Urban Sociology Essays (Examples)

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Urban Anthropology

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44170667

Urban Anthropology

Our urban metropolises are no longer the vibrant or essential centers they used to be. The mass migration of the wealthy into the suburbs has left our cities with reduced tax bases and less stability and in turn the cities have rapidly begun decaying. Our cities today are decadent and dangerous. Cites are the remnants of the industrial age and that time is gone. Breaking down or getting a flat tire in the wrong block will get an unfortunate traveler an introduction into the horrors of street crime and the illegal narcotics industry. Our cities are just not nice places any more. "Residents air their complaints in community meetings (of block dubs, police beats, the Local School Council, church groups, the Chamber of Commerce). Gangs and gang bangers top the list of their concerns." (Pattillo) This report will attempt to present an anthropological answer to the culture of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Pattillo, Mary E. "Sweet Mothers And Gang Bangers: Managing Crime In A Black Middle-Class Neighborhood" Social Forces 01 Mar. 1998.

Ryan, James E. "Schools, Race, And Money" Yale Law Journal November (1999):.

Zenner, Walter P., and George Gmelch. Urban Life: Readings in the Anthropology of the City. 4th ed. n.p. Waveland P, 2001.

Urban Life
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Urban Sprawl Is a Problem That Can

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65687421

Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.

As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26

Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975

Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998

Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
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Urban Injustice How Ghettos Happen

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58307582

Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.

"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:

It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hilfiker, David. (2002). Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen. New York: Seven Stories Press.
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Sociology of Place the California Coast

Words: 1331 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19888945

Sociology of California

Department of Finance reported that California had 532,000 more people at the end of 2003 (Fulton 2004) than at the start of the said year. Nothing was new about population increase in the state since the Great Depression and World War II, during which the population added half a million people every year, growing from 6 to 40 million today. There are no indications that the increase would be halted or altered.

But the noticeable changes have been in the locations and the way California's people live. Some go back to the old suburban style, while the rest of the trend shows California as continuing to grow into an urban society (Fulton). The Bay area's nine counties account for less than half (3.3%) of the entire state's average growth at 6.7% and places like Contra Costa and Sonoma counties have chosen the suburban style of growth. In…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fulton, William, ed. 2004. Housing, Population Statistics Reveal Ongoing Division in State. California Planning and Development Report.  http://www.cp-dr.com 

Gordon, Peter and Harry W. Richardson. 1997. Why Sprawl is Good. Cascade Political Institute. http://www.hevanet.com/oti/sprawlreb.htm

Vorderbrueggen, Lisa. 2004. California Smart Growth. Building Energy: Smart Growth News. http://www.smartgrowth.org/org/news/bystate.asp?state=ca&res=640
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Sociology - Welfare the Conceptual

Words: 1342 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44035160

Instead, the welfare system encouraged perpetual social dependency and provided a reason for poor people not to work at all when the most reliable method of achieving financial independence (besides continuing education) is precisely, to begin working at minimum wage jobs while gradually learning skills and establishing contacts and a record of regular employment that are essential in the long- term goal of qualifying for better work in time (Healey, 2003 p56).

The Need for Welfare Reform:

While elements of government assistance programs are still subject to epidemic abuse (Schmalleger, 2007 p104), the reconfiguration mandated by Congress in 1996 are designed to rectify some of the most glaring problems plaguing the federally administrated programs previously. First and foremost, the new state-run welfare programs must, by federal law, establish caps limiting welfare eligibility to discourage perpetual (even permanent) reliance on public funds as a substitute for making the necessary effort and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Healey, Joseph F. Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. London: Pine Forge (2003).

Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon (2002).

Macionis, John J. Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall (2003).

Schaefer, Richard T. Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper-Collins (2001).
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Sociology of Poverty and Welfare

Words: 3817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79188435

Interpretive sociology does not agree with the thought that behavior is related to society as effect is related to cause since this entire idea is dysfunctional with that which composes social life in reality. Interpretive sociology holds that understanding of our fellow man should be the pursuit of each day as sense is made of their individual societal existence. Seeking to understand is the concept held in interpretive sociology instead of the seeking of an explanation. Therefore it is understood that "structural" or that of Marxism and Functionalism (i.e. The interpretive/interactionist/social action sociologies) as well as Weber's interactionism, ethnomethodology and the Structural arguments in sociology that a "science of society" is likely. Therefore, there exists an agreement even among the interpretive sociologies. The natural science argument is based on "cause and effect" principles. That claim that the behavior of humans is the effect of some cause in society or class…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Townsend, Peter (1970) the Concept of Poverty. Heinemann Weber, Max (1958) the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Gilbert (1999) Social Research Update No. 27 University of Surrey Department of Sociology

Marx, Karl (1970) first published 1870 capital Vol.1 Penguin.

Sanjeev Prakash is Director of the Environment, Technology and Institutional
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Sociology From the Beginning of

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35951567

Anthony Giddens defines prejudice as "the holding of preconceived ideas about an individual or group, ideas that are resistant to change even in the face of new information."

Examples of the worst form of prejudice include American slavery during the first two centuries of this country and the extermination of millions of Jewish people by the Nazis during World War II. In both of these cases, the blacks and Jews were seen as lower forms of humans or even non-human. Unfortunately, prejudice against the blacks and Jews continues to this day. They are often considered "scapegoats," or blamed for things they have not done.

In this same vein, stigmatize, according to Tony Bilton (1996) is "a process of experience in which some form of social behavior or attribute is subject to social disapproval and becomes discredited, resulting in a spoiled identity in the eyes of others and possible exclusion from…… [Read More]

References

Bilton, T. (1996) Introductory Sociology, London: Macmillan

Giddens, a. (1997) Sociology. London: Polity Press.

Pickering, AJS (1991). Emile Durkheim. Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists. London: Routeledge.

Straus, R. (1994) Using Sociology. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
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Sociology Urban Crisis and the

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81537737

The people cannot do it themselves, although they have been making a valiant effort in Detroit, New Orleans, and other areas. They need help, and help quickly, and that help is not forthcoming.

The federal government seems to operate in a mode that initially recognizes a crisis, throws some initial aid toward management of the crisis, and then moves on to the next crisis, leaving the citizens and local governments to cope on their own. This strategy should be overthrown, replaced by a strategy that recognizes long-term support and aid is necessary in the face of crisis. Without urgent rethinking of this policy, and urgent aid to these suffering cities, the urban crisis in America is only going to continue, grow, and multiply until it is unmanageable and unsolvable.… [Read More]

References

Dyson, M.E. Come hell or high water: Hurricane Katrina and the color of disaster.

Sugrue, T. Origins of the Urban Crisis.
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Sociology of Families Making Families

Words: 3136 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89493662

They are therefore not determined or restricted by factors such as norms, morals or external principles. A concise definition of this view is as follows:

Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities; it is contingent on convention, human perception, and social experience. It is believed by constructivists that representations of physical and biological reality, including race, sexuality, and gender are socially constructed

Constructivist epistemology)

Another theoretical and philosophical stance that is pertinent to the understanding of the status of the family in modern society is the post-structural or deconstructive view. This is allied to a certain extent with the constructivist viewpoint, which sees society as a social construction and denies the reality of transcendent factors. This view therefore sees the family as a structure which is not fixed or static but is relative in terms of the norms and values…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G.L. (Ed.).1997, the Family in Global Transition. St. Paul, MN: Professors World Peace Academy.

Baker, M. 2003, 'Reinventing the Family: In Search of New Lifestyles', Journal of Sociology, Vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 178+.

Constructivist epistemology. [Online] Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_constructivism

Coulter, G. 2001, 'Cohabitation: An Alternative Form of Family Living', Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol.26, no. 2. p. 245.
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Sociology and Anthropology

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24423930

Sociology and Anthropology

After 1880, Africa underwent a major transformation with the European powers effectively dividing the continent among themselves. Over the next 100 years, nearly every major decision affecting the region would be made in a European capital. Then, each nation was able to gain their independence. To fully understand what took place requires: carefully examining the rationale for imperialism in Africa and studying the British vs. French colonizing missions. These factors will highlight the kinds of approaches that were used by the Europeans and the long-term impact of colonization. (Ciment, 2007, pp. 19 -- 24)

The Rationale for Imperialism in Africa

The Europeans had different reasons for colonizing Africa. A few of the most notable include: to protect their own economic interests, maintain a balance of power and control key areas that are strategic importance. In the case of protecting their own economic interests, the Europeans believed that…… [Read More]

References

Ciment, J. (2007). Atlas of African -- American History. New York, NY: Facts on File.

Foster, D. (2002). The Global Etiquette Guide to Africa. New York, NY: Wiley.
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Sociology Summary and Critique of the Book

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27303266

Sociology

Summary and Critique of the Book Streets of Hope

In Streets of Hope, Peter Medoff and Holly Sklar write about an impoverished area near Boston, called Dudley. Starting in the 1950's, people began to pull out of Dudley. The crime rate went up, the employment rate went down, and things just kept getting worse. By the time the 1980's came around, a full one-third of the land in Dudley was vacant. People began to use it as a dumping ground for everything from old autos to rotting garbage. The dumping was actually illegal, but no one except the Dudley residents ever complained about it, and no one ever got into trouble over it. Like in so many other impoverished neighborhoods, lawmakers and politicians looked the other way.

The people who live in the Dudley area finally started the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative (DSNI). The goal of this was to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kretzmann, John P. Book Review. 1997. Urban Leadership Institute. 1 December 2002. http://www.cst.edu/URBANWEB/bookrvw.htm.

Medoff, P. And H. Sklar. Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood.

Boston, MA: South End Press, 1994.
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Sociology Race Is a Set

Words: 1130 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26039379



Some feminists argue that all pornography is bad for women because it is degrading to women (Peterson, 1998). The "victims" need protection, they claim, which, ironically, they say comes in the form of laws restricting what women legally can and cannot do with their own bodies.

While it can be argued that pornography reinforces negative male attitudes towards women in society and it increases the incidence of sex crimes, these are unfair claims (Peterson, 1998). While men may bring deep-rooted attitdevelop negative attitudes towards women. Even if pornography were banned, negative attitudes towards women would not disappear. In addition, there is little evidence to suggest that widespread distribution and use of soft-core pornography increases numbers of sex crimes.

In addition, it is important to note that many men who support feminism and women's rights enjoy pornography (Peterson, 1998). In addition, many successful heterosexual couples in committed relationships use soft-core pornography…… [Read More]

References

Feigelman, Bill. Young, Jim. (2003). Sociology: Fourth Edition. Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity.W.W. Norton.

Kent, Raymond. (2004). What is Social Work? The Occupational Outlook Handbook. Retrieved from the Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm.

Peterson, Patricia. (August 14, 1998). Pornography's legitimate place in society. Courier Mail.

Wikipedia. (2004). Feminism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism.
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Sociology of Crime it Was Argued by

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4108472

Sociology of Crime

It was argued by Greek historian, Herodotus, that there are no universal ethics and that all ethical systems were somehow relative to factors concerning the population (Ishay, 2008). The historian argued that different cultures had different perceptions about what is acceptable behavior and what constituted the moral norms in the societies. Herodotus illustrates this argument by comparing burial rituals that were used by two different cultures -- one culture used a cremation ritual while the other used a cannibalistic practice. The same argument could also be extended to the sociology of crime -- different societies place different values on behaviors in a criminal justice system.

Globalization is steadily working to change the environment in which crime can be committed. When Herodotus was alive up until the recent present, most crimes were limited to a geographic area. However, with the rapid development of technology and communications, people and…… [Read More]

References

Banisadr, A., 2014. Isis is a monster created by many countries. It requires an international solution. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/oct/27/isis-monster-international-solution  [Accessed 31 May 2015].

Hall, T., 2012. Geographies of the illicit: Globalizaiton and organized crime. Progress in Human Geography, 37(3), pp. 366-385.

Ishay, M., 2008. The History of Human Rights. 1st ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
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Sociology- Social Work Aboriginal Social Work Why

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76217792

Sociology- Social Work

Aboriginal Social Work

Why does Judge Murray Sinclair note that the legal concept of innocence/guilt is not granted by Aboriginal societies as it is in the Canadian Justice System?

In Aboriginal communities, guilt is typically secondary to the main issue: the main concern is that something is erroneous and it has to be corrected. Since the main purpose is the reinstatement of accord rather than the imposition of reprimand, the accused is more likely to confess bad behavior. Judge Sinclair proposes that possibly this explicates why so many Aboriginal people plead guilty when in court. The Canadian criminal justice system is founded on Euro-Canadian principles and, as a consequence, frequently clashes with Aboriginal values. High levels of imprisonment, augmented focus from law enforcement, language hurdles, conflicting values and theoretical frameworks concerning crime and punishment, as well as certain issues faced by youth, all add to the breakdown…… [Read More]

References

Family Violence. (1996). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, vol. 3,

Gathering Strength. Minister of Supply and Services, Canada.ISBN: 0-660-16415 -- 9.

Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence Against Indegenous

Women. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.ca/stolensisters/amr2000304.pdf
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Sociology of Work

Words: 3487 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67912225

Sociology of Work

It has become a generally acknowledged fact nowadays that a new global economy is coming into view. This innovative international economy is distinguished "by the transnational flow of capital, goods, services and labor; by greater national specialization and increased competition across borders; and by the use of new technologies" (O'Toole & Lawler III, 2006). Moreover, it has completely disturbed the long-established ways of business responsibilities and operations.

The United States of America has aimed a position for itself at the zenith of the world market in order to seek a competitive advantage. This paper discusses the changes in the American workplace, the practices and policies that are required by the United States to ensure the continuation of being the world's leading economic power. It also discusses how the contemporary adaptations in the American workplace have affected the employees and their families.

Changes in the American Workplace

The…… [Read More]

References

Greenberg, E.S., & Grunberg, L. (n.d.). The Changing American Workplace and the Sense of Mastery: Assessing the Impacts of Downsizing, Job Redesign and Teaming. In University of Colorado Boulder. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from http://www.colorado.edu/ibs/PEC/workplacechange/papers/WP_006.pdf

Gregory, R.F. (2001). Age Discrimination in the American Workplace: Old at a Young Age. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/119755434/age-discrimination-in-the-american-workplace-old

Leberstein, S., & Christman, A. (2012). Occupy Our Occupations: Why "We Are the 99%" Resonates with Working People and What We Can Do to Fix the American Workplace. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 39(4), 1073+. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-301181023/occupy-our-occupations-why-we-are-the-99-resonates

Meeting the Challenges of Tomorrow's Workplace. (2002, Aug. - Sep.). Chief Executive (U.S.), 1, 1+. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-172617441/meeting-the-challenges-of-tomorrow-s-workplace
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Sociology of Popular Culture

Words: 2411 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81906617

Sociology of Popular Culture

Popular Culture

A popular culture is a complex term defined by a number of already existing definitions which explore the different spectrums associated with the term. The initial understanding of this culture was based on the lifestyle adopted by the masses; the subordinate, lower class, which made them separate from the elite class. However, today, it is considered to be a lifestyle which includes different cultural practices, artifacts and other cultural commodities, that is widely accepted by the population. Therefore, in order to study a popular culture, it is important to focus on the varying aspects such as identity, representation, regulation, production and consumption where the latter two have an interdependent relationship. For this reason, this paper would look into the underlying fact of the contemporary popular culture where the producers are also the consumers.

The theorists of the cultural studies started studying popular culture when…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Bielby D, 2001, Popular culture: production and consumption, Wiley-Blackwell, United States.

Douglas, S, 1994, Where the girls are: Growing up female with the mass media. New York: Random House

Kellner, D, 1995, Media culture: Cultural studies, identity, and politics between the modern and the postmodern. New York: Routledge

Leadbeater, 1996, Urban Girls: Resisting Stereotypes, Creating Identities. New York: New York University Press
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Sociology-Race Sugrue and Solnit as

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62398364

For example, there is evidence to suggest that federal housing funds, such as FHA and others, were denied of economically challenged African-Americans because the areas where they were seeking to purchase housing were made all but worthless when available properties, abandoned by the afore mentioned "white flight," depressed real estate prices to the point where financing was difficult, being seen by lenders as risky at best (Solnit, 2007). Therefore, what is seen, despite efforts to reverse the tailspin, was a rapid decline of the urban areas like Detroit, with plentiful jobs and housing giving way to poverty, homelessness and crime-enter the urban crisis.

Political Consequences of the Urban Crisis

Politically, cities like Detroit did not take the urban crisis in stride; rather, it ignited positive and negative activism within cities across the northern U.S.. For Detroit, urban crisis led to a mobilization of African-American politicians, many of whom were elected…… [Read More]

References

Solnit, Rebecca (July, 2007). Detroit Arcadia: Exploring the Post-American Landscape. Harper's Magazine.

Sugrue, Thomas (1996). The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Sociology-Race
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Sociology Population & Urbanization Back

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55071475

In 2007 it was 5.8%, while the State of Florida was at 12.1% (Palm Beach Gardens Florida, 2008).

According to the U.S. Census in the year 2000, there number of high school graduates in Palm Beach Gardens was 94%, which was well over the state average of 79.9%. It was also recorded that 43.8% of the population, compared to 22.3% in the state of Florida had received a Bachelors degree or higher. These figures speak very highly of the school systems in Palm Beach Gardens, showing that they are indeed doing something right (Palm Beach Gardens (city), Florida, (2009).

Although Palm Beach Gardens has grown and prospered over the years and appears to be a great place to live, it is not without its problems as well. Like most modern communities around this country it is faced with some challenges. One problem that has recently been discussed is that of…… [Read More]

References

"Palm Beach Gardens Florida." (2008). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from City-Data.com Web site:

 http://www.city-data.com/city/Palm-Beach-Gardens-Florida.html 

"Palm Beach Gardens (city), Florida." (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from U.S. Census

Bureau Web site: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1254075.html
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Sociology Comparison of the Canadian

Words: 3036 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34358269

"In the Nordic countries multitasked family policy system helps families to reconcile family life and employment" (Forssen, 2000, p.16). The stresses and strains of the Canadian system are; therefore, largely absent from the Nordic system. Canada's system of social welfare, being largely after the fact, does not possess the same prescriptive effect as Scandinavia's program's of paid family leave, paid childcare, income redistribution, and so forth. The Nordic nations seek to prevent the problems arising by altering the fundamental situation of children's upbringing and family life.

Naturally, physical and mental health play major roles in relative rates of poverty. Canada is lucky, at least, to have a system of universal free medical care that ensures that children, as well as adults, receive a wide range of health services regardless of income. The system provides Canada's children with a safety net that is largely absent in the United States, and which…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002267862

Barlow, M., & Clarke, T. (1996, July 15). Canada - the Broken Promise: In the Interests of a Greater Globalism, the Downsizing of a Nation's Heart. The Nation, 263, 23+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101378990

Covell, K., & Howe, R.B. (2001). The Challenge of Children's Rights for Canada. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
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Sociology Is the Cure Worse

Words: 2111 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54630635

Youthful offenders especially, are subjected to negative influences and damaging treatment while in prison. Rehabilitation can be arranged so as to meet the needs of individual women and men, allowing them to come to terms with the reality of their transgressions, and to see and understand how they affect those around them. Mandatory participation in rehabilitation programs as an alternative to prison can give these insights to offenders even if they do not, at first, or even a second or a third time, accomplish their desired goals. Mandatory prison sentences for relatively minor or consensual drug and alcohol offenses have swelled the nation's prison system. Vast numbers of otherwise productive persons are kept locked away from society, doomed for perhaps making ill-advised decisions, denied proper treatment and consideration. The system should be changed to emphasize the inclusiveness of society. Individuals who offend should be helped with their problems and welcomed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011529346

Berman, Douglas a. "Distinguishing Offense Conduct and Offender Characteristics in Modern Sentencing Reforms." Stanford Law Review 58.1 (2005): 277+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99874999

Delgado, Melvin. Where Are All the Young Men and Women of Color?: Capacity Enhancement Practice in the Criminal Justice System. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
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Sociology Food Security in Less

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92946559

Food security and economic growth interact in a commonly reinforcing process over the course of development. It is only in modern times that entire societies have achieved food security. Before that, it was only privileged members of society who were able to escape from chronic hunger and the constant threat of famine. Rich countries have little to fear from hunger. Consumers often have a considerable buffer of non-food expenditures to rely on, even if food prices rise sharply. It is well-known that in a market economy, the rich do not starve. Wars, riots, hurricanes and floods can disrupt the smooth functioning of markets, and all in their wake can perish. Rich societies usually have the ability to prevent or alleviate such catastrophes, social or natural. Food security in rich societies is simply part of a broader net of social securities (Timmer, 2004).

Using a demographic perspective would change the analysis…… [Read More]

References

Jenkins, J. Craig and Scanlan, Stephen J. (2001). Food Security in Less Developed Countries,

1970 to 1990. American Sociological Review. 66(5), pp. 718-744.

Timmer, C. Peter. (2004). Food Security and Economic Growth: an Asian perspective. Retrieved February 1, 2010, from Web site:

 http://www.cgdev.org/doc/commentary/timmer_food%20and%20securitypdf.pdf
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Sociology Advance at Your Own

Words: 1971 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21367753



A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.

Food Line at the School Cafeteria

This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761999

Schneider, I.E. (2000). Revisiting and Revising Recreation Conflict Research. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 129.

Norm Violation
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American Industrialization Urban Systems the

Words: 1167 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37404261

Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.

Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.

Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.

Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.

Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
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Sociology Mcminden A Fictional Town

Words: 745 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1946114

Within my own community, I have seen this as more and more people travel farther and farther away for college, and settle far away from their parents. Access to expanded opportunities motivates the individual to break his or her existing social ties.

A third and final sociological concept manifested in the McMinden example is seen in the prevalence of drug addiction in the town. As noted by Manuel Mendoza, a Hispanic police officer who has made some inroads into the once almost entirely white town's law enforcement hierarchy, drug use crosses all racial divides, as the town's economic condition has worsened, so has the prevalence of addiction. Individuals who feel they have been denied the opportunity to fully enjoy the American Dream, particularly when confronted with increasingly unrealistic expectations of material success in the media, often experience what Robert K. Merton called anomie, or alienation. One of the ways individuals…… [Read More]

References

Deviance. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at  http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Deviance.php 

Ethnocentrism. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/basic-concepts/Ethnocentrism.php

Urban sociological theory. (2010). Sociology Guide. Retrieved November 25, 2010 at http://www.sociologyguide.com/industrial-and-urban-society/Urban-sociological-theories.php
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Sociology International and Domestic Residential Segregation and Immigration in US

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63810634

Residential Segregation

Since the peak in residential Black/White segregation during the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a slow decline in the index of dissimilarity; however, this did not translate into an increase in interactions with different racial groups ("Residential Segregation" 15-19). By the 2010 Census, the average White person still lives in a predominantly White neighborhood and the average Black person lives in a predominately minority neighborhood. By comparison, the residential segregation experienced by Hispanics and Asians has remained relatively stable during the latter decades of the 20th century and during the first decade of the new millennium.

The two main competing models are "human ecology" and "socioeconomic status" ("Residential Segregation" 47). The human ecology model proposes that segregation is created by trends in migration and new housing starts, institutionalized discrimination, population growth, an urban center's size and age, and the demographics specific to a region. By comparison, Wilson…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Farley, Reynolds and Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks during the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a more Integrated Society." American Sociological Review 59.1 (1994): 23-45. Print.

"Farmville: Film Description." POV, American Documentary, Inc. (2009). Web.

Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American Century." Demography, 42.4 (2005): 595-620.

Logan, John R., Stults, Brian J., and Farley, Reynolds. "Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change." Demography 41.1 (2004): 1-22. Print.
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Sociology and Sports

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62554587

Football

American football is a professional sport that was derived from the game of Rugby by Walter Camp in 1879 (Bellis). Walter played football at Yale University where he attended college. He was involved in developing the football rules as we know them today. The rules of football were taken from the sports of Rugby and Soccer. Football has grown into a sport that is widely viewed and attended in the American society. Today, people go to football games at middle schools, high schools, and college stadiums. The college games have become professional games that are attended and viewed through media by millions of fans across the American nation.

The rules that were adopted and changed included; one side, or team, retained the undisputed possession of the ball until that side gives up the ball as a result of violations. The line of scrimmage was also created. The number of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bellis, M. (n.d.). History of Football. Retrieved from About.com Inventors: http://inventors.about.com/fstartinventions/a/HistoryFootball.htm

Ormeland, B. (2012, July 10). NFL Dynasties and Hall of Famers. Retrieved from Sports Central:  http://www.sports-central.org/sports/2012/07/10/nfl_dynasties_and_hall_of_famers.php
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Sociology and Anthropology in Tourism

Words: 2357 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68540323

symbolizes the sum total of qualitative and quantitative values on which the degree and extent of exploitability of the region for the purpose of tourism depends. It Is difficult to explain the 'potential' in numerical terms as it involves many factors in the context of tourism.

Tourism deals with the physical, psychological and sometimes even spiritual demands of the people from diverse geographical, socio-cultural and economic background that travel under different motives, interests, preferences and immediate needs. In other words, tourism development in any area depends on availability of recreational resources, in addition to factors like climate, seasons, accessibility, attitude of the local people, planning and 'tourist plant' facility. All this put together creates a 'tourism magnetic atmosphere', which is resource base for the tourism

Factors influencing tourism and assist in exploiting the complete potential of an area, therefore vary from socio-economic to political and evolution of demand. These factors…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, F. (1998) 'Tourism: Blight or Blessing?' Butterworth Heinemann: UK, HB, ISBN 075063989X.

Borocz, J. (1996), 'Leisure migration: A Sociological Study on Tourism', Pergamon Press: UK, ISBN 0080425607 HB

Butler, R. And Hinch, T. (eds) (1996) 'Tourism and Indigenous Peoples', ITBP: UK, HB, ISBN 1861522096

Butler, R., Hall, R. And Jenkins, M. (eds) (1998) 'Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas', Wiley: UK, HB, ISBN 0471976806
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What Is Urban Planning What Is the Role of the Urban Planner

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87736842

Urban Planning & Urban Planners

Urban planning, or also referred to as urban development, consists of the formal planning process in which urban area designed to meet both the present and future challenges that are present in city life. They consider the relationship between the built environment and human behaviors or quality of life (Handy, Boarnet, Ewing, & Killingsworth, 2002). An urban planner, sometimes called a city planner, can assist community leaders in analyzing trends in order to decide how to best use public resources to meet various objectives. Some of the issues that are commonly addressed by an urban planner might include city growth planning, urban decay, environmental issues, social issues such as poverty and crime, and many more. By studying these issues, researchers attempt to understand the factors that make cities both livable and enjoyable. This research is also used to implement plans and policies by which positive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brueckner, J. (2000). URBAN SPRAWL: DIAGNOSIS AND REMEDIES. International Regional Science Review, 160-171.

Frank, L., Sallis, J., Conway, T., Chapman, J., Saelens, B., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality. Journal of the American Planning Association, 75-87.

Handy, S., Boarnet, M., Ewing, R., & Killingsworth, R. (2002). How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from urbanplanning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 64-73.
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Sociological Theories Sociology of Gender

Words: 1087 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29285085

Sociology and Feminist Theories on Gender Studies

Postmodern Feminism in "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism"

In the article entitled, "Cherrie Moraga and Chicana Lesbianism," author Tomas Almaguer analyzes and studies the dynamics behind Moraga's feminist reading of the Chicano culture and society that she originated from. In the article, Almaguer focuses on three elements that influenced Moraga's social reality as she was growing up: the powerful effect of the Chicano culture, patriarchal orientation, and homosexuality that she experienced within the context of her nationality.

Chicano culture centers on race as an indicator of one's cultural orientation, while patriarchy serves as the ideology that is prevalent in Moraga's social reality. Homosexuality, particularly, lesbianism, is Moraga's release from the somewhat repressing role that she perceives women receive in her culture. Thus, lesbianism becomes Moraga's alternative sexual orientation to a heterosexually conservative Chicano culture. Using the following factors concerning the cultural, social, and…… [Read More]

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Realism in Sociology and Social Work

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91021274

sociological readings. One is by Herbert J. Gans, and the other by Peter L. Berger. While the readings are interesting, they are also relevant, even though, in the case of Gans, the narrative goes back to 1971,

The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All

By attempting to associate poverty with "positive functions" Gans is stepping out into a narrative that would seem at the outset to be risky. After all, the image that most people have of poor people, poor neighborhoods in urban areas, rural poverty and "low income" minorities, is not a positive one.

But Gans makes a somewhat cynical (though valid) point when he says the fact of poverty "makes possible" certain "respectable professions"; those professions include people working in prisons, those involved in criminology, social workers, and those in the public health field. Moreover, Gans points out that poor people do the "dirty work" of taking…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Peter L. 2011. 'Invitation to Sociology / Invitation to Sociology / Sociology as an Individual Pastime.' Open Road Media.

Gans, Herbert J. 1971. 'The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All.' Social Policy, pp. 20-24.
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Stigma of Urban Poverty History

Words: 2529 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27538659

The public face of stigma involves the general public's negative beliefs, feelings and behaviours directed toward those with a stigma" (¶ 4). Public stigma may contribute to a cycle of poverty by: a) Employers discriminating against obese individuals or those who may be HIV-infected or mentally ill. b) Being poor, per se, may contribute to even more public stigmatization.

Self-stigma and public stigma closely connect, Reeder and Pryor (2008) stress . The degree an individual perceives that his/her employers, family, family, and landlords possess stigmatizing attitudes; he/she will likely experience the pain of self-stigma. One's awareness of public stigma frequently promotes self-stigma.

A stigma, similar to a disease may spread from one individual to another. The individual who decides to affiliate with a member of a stigmatized group may acquire a courtesy stigma. In a sense, as the individual gains admission into the stigmatized category, both the stigmatized group's members…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Jeanine B. et al. Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries Journal of Comparative

Economics, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 188-189

Katsiaouni, O. & Gorniak, J. (2001). Globalization and rural poverty in transition economies.

Paper for Expert Group Meeting on Globalisation and Poverty Reduction: Can th Rural Poor Benefit from Globalisation? organised by Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations, 8-9 November 2001, New York.
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Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91314490

Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas

Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, Back of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)

Shaw and McKay discovered a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.

Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966

Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.

Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
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Application of Criminology Theories Sociology

Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23733167

theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife Refuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.

Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife Refuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…… [Read More]

References

Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/

Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
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Economic Sociology

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19705023

Shame in My Game: The Economic Sociology of Poverty

Poverty in America is such a politicized topic that it can be difficult for even the most neutral people to discuss. Part of the reason that poverty is so political is that most Americans have a romanticized notion of the free-market system and believe that the American dream is easily achieved if one applies sufficient hard work. However, the reality is that while America may be a free-market economy, it is also an economy where the wealthy have much greater access to politicians than the average individual, and where much of the socio-economic political structure has been developed to preserve wealth for the upper-class. Another reason that poverty is such a political issue is because poverty is so linked to race in America. Many people reject the notion that the fact that so many minorities are trapped in lives of poverty…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Newman, Katherine. No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. New York:

Knopf and Russell Sage Foundation, 1999. Ebrary. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
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Reforming Urban Schools

Words: 13440 Length: 49 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79283099

School Choice Program

This study aimed to determine the impact of school choice through a comparative study of two private schools, which serve primarily, or exclusively African-American students, and a public school.

Data in student achievement in math and reading and data on student attendance were used to determine the impact of choosing a school. Qualitative data derived from interviews with administrators and faculty as well as classroom observation were used to provide additional insight regarding the intellectual climate of the two private schools and the public school.

The focus of this study was on mathematics and reading in middle school students in both public and private schools in Milwaukee, as well as the focus of reform in the state -- reading in Michigan, writing in Vermont and California. This approach enabled me to adequately address my research questions and prove or disprove my hypotheses.

To begin, I conducted structured…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Andrew (1995). Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.

Dianda, Marcella. Corwin, Ronald. (February 1993). What a Voucher Could Buy: A Survey of California's Private Schools. Far West Lab for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California and Southwest Regional Lab Survey Results.

Fuller, Bruce. (1995). Who Gains, Who Loses from School Choice: A Research Summary. ERIC Document Reproduction Services No. ED385928.

Greene, Jay. Peterson, Paul. Du, Jiangtao. (1997). Effectiveness of School Choice: The Milwaukee Experiment. Occasional Paper 97, Program in Education Policy and Governance Center for American Political Studies, Department of Government, Harvard University.
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Environmental Ethical Issue Sociology Environmental

Words: 1208 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44102580



Current events of the environmental ethics

Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).

Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…… [Read More]

References

Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.

Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing

Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.

Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
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Gang Activity Has Grown Substantially

Words: 1761 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75840020

On the contrary societies treatment of certain racial and ethnic groups based on the color of skin or the language spoken also contributes greatly to the formation and proliferation of gang violence.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was to explore race and ethnicity as it pertains to gangs. The research found that from a historical perspective, immigrant communities formed gangs as a reaction to living in a new world and having to confront difficulties with schooling and police brutality. The investigation indicates that in today's society certain races and ethnic groups are often to prone to engaging in gang activity because they fell disenfranchised. In addition, many of the individuals who are gang members are products of one parent homes in which the father is not present. In such cases there is very little direction and young men and women join gangs so that they can have a sense…… [Read More]

References

Chapman, S. (August 25, 2007).A Friend Turned Killer in Gang's Gun Warfare; GUN and GANG CULTURE COMMUNITIES in FEAR the Lawless Lives of Feuding Youths Led to a Fatal Shooting outside a Liverpool Prison. Daily Post.. Page Number: 10.

Gangs. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved May 8, from; http://www.ncjrs.gov/spotlight/gangs/summary.html

Hagedorn, J.M. (2006). Race Not Space: A Revisionist History of Gangs in Chicago. The Journal of African-American History, 91(2), 194+.

Manwaring, M.G. (2005). Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
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Race and Ethnic Relations

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36091900

Sociology

Culture of Poverty Theory

The culture of poverty theory as posited by Lewis (1969) asserts the emergency of this particular culture when groups or populations that was economically and socially marginalized and disenfranchised from capitalist society generated behavior patterns to address their low social and economic status. According to Lewis' theory, the behaviors that were exhibited where characterized by helplessness, provincialism, low aspirations, disorganization, and criticism and belittlement of so called middle class White America. Moreover, Lewis ascertains that even if structural remediation was in place, because the coping mechanisms were already in place, the behavior and attitudes would be perpetrated. According to classical assimilation theory, immigrant assimilation was seen as an integral component of successful matriculation into a middle class American way of life as cited in Greenman and Xie (2006) (Warner and Srole, 1945). The adaption of immigrants to the host society was seen as critical to…… [Read More]

References

Chen et al. (1999). Smoking patterns of Asian-American youth in California and their relationship with acculturation. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 321-328.

Greenman, E., & Xie, Y. (2006). Is assimilation theory dead? The effect of assimilation on adolescent well being. Population Studies Center Research Report 06-605. Available At  http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr06-605.pdf 

Lewis, O. (1969). A death in the Sanchez family. New York, NY: Random House.

Warner, W., & Srole, L. (1945). The social systems of American ethnic groups. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
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Disadvantaged Population Young African-American Men

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50429776

Sociology

Disadvantaged population: Young, African-American Men

Recently black males have been openly described as an endangered species. This crisis of the black male has been accredited to more than a few factors and is noticeable in literally all features of society. They are primarily absent from institutions of higher learning and from the labor force. They also quit school and are imprisoned at an elevated rate. These matters can all be accredited to the position of black males inside the area of education. The current problem covers several issues: an elevated drop-out rate, low test scores, and small pace of entrance into colleges and universities (Poorman, 2008).

According to Milner (2007), black males in city schools are frequently thought to be troubled students whose futures are not known. Black male students are completely underrepresented in gifted education and overrepresented in special education. According to the author there are five things…… [Read More]

References

Milner IV, H. (2007). African-American Males in Urban Schools: No Excuses-Teach and Empower. Theory Into Practice, 46(3), 239-246. doi:10.1080/00405840701402281

Poorman, Melissa. (2008). Assessing the Crisis: Black Males and Secondary Education.

Retrieved from http://www.wlu.edu/Documents/shepherd/academics/cap_08_poorman.pdf

Whiting, G. (2009). Gifted Black Males: Understanding and Decreasing Barriers to Achievement
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Anomie and Alienation Lost With No Possibility

Words: 1581 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83835533

Anomie and Alienation

Lost, With No Possibility of Being Found

Running through the literature of classical late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century sociology are themes of isolation, of the poverty of life lived in isolated cells, of the fragility of a life in which we can almost never make authentic connections with other people, in which we are lost even to ourselves. We have -- and this "we" includes the entire population of the industrialized world, or at least most of it -- have raised the act of rationalism to an art form, but along the way we have lost so much of our humanity that we can no longer form or maintain a community. Four of the major social critics of the twentieth century took up these themes for essentially the same reason: To argue that while ailing human society could be transformed in ways that would give it meaning…… [Read More]

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Hanna Rosin's Work Striking a

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78082581

(115) "When the old yogis complain about commercialization, who can blame them? Gucci sells a yoga mat and matching bag for $655. Companies use famous yogis and yoga lingo to advertise cereal, beer and Hormel pork-loin fillets...Yoga is at a confused, precarious place, teetering on the edge of overexposure." Though, Rosin stresses that there is no real harm in the utilization of such a tool to teach and help people grow in spirituality and body, as a social outlet and a manner of life. (119)

Max Weber contends that a great deal of the importance of understanding the sociology of religion lies in understanding the way such groups access power, and in the modern America what better way for a movement to gain power than through modern media commercialization? "...one aspect of the sociology of religion is the study of how certain groups or institutions (theologians, prophets, churches and sects)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.

Rosin, Hanna "Striking a Pose" The Atlantic Monthly December 2006, 114-119.

Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
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Society How Does Durkheim Address

Words: 1679 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63934943

Individuals can find some sanctuary in the diverse population of urban areas. Unlike small family groups, which enforce social restrictions much tighter, larger urban areas give their inhabitants more freedom to explore diverse paths without fear of judgment or social outcast. More subgroups within a population lead to more individual exploration with fewer worries than lesser populated areas.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coser, Lewis a. "Georg Simmel: Biographical Information." 1977. Sociology in Switzerland. Retrieved on November 28, 2007 at http://socio.ch/sim/bio/htm

Durkheim, Emile. "What is Social fact?" The Rules of the Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982. pp.50-59. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/TheoryWeb/readings/DurkheimFactForm.html

Emile-Durkheim.com. "Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)." Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://emile-durkheim.com

Elwell, Frank. The Sociology of Max Weber. 1996. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorist/Weber/whome.htm
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Marx Historical Context Classical Sociological and Economic

Words: 1342 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59721592

Marx Historical Context

Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2010). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.

Greene, J.C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000, pp. 203-26.

Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/
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Williamsburg as Our Region With

Words: 1871 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63196220

Larry Tee, for instance, an inhabitant who started the Berliniamsburg club in Williamsburg, which is credited with popularizing Electroclash, one of the neighborhood's best-known cultural exports explained that: "Six months ago, Williamsburg was terminally hip. Now it's become designated as a safe space for nice people who have boring 9 to 5 jobs." 11

Urban Golf can redo some of that mustiness whilst fusing Bohemianism with funkiness. Artists used to love the grittiness of Williamsburg. Youth used to revel in its charm and trendy flavor. Now deep-pocketed developers are starting to develop the city and Williamsburg, as it was then, is starting to close aside from the fact that the different communities are moving further apart rather than closer together. Urban Golf could be sustainable by attracting diverse people into the area and turning the residence into a useful place. The Urban Golf concept has helped diverse social groups meet…… [Read More]

References

DAILY SLOPE,| Park Slope Neighborhood, Brooklyn, NY "Does "Hipster" automatically equal Brooklyn?"

http://www.dailyslope.com/2007/04/30/does-hipster-automatically-equal-brooklyn/

Ferguson, Sarah. "Hipsters Defend Brooklyn." Village Voice. 29 March 2005

http://www.villagevoice.com/2005-03-29/news/hipsters-defend-brooklyn&page=1
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Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft How Does Industry Affect the Community in Which Market Live

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43006602

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Sociology is the study of how humans interact with each another, whether alone or in groups. But since the study of human interactions is a diverse subject, many sociologist, professional and non-professional, have observed and made conclusions based on their observations and thought. Two of these are Ferdinand Tonnies and Charles Dickens, and while Tonnies is regarded as one of the fathers of the science of sociology, Charles Dickens' writings have as much of a sociological theme as anything written by Tonnies. One of Tonnies' theories is what is called "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft," and is commonly translated into English as "culture and society." This type of bipartisan split in society is also described by Charles Dickens in his "Hard Times," where his story centers on the lives of both wealthy and poor in a fictional Victorian industrialized city. In fact, "Hard Times," at its core, describes a…… [Read More]

References

Dickens, Charles. (1854). "Excerpts from Hard Times: For These Times." Retrieved from www.filesonic.com/file/2821003165/Charles_Dickens.rar

Forster, John. (1870). The Life of Charles Dickens: Vol. 2. London: Chapman and Hall.

Print.

Nilsson, Jerker, and George Hendrikse. (2009). "Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft in Cooperatives." Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/17528/ERS-2009-059-ORG.pdf
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Diner Gjerde and Takaki Looking

Words: 2865 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80953537

These years would come to define the modern American woman as a counterpoint to her sheltered Victorian counterpart.

4. Looking at the number of immigrants by region of the world from 1925 to 1981 and 1982 to 2005, as noted in the 2005 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, and at the number of asylees and refugees arrived and granted asylum, and deported aliens. From which regions and countries in the world do most recent new Americans come from, and in what proportion? Quantify the changes? What political and social reasons could be the reason for such changes? What impact might these changes in immigrant origins have on American society and culture?

The first waves of immigration to sweep through the United States during the 20th century would be European in origin. At a time when much of Europe would be fractured by conflict, poverty and political strife, the United States would…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Gjerde, J. (1988). Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, Houghton Miflin Company.

Hooker, C. (2004). Ford's Sociology Department and the Americanization Campaign and the Manufacture of Popular Culture Among Assembly Line Workers c.1910 -- 1917. The Journal of American Culture, 20(1), 47-53.

Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
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College Sophomore Student U S A I Taking SOC100

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40227921

college sophomore student, U.S.A. I taking SOC100 (Introduce sociology) semester. I writing assignment called 'Reflection' Below guides write reflection: Reflections: Reflections textbook chapter due fulfilling requirements: -2-page, typed, double-spaced, 12 point font, Times New Roman, 1-inch margins.

Reflection paper:

Maintaining the momentum behind New York City's sustainability initiatives

According to Steven Cohen's article "Maintaining the momentum behind New York City's sustainability initiatives," as one of the dominant global cities of the developed world, New York is striving to set an example for other cities (including less developed cities and nations) by emphasizing sustainability in terms of its new constructions. Mayor Bloomberg was concerned that his successor might be swayed on the course he had set as mayor to create a sustainable New York. Thus, "Local Law 17 of 2008, enacted by the City Council with the Mayor's support, requires that PlaNYC be updated every four years... The Mayor's Office of…… [Read More]

References

Giddens, et al., 445-449

Cohen, Steven. (2013). Maintaining the momentum behind New York City's sustainability initiatives. Huffington Post.
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Structural Inequality & Diversity Root

Words: 5575 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73975506

" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:

The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (Beresford and Omaji, Our…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.

Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).

Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).

Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
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Shift From Agrarian to Industrial Society a

Words: 2693 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96774589

shift from agrarian to industrial society a simple substitution of one form of economic behavior for another, hanging up the hat of the farmer to put on the hat of the factory worker. But there was in fact a substantial shift in nearly everything about daily life for those generations caught up in the transition from rural to urban worlds. The most obvious change was in the relationship between people and the land itself. No longer were people defined by their place of birth, by where they had always lived. They were defined - by others as well as themselves - by a series of portable skills.

The magnitude of this change is difficult for those of us who have grown up in a world in which mobility is the norm. But it must have been for those living at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution a shattering (as well…… [Read More]

References

Bensel, R. (2001). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900.

Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Carter, G. (ed.). (2000). Empirical approaches to sociology: A collection of classic and contemporary readings (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Durkheim, E. (G. Simpson, trans.). (1971). "Social Order and Control Via Close Social Ties: The Example of Suicide" in Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
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Sociological Concept

Words: 1242 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 596992

Suicide and Society

Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?

Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dunman LJ. "Suicide." The Emile Durkheim Archive. 2003. The Bettmann Archive. 18 Mar. 2004. http://durkheim.itgo.com/suicide.html

Henslin JM. Down to Earth Sociology, 12th Edition. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Knapp P. "The Functionalist Analysis of Deviance." Peter Knapp Homepage. 1994. Villanova

University. 18 Mar. 2004. www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/Intro1-24.ppt
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Settlement Houses Their Impacts on Immigrants in

Words: 2649 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84757842

Settlement Houses

Their Impacts on Immigrants in 19th Century

Amber

Settlement Houses were an attempt of socially reforming the society in the late nineteenth century and the movement related to it was a process of helping the poor in urban areas adopting their modes of life by living among them and serving them while staying with them. What today's youth would know as a Community Center, 'Settlement Houses' initially sprang up in the 1880's? At these facilities, higher educated singles would move to Settlement Houses and get to personally know the neighborhood and immigrant people that they were converting, studying, and/or teaching. Working together, they passed labor laws and changed the way the U.S. does business. Where these educated professionals stayed with the community and served them, the main intent of these reforms was to transfer this responsibility of social welfare to the government in the long-run.

An interesting fact…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Axinn, June, and Herman Levin. Social Welfare: A History of the American Response to Need. 4th ed. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman, 1997.

Crocker, Ruth Hutchinson. "THE SETTLEMENTS: SOCIAL WORK, CULTURE, AND IDEOLOGY IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA.." History Of Education Quarterly 31, no. 2 (Spring1991): 253-260.

Davis, Allen F. Spearheads for Reform: The Social Settlements and the Progressive Movement, 1890 -- 1914. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Harvard University Library Open Collections Program, "Immigration to the United / states, 1789-1930, Settlement House Movement." Accessed June 3, 2012.  http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/settlement.html
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Toilet Design in Modern Society Public Toilets

Words: 3355 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7778469

Toilet Design

In modern society, public toilets has become a fixture wherever human activities take place; shopping malls, restaurants and filling stations all provide these places of convenience for travelers, diners and shoppers. However, when considering the nature and function of public toilets, many question their cleanliness and safety for public use. In addition, cultural and gender issues have also played a role in these debates. Women, for example, are obliged to make physical contact with public toilets, while this is not necessarily the case for men. In terms of cultural issues and sanitary concern, critics such as Isbit (2001) have suggested a toilet design whereby the human skin does not need to make any contact with the abode, but where both men and women squat to relieve themselves. To take these concerns into account, the history, background, and design of the public toilet should be considered in detail.

Historical…… [Read More]

References

A to Z. Of Manners & Etiquette. (2010) Toilet Etiquette. Retrieved from:  http://www.a-to-z-of-manners-and-etiquette.com/toilet-etiquette.html 

Biddle, S. (2010, Aug 27). The Long, Unglamorous History of the Toilet. Gizmodo. Retrieved from: http://gizmodo.com/5622088/the-long-unglamorous-history-of-the-toilet

Brain, M. (2011). How Toilets Work. How Stuff Works, Inc. Retrieved from: http://home.howstuffworks.com/toilet4.htm

Clark, E. (2011) 3 Serious Concerns About Hygiene in Public Restrooms Revealed in Survey. Ezine Articles. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?3-Serious-Concerns-About-Hygiene-in-Public-Restrooms-Revealed-in-Survey&id=46579
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Population and Society Residential Segregation

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68254862

Michael Powell describes the combination of factors that contribute to the harsh and drastic shift in the economic realities of the wealthy, black communities in Memphis, TN. This article was published by the New York Times just over two years ago, certainly during severe economic times during the United States, which have not subsided in the present, a few years later. The article provides a brief and modern history of the growth the black middle class in Memphis and some surrounding towns.

For a time, many black people were employed very well, owned attractive property, and lived comfortable middle class, American lifestyles. As of 2010, there were drastic events occurring with great frequency that changed the lives of many blacks for the worse. The article describes the rise and the descent of the middle class black community in Tennessee during the early 21st century. Additionally, the article provides evidence of…… [Read More]

References:

Farley, Reynolds, & Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks During the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a More Integrated Society." American Sociological Association, Vol. 59, No. 1, 23 -- 45.

Powell, Michael. "Blacks in Memphis Lose Decades of Economic Gains." The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/31/business/economy/31memphis.html?pagewanted=all. 2012 July 20.
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Setting How Settings Define Characters Into the

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42321830

Setting

How Settings Define Characters:

Into the Wild and Sex and the City

Every year at the Oscars, an academy award is awarded to the best costume designer, to the best in visual effects, to the best sound editing and best sound mixing. All of these individual elements work in harmony to create the setting of a motion picture- a setting that the audience will remember, so incredible that it makes the plot better. Settings are extremely important facet in any story- a book, a movie, a television show, as it helps the audience imagine that they are there and walking alongside the characters on the screen or through the pages of a novel. Settings are also important in propelling the individual characters through the plot- the setting helps meld their personalities, their actions and reactions to certain situations. The idea that settings aid in the shaping the main characters…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hiott, Taylor. "Into the Wild - Critical Review of the Novel About the Journey of Christopher McCandless." Associated Content. Yahoo!, 26 May 2009. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .

Wisniewski, Chris. "Sex and the City." Reverse Shot. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .
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TV Advertising

Words: 828 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23344512

TV Advertising

Marketing success is almost always found in celebrity endorsements. We can take a look at Pepsi ads which have featured Madonna, Michael Jackson, Brittany Spears, and even Mike Tyson. Pepsi is known around the world, just as the celebrities whom are featured on the Pepsi commercials. In other words, in using the notoriety of celebrities, a corporation may be able to increase its market share into the pockets of consumers who are more familiar with the celebrity than the product. The celebrity thus is a bridge between the consumer and the product. But what happens when those celebrities are notorious for other things as well as their entertainment or sport talent? And why do the corporations continue to utilize these celebrities if these celebrities have been known to engage in improprieties or dubious activities?

Corporations have a business model that has multiple branches leading from three or four…… [Read More]

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Pratt in the Middle East Comprehensive and

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86868107

Pratt

In the Middle East, comprehensive and regional planning are not as developed as needed within the 21st century paradigm. Globalism has brought change to the world, and this will require a new way of thinking about precious resources and use of materials that will contribute both to environmental sustainability and the increasing cooperation between regions. I have certainly realized that the moral action in the contemporary world is to pursue a career that allows the capacity to influence others in managing the impact that the environment has on all of us. To that end, I would like to present my application and credentials for a Master's in City and Regional Planning at the Pratt Institute. I am particularly interested in your programs because of the extensive research and reputation of the department, and the focus not only on a holistic framework, but the ability to collaborate with colleagues and…… [Read More]

bibliography to include a number of works on sustainability and modern business design, most recently: Horibe's Creating the Innovation Culture, Farr's Sustainable Urbanism, and a book a colleague recommended that is proving interesting, but difficult, Zetter's Designing Sustainable Cities in the Developing World. I am living in the United States now, concentrating on the improvement of my English language skills. Besides my undergraduate degree in interior design, I have worked in groups of several sizes as both a contributing team member and manager, and I am doing my best to network with consulting and business colleagues to form intellectual partnerships that may help alter the regional mindset and allow for more of an innovation culture in the region.

Thank you in advance. I appreciate your consideration and look forward to attending the Pratt Institute.
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Percentage of Black Males Working

Words: 3160 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94830481

She sent equally matched pairs of Black and white men to apply for low-skilled jobs in 350 places in the area. These applicants were bright, articulate students who pretended to apply for the jobs. The result was that the Black applicants without criminal record were called back for interview only 14% of the time as compared to white applicants with criminal record at 17% of the time.

The author quotes Julia Taylor, president of the Greater Milwaukee Committee as saying that a lot of work had to be done towards educating employers and their attitudes towards race. Taylor commented that racial discrimination in employment affected the region, its workforce and inner-city growth. The result of the study did not surprise many African-Americans who knew the existence of this type of discrimination in the region's job market. On the other hand, many white Americans thought that direct, racial discrimination of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coleman, Major C.; Darity, William a.; and Sharpe, Rhonda V. Sharpe. Are Reports of Discrimination Valid? American Journal of Economics and Sociology: American

Journal of Economics and Sociology, Inc., 2008. Retrieved on March 2, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_2_67/ai_n27911457?tag=content;col1

Johnson-Elie, Tannette. Study Shows How Deeply Black Men Face Discrimination in Hiring. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: JSOnline, 2003. Retrieved on March 7, 2009 from  http://www.jobbankusa.com/News/Hiring/hiring100803a.html 

Levitan, Mark. A Crisis of Black Male Employment: Unemployment and Joblessness in New City. Community Service Society Annual Report. Community Service Society, 2004. Retrieved on March 2, 2009 at http://www.cssny.org/pubs/special/2004_02/labormarket.pdf
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Post-Modern Japanese Cultural Society and

Words: 1595 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69577071

Cellular phones and video games did not exist in the past due to the absence of technology back then. The Japanese video game industry has revolutionized the world with its innovative games from giants such as Nintendo, Sega and Sony. The role-playing games genre has been a big contribution by the Japanese and a large part of their culture. They did not have video games back then but they had text-based adventures which people could play on their own. Mario brothers, pokemon, digimon are some of the brand names of Japanese culture. The Japanese game industry has developed a following around the world as people eagerly await games, which have the typical Japanese background music. These background tracks are also on the best selling charts in Japan.

Conclusion

Japanese culture depends on sharing subcultures such as expressionism, an urban sense of style, and high educational attainment. These processes and patterns…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fukutake, T. 1981 the Structure of Japanese Society. Tokyo: U.P.

Kawasaki, K. 1992 "A Sociology of Baby Boomer Junior Generation." Across 216. PARCO Publications: 18-25.

Dale, Peter N.1986

The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness. London: Routledge.
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New York's Central Park and

Words: 2233 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11734425

New York Mayor Michael Bloomburg said of the project, "The Gates' will transform Central Park and challenge viewers to revisit their preconceptions of public art and urban parks" (Bloomberg). Many New Yorkers did not share in his enthusiasm. Reporter Webb continues, "Nearly everyone was initially aghast at the prospect of so intrusive a work in their piece of paradise, but the artists overcame all objections, promising to respect every twig and patch of turf by designing self-supporting structures that would leave no mark" (Webb). This is essentially how they finally managed to gain approval for their project.

Their artwork did create a new meaning for the park, because it showed the myriad uses for this incredible outdoor space. The park was created as an artistic endeavor, and Christo's work showed it can be a spectacular backdrop to equally spectacular artistic endeavors. Using bold colors and the bleak landscape (in winter)…… [Read More]

References

Bernstein, Joshua. "The Park and the People." Gotham Gazette. 2004. 20 Feb. 2008. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/fea/20040713/202/1031

Bloomberg, Michael. "Letter from Michael R. Bloomberg." NYC.gov. 2005. 20 Feb. 2008.  http://www.nyc.gov/html/thegates/html/letter.html 

Editors. "150+ Years of Central Park History." CentralParkNYC.org. 2008. 20 Feb. 2008. http://www.centralparknyc.org/site/PageNavigator/aboutpark_history_cp_history_150yrs

Kowsky, Francis R. Country, Park & City: The Architecture and Life of Calvert Vaux. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
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English Social History Cultural Economic

Words: 2163 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26904896

Whether it was demographic malaise or the social imperative for smaller and more careful family formation, the war stunted the population boom. In good fortune, this cessation allowed for the necessary cultivation of the pre-existing fibers of society. The first-time availability of credit, burgeoning trade, and new industries were given the chance to solidify, and migration to the urban centers became a reality in most public lives. The population intensification that described the pre-war economy made the townspeople of Appleby, Chippenham, Willingham, and Orwell, become part of communities no longer separate from the urban life but intrinsically tied to it. As a result, when poverty came to the villages during the wars, migration to the economic strongholds of the urban fortress was a logical alternative.

The peasantry of the villages had little opportunities available to them, and indebted to the research of Laurence Stone, Spufford manages an in-depth discussion of…… [Read More]

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U S History From 1865-1945 Mark

Words: 1059 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64912054

(Boyer, 2001)

Sixty-hour weeks, no insurance, no compensation for injuries or overtime, and no pensions symbolized the workers' plight. And when the workers went on strike over the inequities, the government sided with the owners.

The mass society of the late nineteenth century had no diversity. It was a society in which the rich and powerful manipulated the existence of the politically and economically powerless mass through overwhelming mass production, mass communication, and mass distribution.

Examples (Boyer 2, 2001) Mass production transformed the way Americans lived and worked at the beginning of the twentieth century. Thanks to its role in creating mass consumer culture (mass society), it constitutes a vital part of contemporary life. It was responsible for the dehumanizing assembly-line work of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as well as the physical comfort enjoyed by most people in industrialized countries. The 1926 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boyer, P.S. (2001). Early republic, era of the. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html

Boyer, P.S. 2 (2001). Gilded age. Retrieved February 23 from encylcopedia. com, 2009, from The Oxford companion to U.S. history: h ttp:/ / www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-GildedAge.html

Calhoun, C.W. (2006). The Gilded Age: Perspectives on the origins of modern America. New York: Rowman and Littlefield. (http://books.google.com/books?id=XrZTTCaCRAUC&printsec=frontcover) enotes.com. (n.d.). Overview: 1900's. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from Enotes.com:

http://www.enotes.com/1900-american-decades-about/introduction
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Sociological Theory in the 21st

Words: 2675 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4609524

In addition, the views presented by sociologists concerning idealistic tradition is based on the significance of the concerned group that is sort to motivate, influence to belief and the subject of interest. In this regard, sociologists will not disassociate from the scientific data but will involve the subject of interest to attempt to understand the environment in its own context, showing how sociologists have subjective explanations and not objective ones (Adams et al. 267).

With regard to the above, there exists queries on whether the sociological theory is a micro or a macro understood occurrence. Apart from the philosophical aspects of knowledge, the micro and macro aspects of sociological theory are highly debated in there associations. It inquires on how these sociological theories on character, reactions, and interpersonal procedures can associate with other social influences. Just like in sciences where there exists micro-macro differences which even with the advanced technology…… [Read More]

Works cited

Adams, Bert, et al. Sociological theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press. 2001. Print.

Calhoun, Craig, et al. Contemporary sociological theory. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2007.

Print.

Dunaway, Wilma. Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-system: New theoretical directions for the 21st century world-system. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood
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Mothers -- Transitioning From Welfare to Corporate

Words: 2273 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96265813

Mothers -- Transitioning from Welfare to Corporate America

Welfare in the United States is both a complex and controversial subject. The issue focuses on several aspects of public policy: economics, cultural diversity, actualization, incentives, education/training, taxation and even the actual role of the government. We first begin this study with an overview of the idea of a state welfare system, its origins, development, purpose, and particularly view the manner in which the welfare system has changed since the Great Depression. It is then important to understand the implications of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) and the change in attitude and policy regarding welfare, and the newer focus on finding ways to train, retrain, or educate those on welfare so they can find gainful employment -- particularly those who move into the corporate world. Challenges, interventions, and potential outcomes are examined, among which looking at the juxtaposition between the fiscal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burnett, R. (2010, May 28). Social Welfre: Does it Really Help or Does it Really Hurt? Retrieved from The Cypress Times: http://www.thecypresstimes.com/article/Columnists/The_Hard_Truth/SOCIAL_WELFARE_DOES_IT_REALLY_HELP_OR_DOES_IT_REALLY_HURT/30509

Galster, G. (Ed.). (1996). Reality and Research: Social Science and U.S. Urban Policy since 1960. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.

Gyamfi, P., Brooks-Gun, J., & Jackson, A. (2005). Moving Towards Work: The Effects of Employment Experiences on Welfare-Dependent Women and their Children. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 12(2-3), 39-62.

Hamilton, G. (2002, July). Moving People from Welfare to Work. Retrieved from MDRC Policy Analysis: http://www.mdrc.org/publications/52/summary.html
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Report on Participation

Words: 1959 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17917312

Communication

Review of Student PowerPoint

The paper evaluates a PowerPoint summarizing a workshop given at Murdoch University by Dave Palmer in 2009. The workshop addressed the community building movement, an initiative that has gained popularity in Australia.

Slide three stated introduces a group of four students, although while these are presumably the authors of the PowerPoint, this is never explicitly stated and should be explained clearer. Slide 5 ("Introduction by Dave), which discussed the impetus for Mr. Palmer's presentation (the Aboriginal emphasis on the land and the need to return to this state) also included a picture of the presenter, which usefully allows one to connect the information with the face of the person delivering the material. Still, there was an almost excessive amount of text in this slide, and it would have been helpful for it to have been condensed. This set the standard for a dynamic in which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, David, & Michael Hess. "Community in Public Policy: Fad or Foundation," Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60, No.2 (2001). 13-23.

Archer, David, & Wearing, Stephen. "Interpretation and marketing as management tools in national parks: Insights from Australia," Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, No.2 (2009). 29-39.

Birnbaum, David J., & Frey, Barbara A., "Learners' Perception on the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures," Publisher Unknown, (2002).

Craig, Russell J., & Amernic, Joel H. "PowerPoint Presentations and the Dynamics of Teaching," Innovative Higher Education, 31, No.3 (2006). 147-160.
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from  http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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People Vulnerable to Homelessness and

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43476949

This can include families who are breaking up, adult children forced to leave home, and any number of other situations (Editors, 2006). New York City has made it a priority to prevent homelessness as part of its comprehensive Action Plan for the Homeless, which is mandated through 2009. This plan includes ideas on how to prevent homelessness, redirect more homeless to shelters, create "viable alternatives" for the homeless, coordinate services so people are not "dumped" between them, and provide more housing options. As of 2005, the Action Plan was at least indirectly responsible for reducing homelessness by 10% in the city. It seems the plan is working, and other cities would do well to implement an appropriate plan for their own areas.

Traditionally, most people have looked at homelessness as a problem of demographics and personal attributes. However, more researchers now understand homelessness is more than demographics; it is a…… [Read More]

References

Baumohl, J. (Ed.). (1996). Homelessness in America. Phoenix: Oryx Press.

Editors, (2006). Action plan. Retrieved from the NYC.gov Website: http://nyc.gov/html/endinghomelessness/html/action_plan/action_plan.shtml21 Nov. 2006.
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User Pays

Words: 1423 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87192577

User Pays System Within the Hong Kong Social Welfare Programs

As an economically developed country with high standards of living, Hong Kong, like many developed countries in the West and the Far East, is facing an increasing problem in its traditional social welfare system. Hong Kong has a large middle-class and significant lower-class populations who need to be protected from unexpected economic problems, while the government also needs to maintain its competitiveness in the global arena. Fiscally austere policies aimed at building a business-friendly atmosphere may be good for economics overall but may leave the middle -- and the working-class insecure, while increasing government expenditures for social welfare programs may hurt the economy. In the face of this dilemma and other problems involving the economy and the welfare system, the government of Hong Kong plans to introduce and promote the "user pays" system. It is the position of this paper…… [Read More]

References

Azizi, M. (2000). The User-pays System in the Provision of Urban Infrastructure: Effectiveness and Equity of Criteria. Urban Studies (Routledge), 37(8), 1345.

Fine, M., & Chalmers, J. (2000). 'User pays' and other approaches to the funding of long-term care for older people in Australia. Ageing And Society, 20(1), 5-32.

Gargett, S. (2010). The Introduction of a Targeted User-Pays Approach to Funding High-Level Residential Aged Care in Australia: An Empirical Investigation of the Impact on Price. Health Economics, Policy And Law, 5(4), 481-508.

Wong, T., Wan, P., & Law, K. (2010). The Public's Changing Perceptions of the Condition of Social Welfare in Hong Kong: Lessons for Social Development. Social Policy & Administration, 44(5), 620-640. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.2010.00732.x
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Culture There Are'so Many

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86849342

This research focuses on the public housing neighborhood of Bezirganbahce. Like the first, this article shows how Turkish society "marks the areas populated by the urban poor as dangerous, a breeding ground for illegal activities, and areas of social decay or social ill," (Candan & Kolluoglu 2008 p 38). Those lower ranking social classes and ethnic subgroups are often excluded from the daily existence of mainstream Turkish culture and forced to life a marginalized life in a segregated area that isolates lower socioeconomic classes from the rest of society. The urban poor that reside in the neighborhood are excluded from an external source, and thus left to fend for themselves. In this marginalized space, the residents of this neighborhood have actually created a culture that is all their own outside of the boundaries of typical Turkish life. Like as shown in Yilmaz (2008), this neighborhood is seen as having to…… [Read More]

References

Candan, Ayfur Bartu & Kolluoglu, Biray. (2008). Emerging spaces of neoliberalism: A gated town and a public housing project in Istanbul. New Perspectives on Turkey, 39(2008), 4-46.

Yilmaz, Bediz. (2008). Entrapped in multidimensional exclusion: The perpetuation of poverty among conflict-induced migrants in an Istanbul neighborhood. New Perspectives on Turkey, 38(2008), 205-234.
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Social Work the Beginnings of

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39282024

(Huff, Social Work, 2000, Chapter 1, p.3)

Private efforts were not enough to treat the ills caused by the unchecked capitalism of the Gilded Age, however, an age that brought tremendous wealth to some Americans and tremendous poverty to others. During the first depression occasioned by this split between the haves and the have-nots in 1890, private relief organizations could not cope. "In Mulberry Bend, the heart of the Italian district, one-third of all babies born in 1888 died before their first birthdays. Traditional agencies such as the Children's Aid Society and the Salvation Army were overwhelmed, incapable of meeting the demands placed on their services." (Huff, Social Work, 2000, Chapter 1, p.4) "The old shibboleths commonly accepted as the major causes of poverty, low character, indolence, and intemperance, were replaced with more systemic theories," that sought economic and social causes as the cure, rather than moral reform. (Huff, Social…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Murray, Jill. (1996) "The Social Work History Online Time-Line." The School of Social Work. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005. http://www.gnofn.org/~jill/swhistory/

Huff, Dan. (2000) Social Work: Progress and Reform. A Cyberhistory of Social Work's Most Formative Years. Retrieved 10 Nov 2005 http://www.idbsu.edu/socwork/dhuff/history/central/tc.htm
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Public Passions

Words: 4266 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82628012

Public Passions

Shi Jianqiao became a media sensation in Nationalist China during the 1930s for shooting the ex-warlord Sun Chuanfang, a leading member of the Tianjin Qingxiu lay-Buddhist society (jushilin). She shot Sun three times on November 13, 1935 in prayer hall (congregation site) on Nanma Road. Although she was prosecuted for murder, the courts returned a controversial final verdict of judicial leniency, and the Nationalist (Guomindang) regime overturned this final verdict by issuing a state pardon. These events led to a public debate on the merits and demerits of filial revenge, although contemporary accounts do not examine the larger sociopolitical implications the case may have had. Shi Jianqiao represented the female assassin's singular and violent expression of filial sentiment (xiao), as well as the female warrior code of "chivalrous virtue" (xia), and helped give rise to a new communal form of ethical sentiment - "public sympathy" (tongqing). For liberal…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Lean, Eugenia. Public Passions: The Trial of Shi Jianqiao and the Rise of Popular Sympathy in Republican China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.
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Homeless the Disenfranchised Population of

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44526209

The stories are as varied as the people, but certainly one cannot lump every homeless person into a bundle and say they "want to be" in this condition (Conference of Mayors, 2009).

My assignement for Thanksgiving Day was filling coffee and Kool-Aid. This was perfect because it forced me to interact and get to know some of the clients in a different way. This was a real paradigm shift, and something that took me out of my comfort zone and provided a new personal achievement for me. I found the clients, for the most part to be engaging, interesting, and polite. They were so genuinely grateful that I was taken aback by the sheer emotionality of the situation.

Because of this Holiday experience, I continued on with the shelter a minimum of two days per week. I quickly found that one of the issues that seemed to be holding many…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Housing and Urban Development, Dept. (2010). "Chronic Homelessness." HUD.GOV.

Cited in: http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/homeless/chronic.cfm

U.S. Conference of Mayors. (December 2009). "Hunger and Homelessness."

USMAYORS.ORG. Cited in:
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Wealth in America the Subject

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52400527

Wealth inequality results in many Americans not having access to necessities such as adequate healthcare. It is also linked to ethical and racial inequality and, as such, can be a source of social dissention. In the final analysis it is a sad truth that such radical disparities should exist in one of the most advanced societies in the word.… [Read More]

Bibliography

Black Wealth / White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. Retrieved June 25, 2009, from  http://www.infibeam.com/Books/info/Melvin-L-Oliver/Black-Wealth-White-Wealth-A-New-Perspective/0415913756.html 

Concentration of Wealth in the U.S.A. Retrieved June 25,

2009, from http://web.pdx.edu/~psu01435/wealth.html

Domhoff W. Power in America: Wealth, Income, and Power. Retrieved June 25,
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Buchanan Monderman's Approaches Compare and Contrast Buchanan

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14630917

Buchanan Monderman's Approaches

Compare and Contrast Buchanan and Monderman's approaches to the production of social order in public spaces

In this paper we are examining the role of social spaces in society. This is accomplished by comparing the views of Buchanan with Monderman. Once this takes place, is when we can see how different structures are utilized to create a change within society.

Over the last several decades, the attitudes and perceptions about social order have been continually changing. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a change in the beliefs of society. As these shifts have meant that the ideas about how people should be interacting with each other in public places is different. To deal with the challenges various urban designers have implemented a number of theories. The problem is that each approach has its own unique attributes that will have an impact on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Buchanan, A, 2003, States Nations and Borders, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McNichol, M, 2011, Roads Gone Wild, Wired. Available from: [8 Dec. 2011].

Staples, M, 2009, Learning Companion 2, Open University, Malta.

Taylor, S, 2009, Making Social Lives, Open University, Malta.
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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]

References

Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.