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2010). The entire Southern Hemisphere of the world is also generally far less developed than the Northern Hemisphere, which contains Europe and North America, though there are some notable exceptions to this gross generalization (Watson 2009).
In addition to the ecological and logistical problems that face urban planning and development projects the world over, there are some unique issues in the developing world that need to be taken into account. Specifically, ongoing political unrest -- which is often accompanied by fragmented and/or wholly independent armed forces or militias -- can lead to hindrances in the planning and implementation of urban development projects, and can actually lead to the physical destruction of existing or developing infrastructure (Davis 2010). Another problem that is somewhat unique to the developing world, but that also occurs to some degree in developed countries and regions, is determining the most effective land use during urban planning and…… [Read More]
HUD is a public program that helps people who are need of funding for housing. The people who qualify for this program are on the poverty line or under the poverty line. Recently, in Atlanta, the program got new grants to help the elderly and the disabled. The grants total was $1,184,170, which went out to 408 homes. "The grants are awarded to eligible owners of private housing developments that receive rental subsidies from HUD to house low-income individuals in 36 states and the District of Columbia. These property owners or their management companies either hire or contract service coordinators with backgrounds in providing social services, especially to the frail elderly and people with disabilities, to assist their residents with special needs (HUD GRANTS TO HELP THE ELDERLY AND PEOPLE ITH DISABILITIES CONTINUE TO LIVE INDEPENDENTLY AT HOME). Along with that, HUD helps people who are need rather it be…… [Read More]
The development project at ibeira Azul in Salvador, Brazil embodies the principles of Amartya Sen's development as freedom principles, wherein freedom and development are closely linked. Such principles emphasize measures of human development as the measures of poverty, rather than a traditional approach focused on income (Frediani, 2007). The ibeira Azul program focused on a number of key tasks, including upgrade of critical infrastructure like water, sanitation and lighting, as well as construction of new homes and human development projects aimed at improving the access to education and health care of the population.
Amartya Sen describes the theory of development as freedom, wherein greater levels of human freedom and development are intertwined. Sen argues that "freedom is central to the process of development for two reasons," those being the evaluative reason and the effectiveness reason. The former reflects improvements in outcomes and the latter reflects that the achievement…… [Read More]
Globalization has created a profound impact on society. Through globalization, emerging markets continue to grow and develop. New and innovative products are created that provide solutions to societal problems. As such, wealth is created that is distributed to nations that provide services to humanity. As wealth is distributed, urban areas are created and cultivated. These cities, over time, become populated with the new inhabitants, and continue to thrive. The development of cities and urban areas correlates directly with economic growth and development. With an economic system that continues to innovate, produce product and provide jobs, urban areas cannot be properly developed. The documentary, Urbanized is a testament to the merits of a market economy and how the city of the future may be fundamentally different from the city of today (Kolb, 1972).
To begin Urbanized provides enlightening insights into which the colonies or social formations, in which we…… [Read More]
The three necessities of life, food, shelter, and clothing, will always remain fundamental for all world citizens. Food sources will shift scope from the factory farm model in place today to smaller-scale organic farms. Smaller in scale but larger in number, farms will also rely less on long-distance transportation for delivery of goods, which will reduce stress on the environment. Housing will also evolve into a more ecologically-conscious industry with emphases on sustainable building materials and efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Finally, all industries including clothing will be regulated not necessarily by corrupt governments but by local watchdog organizations to ensure living wages, healthy working conditions, and quality goods and services.
Community Development." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal eserve Board. etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community…… [Read More]
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…… [Read More]
The more jobs that can be created with this money, the more people that can get back to work and the money people that can get on with their lives. And that is exactly what the people of New York City want to do.
Hill, Jeffery. "hat the Stimulus Bill Really Means for Cities." 2009. Next American City. 7
June 2009 http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citmla.htm
"House Passes Stimulus Package; Rep. Michael E. McMahon Secures Tax Cuts and Funding for Critical Investments in Staten Island and Brooklyn." 2009. Congressman Michael E.
McMahon, 7 June 2009 < http://mcmahon.house.gov/2009/02/house-passes-stimulus-package-rep-michael-e-mcmahon-secures-tax-cuts-and-funding-for-critical-invest.shtml>
Light, Larry. "Stimulus Package Offers a Break for Mass-Transit Commuters." 2009. The all
Street Journal, 7 June 2009, http://blogs.wsj.com/wallet/2009/03/11/stimulus-package-offers-a-break-for-mass-transit-commuters/
Mason, J.. "Federal Stimulus and Medicaid: How Big a Savings for the City?" 2009. IBO
eblog, 7 June 2009, http://www.ibo.nyc.ny.us/cgi-park/?p=7
Meckler, Laura. "Obama Signs Stimulus Into Law." 2009. The all Street Journal, 7 June 2009,
<…… [Read More]
According to Jacobs, "It was being done unofficially when what had grown big and successful was used to eat up, or wipe away, or starve what was not."
Besides just abject failures, though, Jacobs also cites a number of success stories that indicate city planners in the United States had learned some valuable lessons from their failures in the late 20th century. According to Jacobs, "There are quite a few cities that are more vigorous and more attractive than they were 10 or 20 years ago. A lot of good things are being done, but it's not universal." As an example, Jacobs points to Portland, Oregon as a city that has taken steps to reinvent itself based on the lessons learned in the past. Emphasizing that the Portland planners did not use a "lot of gimmicks," Jacobs reports that the holistic approach used has resulted in a reinvigorated city:
"It's…… [Read More]
walked through the empty lot, en route to the walking path beneath the freeway overpass. "Someone ought to do something with this land," I said to my friend. "What a waste! At least the city could buy it and build a skate park, like the mayor keeps promising." My friend nodded in return. Several years ago, I didn't understand how cities sprouted and grew; how their residents maximize local natural resources; and how neighborhoods, streets, and public utility services are mapped out. Like most people, I watched passively as parking lots turned into parks and once-dead districts became magnets for tourism. Then on a trip to New York City I craned my neck in utter amazement at the towering high rises looming over me, anchored on the relatively tiny island of Manhattan. Eight million people breathed, walked, and worked here and although the subways didn't always run on time, Manhattan…… [Read More]
Land Use Planning Policies and Urban Sprawl
Land planning for distribution has progressed manifolds in the past century. Increase in the number of communities in the country raises the demand for urban development. Developments are often referred as revolutionary plans meant for better living. However, by the end of the 20th century perception of better living means away from the mainstream urbanism. Communities shifted to new areas with open space, tranquility and yet with almost the same kind of amenities as those in the urban areas [illiams, 2000].
Urban spread has become a major concern for various reasons. According to some urban sprawl should be controlled through extensive planning campaigns. Proponents of this group argue that the open spaces for farmland, once considered an off-limits arena for the urban commuters, today with the help of developers has slowly encroached on farm designated land. Opponents to sprawl are quick to…… [Read More]
Sprawl locations are often unsightly and starkly modern in a manner that offends some Europeans: "Traditional cities, like many small and mid-sized cities in modern-day Europe, were typically oriented in a compact and efficient way. Preferences of many people, especially in the United States, have led suburban development…in an outward instead of upward manner…Subdivisions are often cited as primary examples of a less efficient use of space that characterizes sprawl. These layouts often only have a few places to enter and exit, causing main roads to have more traffic at these points" (Hill 2010). Creating long commute times and encouraging people to remain within their homes rather than seek out others during times of leisure has had a profoundly negative social impact upon the U.S., many believe, and they cite the fact that the few cities that are anomalous in their development, such as walker-friendly New York City, tend to…… [Read More]
Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860
Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.
Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…… [Read More]
Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.
As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…… [Read More]
Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.
Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…… [Read More]
Urban Problems and Solutions
In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.
Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…… [Read More]
If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.
Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).
They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.
The advantage of swales is that…… [Read More]
They strongly believe that dealing with questionable data and lowly-skilled workforce is a waste of time. Therefore, as they venture into newer markets, they face the risk of loosing out. As they go into markets looking at new opportunities, they are very insightful about company reputation.
Our focus will vary from providing services to large and medium-sized firms to small start up companies. However, small-sized firms will be the main target of our firm. Dushane will also provide attractive lucrative offers to companies that have management problems and are incapable of tackling problems when they first enter the U.S. markets.
Service Business Analysis
The consultancy "industry" is not only crushed but also incompetent, with hundreds of thousands of small companies along with individuals offering consulting services and focusing on the few dozen recognized corporations.
Our competitors vary from key global brand-names to hundreds of thousands of entrepreneurs. The…… [Read More]
Urban Outfitters Case Study
Urban Outfitters has defined a highly differentiated and unique shopping experience, supported by the eclectic and highly varied store layouts and merchandise strategy. This approach to retailing appeals to the individuality and uniqueness every consumer also sees in themselves, allowing the consumers to define themselves by what they like. INA actuality, Urban Outfitters is more aligned to key marketing concepts and strategies than its much larger and less differentiated competitors including Sears and Wal-Mart. Appearing non-conformist and counter-culture within its image, Urban Outfitters is actually providing an escape for consumers to use their purchases to define who they really are and what they actually care out. etailing that appeals to the values and individuality of a consumers are highly effective in creating loyalty and continued repurchase (Puccinelli, Goodstein, Grewal, Price, aghubir, Stewart, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to explain why Urban Outfitters continues to…… [Read More]
The odney Kind riots resulted in 50 deaths, 4000 injuries, 12,000 arrests, and $1 billion in property damage ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992").
While riots give a voice to the oppressed, it remains questionable whether they create meaningful structural change. Ten years after the odney King riots, "South Central remains one of the city's poorest neighborhoods. Unemployment remains well above 20% even after the boom of the 1990s," ("The Los Angeles iots, 1992"). iots reflect poorly on their communities, frightening away potential investors, social service institutions, and other means of community enrichment.
However, cities and their governments can learn from these four significant events in American urban history. Law enforcement officials must be trained to anticipate riots. Police departments should eliminate racial profiling and more vigorously prosecute officers using excessive force. Minorities should become well-represented at all levels of city government including law enforcement and criminal justice but also in…… [Read More]
Hilfiker is particularly sensitive to the source of poverty in African-American inner-city ghettoes.
His recommendation for ending poverty, was one new program: universal health coverage, to which he argued convincingly, would save all of us as a nation on current health costs and yet could include the 43 million presently uninsured (Seven Stories Press).
He also suggested three other existing programs:
1) the earned income tax credit, shown by the economists as the most profitable program for bringing up families out of poverty;
2) Unemployment insurance, that could be expanded in order to distribute enough income to keep the unemployed at least at poverty level;
3) Supplemental Security Insurance for the disabled. As he noted,
As a physician, I sometimes struggled for years to get examiners at S.S.I. To understand that one or another of my patients was, indeed, disabled."
Furthermore, for Hilfiker, the fundamental grounds of American poverty were…… [Read More]
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…… [Read More]
The area northeast of Madison, Wisconsin between the city and the area of Interstate 90 and Cottage Grove oad contains a large swath of viable and as of yet undeveloped land. This proposal to develop this target plot follows a sustainable policy of sprawl. The goal is to develop the land as an extension of the Madison metropolitan area rather than as a suburb, providing urban residents with green space while providing those living near the target area with recreational activities as well. Land use policies will be progressive and focused on social justice and ethical development. The proposal for development includes the potential for ethical and sustainable business development, which encourages small business owners to establish a presence in the new space. The new area will be known as Park 420.
Park 420 will be divided into quadrants including one quarter set aside for urban farmland. Grown…… [Read More]
Urban Poverty Readings Summary/Critique
These readings examine the relationship between race and poverty, especially in urban settings that present a setting of de fact segregation. Mincy and others note the social reinforcement of certain poverty-perpetuating attitudes and behaviors in urban poor communities, which still have a predominantly frican-merican population (Mincy 1994; Massey, 1990; Jargowsky & Sawhill 2006). Specifically, the jobless rate among males living in ethnically segregated urban is noted by these authors as a major contributing factor -- if not the primary factor -- in continued poverty along dramatically racialized lines. Mincy (1994) also notes that this naturally results in higher rates of federal assistance and criminality as a primary means of subsistence in these families, and this state of affairs is self-perpetuating in the way it isolates members of such communities from mainstream society and provides inadequate role models for future generations, even insofar as actively discouraging traditional…… [Read More]
Urban Pollution by Joel a. Tarr
Joel Tarr's article, "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago" is largely about the form of urban pollution that preceded that created by automobiles. In short, this pollution was largely caused by horses, which were used as the dominant form of transportation from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. The author is essentially establishing a comparison between the pollution caused by horses and that caused by automobiles, although he devotes the vast majority of the article to elaborating on the fact that the pollution caused by horses was considered as big of a problem as the pollution caused by automobiles in the 1970s. If one examines the amount of space he uses for detailing the concerns regarding horse pollution to that of automobile pollution, one can infer that the former appears to be worse than…… [Read More]
Paying landowner easements to restrict development on their property is another way to protect habitats (Terris). However, it is still feared that these measures may be inadequate. The most popular solution appears to be controlling growth development to lessen the impact of future urbanization. This means making better use of already developed areas, and providing mixed land uses (Terris). Environmentalists agree that strategic planning is the best solution to help curb further destruction in the future.
Human Rights, not Animal Rights
Numerous wildlife encounters where animals appear in suburban areas make the news headlines at an increasing rate. This would appear to be good, as it indicates that animals are adapting to their human neighbors, and that they are thriving despite the invasion. However, wild animals in the burbs pose a hazard in terms of automobile collisions with deer, and even human deaths by bear attacks (Shaw). Not everyone agrees…… [Read More]
d.). Even SWOT analysis can help urban planners determine situational variables, approximate risk, and therefore maximize the efficiency of an economic development plan. Issues such as community competitiveness have a strong impact on outside investors, which is another reason why urban planners must take advantage of a wide range of techniques. Urban planners can encourage economic development via a multi-stage process: analysis of need, analysis of risk, and analysis of potential investors.
As it relates to urban planning, sustainable development combines socially and environmentally responsible initiatives. Those initiatives must also be proven to stimulate economic growth and development in the community. Some government incentives may be offered directly for the purposes of creating and implementing sustainable development programs for communities. Land-use planning is one key facet of sustainable urban development. Controlling sprawl, implementing local and regional public transportation systems, and ensuring investments in clean water are other sustainable development issues…… [Read More]
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]
Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.
Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…… [Read More]
Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.
Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.
Le Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.
Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…… [Read More]
Pope Urban II and the First Crusade
Pope Urban II and his influence in developing and promoting the First Crusade in the 11th century
Christianity during the Middle Ages has been characterized by numerous conflicts that focus on the struggle for religious and political dominance, particularly in Europe and other Western societies. Of particular interest in the study of the history of the Christian religion are the events that surround European civilization between the 8th- 11th centuries. During these periods, Christianity experienced several movements that changed the social, political, and economic landscape of the European society and the Christian community in general.
One individual that played a significant role in propelling the Christian community into the socio-political movements of Europe during these periods is Pope Urban II, the religious leader of the Christians during the 11th century. He became known for his active role in inciting to his fellow Christians…… [Read More]
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…… [Read More]
Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas
Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)
Shaw and McKay discovered a…… [Read More]
Boom times on the gold coast of China" by Mike Edwards and Michael Yamashita (1997) discusses the industrial boom in the Pearl iver Delta. This area of southern China, adjacent to Hong Kong, was experiencing a boom in the 1990s in manufacturing. The authors of the article were writing about it like it was a new things, which I guess back then it probably was. The explored the nature of this boom, touching upon the political and economic system of the PC, as well as some light economic discussion about talent and capital inflows. Hong Kong was seen as the source for a lot of the influx of talent and capital. This is a big reason why the Pearl iver Delta became such a significant manufacturing hub, because Hong Kong served as a gateway for Western money to flow into the region. The article was written around the time of…… [Read More]
urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…… [Read More]
Religion and Urban Landscape
Social Assimilation and Identity in Gods of the City by Robert Orsi
Religion as a social institution is considered one of the most influential agents in the society. As an institution, religion plays a vital role in altering or changing the way people behave and think. This is especially true in the case of immigrants and other people of different nationalism and race in the United States. Contemporary American society is a 'melting pot' for people who came from all kinds of societies and cultures. As the number of immigrants increased, cultures are brought and assimilated within the American society, where 'hybridization' of societies occurs.
Religion, indeed, is one aspect of culture that directly influences individual and collective thinking and behavior. For individuals trying to cope with a different kind of society, religion serves as 'relief' and social companion for the lone individual. Through religious activities,…… [Read More]
Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.
One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says
Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…… [Read More]
Edge Cities" by Joel Garreau.
Joel Garreau authored the best seller on how we build the cities that become the milestones of our civilizations because the fact is that these places are where we find our offices and shopping malls located bringing money to all of us.
The title of the book Edge Cities by Garreau is one book that has been valued by its readers because it opens doors to the subject of unplanned architecture. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier is not only a blockbuster, but The New York Times declared it "the first major book to examine a phenomenon that by any reasonable definition is among the most pressing of our age." Garreau's ability to write is exceptionally different because he has the ability to look into the obvious chaotic mess that will only worsen the future.
The cities that have been defined as…… [Read More]
Contemporary and modern art has been characterized by increased focus on significant aesthetic and political work of artists across the globe. As a result, contemporary art is largely different from conventional work because of the shift in focus on elements of art. Actually, art has undergone significant changes throughout its history as a result of different influences across different time periods. Some of the major influences of contemporary and modern art include material culture, technology, consumerism, rise of graffiti, protest and posters, land art, mass media, representation strategies, political self-awareness, and expanded cinema. These influences have played major in art production in the contemporary world and contributed to new practices in art. Contemporary art has shifted from medium specificity as the organizing principle for advanced production to the concept of sites and systems because of the numerous factors that have influenced art over the years.
The Shift from…… [Read More]
Zoning and Development Case Study: The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area
The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area is a land area of approximately 20,000 acres within the Natomas Basin and located in the unincorporated northwestern area of Sacramento County. Consisting of relatively flat terrain, the Basin includes approximately 55,000 acres, with approximately 17,000 acres in Sutter County. The plan to develop the Natomas area involves eight stakeholders: County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the Habitat Conservation Plan Conservancy, Landowners, Airport planners and Developers. The competing interests of these stakeholders require the use of relevant land-use planning methods and provisions for economic equity among all stakeholders, ideally using a in-in approach to conflict resolution.
A. hat is the decision problem involved in this case and what are the relevant factors necessary to understand the situation?
There are several competing interests and concerns:
I. "County South" wants…… [Read More]
Over the last several decades, China has been going through tremendous amounts of economic growth. Since the 1990's, various Chinese cities have seen an increase of 380 million people. hile the economy, has expanded by five times as measured in GDP growth. However, the nation has also been experiencing challenges associated with the need for housing and sustainable development. One possible strategy for dealing with these issues is brownfield development. In the United States, this has been shown to be an effective tool for dealing with urban blight and managing growth inside a particular region. ("Urban Sustainability Index")
To determine if this kind of strategy can be effective in China requires measuring possible benefits. This means looking at specific cities in comparison with each other. Once this takes place, is when specific insights will be provided as to how China can deal with future economic development. Over the…… [Read More]
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…… [Read More]
Shanghai Entrepreneurial Real Estate Development Project
Shanghai is a city located on the Eastern Coast of China that has grown to be one the financial powerhouses of the industrialized world. The urban population growth trend can be explained by the fact that much of the rural population is increasingly migrating to the urban centers in search of economic opportunities. The Pudong are has also been responsible for an extraordinary share of the population growth in Shanghai. For example, there was a fifty six percent increase in the population from a little over three million in 2001 to roughly five million in 2011. This real estate development project consists of a structure that will be composed of twin towers that will reach the planned height of 250m and be attached by a podium. The project's financial calculations estimate an internal rate of return would be nearly thirty percent (26.88%)…… [Read More]
The differences in the level of development in the world regions emanates from the regional disparities in the individual country economies. This result in regional inequality within that country; therefore, regional inequality with respect to a country is the eminent disparity between the living standards that apply in that country. It is a hard task to quantify the level of development, prosperity or poverty in a country or region. However, some indicators show the level of development. Across the world, every nation has a challenge in achieving regional development equality, the difference coming in through the degrees of underdevelopment. The most affected nations by the inequality balance rank are the developing third world nations, Nigeria being among them. Nigeria has a rich endowment of natural resources, minerals and able population. However, the country faces a challenge in establishing itself as an economic superpower in Africa and the world…… [Read More]
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…… [Read More]
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…… [Read More]
Importance of New Developments
IMPOTANCE OF NEW DEVELOPMENTS FO LOCAL ECONOMIES IN USA
The major housing boom contributed to the economic growth in U.S. In between 2003 till 2008. The U.S. government received revenues from the development impact fees. esearches have shown that new developments greatly support the local economies in U.S.. Also the government plays an important role in providing the required resources and solutions to these new developments. The objective of writing this essay is to compare and contrast the cases of new developments that affect the environment and the development impact fees on the market. Also the environmental impacts will be evaluated in detail.
IMPOTANCE OF NEW DEVELOPMENTS FO LOCAL ECONOMIES IN USA
The economic growth of U.S. greatly increased due to contribution from major housing boom that occurred in between 2003 to 2008. The government charges a development impact fee in order to generate…… [Read More]
Generation Techniques in New Product Development
The process of new product development begins with identification of good product ideas and the use of an appropriate criterion to determine ideas to pursue. This process involves concept generation, which is the most important step since it involves generating and/or obtaining ideas regarding the product. Concept generation in new product development entails developing a set of customer needs, specifying targets, and determining several product alternatives for the design process. Given the significance of concept generation in new product development, there are several concept generation techniques. These techniques can be utilized to create variations of the basic concept in relation to different product form, characteristics, positioning, benefits, and customer target.
Overview of Concept Generation
According to Nobel (2013), concept generation is the process through which product development team creates or obtains ideas relating to the various aspects of a product such as product form…… [Read More]
New products can either be an entirely new product to the marketplace, or more commonly are an extension of a product line or an iteration of a pre-existing product. One new product released in the past year was the iPhone 6S. This is an extension of the iPhone line in general, or more specifically the iPhone 6 line that was originally launched in 2014. The 6S represents some tweaks to the older products, but nothing so dramatic that an entirely new name for the product was warranted. Thus, this product is an extension of the older line, intended to replace older models of the iPhone, as anything before the 6 series is now discontinued. The biggest challenge that Apple had with this product was to differentiate it sufficiently from its other offerings. The existing iPhone 6 proved popular, and the 6S was viewed by the marketplace…… [Read More]
What is the nature of these service shortfalls and how do these service limitations potentially impact older adults' "quality of life" outcomes in both the short- and long-term?
1. Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
2. Lack of elder population neglect prevention mechanisms
3. Lack of culturally relevant elderly care programs
4. Lack of enough physicians to take care of the elderly population
5. Lack of elderly-population empowerment programs
Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
A review of literature indicates serious "gaps" in the mechanisms used in the prevention of elderly population abuse cases. Even though the Elder Abuse and Neglect Act clearly indicate that all suspected cases of abuse directed against the elderly population be reported, very little efforts exist at the establishment of hotlines to be used in reporting these cases. This means that very few cases of abuse are reported. This gap in the aging-related…… [Read More]
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…… [Read More]
Sustainable Tourism Development
The aim of the essay is to gain an understanding of the rational and different approaches to tourism planning and development, sustainable tourism, current issues and impacts of tourism.
The aim is to increase awareness of the need to plan and manage tourism destinations within an international, national, regional, and local framework. Investigate current trends in planning for tourism development in a range of destinations. The stages in the planning process are discussed and apply theoretical models to practical case studies and site visits.
Understand the differing approaches to tourism planning and development and understand the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry (1000+ words)
Using the EBSCO article: The effectiveness of public policies and structural funds in enhancing tourism development.The case of Romania.
a) Discuss, using appropriate references, why a long-term approach is beneficial to destinations like Romania, and state the advantages to stakeholders…… [Read More]
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…… [Read More]
To some degree, this may be considered a concession to peasants who were largely upset with their station in life as urban areas benefited more significantly from the economic expansion. There is little indication that prosperity was widespread among the peasant classes during the Tokugawa period. Other historical signs point to the real possibility that most farmers suffered during this period.
In fact, much of the economic woes for rural Japan at this time can be traced to developments that were taking place in the cities because of the still feudal organization of Japanese society. The daimyo were lords in the feudal sense; though their holdings varied, agricultural lands -- and taxes on those lands -- formed the basis of their wealth and power. Therefore, when the shogun made it law that each daimyo had to keep up a residence both in their own hometown as well as in Edo,…… [Read More]
Residents of udbury, Ontario, say the town is at a critical turning point. Politicians voice a need to pursue a greater share of mining revenue from the province. Civic associations in udbury would like to see a new arts and convention centre constructed. City officials want to allow businesses that establish certain kinds of industrial parks to be exempt from paying development charges. Developers argue that they face too much opposition when the propose building in existing neighborhoods, a practice known as infilling. The rationale for supporting infilling is that existing living areas yield a higher level of revenue, which makes city infrastructure more affordable for developers. There are ancillary benefits to infilling, such as contributing to the financial and operational viability of the udbury Transit and averting urban sprawl, which supports efforts to address climate change.
Neighborhood organizations oppose the policy of infilling, often on a case-by-case basis that…… [Read More]
Income Disparity and Development in Latin American Countries
The income disparity in the Latin American countries is the largest in the world and has a dramatic and complex impact on the development of these countries on many related levels. As one commentator states, "Inequality is as Latin American as good dance music and magical-realist fiction. Like those other regional products, it thrives." (Inequality in Latin America. A stubborn curse.)
Statistics from the World ank indicate that the richest tenth among Latin Americans earn 48% of total income, while the poorest tenth earn just 1.6%. The equivalent figures for rich countries are 29.1% and 2.5%. (Inequality in Latin America). While fifteen years of market reforms have resulted in income levels that are above those of Africa, yet " ... income disparity is the largest in the world and 222 million people live in poverty." (SANCHEZ M. 2005) Numerous studies and reports…… [Read More]
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…… [Read More]
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…… [Read More]
Lewisian Model and Development
State the assumption of the model.
The Lewis Model was developed in 1954 whereby it was shown that expansion of industrial sector was crucial to the development of less-developed countries (LDCs). The model was based on following important assumptions:
a) Less-developed countries have dual economy system. This means that economy in such countries is dependent on two large sectors that operate in starkly different environment. These sectors were defined as agriculture and industry. It was assumed that while agricultural sector is the largest economic sector in LDCs, it fails to make equally significant contribution to the country's income because this sector is characterized by low income, low productivity, high unemployment and poor wages. On the other hand industrial sector operates in a capitalist environment where business is run in the same manner as in western societies. This leads to huge differences in productivity and efficiency in…… [Read More]
The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.
Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.
A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…… [Read More]
Contrary to what is often seen on the nightly news programs, there are still many people in this country and throughout the world who want to live in safe places and who would be interested in making their town better. Often, they do not know what they can do to improve the poorer parts of town, so they simply choose not to live or work there. This only leads to the decay of those areas and the rising crime rate. While unfortunate, it is not entirely unexpected. However, urban revitalization has begun in a lot of cities and towns, both big and small, in recent years. Although the economy has slowed some of that, there are still many areas where it is moving forward. This will, in time, lower the number of sexual assaults and other crimes in those revitalization areas. If more people would help to improve their neighborhoods,…… [Read More]