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Urban Planning & Urban Planners
Urban planning, or also referred to as urban development, consists of the formal planning process in which urban area designed to meet both the present and future challenges that are present in city life. They consider the relationship between the built environment and human behaviors or quality of life (Handy, Boarnet, Ewing, & Killingsworth, 2002). An urban planner, sometimes called a city planner, can assist community leaders in analyzing trends in order to decide how to best use public resources to meet various objectives. Some of the issues that are commonly addressed by an urban planner might include city growth planning, urban decay, environmental issues, social issues such as poverty and crime, and many more. By studying these issues, researchers attempt to understand the factors that make cities both livable and enjoyable. This research is also used to implement plans and policies by which positive…
Brueckner, J. (2000). URBAN SPRAWL: DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIES. International Regional Science Review, 160-171.
Frank, L., Sallis, J., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75-87.
Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urbanplanning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 64-73.
Urban Planning and Historic Preservation of Landmarks
In recent years, the preservation of history has continued to develop and some say has matured. Historical preservation now assumes a real part in how property development takes place in communities throughout the country. The National Historic Preservation Act and other preservation statutes have a strong impact not only on how the government deals with its own undertakings, but also on how elected officers license and fund projects and planning by private, state, and neighborhood organizations. ecently, there have been several research studies addressing examples of notable preservation and their success by a leading urban market analyst, Edward Glaeser, and by the engineer em Koolhaas. Glaeser is a financial specialist who is an authority in urban advancement. While he concedes that preservation has value, he argues in his book "Triumph of the City" and in a recent article, "Preservation Follies," that noteworthy preservation…
Aiden While.2006. Modernism vs. Urban Renaissance: Negotiating Post-war Heritage in English City Centres." Urban Studies, Vol. 43, No. 13, 2399 -- 2419, December 2006
Birmingham, Rebecca. 2010. "Smash Or Save: The New York City Landmarks Preservation Act And New Challenges To Historic Preservation." Journal Of Law And Policy 19, 271. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed April 26, 2015).
Byrne, J. Peter. "Historic Preservation And Its Cultured Despisers: Reflections On The Contemporary Role Of Preservation Law In Urban Development." George Mason Law Review 19, (April 1, 2012): 665. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews, EBSCOhost (accessed April 26, 2015).
Dennis, Rodwell. "Urban Conservation in the 1960s and 1970s: A European Overview" Architectural Heritage XXI (2010): 1 -- 18 Edinburgh University PresSDOI: 10.3366/arch.2011.000
The only major change that has occurred is the fact that there are so many more people now, urban planning is all the more important (Jackson, 1985, p. 76).
Getting in our time machine and hurtling towards the present, urban planning in the United States began to gain momentum in the middle of the last century as the great housing boom that followed the Second World War began to eat up what had been rural land for centuries. Suburbs began to double and then double again in size like radioactive mushrooms. Commuting on newly land freeways became more and more a part of people's lives (Wheeler, 1995, p. 71). Some of these changes were generally welcome (the large backyards of the suburbs) and some were definitely less welcome (those long commutes).
One thing that was clear during the 1950s and into the 1960s was that cities were being systemically changed…
Garvin, a. (2002). The American City: What Works and What Doesn't. New York: McGraw Hill.
Jackson, K. (1985). The Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Santamouris, M. (2006). Environmental Design of Urban Buildings: An Integrated Approach. Los Angeles: Earthscan.
Tunnard, C. & Pushkarev, B. (1963). Man-Made America: Chaos or Control?: An Inquiry into Selected Problems of Design in the Urbanized Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Water Standards Issues in Urban Planning
The objective of this work in writing is to develop and articulate persuasive research-oriented arguments related to planning practice. This work will define the problem, present theories and cases, summarize, and highlight the salient points from those theories and cases that are found to formulate a plausible solution to the problem.
The planning process for urban runoff urban water standards must be based on regulations that make a requirement of specific programs relating to approaches in planning. Different regulations make a requirement of different approaches in planning. The planning process addressed in this work is that of watershed management and this specific planning process requires the following:
(1) egulatory Basis -- SOWA
(2) Determining Existing Conditions -- Development of Watershed Description
(3) Quantifying pollution sources and water resource impacts -- identification of detrimental characteristics;
(4) Assessment of alternatives -- conduction of risk assessment; and…
Public Works Department -- Stormwater Services Division (2011) City of Durham, North Carolina Website. Retrieved from: http://www.ci.durham.nc.us/departments/works/stormwater_water_quality.cfm
Indiana Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Management Plan (2011) Watershed and Nonpoint Source Water Pollution. Indiana Government Website. Retrieved from: http://www.in.gov/idem/nps/3153.htm
Nonpoint Source Management Planning Session II (2011) Summary Report - University of Northern Iowa Institute for Decision Making. 29 Apr 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.bcs.uni.edu/idm/news/NPSMP/NPSMP_Session_2_Summary_Report.pdf
Ambrosio, JD, Lawrence, T. And Brown, LC (nd) A Basic Primer on Nonpoint Source Pollution and Impervious Surface. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet - Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from: http://ohioline.osu.edu/aex-fact/0444.html
According to von Franz, men need to participate in the liberation of women and therefore of society as a whole through the process of identifying and valuing the feminine qualities of their own nature. (Post-Jungian psychology follows Jung in dividing male and female attribute into a traditional Western dichotomy of animus and anima.) This story recounts the lengthy quests and adventure of a oman youth who is transformed into an ass, through which he loses access to an uncomplicated relationship to his own humanity. He is only able to reclaim his humanity when he recognizes that he must release traditional virtues and strengths, an accomplishment that he obtains through acceptance into the mysteries of Isis.
Much of what post-Jungian therapeutic approaches to clinical work offers is a chance for clients to engage with and resolve conflicts between opposing aspects of their nature, such as the feminine and masculine attributes that…
Aziz, R. (1990). C.G. Jung's Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (10th ed.). New York: The State University of New York Press.
Mayes, C. (2005). Jung and education; elements of an archetypal pedagogy. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Social Issues in Public Planning
Public planning is an important aspect that defines how services are delivered in any given society. The different approaches to planning dictate the motivation behind a planner’s work and how he or she executives the planning two examples of the planning styles include the planner as an advocate and the planner as a neutral servant. There are several differences as well as the similarity between these two approaches to planning. The major difference between the two planners is that no other external forces in the course of his work rather than his expertise only influence the planner as a neutral public servant. However, the planner as an advocate stands for a particular ideology, fact or political affiliation among other external factors that drive his planning profession and motivates the approach that he takes.
Subsequently, the planner as advocate carries out his work to conform…
Levy, J. M. (2016). Contemporary Urban Planning (10th Edition) (10th ed., Vol. 1). Routledge.
Couch, C. (2016). Placemaking: Approach to Urban Planning. Urban Planning, 1(4), 240-268
urban and suburban planning. It discusses the effects that years of uncontrolled urban and suburban sprawl have had on culture, society and members of those communities. The negative health effects of urban and suburban sprawl are discussed, specifically those associated with air pollution. Issues regarding the efficient use of transportation are also discussed, specifically how these are, or are not incorporated when planning new communities or improving existing ones. Political debates and issues regarding the urban and suburban planning are also explored. This document focuses and discusses the popular debates that have occurred in recent times and how these affect the future of planning. This document also discusses some of the suggestions that are popular when trying to resolve problems related to planning. Smart planning is discussed in this document, smart planning which calls for more efficient and innovative methods when planning new communities. The opposition against smart planning is…
Frumkin, Howard, Lawrence D. Frank, and Richard Jackson. Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. Washington, DC: Island, 2004. Print.
Garvin, Alexander. The American City: What Works and What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.
Hutter, Mark. Experiencing Cities. New York: Pearson, 2007. Print.
Lindstrom, Matthew J., and Hugh Bartling. Suburban Sprawl: Culture, Theory, and Politics. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. Print.
Globalization has created a profound impact on society. Through globalization, emerging markets continue to grow and develop. New and innovative products are created that provide solutions to societal problems. As such, wealth is created that is distributed to nations that provide services to humanity. As wealth is distributed, urban areas are created and cultivated. These cities, over time, become populated with the new inhabitants, and continue to thrive. The development of cities and urban areas correlates directly with economic growth and development. With an economic system that continues to innovate, produce product and provide jobs, urban areas cannot be properly developed. The documentary, Urbanized is a testament to the merits of a market economy and how the city of the future may be fundamentally different from the city of today (Kolb, 1972).
To begin Urbanized provides enlightening insights into which the colonies or social formations, in which we…
1) Kolb, Frank (1984). Die Stadt im Altertum. Munchen: Verlag C.H. Beck. pp. 51-141: Morris, A.E.J. (1972). History of Urban Form. Prehistory to the Renaissance. London. pp. 22-23
2) Taylor, Nigel, (2007), Urban Planning Theory since 1945, London, Sage.
3) Wheeler, Stephen (2004). "Planning Sustainable and Livable Cities," Routledge; 3rd edition
The three necessities of life, food, shelter, and clothing, will always remain fundamental for all world citizens. Food sources will shift scope from the factory farm model in place today to smaller-scale organic farms. Smaller in scale but larger in number, farms will also rely less on long-distance transportation for delivery of goods, which will reduce stress on the environment. Housing will also evolve into a more ecologically-conscious industry with emphases on sustainable building materials and efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Finally, all industries including clothing will be regulated not necessarily by corrupt governments but by local watchdog organizations to ensure living wages, healthy working conditions, and quality goods and services.
Community Development." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal eserve Board. etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." etrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community…
Community Development." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.mapl.com.au/ComDev.htm
Community Development." (2006). Federal Reserve Board. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/community.htm
King, Martin Luther (1963). "Letter from Birmingham Jail." Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://almaz.com/nobel/peace/MLK-jail.html
Office of Community Planning and Development (CPD). U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved Feb 19, 2007 at http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/
Urban Data eview
eades et al. (2007) presented some interesting ideas about the use of data collection and its practical application in an urban setting. The authors discussed spatiotemporal data as a new object of desire for those wishing to control and understand human behavior in large city. The authors called for a synthesis of data information from all available sources, including telecommunications companies to assist in urban planning and understanding the complex and chaotic idea of urban dynamics.
This paper discussed this topic by explaining the details of a study conducted by MIT and Telecom Italia (TI), in ome, Italy's largest city. TI supplied data that recognized bandwidth usage on mobile phones and classified them as Erlongs. The data was collected, synthesized and modeled to help paint a picture of how ome operates and how people move about and communicate. Ultimately, the paper concluded that "Our preliminary findings suggest…
Reades, J. et al. (2007). Cellular Census: Explorations in Urban Data Collection. Pervasive Computing, 6(3), July-September, 2007.
Moreover, a mom or dad can rarely just decide to leave town for a weekend without proper planning for childcare or packing (if the kids will go with them). However, a single person could make any sort of last minute decision without considering anyone else's schedule or responsibilities but his/her own.
Another way to view spontaneity is in terms of organic processes, which can occur in private or in public life. A person's home may evolve organically as he/she finds things to bring home and add without any sort of plan. A community can also evolve in this way, and usually does evolve in this way, as people move into close proximity with one another and develop relationships without any sort of intent. For cities; however, endeavors like urban planning take complex processes of development over time with careful scrutiny of objectives ahead of time, evaluation and alteration of processes…
Land Use Planning Policies and Urban Sprawl
Land planning for distribution has progressed manifolds in the past century. Increase in the number of communities in the country raises the demand for urban development. Developments are often referred as revolutionary plans meant for better living. However, by the end of the 20th century perception of better living means away from the mainstream urbanism. Communities shifted to new areas with open space, tranquility and yet with almost the same kind of amenities as those in the urban areas [illiams, 2000].
Urban spread has become a major concern for various reasons. According to some urban sprawl should be controlled through extensive planning campaigns. Proponents of this group argue that the open spaces for farmland, once considered an off-limits arena for the urban commuters, today with the help of developers has slowly encroached on farm designated land. Opponents to sprawl are quick to…
Jacobs, Harvey M. Fighting Over Land America's Legacy... America's Future? Vol. 65 no, Journal of the American Planning Association, 04-15-1999.
Oliver, Charles. "Regulations Are Crimping the Suburbs," Investor's Business Daily, June 23, 1998.
Kaiser, Edward J.; Godschalk, David R., Twentieth century land use planning: a stalwart family tree... Vol. 61, Journal of the American Planning Association, 06-22-1995, pp 365(21).
Gordon, Peter; Richardson, Harry W., Are compact cities a desirable planning goal? Vol. 63, Journal of the American Planning Association, 01-01-1997, pp 95(12).
walked through the empty lot, en route to the walking path beneath the freeway overpass. "Someone ought to do something with this land," I said to my friend. "What a waste! At least the city could buy it and build a skate park, like the mayor keeps promising." My friend nodded in return. Several years ago, I didn't understand how cities sprouted and grew; how their residents maximize local natural resources; and how neighborhoods, streets, and public utility services are mapped out. Like most people, I watched passively as parking lots turned into parks and once-dead districts became magnets for tourism. Then on a trip to New York City I craned my neck in utter amazement at the towering high rises looming over me, anchored on the relatively tiny island of Manhattan. Eight million people breathed, walked, and worked here and although the subways didn't always run on time, Manhattan…
hat is urban culture(s)?
Hear the words 'urban culture,' and quite often one thinks of hip-hop, the music that is a fusion of black city culture with other ethnic elements of various cities, from Jamaican to Latino sounds. Of course, this is a single example of modern urban culture. hat hip-hop shares in common with other urban cultural expressions of the past is that hip-hop is the product of fusing the diverse cultural elements of a variety of new ethnicities into a new culture. Urban culture is the result of tightly packing people into close apartment structures, neighborhoods and blocks that often allow them to be ethnically or racially 'isolated' from mainstream modern culture, yet creates a proximity that forces urban residents to adapt to a new American environment in a socially 'sharing' way.
The notion of urban culture is older than such modern-day constructions as hip-hop however.…
Schultz, Stanley. Constructing the Urban Culture American Cities and City Planning, 1800-1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Lobo, Daniel G., & Larry Schooler. (2004) "Playing with Urban Life." Technology & Cities. The American City. Issue 6. Retrieved 8 Nov 2005 at http://www.americancity.org/article.php?id_article=21
Sprawl locations are often unsightly and starkly modern in a manner that offends some Europeans: "Traditional cities, like many small and mid-sized cities in modern-day Europe, were typically oriented in a compact and efficient way. Preferences of many people, especially in the United States, have led suburban development…in an outward instead of upward manner…Subdivisions are often cited as primary examples of a less efficient use of space that characterizes sprawl. These layouts often only have a few places to enter and exit, causing main roads to have more traffic at these points" (Hill 2010). Creating long commute times and encouraging people to remain within their homes rather than seek out others during times of leisure has had a profoundly negative social impact upon the U.S., many believe, and they cite the fact that the few cities that are anomalous in their development, such as walker-friendly New York City, tend to…
Hill, Adam. "What is urban sprawl?" Wise Geek. August 11, 2010.
The Code also allows for one accessory building, a storage shed, fences, walls, and landscape screens. These screens are not to exceed seven feet in height. They should also be adjacent to the rear and side property lines. At the front, they should not exceed three feet in height. Private swimming pools are also subject to Code specifications.
The Code is aimed at the comfort and well-being of residents, in terms of which domestic animals are also taken into account. The Code does not require specific provisions for domestic animals such as dogs or cats, apart from the fact that they are required to remain inside the fenced area of their residence. If livestock were to be held on a property, the provision is one animal per ten thousand squire feet of the lot area. If these animals are held on a property, they are required to be in a…
Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.
As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…
Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26
Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975
Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998
Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860
Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.
Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…
Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.
Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from ccsenet.org: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/res/article/viewFile/4585/3924
Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods. Phhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Louis Wirth based his urbanism studies on the city of Chicago where he lived.
A his research, he has identified three definable factors for urbanism: large population, dense settlement and social diversity. A city is "a large and permanent settlement, densely inhabited by a heterogeneous population." His urbanism describes the typical Western, industrial city: dangerous, unhealthy, where, due to the largeness of the city they live in, people develop forms of alienation and anarchy and where there is no sentiment of community.
Sally Merry found that Wirth's model worked best at a macro level, where she agrees with the anonymity that people live in and the disorder. However, she is more preoccupied with people manifestations at the city's peripheries: boundaries are a source of tension for people because of the unknown, so, starting with is, she observes human behavior at the city's boundaries.
Stanley Milgram somewhat refuted Wirth…
1. PRICE AND STATUS IN VIENNA'S NASCHMARKT.
3. cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/macionis9 / chapter15/objectives/deluxe-content.html
Urban sprawl is not something that too many people really seem to spend that much time thinking about. Despite this, however, many people do have to deal with it. Those that are faced with the problem are often unsure about what they should be doing about it, and those that work in the field of trying to control it often struggle between making sure that there are enough places for people to live and making sure that the environment is not destroyed by the new houses and other buildings that are being created. Sometimes, balancing this is very difficult, and this is at the heart of the problem. For this reason, this paper focuses on urban sprawl and the environmental impact that is often seen when it takes place.
Environmentalists have so many concerns that they often can overlook the problems that urban sprawl is causing when it comes to…
Garreau, J. (1991). Edge City. New York: Anchor Books.
Gordon, P. & Richardson, H. (1998). Prove it: The costs and benefits of sprawl. Brookings Review 16(3): 23-26.
Lomax, T. & Schrank, D. (1998). Urban Roadway Congestion, 1982 to 1996. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute.
Reid, A. (10 December 1996). Area traffic stuck in a costly jam. Washington Post, A1.
If there is an aggregate sub-base, these can provide water quality treatment. There should be good compaction and appropriate geo-textiles especially for areas accessible to heavy vehicles.
Permeable pavements reduce the need for deep excavations thereby providing a cost benefit. This system reduces the run-off rates and peak flow. The overall benefit is that it removes pollutants and holds water so that it does enter the main drainage. A lot of water in the main drainage would either need pumping or treating thereby using energy (Wild et al. 2002).
They are continuous vegetated drainage systems which convey or store water while allowing filtration when appropriate. Usually, they are the equivalent of roadside gullies or drainage pipes in conventional drainage systems. However, swales have gentle gradient so that water moves at low velocity. The sediments in storm water run-off can, therefore, settle out.
The advantage of swales is that…
Apostolaki, S., Jefferies, C., Smith, M. & Woods-Ballard B. 2002, Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 5th Symposium of the International Planning and Environmental Association. Oxford, September.
Apostolaki, S, Jefferies, C. & Smith, M. 2003, the Perception and Social Acceptability of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Proc. 1st International Conference on Sustainable Development & Management of the Subsurface. 5-7 Nov. Utrech, the Netherlands
Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2000, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems -- design manual for Scotland and Northern Ireland. Report No. 521
Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) 2002, Source Control Using Constructed Pervious Surfaces. Report No. 582
They strongly believe that dealing with questionable data and lowly-skilled workforce is a waste of time. Therefore, as they venture into newer markets, they face the risk of loosing out. As they go into markets looking at new opportunities, they are very insightful about company reputation.
Our focus will vary from providing services to large and medium-sized firms to small start up companies. However, small-sized firms will be the main target of our firm. Dushane will also provide attractive lucrative offers to companies that have management problems and are incapable of tackling problems when they first enter the U.S. markets.
Service Business Analysis
The consultancy "industry" is not only crushed but also incompetent, with hundreds of thousands of small companies along with individuals offering consulting services and focusing on the few dozen recognized corporations.
Our competitors vary from key global brand-names to hundreds of thousands of entrepreneurs. The…
H.F. Riebesell. Small Business Planning: Entities, Succession and Implementation. PESI, 2001.
Urban marketing & event planning
Urban Outfitters Case Study
Urban Outfitters has defined a highly differentiated and unique shopping experience, supported by the eclectic and highly varied store layouts and merchandise strategy. This approach to retailing appeals to the individuality and uniqueness every consumer also sees in themselves, allowing the consumers to define themselves by what they like. INA actuality, Urban Outfitters is more aligned to key marketing concepts and strategies than its much larger and less differentiated competitors including Sears and Wal-Mart. Appearing non-conformist and counter-culture within its image, Urban Outfitters is actually providing an escape for consumers to use their purchases to define who they really are and what they actually care out. etailing that appeals to the values and individuality of a consumers are highly effective in creating loyalty and continued repurchase (Puccinelli, Goodstein, Grewal, Price, aghubir, Stewart, 2009). The intent of this analysis is to explain why Urban Outfitters continues to…
Arndt, M.. (2010, March). Urban Outfitters' Grow-Slow Strategy in Europe. Business Week,1.
Grewal, D., Levy, M., & Kumar, V.. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: An Organizing Framework. Journal of Retailing: Enhancing the Retail Customer Experience, 85(1), 1-14.
Patton, P.. (2008, February). URBAN OUTFITTERS. Fast Company,(122), 53,56.
Puccinelli, N., Goodstein, R., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D.. (2009). Customer Experience Management in Retailing: Understanding the Buying Process. Journal of Retailing: Enhancing the Retail Customer Experience, 85(1), 15-30.
Urban Problems and Solutions
In the 1990's, the United States exhibited a decreasing trend in the rates of pre-marital sex and teen pregnancies. However, the rate of teenage pregnancy in United States is yet considered to be alarming in comparison to that of other developed countries of the world. It has been estimated that about 1 million teenage girls in the U.S. are being victims of teenage pregnancy every year.
Due to the fact that teen mothers and babies are vulnerable to health hazards, the considerable birth rates among teens have become alarming. The ignorance of pregnant youngsters deprives them of taking appropriate medical attention, making them vulnerable to medical complexities. The teenage pregnancies have tremendous emotional impact on the adolescents. Under feeding, negligence in taking nutrients, habits of smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse etc. which are common among most of the youngsters make their newly born babies prone to health…
Arthur, Shirley. 1996. Surviving teen pregnancy: Your choices, dreams, and decisions. Buena park, CA: Morning Glory Press.
Johns, M. J; Moncloa, F & Gong, E.J. 2000. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Linking Research and Practice. Journal of Extension. Volume. 38; Number: 4, pp.42-47
Wong, J. & Checkland, D. 1999. Teen Pregnancy and Parenting: Social and Ethical issues. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…
City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf
Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.
Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.
Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…
Paying landowner easements to restrict development on their property is another way to protect habitats (Terris). However, it is still feared that these measures may be inadequate. The most popular solution appears to be controlling growth development to lessen the impact of future urbanization. This means making better use of already developed areas, and providing mixed land uses (Terris). Environmentalists agree that strategic planning is the best solution to help curb further destruction in the future.
Human Rights, not Animal Rights
Numerous wildlife encounters where animals appear in suburban areas make the news headlines at an increasing rate. This would appear to be good, as it indicates that animals are adapting to their human neighbors, and that they are thriving despite the invasion. However, wild animals in the burbs pose a hazard in terms of automobile collisions with deer, and even human deaths by bear attacks (Shaw). Not everyone agrees…
Shaw, Jane. Nature in the Suburbs. (SMG 261-65) http://www.heritage.org/Research/SmartGrowth/BG1724.cfm (Accessed November 4, 2008).
Terris, Jutka. Unwelcome (Human) Neighbors: The Impacts of Sprawl on Wildlife. (SMG 256- 61) http://www.nrdc.org/cities/smartGrowth/pwild.asp (Accessed November 4, 2008).
36). The United States is very much a patchwork of different approaches.
The Netherlands is a much smaller and more homogeneous country, especially in terms of the major factors that have the most immediate impact on urban planning (unhaar, Driessen, & Soer, 2009). The country is indeed -- as the name suggests -- a low-lying nation, a fact that has required central planning over generations to avoid catastrophic flooding and to ensure that the nation has sufficient arable land. Unlike the United States, which includes lands ranging from desert to tundra and densely population urban areas to very sparsely population plains, the Netherlands as a nation is bound together by its shared geography as well as by a population that has until recently been highly homogeneous. This has meant that almost all planning takes place on the national level and reflects shared cultural ideals about what the nation should and…
Garvin, a. (2002). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Runhaar H., Driessen, PJ., Soer, P. (2009). Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: An assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36(3): 417 -- 431.
Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.
Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.
Le Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.
Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette." http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/villette/
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…
A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.
Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.
Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896
City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
An Outline of European Architecture is a standard, general text in the history of Western buildings and is an outstanding example of Pevsner's ability to synthesize the general - the totality of the Western architectural experience - with the specific - an exploration of how specific techniques and materials combine to make each building a unique entity within several larger ordering systems. His work on Modern Design (also in Pioneers of Modern Design) shows his avowed interest for what were then the buildings of the contemporary vanguard. He has been criticized for his once-held view that the generation of ultra-modern architects who thrived during his study - Le Corbusier, the designers at the Bauhaus, etc. - were the logical "end point" to the evolution of architecture...in short that "Modern" architecture was almost the last possible word in building design. The thesis remains fascinating.
Major, individual volumes aside, Pevsner's name will…
Nikolaus Pevsner, ed. Matthew Aitchison. Visual Planning and the Picturesque (Getty Research Institute, 2010)
AAA the Getty Museum Store. Visual Planning and the Picturesque. The J. Paul Getty Trust. Web. 25 March 2011.
Dr Ute Engel, 'The Formation of Pevsner's art history: Nikolaus Pevsner in Germany 1902-33', paper delivered at centenary conference 'Reassessing Nikolaus Pevsner', Birkbeck College, 12-13/7/2002 and subsequently published in ed. P. Draper, Reassessing Nikolaus Pevsner (Ashgate, 2004).
Sir Nikolaus Pevsner Biography - ( 1902 -- 83 ), Pioneers of Modern Design, an Outline of European Architecture, the Buildings of England http://family.jrank.org/pages/3197/Sir-Nikolaus-Pevsner.html#ixzz1Hxl2VVZ3
One demand is to supply adequate fresh water. Insufficient fresh water for drinking, sewage treatment and sewage discharge are frequent issues that arise as the population increases. Augmented amounts of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution are also issues faced by city governments. Another issue is that of high infant and child mortality rates. These rates are frequently caused by deficiency. There is also an augmented possibility of the appearance of new plagues and pandemics. For a lot of ecological and societal reasons, including congested living situations, undernourishment and insufficient, unreachable, or missing health care; the underprivileged are more likely to be exposed to communicable diseases (Devaney, 2010).
What steps did city governments take to help deal with new demand resulting from the influx in population?
In the late nineteenth century, municipal governments frequently failed to meet the needs of their constituents. Because of this urban planning…
Auch, Roger, Taylor, Janis and Acevedo, William. (2004). Urban Growth in American Cities.
Retrieved March 8, 2011, from Web site:
Devaney, Erik. (2010). The Effects of Population Density on Individuals. Retrieved March 8,
According to Jacobs, "It was being done unofficially when what had grown big and successful was used to eat up, or wipe away, or starve what was not."
Besides just abject failures, though, Jacobs also cites a number of success stories that indicate city planners in the United States had learned some valuable lessons from their failures in the late 20th century. According to Jacobs, "There are quite a few cities that are more vigorous and more attractive than they were 10 or 20 years ago. A lot of good things are being done, but it's not universal." As an example, Jacobs points to Portland, Oregon as a city that has taken steps to reinvent itself based on the lessons learned in the past. Emphasizing that the Portland planners did not use a "lot of gimmicks," Jacobs reports that the holistic approach used has resulted in a reinvigorated city:
Edge Cities" by Joel Garreau.
Joel Garreau authored the best seller on how we build the cities that become the milestones of our civilizations because the fact is that these places are where we find our offices and shopping malls located bringing money to all of us.
The title of the book Edge Cities by Garreau is one book that has been valued by its readers because it opens doors to the subject of unplanned architecture. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier is not only a blockbuster, but The New York Times declared it "the first major book to examine a phenomenon that by any reasonable definition is among the most pressing of our age." Garreau's ability to write is exceptionally different because he has the ability to look into the obvious chaotic mess that will only worsen the future.
The cities that have been defined as…
However, the issue of informal settlement, which includes squatter areas, cannot be overlooked, as it is a common problem especially in developing countries. These forms of settlement are more prone to both the natural and human disasters, which deny the people living in those areas their rights as human beings. Poor regional planning is to blame for this, and it is for this reason that the study seeks to find out how regional planning can be used to curb these problems and why it has been difficult to do so.
The purpose for carrying out this study is to get an understanding of the role of regional planning in disaster management through re-planning of disaster prone squatter regions. The research paper will center on identifying the way in which modern technologies can be applied to come up with solutions that are lasting and helpful. The case study will…
Abubakar, a.S., Kuta, G.I., Salihu, S.O. & Mairo, M. (2012). An Assessment of Some Environmental Effects of Squatter Settlement in Dutse Alhaji, Bwari Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. Advances in Natural Science, 5(1), p. 10-28.
Caputi, P. (2012) Personal construct methodology. Malden, MA, Wiley.
Guangyao D., Wenji Z., Zhuowei H., and Dan F. (2011) an improved model of regional flood disaster risk assessment based on remote sensing data. 19th International Conference on Geoinformatics, p. 1-6.
Neuwirth, R., (2007) Squatters and the cities of tomorrow. City, 11(1), p.71-80. Available at: http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.1080/13604810701200797&magic=crossref .
Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.
Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…
Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.
Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.
Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
regional planning, some examples, which will be used, are the Tennessee Valley Authority, Regional Planning in New York City and its surrounding counties and the Appalachian Regional Commission. Regional planning is an important factor, which have to be considered by the government and its authorities. Regional planning departments should be formed in the countries all over the world so that these departments can work in the best interests of the people and can provide them with the better standard of living with in the country. Planning is an initial process in order to gain success and prosperity in any area; regional planning departments are formed for the purpose of serving the people for providing them with better housing and living facilities.
The start of any planning process is to develop a Planning Committee. The committee should consist of no more than seven people that come from a variety of backgrounds.…
As retrieved from Appalachian Regional Commission http://www.adeca.alabama.gov/content/adm/arc/arc.aspxOn May 1ST, 2004
As retrieved from About ARC History of ARC
On May 1ST, 2004
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…
Chudacoff H. & J.E. Smith. (2005) The Evolution of American Society,
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0-13-189824
Jacobs, Jane. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New
York, Vintage Books. ISBN:067974195X
Massey, D. and N. Denton. (1998). American Apartheid: Segregation and the
In this case, the researcher will engage open-ended questionnaires for participants who will be far away from the researchers. For the samples within the vicinity of the researcher, unstructured interviews will be effective (Leverett, 2010).
This study will follow the below timeline:
Preparation of research proposal
eading numerous literature
Deciding the final objectives
Drafting the literature review
Secondary data collection data analysis
Development of research approach
Developing research methodology
Organize the survey
Conduct the survey
Compile and verify the research paper
Submit the research paper
evision of the draft after feedback
Printing and binding the research paper
Submit the final research paper
To ensure the validity of the research, it is crucial to take consideration of ethics for the matter.…
Al-Ankary, K.M., & Bushra, -S. (2009). Urban and rural profiles in Saudi Arabia. Berlin: G. Borntraeger.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). Regional decentralization for agricultural development planning in the Near East and North Africa. Rome: FAO.
Leverett, F. (2010). The Road Ahead: Middle East Policy in the Bush Administration's Second Term. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Mufti, M.H. (2011). Healthcare development strategies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
Master Planning & Private Equity
Summarize the case in points
Rahul Todi of Shrachi is considering the prospects of developing land near Bardhaman, West Bengal. Residential demand has been steadily increasing in India, with a trend toward urbanization reflected by a rising middle class that is settling in the cities where job and cultural opportunities are promising. The parcels of land that Todi is watching could potentially be developed through a partnership with the West Bengal Housing Board, a government entity that has as one of its goals the development of low income housing. On the flip side, Todi has entered the idea of partnering with Xander Funds, a private equity group that invests in real estate and other asset classes.
Should Rahul Todi and Shrachi leave their Kolkata base to develop in Bardhaman at all, in any form?
The vision that Todi has for the land assemblage…
Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Planning With Environmental Assessment and Coast Guard Facilities
Port planning is a multifaceted project that involves technical, operational, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The projects may range from terminal rehabilitation until altering the whole area into a communal park, involving several different aspects in economic, social, cultural, ethical, and environmental goals.
Every area has unique resources, which need to be incorporated into the whole planning process based on the local legal regulation. As with differences in geographical characteristics, it is necessary to find particular approach to the short- and long-term goals of the port, and every detailed construction or facilities provided. The port and harbor must meet the need on how to convert the urban area into a beneficial site as well as to maintain its original characteristics of the landscape including - and without overlooking - the resident people's objectives for the future. It…
Leverburgh Waterfront Planning Brief. 2001. European and Development Services. http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/lever00.htm.(Apr1, 2002).
Management Measurement For Marina and Recreational Boating. 1997. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-93-001c January 1993. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html .(Apr1, 2002)
Nicholas, Francis W. In Christian Charles M. And Harper, Robert A. 1982. Managing the Urban Physical Environment. Modern Metropolitan System. Charles E. Merrill Pub. Pp. 332-359.
Port of San Francisco Strategic Plan. http://sfgov.org/sfport/PortMissionFY01_02.pdf .(Apr1, 2002)
Desecration of Public Education in Urban Settings
Desecration of Public Education
Attack on Public Education
Public Education: A Democratic Demand
Government's Interest in Charter Schools
Why Charter System Needs to be Opposed
Division of the Community
Failing Public Schools will Loose Funding to the Charter Schools
Difference between Public and Charter Schools
No Standard Policies
Peer Pressure and Violence
Lack of Extracurricular Activities
Authority and their igid System
Ignorance about Children's Bad Habits
Following measures can be taken to improve public schools
Charter Schools vs. Public Schools
The Basics of Educational Policy: The Pressure for eform in American Education
The Pressure for eform in American Education
Traits of Charter Schools
Why Charter Schools Exist in Urban Settings
Why to Save Public Schools 21
The purpose of this research paper is to decipher the truth about…
Behrman, J.R. (1997). The Social Benefits of Education. London: CIP.
Hassel, B.C. (1999). The Charter School Challenge: Avoiding the Pitfalls, Fulfilling the Promise. Washington: Congress Cataloging.
Lieberman, M. (1993). Public Education: An Autopsy. New York: Congress Cataloging.
Buckley, J., & Buckley, J. (2007). Charter Schools: Hope or Hype? London: Princeton University Press.
Public Health Planning
Community-Based Intervention Programs Improve Child Vaccination ates
Improvements in the rates of childhood vaccinations has, until recently, depended largely on remind/recall strategies employed by provider- and community-based programs (reviewed by Findley, Sanchez, Mejia, Ferreira, Pena, Matos, et al. 2009; Szilagyi, Schaffer, Shone, Barth, Huminston, Sandler et al. 2002). Unfortunately, such programs have failed to erase the racial and economic disparities that leave communities of color more vulnerable to preventable infectious diseases. In an effort to improve the rates of up-to-date child vaccinations in these communities, a group of researchers and clinicians designed and implemented a community program that added tracking and outreach activities to already established programs promoting child vaccination (Northern Manhattan Start ight Coalition; Findley, Irigoyen, Sanchez, Guzman, Mejia, Sajous, et al., 2004). When compared to national averages for all racial groups (74.8%) the improvements were significant, increasing from 65 to 88% for children…
Findley, Salley E., Irigoyen, Matilde, Sanchez, Martha, Guzman, Letty, Mejia, Miriam, Sajous, Michelle et al. (2004). Community empowerment to reduce childhood immunization disparities in New York City. Ethnicity and Disease, 14, S1-134 -- S1-141.
Findley, Sally E., Irigoyen, Matilde, Sanchez, Martha, Stockwell, Melissa S., Mejia, Miriam, Guzman, Letty et al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959-1962.
Findley, Salley E., Sanchez, Martha, Mejia, Miriam, Ferreira, Richard, Pena, Oscar, Matos, Sergio et al. (2009). REACH 2010: New York City: Effective strategies for integrating immunization promotion into community programs. Health Promotion Practice, 10(2), 128S-137S.
Fu, Linda Y., Cowan, Nuala, McLaren, Rosie, Engstrom, Ryan, and Teach, Stephen J. (2009). Spatial accessibility to providers and vaccination compliance among children with Medicaid. Pediatrics, 124, 1579-1586.
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
Emergency Planning: Washington, DC
Emergency planning entails planning carefully for every type of hazard that may affect a particular area. It involves forecasting and developing a plan to deal with natural, manmade and technological disasters.
Washington, DC's emergency planning has of course changed entirely since September 11, 2001. The terrorist attacks that left the entire country stunned and scarred had a particularly strong impact on Washington, DC. The center of America's political structure and a strong financial base, Washington continues to be a prime target for terrorists, one that will always be on a "short-list," so to speak, of cities that may yet again have to endure a terrorist attack of mammoth proportions.
One of the primary concerns for Washington, DC emergency planners is Reagan National Airport. The airport is so close to the most important landmarks and population centers in downtown Northwest Washington, DC, that it poses a continual…
STEP 8 - INTEVENTION IMPLEMENTATION PHASING
The initial implementation of the automated calling system will require a significant amount of data entry concerning patient contact data; however, this data can be integrated in digital form from existing healthcare information management system as discussed further below.
PLANNING MODULE III - DETAILED HIMS PLANNING and COSTING
Although the actual acquisition of the automated calling system selected for this initiative will be completed by the hospital's purchasing department, a preliminary review of available representative systems that meet the needs of the ENT department is provided in Table 1 below.
epresentative Automated Calling Systems and Specifications
BroadcastByPhone: Automated dialing software can reach people by phone or by voice mail with personalized messages the auto-dialer uses a computer to deliver personal calls or leave answering machine messages in a human voice or a computer-generated voice. Calls are delivered…
Cyr, F., King, M.C. & Ritchie, P.L. (1999). Quality management for psychology services in health care facilities. Canadian Psychology, 36(3), 201-204.
Tidwell, R. (2004). The 'no-show' phenomenon and the issue of resistance among African
American female patients at an urban health care center. Journal of Mental Health
Counseling, 26(1), 1-3.
Poverty-eduction Programs in Urban Communities
In September, 2001, 149 heads of state and high-ranking officials attending the Millennium Summit in New York unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration which contained a statement of eight millennium development goals, one of which was to halve global poverty rates by FY 2015. This declaration made poverty-reduction a global agenda and mandated administrators and policymakers at all levels of government to come up with innovative ways of integrating the objectives of poverty-reduction into their respective growth agendas. In its 2001 annual meeting, the IMF challenged policymakers to ensure that their poverty-reduction policies are nationally-owned and that they take input from all the relevant stakeholders. In line with this, the U.S. Census Bureau launched the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program to enable it to analyze income and poverty trends in individual counties with the aim of determining the effectiveness of statewide poverty-reduction policy.…
Obadire, O.S., Mudau, M.J., Sarfo-Mensah, P. & Zuwarimwe, J. (2013). Active Role of Stakeholders in the Implementation of Comprehensive Rural Development Programs in South Africa. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(13), 273-28
Shah, M. & Naqvi, I.H. (2014). Impact of Internal Stakeholders' Engagement on Project Portfolio Management Success: IT Industry in Lahore, Pakistan. Science International, 26(4), 1777-1782
Silverman, R.M. & Paterson, K.L. (2014). Qualitative Research Methods for Community Development. New York, NY: Routledge
Tersoo, K.S. (2013). An Assessment of National Poverty-Eradication Program on Wealth-Creation in Benue State. The European Journal of Business and Management, 5(19), 28-35
Development is a general concept that includes many different aspects. The definition of development is improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well-being, and satisfying the population's needs and wants. There are many different measurements for development, such as GDP, GNI, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Gini coefficient, and etc. Since each nation has its own culture, history, tradition, religion, and etc., the measurement of a successful development varies for different countries. As a result, although the general development concepts apply to all countries, each country needs to find their own specific way to develop. China has led the world its development among many various measures; especially economic growth. This analysis will consider some of the factors that are associated with China's exception development trajectory and what option it may hold in the future.
China's History of Development in the Twentieth Century
To understand China's rapid…
Davies, M. "HOW CHINA IS INFLUENCING AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT." April 2010. OECD Development Centre. Web. 5 December 2012.
Jason, B. "China's Development Plans Lead World, BRICs." 10 January 2011. Global Sherpa. Web. 4 December 2012.
Kanter, J. "European Finance Ministers Deadlock on Plan to Oversee Banks." 4 December 2012. The New York Times. Web. 5 December 2012.
Orlik, T. "China's Inequality Gini Out of the Bottle." 17 September 2012. The Wall Street Jounal China. Web. 6 December 2012.
democracy: urban governmentality and the horizon of politics (Appadurai) uses the demonstration of an Alliance to explain how deep democracy, democracy without borders, enables the poor to unite, or federate, and learn to solve their own problems and meet their own needs. The Alliance is made up of poor families who work together on a global basis, provide criticism of member communities for learning and exchanging, and equip the partnerships with more powerful persons and organizations to form a mutually sustainable cycle of processes. y doing so, they learn how to move themselves out of poverty and work for poverty reduction in their own communities.
The author makes the case clear with explanation of the living conditions of the poor as well as strategies the Alliance uses to teach their own members techniques to meet their own need, such as housing, toilets, and shared resources. Once members learn to meet…
Appadurai, A. "Deep democracy: urban governmentality and the horizon of politics." Environment and Urbanization, 13(23).doi:10.1177/0956247800101300203 (2001): 23-43.
Capitol City escue Mission in Albany New York
Program Planning and Evaluation
The Capitol City escue Mission in Albany New York was founded in 1949. As of 1982, the rescue mission got a new executive director in Perry Jones who involved in developing a rehabilitation and discipleship program. It took a short time for the mission to serve an extensive number of people (Burt & United States, 2010). The influx of younger people in its management marked a tremendous change in the perception, mission, and vision of the mission. This involved addition of other programs like free medical clinics, referrals and counseling, and learning. Because of the services being offered, the mission has grown to serve varied categories of people in terms of size and service delivery. In 2000, the mission had to acquire and shift to another location: a new thirty-seven square foot facility at South Pearl Street.…
Burt, MR et al. (2010). Strategies for Improving Homeless People's Access to Mainstream
Benefits and Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. Of Housing and Urban
Development, Office of Policy Development and Research
McGlone, L. (2007). The Minister's manual, 2008. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
ASLP Planning Emergencies
Emergency management plan is the document that contains information on how the authorities, people and businesses can respond, prepare and mitigate the risks associated with hazards in the United States. The emergency plan also assists in identifying the magnitude of a disaster, and probability of its occurrence within a specific year. The information assists the government to put aside the adequate resource to manage the emergence. The paper identifies the Hail Storm, Tornadoes and Wildfire for the hazard and vulnerable analysis.
Hazard & Vulnerability Analysis Table
Speed of Onset
Likely to occur during the winter and spring
May last between one and two weeks
More than 24 hours' warning
Damage to properties. Shutdown of critical facilities
Likely to occur during the winter
May last for more than a week
More than 24 hours'…
Gebert, K.M.; Calkin, D.E.; Yoder, J. (2007). Estimating suppression expenditures for individual large wildland fires. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 22: 188 -- 196.
Liang, J.; Calkin, D.E.; Gebert, K.M.et al. ( 2008). Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 17: 650 -- 659.
National Association of Community Health Centers (2010). Essential Components of Emergency Management Plans at Community Health Centers Crosswalk of Plan Elements.USA.
This particular project specifically discusses recruiting, selecting and retaining a multi-ethnic, multi-racial faculty, but what if that just doesn't work out? How does a district address the needs of minorities if they just don't get the candidates they actually want? To quote a public school teacher I overheard one time, "If there are only two Black or Hispanic kids in the whole school, and people are not thoughtful and nurturing, it spoils education for those two." These days, colleges of Education are addressing these issues and school districts are forming such entities as "diversity taskforces."
Another facet to retaining people has to do with inter-district mobility. Schools are very different now than even 20 years ago. Each building has a different philosophy, different programs and obviously, different faculty and staff. The ability to try out different matches to find maximum comfort for the employee can be a very important aspect…
Interrelated Managerial Stages in Strategic & Organizational Planning
Five elements of strategy: Starbucks
Stage 1: Vision, mission, and values-setting
Starbucks' original mission was to bring a neighborhood coffee house to every location in the U.S., in the style of Italian cafes. It emphasized quality to a greater degree than any existing coffee brand available to the general public at the time of its birth. There are lower-priced coffees and higher-quality coffees on the market, but Starbucks attempts to offer an affordable luxury and a home away from home to its patrons. From the beginning, "Howard Schultz strongly believed that Starbucks' success was heavily dependent on customers having a very positive experience in its stores. This meant having store employees who were knowledgeable about the company's products, who paid attention to detail, who eagerly communicated the company's passion for coffee, and who had the skills and personality to deliver…
Allison, Melissa. (2010). Starbucks has a new growth strategy. Seattle Times. Retrieved at:
Jargon, Julie. (2009). Latest Starbucks buzz: Lean Japanese techniques. The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124933474023402611.html
social capital was available to you? Why?
I would say that I have the benefit of a good education and strong background in appearing knowledgeable about something. This lends itself to convincing people and debating with people.
• Did you have a lot of social capital relative to others? Had your social capital been influential in your life in terms of crime control? Why? Provide a real-life example of a person you think took to crime because of less social capital availability.
I would say I absolutely have at least a marginal advantage in social capital. I often keep my views to myself because some people are quite touchy about opinionated and outspoken people. However, when I do say thing I absolutely have something good to say and I believe I have the standing to make the assertions that I do, especially as it relates to crime. For example, I…
Adams, J.T. (1931). The epic of America. New York, NY: Blue Ribbon Books.
Merton, R.K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York, NY: The Free Press.
d.). Even SWOT analysis can help urban planners determine situational variables, approximate risk, and therefore maximize the efficiency of an economic development plan. Issues such as community competitiveness have a strong impact on outside investors, which is another reason why urban planners must take advantage of a wide range of techniques. Urban planners can encourage economic development via a multi-stage process: analysis of need, analysis of risk, and analysis of potential investors.
As it relates to urban planning, sustainable development combines socially and environmentally responsible initiatives. Those initiatives must also be proven to stimulate economic growth and development in the community. Some government incentives may be offered directly for the purposes of creating and implementing sustainable development programs for communities. Land-use planning is one key facet of sustainable urban development. Controlling sprawl, implementing local and regional public transportation systems, and ensuring investments in clean water are other sustainable development issues…
HUD (2009). Economic development programs. Retrieved online: http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/ economicdevelopment/programs/
"Urban Planning and Sustainable Development," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.h-net.org/announce/show.cgi?ID=157060
World Bank Group (2007). Urban Development. Retrieved online: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/166856/UCMP/UCMP/step_two_urban_competitiveness.html
Scattering the Projects
By the 1990s, stakeholders in the public housing discussion had decided that the way to save public housing was to dismantle the core tenet that had defined public housing projects for several generations. While project housing projects had always been designed to be highly dense living spaces, usually relying on high-rise buildings and often housing far more individuals than had originally been planned for. The new model of public housing would be to "scatter" housing for the poor throughout established neighborhoods. This would be accomplished by the federal government getting out of the business of direct funding and construction of housing projects and instead providing vouchers for individuals to use towards renting housing in established middle-class neighborhoods.
The HOPE IV project was centered on this idea of "scattering":
The ostensible motive was to end the isolation of tenants from the wider city. The supposed barriers were twofold.…
Buell Center. (2009). A New Conversation. Retrieved from http://www.gsapp.org/buell/publichousing/_pdf/BUELL-PubHous.pdf .
Hawkins, K. (2010). Chicago shuttes infamous public housing project. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40450463/ .
Jackson, K. (1987). Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Venkatesh, S. & Celimli, I. Tearing Down the Community. Retrieved from www.nhi.org/online/issues/138/chicago.html.
Game / Outside Game
David usk's book, Inside Game / Outside Game: Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America is an insightful and well-researched addition to the current understanding of urban management and public administration. In his book, usk argues convincingly that improvement in inner city neighborhoods can only come from a coordinated effort that includes regional approaches to reducing suburban growth, the concentration of poverty, and financial differences. However, usk's collaborative strategies for improving urban America face some important bureaucratic challenges described within Morgan and England's text, Managing Urban America.
In Inside Game / Outside Game, usk argues for reform of metropolitan regions based on the interrelationship between urban management and management of other, outside concerns, like taxation, suburban growth, and housing practices.
usk argues that revitalization of neighborhoods, affordable housing, preservation of open space and fiscal policy reform are closely related. As such, changes in factors like taxation or…
Morgan, David R. And England, Robert E. 1999. Managing Urban America (Public Administration and Public Policy), 5th edition. Chatham House Publishers.
Rusk, David. 1999. Inside Game/Outside Game: Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America. Brookings Institution Press.
Sociology of California
Department of Finance reported that California had 532,000 more people at the end of 2003 (Fulton 2004) than at the start of the said year. Nothing was new about population increase in the state since the Great Depression and World War II, during which the population added half a million people every year, growing from 6 to 40 million today. There are no indications that the increase would be halted or altered.
ut the noticeable changes have been in the locations and the way California's people live. Some go back to the old suburban style, while the rest of the trend shows California as continuing to grow into an urban society (Fulton). The ay area's nine counties account for less than half (3.3%) of the entire state's average growth at 6.7% and places like Contra Costa and Sonoma counties have chosen the suburban style of growth. In…
Fulton, William, ed. 2004. Housing, Population Statistics Reveal Ongoing Division in State. California Planning and Development Report. http://www.cp-dr.com
Gordon, Peter and Harry W. Richardson. 1997. Why Sprawl is Good. Cascade Political Institute. http://www.hevanet.com/oti/sprawlreb.htm
Vorderbrueggen, Lisa. 2004. California Smart Growth. Building Energy: Smart Growth News. http://www.smartgrowth.org/org/news/bystate.asp?state=ca&res=640
In modern urban planning, socioeconomic factors like population growth have created a great number of slums. This has given rise to the implementation of urban renewal programs in the 20th and 21st centuries. The renewal programs are intended to eradicate the slums by: demolishing unused buildings and replacing it with new structures. Despite these efforts, the problem in low income areas was not solved and it even increased in number, over the years.
Urban planning aims to enhance the physical facets of: buildings and structures in relation to the socioeconomic factors of life. as, there are number of different aspects that are always considered to include: aesthetic, functional / safety purposes, and it is concerned with centralizing the location of schools / hospitals. This is a part of an effort, to make city leaving easier.
remer (2008) further discusses how efficient highway planning is the most important part of urban…
Bremer, D. (2008). Planning tomorrow's urban world. International Educator, 17, 32 -- 39.
Webster, C. (2005). The new institutional economics and the evolution of modern urban planning: Insights, issues and lessons. Town Planning Review, 76 (4), 455 -- 502.