby; the pro-life movement) than with the interests of the nation as a whole. As a result, the United States as a country is now more polarized than ever before, around special interests such as these. In this essay I will discuss polarization within the United States, in terms of political parties as well as other matters.
The extent of America's polarization, along political lines, may be most plainly seen through the results of U.S. Presidential elections within in the past two decades. The last two landslide presidential elections were won by Ronald Reagan in 1980, against Jimmy Carter, and then again by Reagan in 1984, against Walter…
United States Foreign Policy
United States has enjoyed an important position in the international political scene, since its rise to power. The U.S. government has actively participated in international political issues, primarily for the sake of country's own interest. After the Second World War, United States emerged as one of the largest economies of the world and soon acquired the position of the "only super power." The history of the United States is evident that these were the foreign policies adopted by the country's administration that led the nation to advancement, greater power and wealth in a way that no other power has ever achieved.
While discussing the policy issues, policy makers argue that it is the national interest that guides them to define foreign policies of the country. Throughout history the national interest of the country has been influenced by the events and political issues of other nations. United…
Donald E. Abelson: American Think Tanks and Their Role in U.S. Foreign Policy: Palgrave Macmillan: 1996
David Ryan: U.S. Foreign Policy in World History: Rutledge: 2000
John Dumbrell & David M. Barrett: The Making of U.S. Foreign Policy: Manchester University Press: 1998.
However, this Court also recognizes that mental illness oftentimes differs from other immutable characteristics, such as mental retardation and age, in that a defendant oftentimes has the ability to control mental illness through medical interventions. hile there is tremendous evidence of Panetti's deteriorated mental state, there is very little evidence to support Panetti's assertions that he was insane at the time of the murders. Though there are serious questions regarding Panetti's competency to stand trial, much less his competency to represent himself in that trial, there simply does not appear to be any evidence that he was insane at the time of the murders. Panetti engaged in preparations that were rationally aimed at accomplishing the murder of his in-laws, but was able to refrain from killing his wife and child. In addition, he engaged in a stand-off with police that resulted in him escaping the stand-off without being killed and…
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 322 (1976).
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 299 (1976).
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399, 409-10 (1986).
United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent body of the federal government that is mandated with the responsibility of providing postal service in America. The agency was known as the U.S. Post Office Department in 1971 when it was totally managed by the United States government. In addition to be referred to as Post Office, Postal Service or U.S. Mail, USPS is one of the few agencies of the government that are clearly authorized by the U.S. Constitution. Since its inception, the United States Postal Service has developed to an extent that it is the largest post in the world since it provides more mail to more addresses in a bigger geographical region. The success of this organization can partly be attributed to its strategy to fulfill or realize its mission, organization design and structure, and its organizational culture and its cultural values.
USPS Mission and Strategy
Matsch, R.P. (2013, July 9). In the United States District Court for the District of Colorado.
Retrieved October 4, 2014 from http://smartgunlaws.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Bonidy-Docket-Version.pdf
United States Postal Service. (2014, April 3). ELM Revision: Organizational Structure Policies
and Job Evaluation Processes. Retrieved October 4, 2014, from http://about.usps.com/postal-bulletin/2014/pb22386/html/updt_005.htm
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
Thus Koppatschek's testimony is reliable.
In light of David's blatant disregard of the stipulations of the contract with Monsanto, his attempts to cover up his infringement, his inconsistent testimony and his apparent disregard for the legal process, the Court finds that Monsanto v. David does fit the definition of an exceptional case.
Because David violated the Technology Agreement which he signed with Monsanto, there was no reason why Monsanto could not be awarded the attorney's fees stated in said agreement.
Court hold the decision of the lower court in part, holding that the district court did not err in determining that David planted saved seed. The Court held the damages awarded in the amount of $10,000 in enhanced damages, $164,608.03 in costs, and $323,140.05 in attorney fees. However, the Court finds that the alternate award of $30,542.99 duplicated the $164,608.03 damages, and therefore was erroneous and therefore reversed. The…
Montsano Co. v. David. United States Court of Appeals, Federal District. Recieved from: (please fill in source here).
This was not a compilation of current rules and regulations, but rather adjustments to the current laws. It contains over 6,500 words of detailed fine-tuning (Florida ar, 2004). While these changes may well have been necessary and important, it also highlights the complicated rules and procedures those dealing with juveniles must follow. Meanwhile, individual municipalities and states, such as St. Louis and Texas, grapple with the practicalities of making juvenile probation do its job of rehabilitating youth and protecting society. It seems likely that Texas will not find the funds necessary to provide the type of program offered in St. Louis, since St. Louis can only accommodate 28 youth at a time. In addition, their approach still does not reach 35% of participants, so it is not the entire answer. Perhaps good research can suggest a way to offer rehabilitative probation to youth in a way that is financially feasible…
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC). 1997. "Federal juvenile corrections in South Dakota." Federal Probation, March.
Florida Bar. 2004. "Proposed juvenile procedure rules (Notice)." Florida Bar News, October.
Geraghty, Thomas F. 2002. "Securing Our Children's Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence (Book Review)." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, January.
Lhotka, William C. 1998. "Special Probation Program Monitors Troubled Youths." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 1.
United States healthcare programs to citizens compare with the healthcare provided to residents in other countries? That question will be the focus of this paper, along with the background to the decision of major health insurance companies to support the candidacy of Republican Mitt Romney.
here does the U.S. stand in the world when it comes to healthcare?
According to a statement by the Speaker of the House of Representatives, John Boehner, the U.S. has "…the best health care delivery system in the world" (Politiface.com). Boehner, who was a guest on the CBS Sunday program "Face the Nation," was commenting on the candidacy of Mitt Romney. On the July 1, 2012 program, Boehner said he supports Romney for president because Romney "…understands that Obamacare will bankrupt our country and will ruin…" that healthcare system that the speaker believes is best in the world (politifact.com).
Meanwhile on Fox News Sunday (also…
Balanced Politics. (2009). Should the Government Provide Free Universal Health Care for All
Americans? Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://balancedpolitics.org .
Business Insider. (2012). Health Insurance Companies Are Worried About A Romney
Victory. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.businessinsider.com .
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…
Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.
Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.
Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
United States to Respond to a WMD Attack Within Our orders?
The objective of this study is to answer how prepared the United States is to respond to a WMD attack within its borders and to answer whether there is enough capability to effectively respond to such an attack. This study will further answer as to whether the response plan and command control structure clearly understandable and whether everyone has a role or if there are gaps or redundancies. Finally, this study will answer as to how intelligence supports this response with restrictions imposed upon intelligence operations within our borders.
The challenges to an effective response to a WMD attack within U.S. borders are diverse in nature. Some of the challenges are technology related while others relate to communication among agencies and operation teams. In addition, there is presently funding issues relating to effective management of homeland security initiatives making…
Joint Publication 2-38 (2007) Civil Support.
National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats (2009) National Security Council.
Steps Have Been Taken to Improve U.S. Northern Command's Coordination with States and the National Guard Bureau, but Gaps Remain (208) GAO report to congressional requesterse. USGAO. April 2008.
United States Northern Command (2007) DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management 29. A3 (Jul 2007): 1-2.
United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
Why did the United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
In 1775 the thirteen British colonies in North America rose up against their parent country Great Britain. The war was known as the American evolution and was seen by the British Crown as an affront to its rule, as a result it increased its strangle hold upon the colonists (Anonymous, 2002).
From this attempt to rule by an iron hand forced the colonists to officially declare war upon the British and form a new government with their own Constitution. The war ended in 1781 and America was recognized as an independent nation by the British Government in 1783 (Anonymous, 2002).
However, in 1778, before the end of the war America had already signed…
Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at http://ragz-international.com/american_revolution.htm
Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History [online] accessed at http://www.myhistory.org/historytopics/articles/isolationism.html (Cole, 1991)
During hearing of the Appeal, the 9th Circuit Court, while acknowledging that the 1963 contract was entered into with the farmer's interests in mind, found that the contract language was not clear enough to support an "intended third-party beneficiary" who could sue for a breach of contract. it, therefore, affirmed (Ibid.)
In their rulings, the District as well as the Appeals Court relied on the 9th Circuit decision in Klamath (1999) in which the Court had denied "third party" status to the appellants. hile affirming, the 9th Circuit also recognized that it "may be at odds" with the Allen (1984) decision.
The Supreme Court, in its unamanous decision, held that the relevant part (390uu) of the Act merely permitted parties to join the United States in an action between other parties when the action required interpretation of a contract; it does not permit a plaintiff to sue…
ORFF et al. v. UNITED STATES et al. Find Law for Legal Professionals. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=000&invol=03-1566
Seigle, Max. Orff, Francis, et al. v. U.S., et al. Medill News Service. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://docket.medill.northwestern.edu/archives/001853.php
Klamath (1999) was a case in which a power company and the Reclamation Bureau had re-negotiated a contract and the irrigators, who were serviced by the dam, but were not privy to the modification and sued for breach of contract based on their "third-party beneficiary" status.
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
United States Deficit, Surplus, and Debt Have an Effect on the United State's Financial Reputation on an International Level
The objective of this study is to examine how and why the United States deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the United States' financial reputation on an international level.
The United States has been historically viewed as a country that is financially sound. In 2011, as the United States government appeared it was going to default on its debt it is reported that there was a great deal of "bitterness, division and dysfunction that resounded around the world." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) It is reported that the United States is experiencing a diminishing of its "aura as the world's economic haven and the sole country with the power to lead the rest of the world out of financial crisis and recession." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) Additionally, the United States debt levels…
Levit, MR et al. (2011) Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations. Congressional Research Service. 11 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/157101.pdf
Sanger, DE (2011) In World's Eyes, Much Damage Is Already Done. 31 Jul 2011. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/01/us/politics/01capital.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves.
However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to live up to its high standards of personal liberty. In a prisoner of war camp located at a military base in Guantanamo Bay, American soldiers violated international prison code standard during a humiliating act of submission where prisoners were forced to perform unlawful acts and behaviors at the behest of the soldiers on duty, (Sullivan, 2008). The very rights which were being so violently being protected in the eyes of the American public were actually being violated in our backyard.…
National Security Council. (2008). The national security strategy of the United States of America. www.whitehouse.gov.17 May. 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
Radelet, Steve. (2005). Think again: U.S. foreign aid. www.foriegnpolicy.com.18
May, 2008. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2773
Shah, Anup. (2006). Criticisms of current forms of free trade. Free Trade and Globalization. 18 May. 2008. http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Criticisms.asp#ErodingWorkersRights
This would have given Hitler an advantage in Africa, and he could have conceivably taken over much more territory and been much harder to control and subdue. In addition, on the Pacific front, the Japanese were attempting to take over as much territory as they could find, all the way to Australia and beyond, and the Americans defeated them many times during 1942, including at the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway, where countless Japanese soldiers died, and numerous Japanese ships were sunk. If America had not entered the war, Japan could have gotten a much bigger foothold in the Pacific, and might have been impossible, or much harder to stop.
In Europe, there might have been far more dire consequences if America had not entered the war until 1942. England was weakening, and it is very conceivable that the country could have fallen to the Nazis in 1942. This…
What choice did they have? That was an entirely different time, and people were very strong and resourceful (Burrows & Wallace, 1972). They did not have all of the help and resources that they would have had today, and women had to learn how to do things for themselves even though it was not something that they were taught or that society had encouraged them to entertain (Brinkley, 2010). Because women boycotted so many British goods, they rekindled their cloth-making and weaving skills. In addition, legal divorces were granted to women if they were patriots but their husbands continued to support their King (Brinkley, 2010). That was, quite likely, the most significant issue that took place for women during the evolutionary War.
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American evolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National…
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American Revolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National Liberation. Perspectives in American History, 6: 167 -- 305.
Cohen, B.R. (2009). Modern environmental history of Virginia. Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia
Kerber, L.K. (1990). "I have don…much to carrey on the warr." Women and the shaping of Republican ideology after the American Revolution. Journal of Women's History, 1(3): 231-243.
Fourth Amendment, which restricts searches pursuant to a probation circumstance to those with a 'probationary' purpose, removes any wrongdoing in the case of United States v. Knights with regards to warrantless searches. Often times there exists a thin balance between safeguarding citizens and observing probationers. Any observation made by law enforcement that might causes suspicion of a probationer can then translate into reasonable inquiry and therefore make it legal to perform searches without a warrant.
Under the circumstances of the case, the respondent, Knights was living under precise probationary limitations that allowed law enforcement to conduct a search of his person regardless of warrants. espondent came under suspicion after a vandalism spree occurred. A detective noticed the respondent and then searched and arrested him as a suspect.
His summary probation was a result of a drug charge. Because of this probation, and after he signed and agreed to submitting to…
Carper, D.L., Mietus, N.J., & West, B.W. (1999). Understanding the law. Cincinnati, Ohio: West Legal Studies in Business.
Karagiozis, M.F. (2005). Forensic investigation handbook: An introduction to the collection, preservation, analysis and presentation of evidence. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD.
Palmer, J.W. (1977). Constitutional rights of prisoners. Cincinnati: Anderson Pub. Co
For example, the Chinese had no need for European foodstuffs but they did want European silver ("Early Global Commodities" 2010). Trade between China and Europe was not as robust as it was between the Arab world and Europe because of the lack of demand in China for European products other than silver. As a result, a diffusion of culture from China to Europe did not take place as did the diffusion of culture from Arabia and medieval Muslim societies to Europe.
Moreover, much European silver came from the territories conquered in the New World. In addition to plundering South America for silver, European societies also imported South American foods such as tomato, chili, chocolate, and sugar. These commodities eventually transformed the European diet ("Food, Demographics, and Culture" 2010). Thus, economic imperatives cause the development and diffusion of ancient South American societies. On the other hand, Yellow iver Valley culture in…
"Early Global Commodities," (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247550
"Food, Demographics, and Culture" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247553
"Migrations of America" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/260105
"River Valley Civilizations." (n.d.) Retrieved online: http://www.historyhaven.com/APWH/the%20River%20Valley.htm
Jefferson asked Lewis to fully explain to the Indians that the white explorers were interested in trade, not in seizing their lands (Ambrose 154). This showed that Jefferson used a steady hand and smart policies regarding the estern frontier and that he understood diplomacy with the Native Americans, whom he respected very much.
The Civil ar: The fact is, most Americans probably believe that the only issue that precipitated the Civil ar was slavery, and though slavery was at the center of the north-south feud, it was not alone as a spotlighted issue. The bottom line issue that tore the country apart was state's rights; in other words, did states have a right to go against the will of the national government? Could a Southern state continue to keep slaves in bondage because their cotton crops (hence, their economic power to survive) depended on slave labor? The answer of course…
Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson,
and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jones, Robert Francis. (2002). George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinary leader.
Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press.
hen the old Manchu dynasty failed to come up with ways to thwart the invading foreigners, a new nationalism was born in China. The old pastimes and rituals (p. 214) had allowed China to become soft. This awakening nationalism - partly a rejection of "foot binding, servant-girl bondage, prostitution, gambling," and opium smoking - was stoked not just by the colonial aggression, but by a spreading literacy (educational institutions were being built, the telegraph, newspapers, magazines and railway travel) and emerging awareness of their endangered culture. The last Manchu Emperor was put out of office on February 12, 1912, and hence a political system that had endured for 2,133 years, was out of commission.
Fairbank takes great pains to cover myriad events in China that led the country from ancient dynasties to new ideas and new leadership. The new order - the Kuomintang political party - came into power in…
Fairbank, John King. The United States and China. Cambridge, MASS: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Instead of providing a democratic model that Chinese companies could follow, American companies and not only go to China for the advantage of paying a lot less for the same work. The fact that our government tolerates and encourages such practices must change.
After the 1989 massacre in Tiananmen Square, one of the sanctions imposed on China was to be denied any World ank loans. A year later, the sanction was reduced as China was supposed to improve its human rights practices in order to get World ank loans. This measure, as many others, was never applied, as China is now one of the main beneficiaries of World ank loans and has done little in changing its human rights practices. Despite the fact that U.S. could have used its influence in the World ank and impose strict sanctions on China, it preferred not to do so, most probably based on…
China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)," Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61605.htm ;
Christensen, Nick, a Standoff Between Giants: America's Policies Towards the Human Rights Record of China, December 9, 1998, available at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rtanter/F98PS472PAPERS/CHRISTENSEN.NICK.CHINA.HTM ;
Kourous, George and Tom Barry, "U.S. China Policy: Trade, Aid, and Human Rights," Foreign Policy in Focus, Vol. 1, No. 5, November 1996.
In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.
Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…
United States from Nigeria in order to add to my life and career experience. I began my venture by joining the United States Navy. My main motivation for this was to raise the necessary funds to enroll in a college. After one year I was honorably discharged as a result of glaucoma, and I could not raise the funds that I needed. This however did not deter me from my plans and I enrolled in a local community college instead. Here I made the Dean's list after one semester, and received a scholarship. It is also here that I continued to develop my interest in finance and banking.
One of the reasons I want to continue with graduate work in this field then is the fact that my work and studies so far have unlocked the world of finance for me, and I find the pursuit of the field extremely…
3 for robbery, 244.0 for assault, 367.7 for burglary, 1,617.7 for larceny theft and 213.3 for vehicle theft
In 2005: 4.5 for murder, 18.9 for rape, 182.7 for robbery, 239.7 for assault, 351.3 for burglary, 1,569.6 for larceny theft and 185.6 for vehicle theft
Year Population Murder Rape Robbery Assault urglary Larceny-Theft Vehicle Theft 2003-19,212,425-934 3,775-35,790-48,987-75,453-311,422-45,204-2004 19,227,088-889 3,608-33,506-46,911-70,696-311,036-41,002-2005 19,254,630-874 3,636-35,179-46,150-68,034-302,220-35,736
FI, Uniform Crime Reports, (http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm)
As the charts prove, there has been a decrease in the number of murders, larceny thefts, assaults, burglaries and vehicle thefts. As for rape and robbery we can notice that year 2005 has brought a slight increase in the percentage comparatively with the previous year, meaning 2004.
I believe that these drops in criminal activity are not due only to the better coordination of the police compared to the previous years. I must admit, though, that the greatest part may have been achieved by it.…
FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm (n.d.)
United States represents the best society that the world has ever seen. It is a land of opportunity that offers its citizens levels of freedom unknown to prior generations and material comforts that the rest of the world envies. These freedoms and comforts, however, come at a steep price and one of these prices is that the United States is characterized as having one of the world's largest prison populations. A prison population that is dominated by inmates who have been either convicted of drug related offenses or are suffering from some form of substance abuse.
The enforcement of criminal laws and incarcerating those who pose a danger to public safety is essential for a society based on the rule of law but the fact that so many prisoners are jailed as a result of drug involvement begs the question as to whether or not incarcerating such individuals is a…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2000). Crime in the United States: Unform Crime Report. Washington, D.C.: Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Kuziemko, I. (2004). An Empirical Analysis of Imprisoning Drug Offenders. Journal of Publc Economics, 2043-2066.
U.S. Department of Justice. (1999). Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997. Washington, D.C.: Department of Justice.
Drugs and Prisons