Urban Development Essays (Examples)

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Urban Problems the Future of

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17904947

The three necessities of life, food, shelter, and clothing, will always remain fundamental for all world citizens. Food sources will shift scope from the factory farm model in place today to smaller-scale organic farms. Smaller in scale but larger in number, farms will also rely less on long-distance transportation for delivery of goods, which will reduce stress on the environment. Housing will also evolve into a more ecologically-conscious industry with emphases on sustainable building materials and efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Finally, all industries including clothing will be regulated not necessarily by corrupt governments but by local watchdog organizations to ensure living wages, healthy working conditions, and quality goods and services.

eferences

Community Development." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm

Community Development." (2006). Federal eserve Board. etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm

King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html

Office of Community…… [Read More]

References

Community Development." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at  http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm 

Community Development." (2006). Federal Reserve Board. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm

King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html

Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at  http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/
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Urban Areas

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9462953

Urban Area

Globalization has created a profound impact on society. Through globalization, emerging markets continue to grow and develop. New and innovative products are created that provide solutions to societal problems. As such, wealth is created that is distributed to nations that provide services to humanity. As wealth is distributed, urban areas are created and cultivated. These cities, over time, become populated with the new inhabitants, and continue to thrive. The development of cities and urban areas correlates directly with economic growth and development. With an economic system that continues to innovate, produce product and provide jobs, urban areas cannot be properly developed. The documentary, Urbanized is a testament to the merits of a market economy and how the city of the future may be fundamentally different from the city of today (Kolb, 1972).

To begin Urbanized provides enlightening insights into which the colonies or social formations, in which we…… [Read More]

References:

1) Kolb, Frank (1984). Die Stadt im Altertum. Munchen: Verlag C.H. Beck. pp. 51-141: Morris, A.E.J. (1972). History of Urban Form. Prehistory to the Renaissance. London. pp. 22-23

2) Taylor, Nigel, (2007), Urban Planning Theory since 1945, London, Sage.

3) Wheeler, Stephen (2004). "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities," Routledge; 3rd edition
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Urban Educational Reform Education and

Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89596561



Indeed, the structure of this particularly program will allow me to explore and refine some of my own ideas concerning educational equality through both theoretical and research-based modes of investigation. This is an exciting prospect as I have yet to truly test in a scholarly or empirical way many of the assumptions and concerns which have inclined me to take this path. Even as I seek admission into the program, I am inclined to consider the spectrum of possible avenues through which to validate, disprove or expand my existing knowledge of the subject.

This would, of course, be supplemented by the urban development, community and organization discussions which are a key component of the program. I consider these aspects essential to developing the tools necessary to actually apply to a resolution of the concerns cited at the outset of this essay. Particularly, much of my own experience and personal research…… [Read More]

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Urban Ecology on the Ground

Words: 2818 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48027290

Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…… [Read More]

References

City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from  http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf 

Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.

Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.

Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from  http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm
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Urban Studies Stimulus Bill the

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19799766

The more jobs that can be created with this money, the more people that can get back to work and the money people that can get on with their lives. And that is exactly what the people of New York City want to do.

orks Cited

Hill, Jeffery. "hat the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7

June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm

"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.

McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>

Light, Larry. "Stimulus Package Offers a Break for Mass-Transit Commuters." 2009. The all

Street Journal, 7 June 2009, http://blogs.wsj.com/wallet/2009/03/11/stimulus-package-offers-a-break-for-mass-transit-commuters/

Mason, J.. "Federal Stimulus and Medicaid: How Big a Savings for the City?" 2009. IBO

eblog, 7 June 2009, http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park/?p=7

Meckler, Laura. "Obama Signs Stimulus Into Law." 2009. The all Street Journal, 7 June 2009,

<…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Jeffery. "What the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7

June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm

"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.

McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
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Urban Studies Legend Jane Jacobs

Words: 1223 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54389709

According to Jacobs, "It was being done unofficially when what had grown big and successful was used to eat up, or wipe away, or starve what was not."

Besides just abject failures, though, Jacobs also cites a number of success stories that indicate city planners in the United States had learned some valuable lessons from their failures in the late 20th century. According to Jacobs, "There are quite a few cities that are more vigorous and more attractive than they were 10 or 20 years ago. A lot of good things are being done, but it's not universal." As an example, Jacobs points to Portland, Oregon as a city that has taken steps to reinvent itself based on the lessons learned in the past. Emphasizing that the Portland planners did not use a "lot of gimmicks," Jacobs reports that the holistic approach used has resulted in a reinvigorated city:

"It's…… [Read More]

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Urban Studies and Planning

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 812725

walked through the empty lot, en route to the walking path beneath the freeway overpass. "Someone ought to do something with this land," I said to my friend. "What a waste! At least the city could buy it and build a skate park, like the mayor keeps promising." My friend nodded in return. Several years ago, I didn't understand how cities sprouted and grew; how their residents maximize local natural resources; and how neighborhoods, streets, and public utility services are mapped out. Like most people, I watched passively as parking lots turned into parks and once-dead districts became magnets for tourism. Then on a trip to New York City I craned my neck in utter amazement at the towering high rises looming over me, anchored on the relatively tiny island of Manhattan. Eight million people breathed, walked, and worked here and although the subways didn't always run on time, Manhattan…… [Read More]

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Urban Sprawl and How States Are Dealing With the Issue

Words: 5621 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59571043

Land Use Planning Policies and Urban Sprawl

IMPORTANCE

Land planning for distribution has progressed manifolds in the past century. Increase in the number of communities in the country raises the demand for urban development. Developments are often referred as revolutionary plans meant for better living. However, by the end of the 20th century perception of better living means away from the mainstream urbanism. Communities shifted to new areas with open space, tranquility and yet with almost the same kind of amenities as those in the urban areas [illiams, 2000].

Urban spread has become a major concern for various reasons. According to some urban sprawl should be controlled through extensive planning campaigns. Proponents of this group argue that the open spaces for farmland, once considered an off-limits arena for the urban commuters, today with the help of developers has slowly encroached on farm designated land. Opponents to sprawl are quick to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jacobs, Harvey M. Fighting Over Land America's Legacy... America's Future? Vol. 65 no, Journal of the American Planning Association, 04-15-1999.

Oliver, Charles. "Regulations Are Crimping the Suburbs," Investor's Business Daily, June 23, 1998.

Kaiser, Edward J.; Godschalk, David R., Twentieth century land use planning: a stalwart family tree... Vol. 61, Journal of the American Planning Association, 06-22-1995, pp 365(21).

Gordon, Peter; Richardson, Harry W., Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Vol. 63, Journal of the American Planning Association, 01-01-1997, pp 95(12).
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What Is Urban Planning What Is the Role of the Urban Planner

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87736842

Urban Planning & Urban Planners

Urban planning, or also referred to as urban development, consists of the formal planning process in which urban area designed to meet both the present and future challenges that are present in city life. They consider the relationship between the built environment and human behaviors or quality of life (Handy, Boarnet, Ewing, & Killingsworth, 2002). An urban planner, sometimes called a city planner, can assist community leaders in analyzing trends in order to decide how to best use public resources to meet various objectives. Some of the issues that are commonly addressed by an urban planner might include city growth planning, urban decay, environmental issues, social issues such as poverty and crime, and many more. By studying these issues, researchers attempt to understand the factors that make cities both livable and enjoyable. This research is also used to implement plans and policies by which positive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brueckner, J. (2000). URBAN SPRAWL: DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIES. International Regional Science Review, 160-171.

Frank, L., Sallis, J., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75-87.

Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urbanplanning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 64-73.
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Transformations in Urban Planning

Words: 2350 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27043612

Urban Planning and Historic Preservation of Landmarks

In recent years, the preservation of history has continued to develop and some say has matured. Historical preservation now assumes a real part in how property development takes place in communities throughout the country. The National Historic Preservation Act and other preservation statutes have a strong impact not only on how the government deals with its own undertakings, but also on how elected officers license and fund projects and planning by private, state, and neighborhood organizations. ecently, there have been several research studies addressing examples of notable preservation and their success by a leading urban market analyst, Edward Glaeser, and by the engineer em Koolhaas. Glaeser is a financial specialist who is an authority in urban advancement. While he concedes that preservation has value, he argues in his book "Triumph of the City" and in a recent article, "Preservation Follies," that noteworthy preservation…… [Read More]

References

Aiden While.2006. Modernism vs. Urban Renaissance: Negotiating Post-war Heritage in English City Centres." Urban Studies, Vol. 43, No. 13, 2399 -- 2419, December 2006

Birmingham, Rebecca. 2010. "Smash Or Save: The New York City Landmarks Preservation Act And New Challenges To Historic Preservation." Journal Of Law And Policy 19, 271. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed April 26, 2015).

Byrne, J. Peter. "Historic Preservation And Its Cultured Despisers: Reflections On The Contemporary Role Of Preservation Law In Urban Development." George Mason Law Review 19, (April 1, 2012): 665. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed April 26, 2015).

Dennis, Rodwell. "Urban Conservation in the 1960s and 1970s: A European Overview" Architectural Heritage XXI (2010): 1 -- 18 Edinburgh University PresSDOI: 10.3366/arch.2011.000
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Urban Sprawl The United States

Words: 762 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36467751

Sprawl locations are often unsightly and starkly modern in a manner that offends some Europeans: "Traditional cities, like many small and mid-sized cities in modern-day Europe, were typically oriented in a compact and efficient way. Preferences of many people, especially in the United States, have led suburban development…in an outward instead of upward manner…Subdivisions are often cited as primary examples of a less efficient use of space that characterizes sprawl. These layouts often only have a few places to enter and exit, causing main roads to have more traffic at these points" (Hill 2010). Creating long commute times and encouraging people to remain within their homes rather than seek out others during times of leisure has had a profoundly negative social impact upon the U.S., many believe, and they cite the fact that the few cities that are anomalous in their development, such as walker-friendly New York City, tend to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, Adam. "What is urban sprawl?" Wise Geek. August 11, 2010.

 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-urban-sprawl.htm
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Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40344392

Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860

Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.

Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.

Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from ccsenet.org: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/res/article/viewFile/4585/3924

Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods. Phhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
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Urban Sprawl Is a Problem That Can

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65687421

Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.

As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26

Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975

Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998

Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
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Urban Sprawl Is Not Something That Too

Words: 2180 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81409636

Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.

Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garreau, J. (1991). Edge City. New York: Anchor Books.

Gordon, P. & Richardson, H. (1998). Prove it: The costs and benefits of sprawl. Brookings Review 16(3): 23-26.

Lomax, T. & Schrank, D. (1998). Urban Roadway Congestion, 1982 to 1996. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute.

Reid, A. (10 December 1996). Area traffic stuck in a costly jam. Washington Post, A1.
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Urban Problems and Solutions

Words: 2150 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69794811

Urban Problems and Solutions

In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.

Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…… [Read More]

References

Arthur, Shirley. 1996. Surviving teen pregnancy: Your choices, dreams, and decisions. Buena park, CA: Morning Glory Press.

Johns, M. J; Moncloa, F & Gong, E.J. 2000. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Linking Research and Practice. Journal of Extension. Volume. 38; Number: 4, pp.42-47

Wong, J. & Checkland, D. 1999. Teen Pregnancy and Parenting: Social and Ethical issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
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Urban Drainage System Sustainable Urban

Words: 3018 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12969064

If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.

Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).

4.5. Swales

They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.

The advantage of swales is that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September.

Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands

Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521

Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582
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Urban Marketing & Event Planning

Words: 2368 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3315470

They strongly believe that dealing with questionable data and lowly-skilled workforce is a waste of time. Therefore, as they venture into newer markets, they face the risk of loosing out. As they go into markets looking at new opportunities, they are very insightful about company reputation.

Market Segmentation

Our focus will vary from providing services to large and medium-sized firms to small start up companies. However, small-sized firms will be the main target of our firm. Dushane will also provide attractive lucrative offers to companies that have management problems and are incapable of tackling problems when they first enter the U.S. markets.

Service Business Analysis

The consultancy "industry" is not only crushed but also incompetent, with hundreds of thousands of small companies along with individuals offering consulting services and focusing on the few dozen recognized corporations.

Our competitors vary from key global brand-names to hundreds of thousands of entrepreneurs. The…… [Read More]

Reference:

H.F. Riebesell. Small Business Planning: Entities, Succession and Implementation. PESI, 2001.

Urban marketing & event planning
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Urban Outfitters Case Study Urban Outfitters Has

Words: 1592 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30575146

Urban Outfitters Case Study

Urban Outfitters has defined a highly differentiated and unique shopping experience, supported by the eclectic and highly varied store layouts and merchandise strategy. This approach to retailing appeals to the individuality and uniqueness every consumer also sees in themselves, allowing the consumers to define themselves by what they like. INA actuality, Urban Outfitters is more aligned to key marketing concepts and strategies than its much larger and less differentiated competitors including Sears and Wal-Mart. Appearing non-conformist and counter-culture within its image, Urban Outfitters is actually providing an escape for consumers to use their purchases to define who they really are and what they actually care out. etailing that appeals to the values and individuality of a consumers are highly effective in creating loyalty and continued repurchase (Puccinelli, Goodstein, Grewal, Price, aghubir, Stewart, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to explain why Urban Outfitters continues to…… [Read More]

References

Arndt, M.. (2010, March). Urban Outfitters' Grow-Slow Strategy in Europe. Business Week,1.

Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V.. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: An Organizing Framework. Journal of Retailing: Enhancing the Retail Customer Experience, 85(1), 1-14.

Patton, P.. (2008, February). URBAN OUTFITTERS. Fast Company,(122), 53,56.

Puccinelli, N., Goodstein, R., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D.. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: Understanding the Buying Process. Journal of Retailing: Enhancing the Retail Customer Experience, 85(1), 15-30.
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Urban Riots Often Indicate Underlying

Words: 1812 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34954982

The odney Kind riots resulted in 50 deaths, 4000 injuries, 12,000 arrests, and $1 billion in property damage ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992").

While riots give a voice to the oppressed, it remains questionable whether they create meaningful structural change. Ten years after the odney King riots, "South Central remains one of the city's poorest neighborhoods. Unemployment remains well above 20% even after the boom of the 1990s," ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992"). iots reflect poorly on their communities, frightening away potential investors, social service institutions, and other means of community enrichment.

However, cities and their governments can learn from these four significant events in American urban history. Law enforcement officials must be trained to anticipate riots. Police departments should eliminate racial profiling and more vigorously prosecute officers using excessive force. Minorities should become well-represented at all levels of city government including law enforcement and criminal justice but also in…… [Read More]

References

The 1965 Watts Riots." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/watts.html

Herman, M. (nd). "Newark Riots-1967." The Newark and Detroit Riots. Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.67riots.rutgers.edu/n_index.htm

Los Angeles Riot Still Echoes a Decade Later." (2002). CNN.com.

The Los Angeles Riots, 1992." Retrieved Mar 12, 2007 at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/la_riot.html.
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Urban Injustice How Ghettos Happen

Words: 1121 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3406645

Hilfiker is particularly sensitive to the source of poverty in African-American inner-city ghettoes.

His recommendation for ending poverty, was one new program: universal health coverage, to which he argued convincingly, would save all of us as a nation on current health costs and yet could include the 43 million presently uninsured (Seven Stories Press).

He also suggested three other existing programs:

1) the earned income tax credit, shown by the economists as the most profitable program for bringing up families out of poverty;

2) Unemployment insurance, that could be expanded in order to distribute enough income to keep the unemployed at least at poverty level;

3) Supplemental Security Insurance for the disabled. As he noted,

As a physician, I sometimes struggled for years to get examiners at S.S.I. To understand that one or another of my patients was, indeed, disabled."

Furthermore, for Hilfiker, the fundamental grounds of American poverty were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Speaking of Faith. Krista's Journal. "Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen" by David

Hilfiker. www.speakingoffaith.publicradio.orgAugust 24, 2006

Seven Stories Press. "Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen" by David

Hilfiker. www.sevenstories.com
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Urban Sprawl the Area Northeast of Madison

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46920671

Urban Sprawl

The area northeast of Madison, Wisconsin between the city and the area of Interstate 90 and Cottage Grove oad contains a large swath of viable and as of yet undeveloped land. This proposal to develop this target plot follows a sustainable policy of sprawl. The goal is to develop the land as an extension of the Madison metropolitan area rather than as a suburb, providing urban residents with green space while providing those living near the target area with recreational activities as well. Land use policies will be progressive and focused on social justice and ethical development. The proposal for development includes the potential for ethical and sustainable business development, which encourages small business owners to establish a presence in the new space. The new area will be known as Park 420.

Park 420 will be divided into quadrants including one quarter set aside for urban farmland. Grown…… [Read More]

References

"Urban Sprawl." Almanac of Policy Issues. Retrieved online:  http://www.policyalmanac.org/environment/archive/urban_sprawl.shtml 

Wolch, J.R., Pastor, M. & Drier, P. (2004). Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of California. University of Minnesota Press.

Wood, H. (1998). How Government Highway Policy Encourages Sprawl. CATO Institute. Retrieved online: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=5837
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Urban Poverty

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61596936

Urban Poverty Readings Summary/Critique

These readings examine the relationship between race and poverty, especially in urban settings that present a setting of de fact segregation. Mincy and others note the social reinforcement of certain poverty-perpetuating attitudes and behaviors in urban poor communities, which still have a predominantly frican-merican population (Mincy 1994; Massey, 1990; Jargowsky & Sawhill 2006). Specifically, the jobless rate among males living in ethnically segregated urban is noted by these authors as a major contributing factor -- if not the primary factor -- in continued poverty along dramatically racialized lines. Mincy (1994) also notes that this naturally results in higher rates of federal assistance and criminality as a primary means of subsistence in these families, and this state of affairs is self-perpetuating in the way it isolates members of such communities from mainstream society and provides inadequate role models for future generations, even insofar as actively discouraging traditional…… [Read More]

As a partial (and implicit) answer to this, Jargowski and Sawhill (2006) also contend that the massive reductions in welfare benefits promoted an increased drive to join the legitimate workforce. Though this was certainly true to some degree, it is unlikely that it had effects of the magnitude suggested by the authors. Furthermore, the "color neutrality" of welfare policy recommended by Wilson is, as Massey eloquently argued, merely a less conspicuous form of racism, and is more insidious for its lack of obviousness. Ignoring the fact that levels of employment show a high negative correlation with being African-American moves past politically correct naivete and into tacit approval of discriminatory hiring practices. The problem is not as simple as plans like affirmative action tried to make it seem, however; the low availability of jobs ensures that without a proper education viable employment is an unrealistic dream for many urban poor.

Mincy (1994) also notes the low quality of schools in his evaluation of the issue, but this detail becomes lost in the myriad of other social influences to which he attributes partial credit. It seems clear that, given the focus of both Mincy and others such as Massey, Schiller, and even Wilson note the unavailability of legitimate employment, the ability to earn higher-skilled positions is essential to stop the perpetuation of the segregation and poverty cycle. Jargowski and Sawhill (2006) also touch on this in their article, noting the higher incidence of high-school dropouts amongst those defined as the underclass. This is especially noticeable in high-poverty areas (where 40% or more of the population in a given geographical neighborhood is living below the poverty line). It is for this reason that Jargowski and Sawhill (2006) champion the destruction of high-rise low income housing and the decentralization of housing programs -- breaking up these neighborhoods, their logic goes, will limit the potential for self-perpetuation within the segregated community by scattering the community itself.

The idea that the destruction of a community will somehow lead to its betterment is beyond misleading; it is simply appalling. Though this is not the direct and explicit argument Jargowski and Sawhill make, it is the eventual result. None of the authors of these readings dare to say that, quite frankly, a population cannot be lifted out of poverty if it does not want to be. This is not to say that there are not historical and current socio0economic and cultural barriers to be overcome. Policy can only put the mechanisms in place to be utilized, however; it cannot force anyone to actually use them. Education and community activism -- that is, creating change from within -- coupled with ensuring broader and more available assistance for those that seek it is the only way to create a long-term shift in the attitudes of mainstream culture and the "underclass" as it stands today.
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Urban Pollution by Joel A Tarr

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29535911

Urban Pollution by Joel a. Tarr

Human Dissatisfaction

Joel Tarr's article, "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago" is largely about the form of urban pollution that preceded that created by automobiles. In short, this pollution was largely caused by horses, which were used as the dominant form of transportation from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. The author is essentially establishing a comparison between the pollution caused by horses and that caused by automobiles, although he devotes the vast majority of the article to elaborating on the fact that the pollution caused by horses was considered as big of a problem as the pollution caused by automobiles in the 1970s. If one examines the amount of space he uses for detailing the concerns regarding horse pollution to that of automobile pollution, one can infer that the former appears to be worse than…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Tarr, Joel. "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago."
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Urban Sprawl Nature vs Suburbia

Words: 1281 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7036182

Paying landowner easements to restrict development on their property is another way to protect habitats (Terris). However, it is still feared that these measures may be inadequate. The most popular solution appears to be controlling growth development to lessen the impact of future urbanization. This means making better use of already developed areas, and providing mixed land uses (Terris). Environmentalists agree that strategic planning is the best solution to help curb further destruction in the future.

Human Rights, not Animal Rights

Numerous wildlife encounters where animals appear in suburban areas make the news headlines at an increasing rate. This would appear to be good, as it indicates that animals are adapting to their human neighbors, and that they are thriving despite the invasion. However, wild animals in the burbs pose a hazard in terms of automobile collisions with deer, and even human deaths by bear attacks (Shaw). Not everyone agrees…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, Jane. Nature in the Suburbs. (SMG 261-65) http://www.heritage.org/Research/SmartGrowth/BG1724.cfm (Accessed November 4, 2008).

Terris, Jutka. Unwelcome (Human) Neighbors: The Impacts of Sprawl on Wildlife. (SMG 256- 61) http://www.nrdc.org/cities/smartGrowth/pwild.asp (Accessed November 4, 2008).
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Ecn Development United States Department

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65731912

d.). Even SWOT analysis can help urban planners determine situational variables, approximate risk, and therefore maximize the efficiency of an economic development plan. Issues such as community competitiveness have a strong impact on outside investors, which is another reason why urban planners must take advantage of a wide range of techniques. Urban planners can encourage economic development via a multi-stage process: analysis of need, analysis of risk, and analysis of potential investors.

As it relates to urban planning, sustainable development combines socially and environmentally responsible initiatives. Those initiatives must also be proven to stimulate economic growth and development in the community. Some government incentives may be offered directly for the purposes of creating and implementing sustainable development programs for communities. Land-use planning is one key facet of sustainable urban development. Controlling sprawl, implementing local and regional public transportation systems, and ensuring investments in clean water are other sustainable development issues…… [Read More]

References

HUD (2009). Economic development programs. Retrieved online:  http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/ economicdevelopment/programs/

"Urban Planning and Sustainable Development," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.h-net.org/announce/show.cgi?ID=157060 

World Bank Group (2007). Urban Development. Retrieved online:  http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/166856/UCMP/UCMP/step_two_urban_competitiveness.html
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Racism and America's Urban Cycle

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87201027

Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.

Question 2:
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824

Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X

Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
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American Industrialization Urban Systems the

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37404261

Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.

Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.

Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.

Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
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Architecture Urban Space and Architecture

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21189776

Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.

Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.

Le Parc de la Villette

The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.

Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…… [Read More]

Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."     http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/villette/    

Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."
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Pope Urban II and the First Crusade

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98309683

Pope Urban II and the First Crusade

Pope Urban II and his influence in developing and promoting the First Crusade in the 11th century

Christianity during the Middle Ages has been characterized by numerous conflicts that focus on the struggle for religious and political dominance, particularly in Europe and other Western societies. Of particular interest in the study of the history of the Christian religion are the events that surround European civilization between the 8th- 11th centuries. During these periods, Christianity experienced several movements that changed the social, political, and economic landscape of the European society and the Christian community in general.

One individual that played a significant role in propelling the Christian community into the socio-political movements of Europe during these periods is Pope Urban II, the religious leader of the Christians during the 11th century. He became known for his active role in inciting to his fellow Christians…… [Read More]

References

"Crusades." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

Pope Urban II. Speech at Clermont 1095. Available at: http://www.bow.k12.nh.us/CyberBUS/Crusades/pope.htm.
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American Urban History-Public Health Public

Words: 3719 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79796999

Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.

In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.

The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.

The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.

During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.

It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…… [Read More]

References

History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink

Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)

http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/ndwc_DWH_2.html

Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
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Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91314490

Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas

Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)

Shaw and McKay discovered a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.

Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966

Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.

Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
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Economic Development of Guangdong in the 90s

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71886080

Boom times on the gold coast of China" by Mike Edwards and Michael Yamashita (1997) discusses the industrial boom in the Pearl iver Delta. This area of southern China, adjacent to Hong Kong, was experiencing a boom in the 1990s in manufacturing. The authors of the article were writing about it like it was a new things, which I guess back then it probably was. The explored the nature of this boom, touching upon the political and economic system of the PC, as well as some light economic discussion about talent and capital inflows. Hong Kong was seen as the source for a lot of the influx of talent and capital. This is a big reason why the Pearl iver Delta became such a significant manufacturing hub, because Hong Kong served as a gateway for Western money to flow into the region. The article was written around the time of…… [Read More]

References

Edwards, Mike, and Michael S. Yamashita. 1997. "Boom times on the gold coast of China." National Geographic 191, no. 3: 2. Academic Search Complete,

EBSCOhost (accessed March 20, 2015).
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Urban Violence

Words: 1433 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39549794

urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…… [Read More]

References

Adolescent development: challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies.

Segregation and crime: the effect of black social isolation on the rates of black urban violence.

Lerner JV, Lerner RM. 1983. Temperament and adaptation across life: theoretical and empirical issues. In Life-Span Development and Behavior, ed. PB Baltes, OG Brim Jr., 5:197-230. New York: Academic. 411 pp.

Lerner RM. 1995. America's Youth in Crisis: Challenges and Options for Programs and Policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 147 PP.
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Urban Anthropology

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10899288

Religion and Urban Landscape

Social Assimilation and Identity in Gods of the City by Robert Orsi

Religion as a social institution is considered one of the most influential agents in the society. As an institution, religion plays a vital role in altering or changing the way people behave and think. This is especially true in the case of immigrants and other people of different nationalism and race in the United States. Contemporary American society is a 'melting pot' for people who came from all kinds of societies and cultures. As the number of immigrants increased, cultures are brought and assimilated within the American society, where 'hybridization' of societies occurs.

Religion, indeed, is one aspect of culture that directly influences individual and collective thinking and behavior. For individuals trying to cope with a different kind of society, religion serves as 'relief' and social companion for the lone individual. Through religious activities,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Orsi, R. (1999). Gods of the City: Religion and the American Urban Landscape. IN: Indiana University Press.
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Development of Southern California

Words: 3595 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77099148

Southern California

Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.

One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says

Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.

Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.

Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
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Urban City

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84466623

Edge Cities" by Joel Garreau.

Edge Cities

Joel Garreau authored the best seller on how we build the cities that become the milestones of our civilizations because the fact is that these places are where we find our offices and shopping malls located bringing money to all of us.

The title of the book Edge Cities by Garreau is one book that has been valued by its readers because it opens doors to the subject of unplanned architecture. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier is not only a blockbuster, but The New York Times declared it "the first major book to examine a phenomenon that by any reasonable definition is among the most pressing of our age." Garreau's ability to write is exceptionally different because he has the ability to look into the obvious chaotic mess that will only worsen the future.

The cities that have been defined as…… [Read More]

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Developments in Modern Art

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59699201

Modern Art

Contemporary and modern art has been characterized by increased focus on significant aesthetic and political work of artists across the globe. As a result, contemporary art is largely different from conventional work because of the shift in focus on elements of art. Actually, art has undergone significant changes throughout its history as a result of different influences across different time periods. Some of the major influences of contemporary and modern art include material culture, technology, consumerism, rise of graffiti, protest and posters, land art, mass media, representation strategies, political self-awareness, and expanded cinema. These influences have played major in art production in the contemporary world and contributed to new practices in art. Contemporary art has shifted from medium specificity as the organizing principle for advanced production to the concept of sites and systems because of the numerous factors that have influenced art over the years.

The Shift from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Holert, Tom. "Art in the Knowledge-based Polis." E-flux. E-flux, Feb. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .

Hopkins, David. After Modern Art: 1945-2000. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. Print.

Reyes-Garcia, Everardo, Pierre Chatel-Innocenti, and Khaldoun Zreik. "Archiving and Questioning Immateriality - Proceedings of the 5th Computer Art Congress." Computer Art Congress. EUROPIA Publishing, 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .

Shanken, Edward A. "Contemporary Art and New Media: Toward a Hybrid Discourse?" Hybrid Discourses Overview. Hybrid Discourses, Feb. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .
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Zoning and Development Case Study The Natomas

Words: 1807 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55406554

Zoning and Development Case Study: The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area

The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area is a land area of approximately 20,000 acres within the Natomas Basin and located in the unincorporated northwestern area of Sacramento County. Consisting of relatively flat terrain, the Basin includes approximately 55,000 acres, with approximately 17,000 acres in Sutter County. The plan to develop the Natomas area involves eight stakeholders: County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the Habitat Conservation Plan Conservancy, Landowners, Airport planners and Developers. The competing interests of these stakeholders require the use of relevant land-use planning methods and provisions for economic equity among all stakeholders, ideally using a in-in approach to conflict resolution.

A. hat is the decision problem involved in this case and what are the relevant factors necessary to understand the situation?

There are several competing interests and concerns:

I. "County South" wants…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aspen Environmental Group. (2010). Energy Aware: Facility Siting and Permitting Guide. Retrieved from California Energy Commission Web site:  http://www.energy.ca.gov/2010publications/CEC-600-2010-007/CEC-600-2010-007.pdf 

Callihan, D., Kleiman, D., & Tirnauer, J. (2009). An Independent Evaluation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Habitat Conservation Plan Program. Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

City of Sacramento, CA Planning Department. (2009, June 22). Natomas Joint Vision. Retrieved from City of Sacramento Web site: http://www.cityofsacramento.org/planning/projects/natomas-joint-vision/

Granicus. (2008). 2030 Sacramento General Plan: East Sacramento Community Plan. Sacramento, CA: Granicus.
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Community Development Is a Journey Not a

Words: 1541 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83172712

Community Development Is a Journey Not a Destination

Community Development

Community development is a course of action, where people not only work to increase their income or to produce more jobs but also helps in managing changes "in their community," and that is a process which is performed by the members of the local community. There is a strong interaction between the two words "community" and "development," which depends on the interaction between people and actions shared by different members of the community to which can only happen by bring changes in the way of communication. Therefore, community development is a journey, which can never end (Flora & Flora, 1993).

Community development is a journey not a destination means this is a continuing process to make innovative changes in the development of community, and resolve community issues by local community members. The basic goal of the community members is to…… [Read More]

References

Community Development Foundation (2013) Five reasons why community development is a great way to tackle crime. Retrieved from: http://www.cdf.org.uk/5-reasons-why-community-development-is-a-great-way-to-tackle-crime on 2nd May, 2013.

Flora, C.B. & Flora, J.L. (1993) Entrepreneurial Social Infrastructure: A Necessary Ingredient. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences vol.539 p.48-58.

Holton, M. (2007) 10 reasons rural community development is hard to do. Penton Media, Inc.

Okiy, R.B. (2003) Information for rural development: Challenge for Nigerian rural public libraries. Library Review vol.52 no. (3) p.126-131.
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Politics of Urban and Suburban Planning

Words: 3469 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29157087

urban and suburban planning. It discusses the effects that years of uncontrolled urban and suburban sprawl have had on culture, society and members of those communities. The negative health effects of urban and suburban sprawl are discussed, specifically those associated with air pollution. Issues regarding the efficient use of transportation are also discussed, specifically how these are, or are not incorporated when planning new communities or improving existing ones. Political debates and issues regarding the urban and suburban planning are also explored. This document focuses and discusses the popular debates that have occurred in recent times and how these affect the future of planning. This document also discusses some of the suggestions that are popular when trying to resolve problems related to planning. Smart planning is discussed in this document, smart planning which calls for more efficient and innovative methods when planning new communities. The opposition against smart planning is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frumkin, Howard, Lawrence D. Frank, and Richard Jackson. Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. Washington, DC: Island, 2004. Print.

Garvin, Alexander. The American City: What Works and What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.

Hutter, Mark. Experiencing Cities. New York: Pearson, 2007. Print.

Lindstrom, Matthew J., and Hugh Bartling. Suburban Sprawl: Culture, Theory, and Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Print.
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Brownfield Development Over the Last Several Decades

Words: 2587 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15901407

Brownfield Development

Over the last several decades, China has been going through tremendous amounts of economic growth. Since the 1990's, various Chinese cities have seen an increase of 380 million people. hile the economy, has expanded by five times as measured in GDP growth. However, the nation has also been experiencing challenges associated with the need for housing and sustainable development. One possible strategy for dealing with these issues is brownfield development. In the United States, this has been shown to be an effective tool for dealing with urban blight and managing growth inside a particular region. ("Urban Sustainability Index")

To determine if this kind of strategy can be effective in China requires measuring possible benefits. This means looking at specific cities in comparison with each other. Once this takes place, is when specific insights will be provided as to how China can deal with future economic development. Over the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Analysis, Tables and Figures." China Profile, 2011. Web. 16 Apr. 2012

"Asia Cities." China Post, 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2012.

"Brownfield and Redevelopment in China." China Environmental Governance, 2010. Web. 17 Apr. 2012

"China's Fastest Growing Cities." Nova Southeastern, 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2012
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Impact of Local Economic Development Initiatives

Words: 4311 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43161334

Local Economic Development Initiatives

THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas

The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas

The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas

Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…… [Read More]

References

Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.

Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.

Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.

Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
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Shanghai Development Shanghai Entrepreneurial Real Estate Development

Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50717071

Shanghai Development

Shanghai Entrepreneurial Real Estate Development Project

Shanghai is a city located on the Eastern Coast of China that has grown to be one the financial powerhouses of the industrialized world. The urban population growth trend can be explained by the fact that much of the rural population is increasingly migrating to the urban centers in search of economic opportunities. The Pudong are has also been responsible for an extraordinary share of the population growth in Shanghai. For example, there was a fifty six percent increase in the population from a little over three million in 2001 to roughly five million in 2011. This real estate development project consists of a structure that will be composed of twin towers that will reach the planned height of 250m and be attached by a podium. The project's financial calculations estimate an internal rate of return would be nearly thirty percent (26.88%)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Subbotin, S. (2010, August 07). Shanghai population to jump by some 17% over next decade. Retrieved from Ria Novosti: http://en.rian.ru/world/20100708/159730786.html

The Economists. (2012, June 16). Analects. Retrieved from The Economist:  http://www.economist.com/blogs/analects/2012/06/consequences-one-child-policy 

Appendix
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Future of Community Development Historically Early Civilization

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22668199

Future of Community Development

Historically, early civilization and communities desired to increase the welfare of its people through collective efforts. More recently, community development trends seek to capitalize on integrative intentional factors to enrich the lives of its residents. Communities are dynamic and challenging social systems that oftentimes require diverse approaches to achieve community goals. Several schools of thought, such as Postmodernism, Aboriginal, and Feminism, have spawned a more integrative approach that accurately represents the community systems as a whole. As a result, the future of community development is evolving into three intentional approaches for effectiveness.

Holistic Approach

Linkages exist between community infrastructure components: economic base, physical, support, human, and leadership (CDI, 2006). For example, the economic infrastructure necessitates the economy to provide work opportunities and development for residents. Similarly, economic disparity may adversely affect the development of a community. Physical infrastructure entails communities' access to basic resources, such as…… [Read More]

References

Zautra, A., Hall, J., & Murray, K. (2009). Community Development and Community Resilience: An Integrative Approach. Community Development, 39(3), 130-147.

Vidal, A.C., & Keating, W. (2004). Community Development: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges. Journal of Urban Affairs, 26(2), 125-137. doi:10.1111/j.0735-2166.2004.00191.x

Community Development Institute (CDI). (2006). Trends and issues in community development: Building sustainable communities. Retrieved from http://sustainabledevelopment.osu.edu/educational-resources/cdi-east-2006-trends

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Community Development of Corporations Corporate

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63598337

As our business operates in many remote, poor areas, which is ironically where gold is found the majority of the time, our community development and CSR managers travel extensively to these locations and complete planning and implementation programs to define how best the local economic can be improved through infrastructure development. A series of these trips showed that by providing Internet access throughout the local libraries, high school graduate rates increased by over 60%.

The compound effects of this initial investment in infrastructure also led to greater job creation and a more eclectic mix of professions. With greater knowledge flowing throughout the communities, many who had given up on education and jobs were re-invigorated. Gold mining communities tend to attract contract workers and their families that live from boom to bust, and almost become nomadic over time. By investing in the infrastructure of the community to accentuate learning, our company…… [Read More]

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Community Organizing Principles Community Development Aboriginal vs

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760048

Community Organizing Principles

Community Development:

Aboriginal vs. Feminist Principles:

Examining Similarities and Differences

Community development is vital for all humans. No matter what the term utilized, this action has been undertaken in all societies, for it binds us together and keeps us safe from the outside world. Furthermore, community development brings trust and resources that cannot be furthered but a single individual. For this reason, a social contract is necessary and it is for this reason as well that communities has formed and have existed for so long, in a wide variety, and so successfully. The paragraphs below will examine two communities, namely the aboriginal community at-large and the feminist community, and will compare and contrast principles of community development.

Aboriginal Principles

Achieving a successful community development practice in today's aboriginal communities, all over the world, has been quite a challenge. n Australia, for example, the trauma inflicted by the…… [Read More]

In order to examine more differences, however, it is first important to look at feminist organizing (FO). FO, according to one author is a "process designed to legitimize the lived experience of marginalized women, include diverse partners, equitably distribute power and responsibility, and foster respectful social connections."[footnoteRef:3] Though this many seem familiar with the poverty and community related issues described in aboriginal communities above, feminist principles and organizing focus on issues in a different way. For instance, another important facet of FO is power sharing, which is not found as clearly in the paragraphs above. This is defined as being "committed to creating balanced power relationships through democratic practices of shared leadership, decision-making, authority, and responsibility."[footnoteRef:4] This is a vital principle that can ensure success in this community. [3: Ponic, P and Frisby, W. (2005). Feminist Organizing as Community Development. Canadian Society for Leisure Studies. Retrieved October 23, from < http://lin.ca/Uploads/cclr11/CCLR11-112.pdf>. ] [4: Feminist Principles (n.a.). (2003). DAWN Ontario. Retrieved October 23, from < http://dawn.thot.net/feminism12.html>.]

Conclusions

It is important to organize as a community, especially if one is marginalized, discriminated against, or if one's community does not achieve full potential. The examples given above, from the aboriginal and feminist communities around the world are very good places to start looking. Though different in many ways, these two communities have one thing in common: striving constantly for success, which is an admirable quality and which should be encouraged by all countries and all governments.
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Regional Development

Words: 3041 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59924753

Regional Development

The differences in the level of development in the world regions emanates from the regional disparities in the individual country economies. This result in regional inequality within that country; therefore, regional inequality with respect to a country is the eminent disparity between the living standards that apply in that country. It is a hard task to quantify the level of development, prosperity or poverty in a country or region. However, some indicators show the level of development. Across the world, every nation has a challenge in achieving regional development equality, the difference coming in through the degrees of underdevelopment. The most affected nations by the inequality balance rank are the developing third world nations, Nigeria being among them. Nigeria has a rich endowment of natural resources, minerals and able population. However, the country faces a challenge in establishing itself as an economic superpower in Africa and the world…… [Read More]

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Community Development in Practice the

Words: 4061 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81453640

The significant natural deposits in rural areas are water, wildlife, woodlands and the environment as a whole. ural areas like Bulilima-mangwe in Matabeleland, Mutoko and Kariba have actually had effective ecological plans that have actually brought to life the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous esources (CAMPFIE) which has concentrated on the development of neighborhood organizations particularly in rural areas for the management and sustainable usage of communal wildlife resources, allowing areas and households to benefit financially from wildlife in their locations (UNCSD; 1998). Various other planning measures consist of water planning which enables equal chance to all to gain access to water which promotes social development, accomplish integration in between different sectors such as farming, mining, domestic use and ecological requirements in addition to accomplish sustainability such that future generations can enjoy the resource along with save water for effective use. From the previously mentioned, one can keep in…… [Read More]

References

Booth, D. (2005) 'Missing Links in the Politics of Development: Learning from the PRSP Experiment'. Working Paper 256. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Chambers R, (2005), Participatory Rural Appraisal, (PRA): Analysis of Experience, World Development.

Cornwall, a. (2004) 'Spaces for transformation? Reflections on issues of power and difference in participation in development'. Chapter 5 in Hickey and Mohan, 2004, pp. 75-91.

Dzinavatonga, N (2008) Community Participation and Project Sustainability in Rural Zimbabwe: the Case of Sangwe Communal Lands, University of Fort Hare, South Africa
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Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development

Words: 1864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23179533

Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development

Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…… [Read More]

References

Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.

Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute

Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
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Town Village Development in UK in the Medieval Ages

Words: 3089 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21897883

Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages

Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages

Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.

Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British

Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: http://www.artsinleicestershire.co.uk/architecture/historic_buildings.htm

Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site:  http://www.canterburytales.org/ 

Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Geolocation.ws Web site: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Leicester_Free_Grammar_School_west_side.jpg

Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.
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New Developments Importance of New Developments Importance

Words: 3033 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26953047

New Developments

Importance of New Developments

IMPOTANCE OF NEW DEVELOPMENTS FO LOCAL ECONOMIES IN USA

The major housing boom contributed to the economic growth in U.S. In between 2003 till 2008. The U.S. government received revenues from the development impact fees. esearches have shown that new developments greatly support the local economies in U.S.. Also the government plays an important role in providing the required resources and solutions to these new developments. The objective of writing this essay is to compare and contrast the cases of new developments that affect the environment and the development impact fees on the market. Also the environmental impacts will be evaluated in detail.

IMPOTANCE OF NEW DEVELOPMENTS FO LOCAL ECONOMIES IN USA

The economic growth of U.S. greatly increased due to contribution from major housing boom that occurred in between 2003 to 2008. The government charges a development impact fee in order to generate…… [Read More]

References

Carrion, C., & Libby, L.W. (2008). Development Impact Fees: A Primer. Ohio State University. Retrieved August 10, 2012, from  http://www.impactfees.com/publications%20pdf/dif.pdf .

Figure from Clarke, W., & Evans, J. (1999). Development Impact Fees and the Acquisition of Infrastructure. Journal of Urban Affairs, 21, 281-288.

Lester, R.K. (2005). IPC Industrial Performance Centre. MIT Press. Retrieved August 10, 2012, from http://web.mit.edu/ipc/publications/pdf/05-010.pdf.

McKibbin, W., & Stoeckel, A. (2006). Bursting of the U.S. Housing Bubble. Economic Scenarios.com Pty Ltd., 14.
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Techniques for Concept Generation in New Product Development

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31311866

Generation Techniques in New Product Development

The process of new product development begins with identification of good product ideas and the use of an appropriate criterion to determine ideas to pursue. This process involves concept generation, which is the most important step since it involves generating and/or obtaining ideas regarding the product. Concept generation in new product development entails developing a set of customer needs, specifying targets, and determining several product alternatives for the design process. Given the significance of concept generation in new product development, there are several concept generation techniques. These techniques can be utilized to create variations of the basic concept in relation to different product form, characteristics, positioning, benefits, and customer target.

Overview of Concept Generation

According to Nobel (2013), concept generation is the process through which product development team creates or obtains ideas relating to the various aspects of a product such as product form…… [Read More]

References

"Concept Generation." (2003, March 5). Lecture 13. Retrieved from University of Iowa website: http://user.engineering.uiowa.edu/~bme083/lecture/lecture13_030503.pdf

Linsey et al. (2011, March). An Experimental Study of Group Idea Generation Techniques: Understanding the Roles of Idea Representation and Viewing Methods. Journal of Mechanical Design, 133, 031008-1-031008-15.

Nobel, M. (2013). Product Concept Generation. Retrieved from Tufts University website: http://sites.tufts.edu/eeseniordesignhandbook/2013/product-concept-generation/
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Involvement Consumers in New Product Development

Words: 1110 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55964438

Marketing Innovation

Market Innovation

New products can either be an entirely new product to the marketplace, or more commonly are an extension of a product line or an iteration of a pre-existing product. One new product released in the past year was the iPhone 6S. This is an extension of the iPhone line in general, or more specifically the iPhone 6 line that was originally launched in 2014. The 6S represents some tweaks to the older products, but nothing so dramatic that an entirely new name for the product was warranted. Thus, this product is an extension of the older line, intended to replace older models of the iPhone, as anything before the 6 series is now discontinued. The biggest challenge that Apple had with this product was to differentiate it sufficiently from its other offerings. The existing iPhone 6 proved popular, and the 6S was viewed by the marketplace…… [Read More]

References

Fuller, J., Bartl, M., Ernst, H., Muhlbacher, H. (2004). Community-based innovation. Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Science. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hans_Muehlbacher/publication/221180518_Community_Based_Innovation_A_Method_to_Utilize_the_Innovation_Potential_of_Online_Communities/links/0046352b85ba69f305000000.pdf

George, A. (2016). The 6 most important technologies of summer 2016. Popular Mechanics. Retrieved April 16, 2016 from http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/gadgets/g2560/the-6-most-important-technologies-of-summer-2016/

Hoyer, W., Chandy, R., Dorotic, M., Krafft, M. & Singh, S. (2010). Consumer co-creation in new product development. Journal of Service Research. Vol. 13 (3) 283-296.

Nambisan, S. (2002). Designing virtual customer environments for new product development: Toward a theory. Academy of Management Review Vol. 27 (3) 392-413.
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Adolescent and Child Development Lawrence

Words: 2311 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74297560

The transition from pre-conventional to conventional moral development is changing one's view from selfishness to responsibility for others. The transition from conventional to post conventional development is from goodness to truth that "they are people, too." Gilligan's theory supports that there is more than one dimension to moral reasoning, whereas Kohlberg's theory is focused on a male-centered view.

7.

An individual employing problem-focused coping strategies will target the cause of their stress and focus on the problem that is causing the stressful situation. People typically try to learn about the problem and develop skills to manage the situation. Problem-focused coping strategies work best in situations the individual can control, for example, studying for an exam and work-based stressors. In circumstances that are out of an individual's control, such as death and coping with loss, one can use emotion-focused coping strategies. Emotion-focused coping involves reducing stress that is coupled with negative…… [Read More]

#8 http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp?id=6704

#9  http://www.ldonline.org/article/Learning_Disabilities_and_Young_Children%3A_Identification_and_Intervention 

#10 http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/partlist.htm#adolescenttrouble
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Policy Considerations in the Development

Words: 2511 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90446476

What is the nature of these service shortfalls and how do these service limitations potentially impact older adults' "quality of life" outcomes in both the short- and long-term?

1. Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms

2. Lack of elder population neglect prevention mechanisms

3. Lack of culturally relevant elderly care programs

4. Lack of enough physicians to take care of the elderly population

5. Lack of elderly-population empowerment programs

Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms

A review of literature indicates serious "gaps" in the mechanisms used in the prevention of elderly population abuse cases. Even though the Elder Abuse and Neglect Act clearly indicate that all suspected cases of abuse directed against the elderly population be reported, very little efforts exist at the establishment of hotlines to be used in reporting these cases. This means that very few cases of abuse are reported. This gap in the aging-related…… [Read More]

References

Administration on Aging (AoA). (2003). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.

Administration on Aging (AoA). (2005). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.

Gelfand, D.E. (2003). Aging and ethnicity: Knowledge & services. New York: Springer Publishing.

Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks: A Guide to Programs and Services. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
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Family-Centered Approach in Child Development Family Centered

Words: 2739 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59304760

Family-Centered Approach in Child Development

Family centered

Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement

Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…… [Read More]

References

Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.

Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
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Sustainable Tourism Development the Aim of the

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64428472

Sustainable Tourism Development

The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.

The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.

Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)

Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.

a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…… [Read More]

Hence, the conflict for the London Olympics 2012 surface when the choice between the two developments had to be made. There was no denying that the city needed development but the choice was made to prepare and finish the Canary Wharf development first so as to have a good, sustainable and efficient mode of transportation that would lead the Olympic grounds to the main city. Once, the Canary Wharf was completed, the focus then turned towards the docklands. It was far more important to have the Canary Wharf structure up and ready for clear and trouble-free transportation structure during the London Olympics 2012.

Task 3B - Explain the implications of balancing supply and demand which will need to be considered in the Olympics development. You need to state why there is a need to balance the supply and suggest possible consequences if this is not considered by the planners:

Evaluation of the Canary Wharf advancement has actually been extremely polarized. A brand-new monetary center has actually been built and analyses recommend that 'every a-g 1 million of public sector expense produced net extra advantages in the Urban Advancement Location of 23 tasks, 8300 sq m of workplace flooring area, 7.8 real estate devices plus numerous various other varied perks' (Rhodes and Tyler, 1998:32 estimated in Hamnett 2003:242). However, criticism has actually concentrated upon the elimination of neighborhood democratic controls and the replacement of the existing populace by a brand-new, more thriving team of young experts. In between 1981 and 1991 Tower
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Policy Development for the Investigated Issue The

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22534770

policy development for the investigated issue.

The chosen studies are "conviction offense and Prison Violence" by Sorrensen and Cunningham (2008), "Violence against women" by Baker, Niolon and Oliphan (2009), "Determine what works for girls in the Juvenile Justice system" by Zhan, ichavsky and Mihalic (2009) and "Violent girls and relabeled status offenders" by Feld (2009).

Description and Credibility of Methodologies Used

The four studies have been carefully selected to present the variation in the evaluation methods of these papers. In the study conducted by Baker, Niolon and Oliphan (2009), the authors aimed to formulate a 'descriptive analysis of transitional housing programs for survivors of intimate partner violence in the U.S.'. In this study it was imperative to analyze the current situation of domestic violence against women, in order to make recommendations. For this purpose, the methodology used in this paper is to access the transitional housing programs (THPs). The researchers…… [Read More]

References

Baker, C, Niolon, P and Oliphant, H (2009) A Descriptive Analysis of Transitional Housing Programs for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence in the United States, Violence against Women (15) 460

Sorenson, J and Cunningham, M (2008) Conviction Offense and Prison Violence: A comparative study of Murders and Other Offenders. Crime and Delinquency (56) 103

Zhan, M, Day, J, Mihalic, S and Tichavsky, L (2009) Determining what works for Girls in the Juvenile Justice System: A summary of Evaluation Evidence. Crime and Delinquency (55) 266

Fled, B (2009) Violent Girls or Relabeled Status Offenders?: An alternative Interpretation of the Data. Crime and Delinquency. (55) 241
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UK Urban Health Issue

Words: 3578 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9138501

incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.

First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…… [Read More]

References

A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.

Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.

Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896

City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
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Japanese History Urban and Rural

Words: 2227 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49754271

To some degree, this may be considered a concession to peasants who were largely upset with their station in life as urban areas benefited more significantly from the economic expansion. There is little indication that prosperity was widespread among the peasant classes during the Tokugawa period. Other historical signs point to the real possibility that most farmers suffered during this period.

In fact, much of the economic woes for rural Japan at this time can be traced to developments that were taking place in the cities because of the still feudal organization of Japanese society. The daimyo were lords in the feudal sense; though their holdings varied, agricultural lands -- and taxes on those lands -- formed the basis of their wealth and power. Therefore, when the shogun made it law that each daimyo had to keep up a residence both in their own hometown as well as in Edo,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Duiker, William J. And Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History Volume I: To 1800. 2nd ed. London: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1998.

Griswold, Susan. "The Triumph of Materialism: The Popular Fiction of 18th-Century Japan." Journal of Popular Culture 29.1 (Summer 1995): 235-245.

Howell, David L. "Territoriality and Collective Identity in Tokugawa Japan." Daedalus 127.3 (Summer 1998): 105-132.

Keogh, Annette. "Oriental Translations: Linguistic Explorations into the Closed Nation of Japan." Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation 45.2 (Summer 2004): 171-191.
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Promoting Smart Growth for Economic Development

Words: 830 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62396861

Residents of udbury, Ontario, say the town is at a critical turning point. Politicians voice a need to pursue a greater share of mining revenue from the province. Civic associations in udbury would like to see a new arts and convention centre constructed. City officials want to allow businesses that establish certain kinds of industrial parks to be exempt from paying development charges. Developers argue that they face too much opposition when the propose building in existing neighborhoods, a practice known as infilling. The rationale for supporting infilling is that existing living areas yield a higher level of revenue, which makes city infrastructure more affordable for developers. There are ancillary benefits to infilling, such as contributing to the financial and operational viability of the udbury Transit and averting urban sprawl, which supports efforts to address climate change.

Neighborhood organizations oppose the policy of infilling, often on a case-by-case basis that…… [Read More]

Sources:

Melia, S., Parkhurst, G. And Barton, H. (2011). The paradox of intensification. Transport Policy, 18(1), 46-52. Retreived http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.05.007

4

Research Methods
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Income Disparity and Development

Words: 2476 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13062707

Income Disparity and Development in Latin American Countries

The income disparity in the Latin American countries is the largest in the world and has a dramatic and complex impact on the development of these countries on many related levels. As one commentator states, "Inequality is as Latin American as good dance music and magical-realist fiction. Like those other regional products, it thrives." (Inequality in Latin America. A stubborn curse.)

Statistics from the World ank indicate that the richest tenth among Latin Americans earn 48% of total income, while the poorest tenth earn just 1.6%. The equivalent figures for rich countries are 29.1% and 2.5%. (Inequality in Latin America). While fifteen years of market reforms have resulted in income levels that are above those of Africa, yet " ... income disparity is the largest in the world and 222 million people live in poverty." (SANCHEZ M. 2005) Numerous studies and reports…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barro, R. "Democracy and Growth," Journal of Economic Growth, 1, 1-27. 1996

CONSTANCE P. A yardstick for misfortune. November 6, 2005.

http://www.iadb.org/idbamerica/Archive/stories/1998/eng/e1198i.htm

Economics A-Z. November 6, 2005. November 6, 2005. http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?TERM=GNP
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Parental Involvement in Urban School

Words: 11020 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27657969

Overall parental involvement has an effect on the child from the early stage to the secondary stage. Students need the parents for guidance, integrity and confidence to become successful in life because it is not the teachers job to make sure the students have these qualities. "In reality, parent involvement is a more diverse and complex concept than is generally acknowledged" (Dom & Verhoeven, 2006, p.570).

The study will help to determine the reason for the different challenges students may face due to the lack of parental involvement.

esearch Design and Methodology

The proposed study will use a quantitative research design that uses both secondary resources as well as primary data collected specifically for the purposes of this research. The research procedure will proceed in a step-wise fashion, beginning with an exploratory review of the literature to identify common themes and trends in the research concerning current patterns of parental…… [Read More]

References

McDermott, P. & Rothenberg, J. (2000). Why urban parents resist involvement in their

children's elementary education. The Qualitative Report. 5(3/4).

Blasi, M.J. (2001). Rethinking family-school relations: A critique of parental involvement in schooling. Childhood Education, 78(1), 54.

Ainscow, M. & West, M. (Eds.). (2006). Improving Urban Schools: Leadership and Collaboration. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111655146
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Third World Development What Are the Growing

Words: 4296 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75221729

Third World Development

What are the growing problems of ethnic tensions and violence in the developing world?

It is impossible to state all of the growing problems of ethnic tension and violence in the developing world, because old tensions are constantly being revived. Because most instances of ethnic tension do not lead to large-scale violence, when violence does erupt, it can be a surprise, even to seasoned observers. Of course, it is not always a surprise. Currently, Africa is the area most plagued by ethnic tension and resultant violence. Africa's conflict death tolls far surpass those on other continents, despite the minimization of violence in Africa (Shah, 2010). Moreover, Africa has a huge number of refugees and internally displaced people (Shah, 2010). The legacy of colonialism and the artificial boundaries it established among different ethnic groups make Africa ripe for growing ethnic tension (Shah, 2010). Moreover, the fact that many…… [Read More]

References

The African Center for Women. (2002). The African gender and development index and the African women's report 2002/2003. Retrieved from http://www.uneca.org/eca_programmes/acgd/cwd/en_meeting3/en_agdi.htm

Bage, L. (2001, May 15). The challenge of ending rural poverty. Retrieved July 10, 2011, from the International Fund for Agricultural Development website: http://www.ifad.org/events/op/ldc_e.htm

Cartwright, P., Delorme, C., and Wood, N. (1985). The by-product theory of revolution: Some empiral evidence. Public Choice, 46(3), 265-274.

Conan, N. (2011, February 7). The elements of a successful revolution. Retrieved July 11,
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U S Urban History Slavery in

Words: 2224 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58203114

Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).

Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.

The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).

Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35

(2008), pp. 485-496.

Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
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Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings

Words: 5238 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64030037

Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings

Desecration of Public Education

Attack on Public Education

Urban Education

Public Education: A Democratic Demand

Government's Interest in Charter Schools

Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed

Division of the Community

Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools

Difference between Public and Charter Schools

Innovation

Funding

Choice

Accountability

Educational Philosophy

No Standard Policies

Peer Pressure and Violence

Lack of Extracurricular Activities

Learning Disabilities

Authority and their igid System

Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits

Following measures can be taken to improve public schools

Charter Schools vs. Public Schools

The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education

The Pressure for eform in American Education

Traits of Charter Schools

Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings

Why to Save Public Schools 21

Conclusion 23

eferences 24

Abstract

The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…… [Read More]

References

Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.

Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.

Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.

Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
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Lewisian Model and Development

Words: 1171 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35880455

Lewisian Model and Development

State the assumption of the model.

The Lewis Model was developed in 1954 whereby it was shown that expansion of industrial sector was crucial to the development of less-developed countries (LDCs). The model was based on following important assumptions:

a) Less-developed countries have dual economy system. This means that economy in such countries is dependent on two large sectors that operate in starkly different environment. These sectors were defined as agriculture and industry. It was assumed that while agricultural sector is the largest economic sector in LDCs, it fails to make equally significant contribution to the country's income because this sector is characterized by low income, low productivity, high unemployment and poor wages. On the other hand industrial sector operates in a capitalist environment where business is run in the same manner as in western societies. This leads to huge differences in productivity and efficiency in…… [Read More]

REFERENCE:

W.A. Lewis, "Economic Development with Unlimited Supply Labor" Manchester School of Econ & Social Studies. Vol. 22, 1954 pp.139-191
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Stigma of Urban Poverty History

Words: 2529 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27538659

The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.

Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.

A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative

Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189

Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.

Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
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Metropolitan Development Affect Rates of

Words: 1924 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81802379



Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chu, James A. (1990). Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse, Am. J. Psychiatry.

Coons, P.M. (1994). Confirmation of childhood abuse in childhood and adolescent cases of multiple personality disorder and dissociative disorders not otherwise specified. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182, 461-464.

Finkelhor, D. (1990). Early and long-term effects of child sexual abuse: An update. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 325-330.

Jarvis, T.J., & Copeland, J. (1997). Child sexual abuse as a predictor of psychiatric co-
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Challenge of Teaching in Urban Districts

Words: 3146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47973379

Teaching in Urban Districts

The main form of interaction that goes on in schools is between the teachers and the students. Some of the students are difficult or unruly and they present many difficulties for the teachers as the teachers cannot then organize the class and provide the level of quality education that they are capable of. Disruptive students require more attention from teachers and this stops teachers from giving adequate attention to the rest of the class. There are many behavioral problems with students, but there is no method of dealing with such students in United States. Even the solution that can be achieved through disciplinary action has to be determined by the local school board, and then those decisions will have to be implemented by the teachers and the principal. One of the methods through which this can be done is the student parent handbook which is distributed…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ingersoll, Richard M. (November 19, 2004) "Why Do High-Poverty Schools Have Difficulty

Staffing Their Classrooms with Qualified Teachers?" Retrieved from http://www.americanprogress.org/atf/cf/{E9245FE4-9A2B-43C7-A521-5D6FF2E06E03}/Ingersoll-FINAL.pdf

McDermott, Peter; Rothenberg, Julia. (October, 2000) "

in their Children's Elementary Education" The Qualitative Report. Vol: 5; No: 3 & 4. Retrieved from  http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR5-3/mcdermott.html  Accessed on 18 July, 2005
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Strategies for Increasing Access to Educational Technology for Rural vs Urban Schools

Words: 872 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41774349

Education Technology

Technology in Education

An Brief Analysis of Methods that could work to improve access to Educational Technologies in both Rural and Urban Schools

Integrating technologies into classrooms general requires that a wide range of obstacles to be overcome. Not only do modern technologies have hefty price tag that can weigh heavily on school budgeting, but it also requires additional training for both the teachers as well as the students. Furthermore, it is often also the case that the school's culture is prohibitive of embracing new methods of class room education and teachers often have resistance to integrating new technologies into their lesson plans. However, in the modern environment, if technology is successful integrated into the classroom setting this can often not reduce some of the instructor's workload but also better prepare students to meet the challenges they will face in the twenty first century. The analysis will investigate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Estes, A. (2011, June 6). The U.N. Declares Internet Access a Human Right. Retrieved from The Alantic: http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2011/06/united-nations-wikileaks-internet-human-rights/38526/#

Termin, P. (2003, June). Low Pay, Low Quality. Retrieved from Education Next:  http://educationnext.org/low-pay-low-quality/ 

Turner, R. (2009, July 24). Strengthening Community Opportunities through Rural Education . Retrieved from University of Virginia: http://lisa.sts.virginia.edu/WIP/docs/papers/Turner_09_r.pdf
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Port and Harbor Planning Within Urban Areas as They Pertain to Coast Guard Facilities

Words: 3032 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49652369

Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Planning With Environmental Assessment and Coast Guard Facilities

Port planning is a multifaceted project that involves technical, operational, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The projects may range from terminal rehabilitation until altering the whole area into a communal park, involving several different aspects in economic, social, cultural, ethical, and environmental goals.

Every area has unique resources, which need to be incorporated into the whole planning process based on the local legal regulation. As with differences in geographical characteristics, it is necessary to find particular approach to the short- and long-term goals of the port, and every detailed construction or facilities provided. The port and harbor must meet the need on how to convert the urban area into a beneficial site as well as to maintain its original characteristics of the landscape including - and without overlooking - the resident people's objectives for the future. It…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Leverburgh Waterfront Planning Brief. 2001. European and Development Services. http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/lever00.htm.(Apr1, 2002).

Management Measurement For Marina and Recreational Boating. 1997. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-93-001c January 1993. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html.(Apr1, 2002)

Nicholas, Francis W. In Christian Charles M. And Harper, Robert A. 1982. Managing the Urban Physical Environment. Modern Metropolitan System. Charles E. Merrill Pub. Pp. 332-359.

Port of San Francisco Strategic Plan. http://sfgov.org/sfport/PortMissionFY01_02.pdf.(Apr1, 2002)