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The only real downside environmentally is a relatively higher crime rate. hile violent crime is not necessarily higher than for the U.S. As a whole, it is still higher than that found in Tokyo due to the well-studied differences in American and Japanese cultural proclivities toward crime. More importantly, crimes against property, and specifically auto theft, are much higher in San Diego than they are elsewhere in the U.S., partly due to the city's close proximity to Mexico.
Tokyo has greater climate fluctuations than San Diego, with more humidity that causes less desirable weather in both winter and summer. However, because of the city has a commitment to mass transit its air quality is as good as or better than San Diego's. The city has many options for nightlife and entertainment, but the Japanese culture and economy push many of these options toward the nighttime. Also, there is less opportunity…
Coleman, S. (2009). International Cost of Living Rankings, April 2009. Ezine articles. 5 December 2009. .
Greenburg, Z. "America's Most Livable Cities." Forbes (April 1). Forbes.com. 5 December 2009. .
Kotkin, J. (2009) "Why The 'Livable Cities' Rankings Are Wrong." Forbes (August 11). Forbes.com. 5 December 2009. .
Money, (2009). Best Places to Live: San Diego. CNN/Money.com. 5 December 2009. .
Our urban metropolises are no longer the vibrant or essential centers they used to be. The mass migration of the wealthy into the suburbs has left our cities with reduced tax bases and less stability and in turn the cities have rapidly begun decaying. Our cities today are decadent and dangerous. Cites are the remnants of the industrial age and that time is gone. Breaking down or getting a flat tire in the wrong block will get an unfortunate traveler an introduction into the horrors of street crime and the illegal narcotics industry. Our cities are just not nice places any more. "Residents air their complaints in community meetings (of block dubs, police beats, the Local School Council, church groups, the Chamber of Commerce). Gangs and gang bangers top the list of their concerns." (Pattillo) This report will attempt to present an anthropological answer to the culture of…
Pattillo, Mary E. "Sweet Mothers And Gang Bangers: Managing Crime In A Black Middle-Class Neighborhood" Social Forces 01 Mar. 1998.
Ryan, James E. "Schools, Race, And Money" Yale Law Journal November (1999):.
Zenner, Walter P., and George Gmelch. Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City. 4th ed. n.p. Waveland P, 2001.
Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.
As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…
Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26
Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975
Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998
Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.
"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:
It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…
Hilfiker, David. (2002). Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Sociology of California
Department of Finance reported that California had 532,000 more people at the end of 2003 (Fulton 2004) than at the start of the said year. Nothing was new about population increase in the state since the Great Depression and World War II, during which the population added half a million people every year, growing from 6 to 40 million today. There are no indications that the increase would be halted or altered.
ut the noticeable changes have been in the locations and the way California's people live. Some go back to the old suburban style, while the rest of the trend shows California as continuing to grow into an urban society (Fulton). The ay area's nine counties account for less than half (3.3%) of the entire state's average growth at 6.7% and places like Contra Costa and Sonoma counties have chosen the suburban style of growth. In…
Fulton, William, ed. 2004. Housing, Population Statistics Reveal Ongoing Division in State. California Planning and Development Report. http://www.cp-dr.com
Gordon, Peter and Harry W. Richardson. 1997. Why Sprawl is Good. Cascade Political Institute. http://www.hevanet.com/oti/sprawlreb.htm
Vorderbrueggen, Lisa. 2004. California Smart Growth. Building Energy: Smart Growth News. http://www.smartgrowth.org/org/news/bystate.asp?state=ca&res=640
Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).
The Need for Welfare Reform:
While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…
Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. London: Pine Forge (2003).
Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (2002).
Macionis, John J. Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (2003).
Schaefer, Richard T. Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper-Collins (2001).
Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…
Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology
Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.
Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
Anthony Giddens defines prejudice as "the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resistant to change even in the face of new information."
Examples of the worst form of prejudice include American slavery during the first two centuries of this country and the extermination of millions of Jewish people by the Nazis during World War II. In both of these cases, the blacks and Jews were seen as lower forms of humans or even non-human. Unfortunately, prejudice against the blacks and Jews continues to this day. They are often considered "scapegoats," or blamed for things they have not done.
In this same vein, stigmatize, according to Tony Bilton (1996) is "a process of experience in which some form of social behavior or attribute is subject to social disapproval and becomes discredited, resulting in a spoiled identity in the eyes of others and possible exclusion from…
Bilton, T. (1996) Introductory Sociology, London: Macmillan
Giddens, a. (1997) Sociology. London: Polity Press.
Pickering, AJS (1991). Emile Durkheim. Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists. London: Routeledge.
Straus, R. (1994) Using Sociology. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
The people cannot do it themselves, although they have been making a valiant effort in Detroit, New Orleans, and other areas. They need help, and help quickly, and that help is not forthcoming.
The federal government seems to operate in a mode that initially recognizes a crisis, throws some initial aid toward management of the crisis, and then moves on to the next crisis, leaving the citizens and local governments to cope on their own. This strategy should be overthrown, replaced by a strategy that recognizes long-term support and aid is necessary in the face of crisis. Without urgent rethinking of this policy, and urgent aid to these suffering cities, the urban crisis in America is only going to continue, grow, and multiply until it is unmanageable and unsolvable.
Dyson, M.E. Come hell or high water: Hurricane Katrina and the color of disaster.
Sugrue, T. Origins of the Urban…
Dyson, M.E. Come hell or high water: Hurricane Katrina and the color of disaster.
Sugrue, T. Origins of the Urban Crisis.
They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:
Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed
Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…
Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.
Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.
Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism
Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
Sociology and Anthropology
After 1880, Africa underwent a major transformation with the European powers effectively dividing the continent among themselves. Over the next 100 years, nearly every major decision affecting the region would be made in a European capital. Then, each nation was able to gain their independence. To fully understand what took place requires: carefully examining the rationale for imperialism in Africa and studying the British vs. French colonizing missions. These factors will highlight the kinds of approaches that were used by the Europeans and the long-term impact of colonization. (Ciment, 2007, pp. 19 -- 24)
The ationale for Imperialism in Africa
The Europeans had different reasons for colonizing Africa. A few of the most notable include: to protect their own economic interests, maintain a balance of power and control key areas that are strategic importance. In the case of protecting their own economic interests, the Europeans believed that…
Ciment, J. (2007). Atlas of African -- American History. New York, NY: Facts on File.
Foster, D. (2002). The Global Etiquette Guide to Africa. New York, NY: Wiley.
Summary and Critique of the Book Streets of Hope
In Streets of Hope, Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar write about an impoverished area near Boston, called Dudley. Starting in the 1950's, people began to pull out of Dudley. The crime rate went up, the employment rate went down, and things just kept getting worse. By the time the 1980's came around, a full one-third of the land in Dudley was vacant. People began to use it as a dumping ground for everything from old autos to rotting garbage. The dumping was actually illegal, but no one except the Dudley residents ever complained about it, and no one ever got into trouble over it. Like in so many other impoverished neighborhoods, lawmakers and politicians looked the other way.
The people who live in the Dudley area finally started the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative (DSNI). The goal of this was to…
Kretzmann, John P. Book Review. 1997. Urban Leadership Institute. 1 December 2002. http://www.cst.edu/URBANWEB/bookrvw.htm .
Medoff, P. And H. Sklar. Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood.
Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994.
Some feminists argue that all pornography is bad for women because it is degrading to women (Peterson, 1998). The "victims" need protection, they claim, which, ironically, they say comes in the form of laws restricting what women legally can and cannot do with their own bodies.
While it can be argued that pornography reinforces negative male attitudes towards women in society and it increases the incidence of sex crimes, these are unfair claims (Peterson, 1998). While men may bring deep-rooted attitdevelop negative attitudes towards women. Even if pornography were banned, negative attitudes towards women would not disappear. In addition, there is little evidence to suggest that widespread distribution and use of soft-core pornography increases numbers of sex crimes.
In addition, it is important to note that many men who support feminism and women's rights enjoy pornography (Peterson, 1998). In addition, many successful heterosexual couples in committed relationships use soft-core pornography…
Feigelman, Bill. Young, Jim. (2003). Sociology: Fourth Edition. Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity.W.W. Norton.
Kent, Raymond. (2004). What is Social Work? The Occupational Outlook Handbook. Retrieved from the Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm .
Peterson, Patricia. (August 14, 1998). Pornography's legitimate place in society. Courier Mail.
Wikipedia. (2004). Feminism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism .
Sociology of Crime
It was argued by Greek historian, Herodotus, that there are no universal ethics and that all ethical systems were somehow relative to factors concerning the population (Ishay, 2008). The historian argued that different cultures had different perceptions about what is acceptable behavior and what constituted the moral norms in the societies. Herodotus illustrates this argument by comparing burial rituals that were used by two different cultures -- one culture used a cremation ritual while the other used a cannibalistic practice. The same argument could also be extended to the sociology of crime -- different societies place different values on behaviors in a criminal justice system.
Globalization is steadily working to change the environment in which crime can be committed. When Herodotus was alive up until the recent present, most crimes were limited to a geographic area. However, with the rapid development of technology and communications, people and…
Banisadr, A., 2014. Isis is a monster created by many countries. It requires an international solution. [Online]
Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/oct/27/isis-monster-international-solution [Accessed 31 May 2015].
Hall, T., 2012. Geographies of the illicit: Globalizaiton and organized crime. Progress in Human Geography, 37(3), pp. 366-385.
Ishay, M., 2008. The History of Human Rights. 1st ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Urban Areas in South America
In the scholarly journal ETHOS, there is an article by Baran (2007) entitled “Girl, You are Not Morena. We are Negras! Questioning the Concept of ‘Race’ in Southern Bahia, Brazil” that examines the way in which race is perceived in urban areas on South America—particularly in Brazil where the city of Salvador is located. Race is a major issue for urban areas in the United States, but in a different way than it is an issue for people in this part of South America. It is almost the exact opposite, in fact. While in the U.S., people are taught to embrace their ethnicity and to be proud of the things that make them unique and different, in Brazil there appears to be a campaign in the cities for people to categorize everyone as the same in terms of being light-skinned or dark.
Baran (2007) notes…
Sociology- Social Work
Aboriginal Social Work
Why does Judge Murray Sinclair note that the legal concept of innocence/guilt is not granted by Aboriginal societies as it is in the Canadian Justice System?
In Aboriginal communities, guilt is typically secondary to the main issue: the main concern is that something is erroneous and it has to be corrected. Since the main purpose is the reinstatement of accord rather than the imposition of reprimand, the accused is more likely to confess bad behavior. Judge Sinclair proposes that possibly this explicates why so many Aboriginal people plead guilty when in court. The Canadian criminal justice system is founded on Euro-Canadian principles and, as a consequence, frequently clashes with Aboriginal values. High levels of imprisonment, augmented focus from law enforcement, language hurdles, conflicting values and theoretical frameworks concerning crime and punishment, as well as certain issues faced by youth, all add to the breakdown…
Family Violence. (1996). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, vol. 3,
Gathering Strength. Minister of Supply and Services, Canada.ISBN: 0-660-16415 -- 9.
Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indegenous
Women. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.ca/stolensisters/amr2000304.pdf
Sociology of Work
It has become a generally acknowledged fact nowadays that a new global economy is coming into view. This innovative international economy is distinguished "by the transnational flow of capital, goods, services and labor; by greater national specialization and increased competition across borders; and by the use of new technologies" (O'Toole & Lawler III, 2006). Moreover, it has completely disturbed the long-established ways of business responsibilities and operations.
The United States of America has aimed a position for itself at the zenith of the world market in order to seek a competitive advantage. This paper discusses the changes in the American workplace, the practices and policies that are required by the United States to ensure the continuation of being the world's leading economic power. It also discusses how the contemporary adaptations in the American workplace have affected the employees and their families.
Changes in the American Workplace
Greenberg, E.S., & Grunberg, L. (n.d.). The Changing American Workplace and the Sense of Mastery: Assessing the Impacts of Downsizing, Job Redesign and Teaming. In University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from http://www.colorado.edu/ibs/PEC/workplacechange/papers/WP_006.pdf
Gregory, R.F. (2001). Age Discrimination in the American Workplace: Old at a Young Age. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/119755434/age-discrimination-in-the-american-workplace-old
Leberstein, S., & Christman, A. (2012). Occupy Our Occupations: Why "We Are the 99%" Resonates with Working People and What We Can Do to Fix the American Workplace. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 39(4), 1073+. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-301181023/occupy-our-occupations-why-we-are-the-99-resonates
Meeting the Challenges of Tomorrow's Workplace. (2002, Aug. - Sep.). Chief Executive (U.S.), 1, 1+. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-172617441/meeting-the-challenges-of-tomorrow-s-workplace
Sociology of Popular Culture
A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.
The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…
Bielby D, 2001, Popular culture: production and consumption, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.
Douglas, S, 1994, Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Random House
Kellner, D, 1995, Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge
Leadbeater, 1996, Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press
For example, there is evidence to suggest that federal housing funds, such as FHA and others, were denied of economically challenged African-Americans because the areas where they were seeking to purchase housing were made all but worthless when available properties, abandoned by the afore mentioned "white flight," depressed real estate prices to the point where financing was difficult, being seen by lenders as risky at best (Solnit, 2007). Therefore, what is seen, despite efforts to reverse the tailspin, was a rapid decline of the urban areas like Detroit, with plentiful jobs and housing giving way to poverty, homelessness and crime-enter the urban crisis.
Political Consequences of the Urban Crisis
Politically, cities like Detroit did not take the urban crisis in stride; rather, it ignited positive and negative activism within cities across the northern U.S.. For Detroit, urban crisis led to a mobilization of African-American politicians, many of whom were elected…
Solnit, Rebecca (July, 2007). Detroit Arcadia: Exploring the Post-American Landscape. Harper's Magazine.
Sugrue, Thomas (1996). The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
In 2007 it was 5.8%, while the State of Florida was at 12.1% (Palm Beach Gardens Florida, 2008).
According to the U.S. Census in the year 2000, there number of high school graduates in Palm Beach Gardens was 94%, which was well over the state average of 79.9%. It was also recorded that 43.8% of the population, compared to 22.3% in the state of Florida had received a Bachelors degree or higher. These figures speak very highly of the school systems in Palm Beach Gardens, showing that they are indeed doing something right (Palm Beach Gardens (city), Florida, (2009).
Although Palm Beach Gardens has grown and prospered over the years and appears to be a great place to live, it is not without its problems as well. Like most modern communities around this country it is faced with some challenges. One problem that has recently been discussed is that of…
"Palm Beach Gardens Florida." (2008). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from City-Data.com Web site:
"Palm Beach Gardens (city), Florida." (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from U.S. Census
Bureau Web site: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1254075.html
"In the Nordic countries multitasked family policy system helps families to reconcile family life and employment" (Forssen, 2000, p.16). The stresses and strains of the Canadian system are; therefore, largely absent from the Nordic system. Canada's system of social welfare, being largely after the fact, does not possess the same prescriptive effect as Scandinavia's program's of paid family leave, paid childcare, income redistribution, and so forth. The Nordic nations seek to prevent the problems arising by altering the fundamental situation of children's upbringing and family life.
Naturally, physical and mental health play major roles in relative rates of poverty. Canada is lucky, at least, to have a system of universal free medical care that ensures that children, as well as adults, receive a wide range of health services regardless of income. The system provides Canada's children with a safety net that is largely absent in the United States, and which…
Barlow, M., & Clarke, T. (1996, July 15). Canada - the Broken Promise: In the Interests of a Greater Globalism, the Downsizing of a Nation's Heart. The Nation, 263, 23+.
Covell, K., & Howe, R.B. (2001). The Challenge of Children's Rights for Canada. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
Youthful offenders especially, are subjected to negative influences and damaging treatment while in prison. Rehabilitation can be arranged so as to meet the needs of individual women and men, allowing them to come to terms with the reality of their transgressions, and to see and understand how they affect those around them. Mandatory participation in rehabilitation programs as an alternative to prison can give these insights to offenders even if they do not, at first, or even a second or a third time, accomplish their desired goals. Mandatory prison sentences for relatively minor or consensual drug and alcohol offenses have swelled the nation's prison system. Vast numbers of otherwise productive persons are kept locked away from society, doomed for perhaps making ill-advised decisions, denied proper treatment and consideration. The system should be changed to emphasize the inclusiveness of society. Individuals who offend should be helped with their problems and welcomed…
Berman, Douglas a. "Distinguishing Offense Conduct and Offender Characteristics in Modern Sentencing Reforms." Stanford Law Review 58.1 (2005): 277+.
Delgado, Melvin. Where Are All the Young Men and Women of Color?: Capacity Enhancement Practice in the Criminal Justice System. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.
Food Line at the School Cafeteria
This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…
Schneider, I.E. (2000). Revisiting and Revising Recreation Conflict Research. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 129.
Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.
Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…
Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.
Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.
Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.
A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what obert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…
Deviance. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Deviance.php
Ethnocentrism. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Ethnocentrism.php
Urban sociological theory. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-sociological-theories.php
Since the peak in residential Black/hite segregation during the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a slow decline in the index of dissimilarity; however, this did not translate into an increase in interactions with different racial groups ("Residential Segregation" 15-19). By the 2010 Census, the average hite person still lives in a predominantly hite neighborhood and the average Black person lives in a predominately minority neighborhood. By comparison, the residential segregation experienced by Hispanics and Asians has remained relatively stable during the latter decades of the 20th century and during the first decade of the new millennium.
The two main competing models are "human ecology" and "socioeconomic status" ("Residential Segregation" 47). The human ecology model proposes that segregation is created by trends in migration and new housing starts, institutionalized discrimination, population growth, an urban center's size and age, and the demographics specific to a region. By comparison, ilson…
Farley, Reynolds and Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks during the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a more Integrated Society." American Sociological Review 59.1 (1994): 23-45. Print.
"Farmville: Film Description." POV, American Documentary, Inc. (2009). Web.
Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American Century." Demography, 42.4 (2005): 595-620.
Logan, John R., Stults, Brian J., and Farley, Reynolds. "Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change." Demography 41.1 (2004): 1-22. Print.
American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (ellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.
The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…
Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm
Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central: http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the context of tourism.
Tourism deals with the physical, psychological and sometimes even spiritual demands of the people from diverse geographical, socio-cultural and economic background that travel under different motives, interests, preferences and immediate needs. In other words, tourism development in any area depends on availability of recreational resources, in addition to factors like climate, seasons, accessibility, attitude of the local people, planning and 'tourist plant' facility. All this put together creates a 'tourism magnetic atmosphere', which is resource base for the tourism
Factors influencing tourism and assist in exploiting the complete potential of an area, therefore vary from socio-economic to political and evolution of demand. These factors…
Brown, F. (1998) 'Tourism: Blight or Blessing?' Butterworth Heinemann: UK, HB, ISBN 075063989X.
Borocz, J. (1996), 'Leisure migration: A Sociological Study on Tourism', Pergamon Press: UK, ISBN 0080425607 HB
Butler, R. And Hinch, T. (eds) (1996) 'Tourism and Indigenous Peoples', ITBP: UK, HB, ISBN 1861522096
Butler, R., Hall, R. And Jenkins, M. (eds) (1998) 'Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas', Wiley: UK, HB, ISBN 0471976806
Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies
Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"
In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.
Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…
sociological readings. One is by Herbert J. Gans, and the other by Peter L. erger. While the readings are interesting, they are also relevant, even though, in the case of Gans, the narrative goes back to 1971,
The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All
y attempting to associate poverty with "positive functions" Gans is stepping out into a narrative that would seem at the outset to be risky. After all, the image that most people have of poor people, poor neighborhoods in urban areas, rural poverty and "low income" minorities, is not a positive one.
ut Gans makes a somewhat cynical (though valid) point when he says the fact of poverty "makes possible" certain "respectable professions"; those professions include people working in prisons, those involved in criminology, social workers, and those in the public health field. Moreover, Gans points out that poor people do the "dirty work" of taking…
Berger, Peter L. 2011. 'Invitation to Sociology / Invitation to Sociology / Sociology as an Individual Pastime.' Open Road Media.
Gans, Herbert J. 1971. 'The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All.' Social Policy, pp. 20-24.
The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.
Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, eeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.
A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…
Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative
Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189
Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.
Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas
Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)
Shaw and McKay discovered a…
Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.
Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966
Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.
Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.
Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…
Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/
Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
Shame in My Game: The Economic Sociology of Poverty
Poverty in America is such a politicized topic that it can be difficult for even the most neutral people to discuss. Part of the reason that poverty is so political is that most Americans have a romanticized notion of the free-market system and believe that the American dream is easily achieved if one applies sufficient hard work. However, the reality is that while America may be a free-market economy, it is also an economy where the wealthy have much greater access to politicians than the average individual, and where much of the socio-economic political structure has been developed to preserve wealth for the upper-class. Another reason that poverty is such a political issue is because poverty is so linked to race in America. Many people reject the notion that the fact that so many minorities are trapped in lives of poverty…
Newman, Katherine. No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. New York:
Knopf and Russell Sage Foundation, 1999. Ebrary. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
School Choice Program
This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.
Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.
The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.
To begin, I conducted structured…
Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.
Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.
Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.
Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
Culture of Poverty Theory
The culture of poverty theory as posited by Lewis (1969) asserts the emergency of this particular culture when groups or populations that was economically and socially marginalized and disenfranchised from capitalist society generated behavior patterns to address their low social and economic status. According to Lewis' theory, the behaviors that were exhibited where characterized by helplessness, provincialism, low aspirations, disorganization, and criticism and belittlement of so called middle class White America. Moreover, Lewis ascertains that even if structural remediation was in place, because the coping mechanisms were already in place, the behavior and attitudes would be perpetrated. According to classical assimilation theory, immigrant assimilation was seen as an integral component of successful matriculation into a middle class American way of life as cited in Greenman and Xie (2006) (Warner and Srole, 1945). The adaption of immigrants to the host society was seen as critical to…
Chen et al. (1999). Smoking patterns of Asian-American youth in California and their relationship with acculturation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 321-328.
Greenman, E., & Xie, Y. (2006). Is assimilation theory dead? The effect of assimilation on adolescent well being. Population Studies Center Research Report 06-605. Available At http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr06-605.pdf
Lewis, O. (1969). A death in the Sanchez family. New York, NY: Random House.
Warner, W., & Srole, L. (1945). The social systems of American ethnic groups. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Disadvantaged population: Young, African-American Men
ecently black males have been openly described as an endangered species. This crisis of the black male has been accredited to more than a few factors and is noticeable in literally all features of society. They are primarily absent from institutions of higher learning and from the labor force. They also quit school and are imprisoned at an elevated rate. These matters can all be accredited to the position of black males inside the area of education. The current problem covers several issues: an elevated drop-out rate, low test scores, and small pace of entrance into colleges and universities (Poorman, 2008).
According to Milner (2007), black males in city schools are frequently thought to be troubled students whose futures are not known. Black male students are completely underrepresented in gifted education and overrepresented in special education. According to the author there are five things…
Milner IV, H. (2007). African-American Males in Urban Schools: No Excuses-Teach and Empower. Theory Into Practice, 46(3), 239-246. doi:10.1080/00405840701402281
Poorman, Melissa. (2008). Assessing the Crisis: Black Males and Secondary Education.
Retrieved from http://www.wlu.edu/Documents/shepherd/academics/cap_08_poorman.pdf
Whiting, G. (2009). Gifted Black Males: Understanding and Decreasing Barriers to Achievement
Anomie and Alienation
Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found
Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…
(115) "hen the old yogis complain about commercialization, who can blame them? Gucci sells a yoga mat and matching bag for $655. Companies use famous yogis and yoga lingo to advertise cereal, beer and Hormel pork-loin fillets...Yoga is at a confused, precarious place, teetering on the edge of overexposure." Though, Rosin stresses that there is no real harm in the utilization of such a tool to teach and help people grow in spirituality and body, as a social outlet and a manner of life. (119)
Max eber contends that a great deal of the importance of understanding the sociology of religion lies in understanding the way such groups access power, and in the modern America what better way for a movement to gain power than through modern media commercialization? "...one aspect of the sociology of religion is the study of how certain groups or institutions (theologians, prophets, churches and sects)…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Rosin, Hanna "Striking a Pose" The Atlantic Monthly December 2006, 114-119.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "hat is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theoryeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max eber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/eber/whome.htm
Marx, Karl. "Bourgeoisie and Proletariat." The Communist Manifesto. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://media.pfeiffer.edu/lridener/courses/COMMAN.htmL
Simmel, Georg. The Metropolis and Mental…
Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm
Durkheim, Emile. "What is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/TheoryWeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html
Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com
Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max Weber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/Weber/whome.htm
Marx Historical Context
Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…
Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2010). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.
Greene, J.C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000, pp. 203-26.
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969.
Larry Tee, for instance, an inhabitant who started the Berliniamsburg club in Williamsburg, which is credited with popularizing Electroclash, one of the neighborhood's best-known cultural exports explained that: "Six months ago, Williamsburg was terminally hip. Now it's become designated as a safe space for nice people who have boring 9 to 5 jobs." 11
Urban Golf can redo some of that mustiness whilst fusing Bohemianism with funkiness. Artists used to love the grittiness of Williamsburg. Youth used to revel in its charm and trendy flavor. Now deep-pocketed developers are starting to develop the city and Williamsburg, as it was then, is starting to close aside from the fact that the different communities are moving further apart rather than closer together. Urban Golf could be sustainable by attracting diverse people into the area and turning the residence into a useful place. The Urban Golf concept has helped diverse social groups meet…
DAILY SLOPE,| Park Slope Neighborhood, Brooklyn, NY "Does "Hipster" automatically equal Brooklyn?"
Ferguson, Sarah. "Hipsters Defend Brooklyn." Village Voice. 29 March 2005
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Sociology is the study of how humans interact with each another, whether alone or in groups. But since the study of human interactions is a diverse subject, many sociologist, professional and non-professional, have observed and made conclusions based on their observations and thought. Two of these are Ferdinand Tonnies and Charles Dickens, and while Tonnies is regarded as one of the fathers of the science of sociology, Charles Dickens' writings have as much of a sociological theme as anything written by Tonnies. One of Tonnies' theories is what is called "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft," and is commonly translated into English as "culture and society." This type of bipartisan split in society is also described by Charles Dickens in his "Hard Times," where his story centers on the lives of both wealthy and poor in a fictional Victorian industrialized city. In fact, "Hard Times," at its core, describes a…
Dickens, Charles. (1854). "Excerpts from Hard Times: For These Times." Retrieved from www.filesonic.com/file/2821003165/Charles_Dickens.rar
Forster, John. (1870). The Life of Charles Dickens: Vol. 2. London: Chapman and Hall.
Nilsson, Jerker, and George Hendrikse. (2009). "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft in Cooperatives." Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/17528/ERS-2009-059-ORG.pdf
These years would come to define the modern American woman as a counterpoint to her sheltered Victorian counterpart.
4. Looking at the number of immigrants by region of the world from 1925 to 1981 and 1982 to 2005, as noted in the 2005 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and at the number of asylees and refugees arrived and granted asylum, and deported aliens. From which regions and countries in the world do most recent new Americans come from, and in what proportion? Quantify the changes? hat political and social reasons could be the reason for such changes? hat impact might these changes in immigrant origins have on American society and culture?
The first waves of immigration to sweep through the United States during the 20th century would be European in origin. At a time when much of Europe would be fractured by conflict, poverty and political strife, the United States would…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Gjerde, J. (1988). Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, Houghton Miflin Company.
Hooker, C. (2004). Ford's Sociology Department and the Americanization Campaign and the Manufacture of Popular Culture Among Assembly Line Workers c.1910 -- 1917. The Journal of American Culture, 20(1), 47-53.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
college sophomore student, U.S.A. I taking SOC100 (Introduce sociology) semester. I writing assignment called 'eflection' Below guides write reflection: eflections: eflections textbook chapter due fulfilling requirements: -2-page, typed, double-spaced, 12 point font, Times New oman, 1-inch margins.
Maintaining the momentum behind New York City's sustainability initiatives
According to Steven Cohen's article "Maintaining the momentum behind New York City's sustainability initiatives," as one of the dominant global cities of the developed world, New York is striving to set an example for other cities (including less developed cities and nations) by emphasizing sustainability in terms of its new constructions. Mayor Bloomberg was concerned that his successor might be swayed on the course he had set as mayor to create a sustainable New York. Thus, "Local Law 17 of 2008, enacted by the City Council with the Mayor's support, requires that PlaNYC be updated every four years... The Mayor's Office of…
Giddens, et al., 445-449
Cohen, Steven. (2013). Maintaining the momentum behind New York City's sustainability initiatives. Huffington Post.
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
Their Impacts on Immigrants in 19th Century
Settlement Houses were an attempt of socially reforming the society in the late nineteenth century and the movement related to it was a process of helping the poor in urban areas adopting their modes of life by living among them and serving them while staying with them. What today's youth would know as a Community Center, 'Settlement Houses' initially sprang up in the 1880's? At these facilities, higher educated singles would move to Settlement Houses and get to personally know the neighborhood and immigrant people that they were converting, studying, and/or teaching. Working together, they passed labor laws and changed the way the U.S. does business. Where these educated professionals stayed with the community and served them, the main intent of these reforms was to transfer this responsibility of social welfare to the government in the long-run.
An interesting fact…
Axinn, June, and Herman Levin. Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need. 4th ed. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1997.
Crocker, Ruth Hutchinson. "THE SETTLEMENTS: SOCIAL WORK, CULTURE, AND IDEOLOGY IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA.." History Of Education Quarterly 31, no. 2 (Spring1991): 253-260.
Davis, Allen F. Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890 -- 1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.
Harvard University Library Open Collections Program, "Immigration to the United / states, 1789-1930, Settlement House Movement." Accessed June 3, 2012. http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/settlement.html
shift from agrarian to industrial society a simple substitution of one form of economic behavior for another, hanging up the hat of the farmer to put on the hat of the factory worker. But there was in fact a substantial shift in nearly everything about daily life for those generations caught up in the transition from rural to urban worlds. The most obvious change was in the relationship between people and the land itself. No longer were people defined by their place of birth, by where they had always lived. They were defined - by others as well as themselves - by a series of portable skills.
The magnitude of this change is difficult for those of us who have grown up in a world in which mobility is the norm. But it must have been for those living at the beginning of the Industrial evolution a shattering (as well…
Bensel, R. (2001). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900.
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Carter, G. (ed.). (2000). Empirical approaches to sociology: A collection of classic and contemporary readings (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Durkheim, E. (G. Simpson, trans.). (1971). "Social Order and Control Via Close Social Ties: The Example of Suicide" in Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…
Dunman LJ. "Suicide." The Emile Durkheim Archive. 2003. The Bettmann Archive. 18 Mar. 2004. http://durkheim.itgo.com/suicide.html
Henslin JM. Down to Earth Sociology, 12th Edition. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Knapp P. "The Functionalist Analysis of Deviance." Peter Knapp Homepage. 1994. Villanova
University. 18 Mar. 2004. www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/Intro1-24.ppt
Michael Powell describes the combination of factors that contribute to the harsh and drastic shift in the economic realities of the wealthy, black communities in Memphis, TN. This article was published by the New York Times just over two years ago, certainly during severe economic times during the United States, which have not subsided in the present, a few years later. The article provides a brief and modern history of the growth the black middle class in Memphis and some surrounding towns.
For a time, many black people were employed very well, owned attractive property, and lived comfortable middle class, American lifestyles. As of 2010, there were drastic events occurring with great frequency that changed the lives of many blacks for the worse. The article describes the rise and the descent of the middle class black community in Tennessee during the early 21st century. Additionally, the article provides evidence of…
Farley, Reynolds, & Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society." American Sociological Association, Vol. 59, No. 1, 23 -- 45.
Powell, Michael. "Blacks in Memphis Lose Decades of Economic Gains." The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/31/business/economy/31memphis.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 July 20.
How Settings Define Characters:
Into the ild and Sex and the City
Every year at the Oscars, an academy award is awarded to the best costume designer, to the best in visual effects, to the best sound editing and best sound mixing. All of these individual elements work in harmony to create the setting of a motion picture- a setting that the audience will remember, so incredible that it makes the plot better. Settings are extremely important facet in any story- a book, a movie, a television show, as it helps the audience imagine that they are there and walking alongside the characters on the screen or through the pages of a novel. Settings are also important in propelling the individual characters through the plot- the setting helps meld their personalities, their actions and reactions to certain situations. The idea that settings aid in the shaping the main characters…
Hiott, Taylor. "Into the Wild - Critical Review of the Novel About the Journey of Christopher McCandless." Associated Content. Yahoo!, 26 May 2009. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .
Wisniewski, Chris. "Sex and the City." Reverse Shot. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .
Marketing success is almost always found in celebrity endorsements. We can take a look at Pepsi ads which have featured Madonna, Michael Jackson, Brittany Spears, and even Mike Tyson. Pepsi is known around the world, just as the celebrities whom are featured on the Pepsi commercials. In other words, in using the notoriety of celebrities, a corporation may be able to increase its market share into the pockets of consumers who are more familiar with the celebrity than the product. The celebrity thus is a bridge between the consumer and the product. But what happens when those celebrities are notorious for other things as well as their entertainment or sport talent? And why do the corporations continue to utilize these celebrities if these celebrities have been known to engage in improprieties or dubious activities?
Corporations have a business model that has multiple branches leading from three or four…
In the Middle East, comprehensive and regional planning are not as developed as needed within the 21st century paradigm. Gloalism has rought change to the world, and this will require a new way of thinking aout precious resources and use of materials that will contriute oth to environmental sustainaility and the increasing cooperation etween regions. I have certainly realized that the moral action in the contemporary world is to pursue a career that allows the capacity to influence others in managing the impact that the environment has on all of us. To that end, I would like to present my application and credentials for a Master's in City and Regional Planning at the Pratt Institute. I am particularly interested in your programs ecause of the extensive research and reputation of the department, and the focus not only on a holistic framework, ut the aility to collaorate with colleagues and…
bibliography to include a number of works on sustainability and modern business design, most recently: Horibe's Creating the Innovation Culture, Farr's Sustainable Urbanism, and a book a colleague recommended that is proving interesting, but difficult, Zetter's Designing Sustainable Cities in the Developing World. I am living in the United States now, concentrating on the improvement of my English language skills. Besides my undergraduate degree in interior design, I have worked in groups of several sizes as both a contributing team member and manager, and I am doing my best to network with consulting and business colleagues to form intellectual partnerships that may help alter the regional mindset and allow for more of an innovation culture in the region.
Thank you in advance. I appreciate your consideration and look forward to attending the Pratt Institute.
She sent equally matched pairs of lack and white men to apply for low-skilled jobs in 350 places in the area. These applicants were bright, articulate students who pretended to apply for the jobs. The result was that the lack applicants without criminal record were called back for interview only 14% of the time as compared to white applicants with criminal record at 17% of the time.
The author quotes Julia Taylor, president of the Greater Milwaukee Committee as saying that a lot of work had to be done towards educating employers and their attitudes towards race. Taylor commented that racial discrimination in employment affected the region, its workforce and inner-city growth. The result of the study did not surprise many African-Americans who knew the existence of this type of discrimination in the region's job market. On the other hand, many white Americans thought that direct, racial discrimination of this…
Coleman, Major C.; Darity, William a.; and Sharpe, Rhonda V. Sharpe. Are Reports of Discrimination Valid? American Journal of Economics and Sociology: American
Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc., 2008. Retrieved on March 2, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_2_67/ai_n27911457?tag=content;col1
Johnson-Elie, Tannette. Study Shows How Deeply Black Men Face Discrimination in Hiring. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: JSOnline, 2003. Retrieved on March 7, 2009 from http://www.jobbankusa.com/News/Hiring/hiring100803a.html
Levitan, Mark. A Crisis of Black Male Employment: Unemployment and Joblessness in New City. Community Service Society Annual Report. Community Service Society, 2004. Retrieved on March 2, 2009 at http://www.cssny.org/pubs/special/2004_02/labormarket.pdf
Cellular phones and video games did not exist in the past due to the absence of technology back then. The Japanese video game industry has revolutionized the world with its innovative games from giants such as Nintendo, Sega and Sony. The role-playing games genre has been a big contribution by the Japanese and a large part of their culture. They did not have video games back then but they had text-based adventures which people could play on their own. Mario brothers, pokemon, digimon are some of the brand names of Japanese culture. The Japanese game industry has developed a following around the world as people eagerly await games, which have the typical Japanese background music. These background tracks are also on the best selling charts in Japan.
Japanese culture depends on sharing subcultures such as expressionism, an urban sense of style, and high educational attainment. These processes and patterns…
Fukutake, T. 1981 the Structure of Japanese Society. Tokyo: U.P.
Kawasaki, K. 1992 "A Sociology of Baby Boomer Junior Generation." Across 216. PARCO Publications: 18-25.
Dale, Peter N.1986
The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness. London: Routledge.
New York Mayor Michael Bloomburg said of the project, "The Gates' will transform Central Park and challenge viewers to revisit their preconceptions of public art and urban parks" (Bloomberg). Many New Yorkers did not share in his enthusiasm. eporter Webb continues, "Nearly everyone was initially aghast at the prospect of so intrusive a work in their piece of paradise, but the artists overcame all objections, promising to respect every twig and patch of turf by designing self-supporting structures that would leave no mark" (Webb). This is essentially how they finally managed to gain approval for their project.
Their artwork did create a new meaning for the park, because it showed the myriad uses for this incredible outdoor space. The park was created as an artistic endeavor, and Christo's work showed it can be a spectacular backdrop to equally spectacular artistic endeavors. Using bold colors and the bleak landscape (in winter)…
Bernstein, Joshua. "The Park and the People." Gotham Gazette. 2004. 20 Feb. 2008. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/fea/20040713/202/1031
Bloomberg, Michael. "Letter from Michael R. Bloomberg." NYC.gov. 2005. 20 Feb. 2008. http://www.nyc.gov/html/thegates/html/letter.html
Editors. "150+ Years of Central Park History." CentralParkNYC.org. 2008. 20 Feb. 2008. http://www.centralparknyc.org/site/PageNavigator/aboutpark_history_cp_history_150yrs
Kowsky, Francis R. Country, Park & City: The Architecture and Life of Calvert Vaux. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).
ith regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…
Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.
Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.
Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
Sixty-hour weeks, no insurance, no compensation for injuries or overtime, and no pensions symbolized the workers' plight. And when the workers went on strike over the inequities, the government sided with the owners.
The mass society of the late nineteenth century had no diversity. It was a society in which the rich and powerful manipulated the existence of the politically and economically powerless mass through overwhelming mass production, mass communication, and mass distribution.
Examples (oyer 2, 2001) Mass production transformed the way Americans lived and worked at the beginning of the twentieth century. Thanks to its role in creating mass consumer culture (mass society), it constitutes a vital part of contemporary life. It was responsible for the dehumanizing assembly-line work of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as well as the physical comfort enjoyed by most people in industrialized countries. The 1926 edition of the Encyclopedia ritannica…
Boyer, P.S. (2001). Early republic, era of the. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html
Boyer, P.S. 2 (2001). Gilded age. Retrieved February 23 from encylcopedia. com, 2009, from The Oxford companion to U.S. history: h ttp:/ / www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-GildedAge.html
Calhoun, C.W. (2006). The Gilded Age: Perspectives on the origins of modern America. New York: Rowman and Littlefield. ( http://books.google.com/books?id=XrZTTCaCRAUC&printsec=frontcover ) enotes.com. (n.d.). Overview: 1900's. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from Enotes.com:
Mothers -- Transitioning from elfare to Corporate America
elfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. e first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…
Burnett, R. (2010, May 28). Social Welfre: Does it Really Help or Does it Really Hurt? Retrieved from The Cypress Times: http://www.thecypresstimes.com/article/Columnists/The_Hard_Truth/SOCIAL_WELFARE_DOES_IT_REALLY_HELP_OR_DOES_IT_REALLY_HURT/30509
Galster, G. (Ed.). (1996). Reality and Research: Social Science and U.S. Urban Policy since 1960. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Gyamfi, P., Brooks-Gun, J., & Jackson, A. (2005). Moving Towards Work: The Effects of Employment Experiences on Welfare-Dependent Women and their Children. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(2-3), 39-62.
Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html