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This in turn drew more workers (Hassan 2004). The result is that Kuala Lumpur has added millions to its population and enjoys a far greater average annual income than does rural Malaysia. Indeed, Harris-Todaro also helps to explain urban-urban migration in Malaysia. As Kuala Lumpur has grown to be the country's primate city, it has captured migration from smaller urban areas, including the region's former primate cities such as Melaka and Georgetown.
Compact development for a sustainable city is generally possible when a long-term strategy is put into place. Typically, this will also involve a slower pace of rural-urban migration, so that the city will have the resources to handle the new migrants. Curitiba, Brazil is a city that has long had a sustainable development plan. By designing a city that encourages compact development, including dense and integrated transit networks, urban sprawl is contained. Compact development typically emerges as a…
Hassan, a. (2004). Growth, structural change and regional inequality in Malaysia. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Kotkin, J. (2009). The world's smartest cities. Forbes. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.forbes.com/2009/12/03/infrastructure-economy-urban-opinions-columnists-smart-cities-09-joel-kotkin.html
Magalhaes, F. & Ortiz, M. (2009). Low carbon cities: Curitiba and Brasilia. 45th ISOCARP Congress 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1492.pdf
Misilu, M.; Nsokimieno, E.; Chen, S.; Zhang, L. (2010). Sustainable urbanization's challenge in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 3 (2).
In developed nations this is easier because technologies and materials, often expensive and hard to come by, can help to mitigate pollution. In less developed nations, pollution is often somewhat of an afterthought as a product of production or prosperity (Termorshuizen, Opdam, and van den Brink, 380). By creating cheaper, more fuel efficient technologies and by making them available to all nations, pollution in the third world and developing nations' urban environments can be reduced as well.
Another top priority for urban planning and development should be lifestyle factors. These factors include access to parks, open spaces, community centers and the like. This is a major concern because people living in places where these types of spaces are abundant tend to be happier and feel more fulfilled (Termorshuizen, Opdam, and van den Brink, 383). It is far more difficult to create and promote these spaces in urban environments that have…
Rees, William and Wackernagel, Mathis. (2008). "Urban Ecological Footprints: Why Cities
Cannot be Sustainable -- and Why They are a Key to Sustainability." Urban Ecology, Vol. 5, No. 5, Pp. 537-555.
Termorshuizen, Jolande W.; Opdam, Paul; and van den Brink, Adri. (2007). "Incorporating
Ecological Sustainability into Landscape Planning." Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 79, No. 3-4, Pp. 374-384.
Tillburg planners use a problem-solution strategy that will be familiar to many CEOs and corporate executives. The basic process is as follows:
1. problem recognition - to identify all problems in the neighborhood;
2.agreement - to discuss the results together;
3.the solution - how the recognized problems can be solved;
4.the responsibilities - who is responsible for carrying out the solution;
5.the agreement - are individuals and organizations in agreement with the solutions. (Unesco, 2008d).
Every city planning commission could benefit from this example.
Banana Kelly Community Improvement Association
The Bronx Center Project encompasses a number of cooperative efforts ranging from economic development, health and human services, education, culture, housing, and transportation (Unesco, 2008e). This project highlights the need to attack community programs at the root of the problem. Moving out of degraded communities is not the answer. evitalization is an excellent use of existing resources. Instead of…
RaphaelK. (n.d.). Ethiopia. Retrieved October 10, 2008 at http://www.raphaelk.co.uk/web%20pics/Ethiopia/Ethiopia.htm
Unesco (2008a). Institutionalizing Community-Based Development. Unesco. Most Clearing House. Retrieved October 10, 2008 at http://www.unesco.org/most/africa17.htm
Unesco (2008b). A Women's Self-help Organization for Poverty Alleviation in India: SEWA I India. Retrieved October 10, 2008 at http://www.unesco.org/most/asia1.htm
Unesco (2008c).Shelter Upgrading in Agadir, Morocco. Retrieved October 10, 2008 at http://www.unesco.org/most/africa3.htm
1995, 359-365). However, Chicago is well placed due its geographical location to weather many of these ills. eing centrally located in the Midwest, it enjoys good lines of communication and trade with the rest of the country, mitigating many of the more extreme problems. Unfortunately, what is happening in Chicago is the result of years of developments in the deindustrialization of the city. Recently, studies have shown that this trend will likely continue and Chicago will increasingly become dependent on goods and services from outside of the city. While this has helped the city previously (goods and services flow in and out of the city easily due its central location), the effects of Chicago not making more of its goods and services is starting to show. In an excellent study, it has been possible to produce a comprehensive economic photograph of the 1996, 14).
If the above trends continue (and…
Burns, Greg. Chicago Tribune.com, "Recession stanches Chicago's population drain." Last modified
October 26, 2009. Accessed October 4, 2011. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2009-10 -
Gupta, Sapna. Immigrants in the Chicago suburbs a policy paper prepared for Chicago metropolis
Urbanization, Slum Formation and Land eform: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea
Urbanization, Slum Formation and Land eform: Papua New Guinea
Global Urbanization, Slum Formation, and the Persistence of Slums
Urbanization is a phenomenon affecting each and every country of the world. In this text, I hypothesize that Papua New Guinea ought to fix its land policies so as to properly manage urbanization. One of the country's cities, Port Moresby, has been grappling with informal settlements as a consequence of rural-urban migration that has taken place in the past, sine the 1960s. Currently, up to 50% of Port Moresby's residents (both recent and long-established) put up in informal settlements. If the issue of land is not addressed, as will be highlighted elsewhere in this text, the situation is likely to worsen given that the country's rural to urban migration is projected to be on a sustained upward trend. Papua…
Agnihotri, P. (1994). Poverty Amidst Prosperity: Survey of Slums. New Delhi: M.D. Publications.
Asia Sentinel. (2012). Port Moresby's Squatter Settlements. Retrieved from http://www.asiasentinel.com/society/port-moresbys-squatter-settlements/
Cities Alliance. (2011). Cities Alliance Projects Approved. Retrieved from http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca_newsletters/newsletter_proj/141
Cities Alliance. (2014). About Slum Upgrading. Retrieved from http://www.citiesalliance.org/About-slum-upgrading#Why_do_slums_develop
Moreover, the "Great Leap Forward" was a negative response to "urban-centered planning strategies; and the "Cultural Revolution" involved the "excision of tens of millions of urban educated from the cities" in an effort to "dissipate the new and threatening forces of urban-based elitism" (Kirkby, p. 5).
As to what tasks the government has taken regarding urbanization since 1949, Article 10 of the 1958 law ordered each residence to have a "hukou bu" (permanent registration booklet) designed to "anchor people to their native places," Kirkby writes, and to "prevent unauthorized movement" into cities (p. 25). In 1978 China ushered in an "open policy" which was followed by a big increase in the urbanization. A United Nations University article states that the "regional distribution of the urbanization level I still similar" to what was happening prior to the open policy and economic reforms (http://unu.edu). hy? The provincial variation in the urbanization level…
Asia One. (2008). China's Urban Challenge. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from http://news.asiaone.com .
Huang, Kaiyang. (2011). China's Urbanization Dilemma. Harvard Political Review. Retrieved March 18, 2011, from http://hpronline.org.
Kirkby, R.J.R. (1985). Urbanization in China: Town and Country in a Developing Economy
1949-2000 AD. New York: Columbia University Press.
Population and Urbanization in Brazil
Brazil, officially known as the Federative epublic of Brazil, is located in the eastern side of South America. Without a doubt, Brazil is the largest of the Latin American countries as it covers about half of the South American continent. Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru Uruguay, and Venezuela are some of its well-known neighboring countries. Its capital is Brasilia while Sao Paulo and io de Janeiro are the country's largest cities ("Brazil," 2009). Brazil occupies a vast territory with most of its large cities located either on the Atlantic coast or the banks of large watercourses. It falls in the category of one of the world's largest economies as it has strong sectors of agriculture, mining, industry, and services. Its major trading partners are Argentina, China, Germany and the United States. The official language is Portuguese whereas English is spoken as a widely accepted second…
Brazil. (2012). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved April 14, 2012 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/78101/Brazil
Brazil. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117008036
Martine, G., & McGranahan, G. (2010, August). Brazil's Early Urban Transition: What Can it Teach Urbanizing Countries?. Retrieved April 14, 2012 from http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/IIED_Brazil 'sEarlyUrbanTransition.pdf
Plessis, A.D. (2011). Brazil. Retrieved April 14, 2012 from http://www.brazil.org.za/
Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization, And Transportation in United States Post Civil War
The process to modernize the American states after the end of the Civil War was one of the most complex events that shape the way in which the history of the United States would evolve in the 20th century. There were several aspects of the history of the States that determined changes influenced by consequences of these events. In this sense, the processes of industrialization, immigration, transportation, and urbanization were essential for the evolution of the U.S. In the period since 1860 to 1920 when the U.S. became indeed an important power in the world.
However, there is a sequence of events that determine such outcomes. Therefore, it can be said that it was in fact the industrialization process which influenced the development of the others. It was a causal relationship between these elements that all together determined the…
Davison, Barbara. Italian Immigration to Maryland in the Industrial Era. 1998. 13 Feb 2008. http://oriole.umd.edu/~mddlmddl/791/communities/html/italiani.html
Katers, N. "Industrialization of America 1860-1900." Associated Content. 2006. 13 Feb 2008. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/28613/industrialization_of_america_18651900.html
Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900. Immigration to the United States. 2004. 13 Feb 2008. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/riseind/immgnts/immgrnts.html
Urbanization of America. N.d. 13 Feb 2008 http://urban.csuohio.edu/ust607text/ch12urbanamerica.pdf
Babes in Warland; Agrarian eforms/Urbanization and Child Abuse
Babes in Warland agrarian reforms urbanization and child abuse_A2072388
The pictorial shows how perpetrators of civil wars take advantage of children. Children are enlisted in rebel army ranks in many armed conflicts in the African continent. Amnesty International estimates that over 250, 000 children under the age of 18 years take part in armed conflicts. UNICEF reports that the services of more than 300-000 children are used in the armed conflicts in the DC. The services of child soldiers have been enlisted in virtually all armed conflicts in Africa. Talk of Zairean Tutsi fighters in the DC, the Young Somali Islamist fighters, the Al-shabab militias, Joseph Kony's Lords esistance Army in Uganda and the Liberian United for econciliation and Democracy fighters. The United States backed Somali government also enlisted child soldiers (Anonymous, n.d.).
Armed conflicts that have led to conscription of child…
Anonymous. (n.d.). Babes in Warland - An FP Slideshow | Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy - the global magazine of economics, politics, and ideas. Retrieved August 16, 2012, from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/10/29/babes_in_war_land#0
Cotula, L., Toulmin, C., & Hesse, C. (2004). Land Tenure and Administration in Africa: Lessons
of experience and Emerging Issues. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Moyo, S. (2008). African Land Questions, Agrarian Transitions and the State: Contradictions of Neo-liberal Land Reforms. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Keyder, Caglar. "Globalization & Social Exclusion In Istanbul." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29.1 (2005): 124-134. Web.
The question and issues to be addressed in this source are the negative effects and outcomes that are seen with globalization within Istanbul and the rest of Turkey. There is the recognition that Turkey has globalized and grown significantly over the last century but there have also been a lot of people that have been hurt by the patterns rendered. One of the main reasons that urbanization happens and ends up having undesirable effects is the fact that the globalization and associated global reconfiguration has an effect on the "urban fabric" that causes a disturbing of the stability and balances of the economy. This is due to the restructuring of the same. The new networks brought on by globalization introduce new employment types and levels of differentiation. There are certainly people…
The urban culture doesn't have a single characteristic that could define it but urban cultures around the world have some common traits. Economics and work are the main focus, customs and traditions are non-existent, religion is everyone's personal matter and law is not to be taken in one's own hands. Urban culture is more powerful and influential because it doesn't bind. It offers freedom and a chance to grow and become as successful as the next person. But these things are missing in many tribal systems around the world where the rich people would keep the poor down by various means to secure their superiority and might.
While the tribal culture has a better chance of survival in third world countries, they have little or no chance of going the distance in the developed world. In order to prolong their survival, they need to stick to some values and customs,…
1] InterPress Correspondent, Tribal languages dying could later be resurrected. (2005-07-23) Accessed online 8th October at http://www.ippmedia.com/ipp/guardian/2005/07/23/45135.html
2] Stefanie Pervos, news writer Badger Herald, Wisconsin Tribal Languages in Danger of Dying Out. October 5, 2002, Accessed online 8th October at http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co10052002/CO_10052002_Wisconsin_Languages.htm
In 2007 it was 5.8%, while the State of Florida was at 12.1% (Palm Beach Gardens Florida, 2008).
According to the U.S. Census in the year 2000, there number of high school graduates in Palm Beach Gardens was 94%, which was well over the state average of 79.9%. It was also recorded that 43.8% of the population, compared to 22.3% in the state of Florida had received a Bachelors degree or higher. These figures speak very highly of the school systems in Palm Beach Gardens, showing that they are indeed doing something right (Palm Beach Gardens (city), Florida, (2009).
Although Palm Beach Gardens has grown and prospered over the years and appears to be a great place to live, it is not without its problems as well. Like most modern communities around this country it is faced with some challenges. One problem that has recently been discussed is that of…
"Palm Beach Gardens Florida." (2008). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from City-Data.com Web site:
"Palm Beach Gardens (city), Florida." (2009). Retrieved April 20, 2009, from U.S. Census
Bureau Web site: http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/1254075.html
Dasgupta (2018) shows in his article on urban growth around the world, that by the year 2050 approximately 70% of the world’s population will live in urban areas. This means that cities are going to have a major impact not only on the lives of human beings but also on the planet, as there will be a concentrated amount of energy and activity in these urban parts of the world. Moreover, aside from environmental concerns there are likely to be social issues that emanate from this intense localization of the population into vast cities. As Coleman and Kerbo (2009) point out, how these areas are socially organized will be very critical to how well they are maintained and how well the inhabitants of these areas are striving to take care of their world: “Young people may be inadequately socialized because of problems in the institution of the family, or society…
Stream Degradation and King County' Salmon Population
King County in Washington State is home to some of the most significant spawning beds in the nation for several major species of salmon, such as the endangered steelhead and Chinook (or King) species. As a result of Washington's urbanization over the preceding years and decades, the purity and integrity of King County's streams and rivers have been degraded and the waterways contaminated (Morley, Karr, 2002). Currently, the Department of Natural esources' Water and Land esources Division is working on numerous projects to reclaim and maintain the streams and rivers of the County (Salmon and Trout Topics: ecovery, 2016). King County's own Wildlife Program Publication offers an indication of how important it is to maintain clean streams and waters for the salmon population. This study aims to answer the three-fold question: Has stream degradation affected salmon habitats in King County Washington state (specifically…
Are Wild Salmon Increasing in Numbers? (2014). State of Salmon in Watershed 2014
Report. Stateofsalmon.wa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.stateofsalmon.wa.gov/statewide/fish-summary/
Booth, D., Jackson, R. (1997). Urbanization of aquatic systems -- degradation thresholds, stormwater detention, and the limits of mitigation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 22(5): 1-20.
Booth, D., Hartley, D., Jackson, R. (2002). Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 38(3): 835-845.
Walking on grass while it rains, looking at the blue sky and hearing the bird chirp, and letting cool breeze touch the skin are amongst some of the most refreshing moments which one would loathe. The refreshment and serenity arising from such moments rather define environment as a miraculous beauty. Despite the ease and satisfaction associated with nature, ecological problems go hand in hand with the reality of the surrounding. Ecological issues are environmental issues such as overpopulation, climatic changes, land degradation, pollution and many more. These problems do not only destroy the splendor of nature, but they adversely affect life. As a matter of fact, these ecological issues are a result of human activity which leaves a drastic impact on the environment.
While considering the different environmental issues, it is important to shed light on urbanization which is a major ecological issue. Urbanization is…
Jiang, L. (2008). Population, Urbanization, and the Environment: Growing Cities Stress Their Natural Surrounding, but They Can Also Help Protect Them. World Watch. Vol. 21, No. 5
Urbanization in Latin America was the result of the industrialization that took place in the 18th century and attracted rural population to migrate in order to get better employment and life facilities. However, Neoliberalism caused privatization and resulted in the economic opportunities and growth prospects but the long-term effects tend to be declining in terms of growth due to the imbalance of job availability and job requirements and autonomy of corporate companies.
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Neoliberalism and Sustainability
Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism
Import-Substitution-Industrialization or (ISI) refers to the policy which facilitates trade and country's economy by means of replacing imports with the products that are produced domestically which ultimately focuses on a country's dependency and protects it from the foreign economic shocks. The policy was adapted by many countries…
Butler, Richard W. "Tourism, environment, and sustainable development." Environmental conservation 18.03 (1991): 201-209.
Elliott, Jennifer. An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge, 2012.
Howell, D., and Mamadou Diallo. "Charting U.S. economic performance with alternative labor market indicators: The importance of accounting for job quality." online]. SCEPA Working Paper 6 (2007): 202007-6.
Jackiewicz, E.L., Bosco, E.J. (2012). Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Roman and Littlefield Publishers.
Urbanization in Turkey
hen it comes to concerns about rural areas versus that of urban areas, there are most certainly pros and cons involved. Turkey is certainly a country that could and should be included in this debate. hile many people tout the improvements and advancements seen when an area becomes urbanized and more developed, it is seen by many that there are tradeoffs. One such tradeoff is the effect on wages. In many instances, people see stagnation and suffering of wages as an area becomes more urban. In other words, as populations shift, gross domestic product grows and so forth, there is a dragging effect on wages that is seen as people make less money than they probably should given the advancements and changes that are otherwise occurring. Put another way, it is seen that the wages of people like those in Turkey do not advance proportionally with the…
Fu, Albert. "Neoliberalism, Logistics & The Treadmill Of Production In Metropolitan Waste
Management: A Case Of Turkish Firms." Urban Studies 53.10 (2016): 2099-2117. Web.
Karahasan, Burhan Can, Fatma Dogruel, and Ali Suut Dogruel. "Can Market Potential Explain
Regional Disparities In Developing Countries? Evidence From Turkey." The Developing Economies 54.2 (2016): 162-197. Web.
Urbanization, population growth, and environmental degradation are among the most pressing problems in the world today (Coleman & Kerbo, 2009). Until recently, these issues would have been dealt with on local, national, or regional levels. When the Industrial Revolution began, the results of urbanization, population growth, and pollution were experienced mainly on a local level. Yet now, these are problems shared by every person on the planet. Urbanization means that many rural communities are struggling, as they lose young people who seek opportunities in cities. It also means that cities struggle to accommodate for the influx of people, leading to infrastructure problems, overcrowding, and poor quality of life. Industrial growth and development worldwide has also led to widespread problems that are no longer localized. Climate change impacts even those areas with the least infrastructure or industrialization. Wind and water currents know no geo-political boundaries, and nor does the ozone layer.…
incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.
First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…
A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.
Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.
Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896
City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.
In my opinion, there is no excuse for them not accomplishing the objectives they have been created to attain.
6. egarding the economic situation and the context of the current financial and economic crises, things are not as clear as they are about environmental issues. In my opinion, the policies that must be implemented in the following period of time should take into consideration economic stagnation, and not economic evolution.
The crisis currently affects the real estate market. Then, it will affect the energy market. Eventually, it will affect the food market. In my opinion, the bailouts that everyone complaints about are not such a negative action.
Even if it does not seem fair to pay for other people's mistakes and greed, these bailouts will probably be responsible for saving thousands of jobs domestically and internationally. However, if the bailouts will be used for bonuses, than this measure will obviously…
1. Thoumrungroje et al. (2007). Globalization Effects and Firm Performance. Journal of International Business Research. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5539/is_200707/ai_n25417659 .
2. Raphaeli, N. (2008). Saudi Arabia's Waning Influence on the Oil Market. The Middle East Media Research Institute. Inquiry and Analysis, No. 452. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=ia&ID=IA45208 .
3. Urbanization and Globalization (2001). The United Nations. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN002543.pdf.
4. The Great Global Schemer (2008). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/16/AR2008071602453.html .
Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860
Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.
Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…
Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.
Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from ccsenet.org: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/res/article/viewFile/4585/3924
Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods. Phhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
Concurrently, while the agrarian sector and movements suffered from the effects of urbanization and the nation's laissez faire form of government, cities flourished as more and more economic progress happened in the area of industrialization. New technology allowed new industries to flourish; increased immigration made possible the increasing mandate of political groups and movements and policies that supported the path towards industrialization and urbanization. Railroads became a cause for faster transportation, in addition to electric streetcars, making trade and migration from city to city easier -- in effect, making business transactions and operations faster and easier for Americans during the period of 19th century.
Industrialization impacted on national economy by helping create and develop the corporation, perhaps the biggest business organization that could possibly be formed under the modernist economic system. Apart from the creation of the corporation, foreign trade also increased, in the same manner as migration and immigration…
6. What factors contribute to globalization? The principle factor that contributes to globalization is economics. Transnational companies (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 485), for instance, have a vested interest in identifying -- and exploiting -- the most economically viable markets in which to conduct business so that they can maximize profits and reduce costs. However, there are also other factors that readily contribute to globalization, such as the exchange of global data in the form of communication. With people able to easily disseminate and receive information in virtually any part of the world -- such expedience naturally results in a reduction of national and even global barriers that were previously existent. The main forms of communication include the World Wide Web and the telecommunications (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 480).
There are also important political and economic changes that have influenced the spread of globalization. Capitalism's emergence as the dominant…
Allen, J. (1998). "Birth control and the Catholic Church." Undergraduate Review.11 (1): 7. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/rev/vol11/iss1/7
Babcock, H.M. (2008). "The National Environmental Policy Act in the urban environment: oxymoron or a useful tool to combat the destruction of neighborhoods and urban sprawl?." Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1952&context=facpub
Giddens, a., Dunier, M., Appelbaum, R.P., Carr, D. (2012). "Essentials of sociology." New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Lee, E., Vivarelli, M. (2006). "The social impact of globalization in the developing countries." Iza. Retrieved from http://ftp.iza.org/dp1925.pdf
Fort Bend County, Texas
Urbanization is the process of becoming urban. Living together in villages, towns, and cities is a natural condition of human life that has obtained since the beginning of civilization 10,000 years ago. Cities, for better or worse, have been deeply involved in developing the main characteristics of civilization-literacy, government, high arts, commerce, technology (Miller & Sanders 1990).
Urban places have been focal points for action and ideas, and gateways for trade and migration. The future of humanity is to become urban; about half of the world's population will be living in cities in 2000. Texas shares this human legacy, for in the 1990s more than eighty percent of its citizens live within city limits (Miller & Sanders 1990). For Texas, therefore, urbanization is practically complete.
In 1990 in Texas, now the third largest state, the urban population reached 81.6%, compared to the 77.5% for the United…
Dallas Yesterday. Ed. Lee Milazzo. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press,
Barr, A. Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971. Austin: Jenkins, 1973.
Brewer, J. Negro Legislators of Texas and Their Descendants. Dallas: Mathis, 1935; 2d ed.,
Family businesses and small artisan shops provided the main means of employment before the Industrial evolution, after which urban-area factories became a dominant economic and social force. Because factories attracted large numbers of domestic and immigrant laborers, they were able to grow rapidly in size and scope. Immigration became a major social revolution precipitated by the Industrial evolution, dramatically altering the ethnic, social, economic, and political landscape of the United States.
The owners of America's new industries, from textiles to steel, became known as robber-barons due to their ruthless business practices. A laissez-faire government permitted big business to flourish, and the big business barons retained significant political clout because of their economic power. Men like Carnegie, Gould, ockefeller, and Vanderbilt built massive fortunes, creating a new type of American aristocracy and an unprecedented level of wealth. The laissez-faire politics in vogue around the turn of the century increased the production…
DeLong, J.B. (1998). Robber Barons. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/carnegie/DeLong_Moscow_paper2.html
Industrial Revolution: Information Page." (nd). ThinkQuest. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at http://library.thinkquest.org/4132/info.htm
The Roots of American Economic Growth." (nd). Digital History. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=604
Southern and Midwestern States
Comparison and Contrast: Southern and Midwestern States
The Southern and Midwestern states are very different in terms of their physical characteristics, their economic and agricultural bases, and their urbanization. For people moving from one place to the other, or doing business in states where they are not familiar, this can be a bit of culture shock. The look and "feel" of the areas are quite different, prompting people from one area to often have misconceptions about what life is like in another area. Here it is important to address the actual differences, to create a clearer picture of the Southern and Midwestern states, along with their differences and similarities.
Physically, the geography of the Southern and Midwestern states is both similar and different. While the Southern states have humidity virtually all year round, and Midwestern states are drier, overall. Both areas have a high level of…
Lewisian Model and Development
State the assumption of the model.
The Lewis Model was developed in 1954 whereby it was shown that expansion of industrial sector was crucial to the development of less-developed countries (LDCs). The model was based on following important assumptions:
a) Less-developed countries have dual economy system. This means that economy in such countries is dependent on two large sectors that operate in starkly different environment. These sectors were defined as agriculture and industry. It was assumed that while agricultural sector is the largest economic sector in LDCs, it fails to make equally significant contribution to the country's income because this sector is characterized by low income, low productivity, high unemployment and poor wages. On the other hand industrial sector operates in a capitalist environment where business is run in the same manner as in western societies. This leads to huge differences in productivity and efficiency in…
W.A. Lewis, "Economic Development with Unlimited Supply Labor" Manchester School of Econ & Social Studies. Vol. 22, 1954 pp.139-191
The Republic of urundi is a small country in central equitorial Africa facing many challenges including a growing population of individuals with AIDS and an ongoing problem with tribal warfare. With an inflation rate of over 12% and the constant upheaval from internal turbulence, urundi faces many challenges as it attempts trade with the rest of the world.
urundi's population was about 6 million people in 2003 (CIA, 2003), with a high death rate due to AIDS and infant mortality. One population factor affecting urundi's economy is that nearly 50% of the population is 14 years old or under (CIA, 2003). The birth rate is markedly high at nearly 40 per 1,000 population (CIA, 2003). The death rate is just under 18 per 1,000, giving a rapid growth in the number of children. Partly because of AIDS, which over 8% of the adults have, life expectancy is about 43…
CIA. 2003. "Burundi," in World Fact Book, last updated Dec. 18. Accessed via the Internet 2/23/05. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/by.html
Clark, David. 1998. "Interdependent Urbanization in an Urban World: An Historical Overview." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 164.
Ngaruko, Floribert, and Nkurunziza, Janvier D. 2000. "An Economic Interpretation of Conflict in Burundi
Journal of African Economies, Vol. 9.
Third, massive investments should be made in research and development of alternative sources of renewable energy. This will positively impact not only the environment, but also the socio-economic conditions of numerous international players.
elative to the financial crisis, this should be addressed from its roots -- the real estate and credit crisis. In this line of thoughts, the mortgages should be bought by the U.S. Government, rather that having the borrowers executed. The measure would ensure a relaxation of the credit operations, meaning that liquidities would again enter the economy to support the growth of all industries affected -- real estate primarily, furniture, electronics and so on -- all those that fell like domino pieces with the credit crunch.
The petroleum exporting countries might find it unsettling to obey to the new environmental legislation and they could even feel that their economic stability is threatened by the development of renewable…
Friedman, T., the Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization, Knopf Publishing Group, May 2000
Sachs, J., Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet, Penguin Group USA, March 2008
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia -- a Welfare State, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia, http://www.mofa.gov.sa/Detail.asp?InSectionID=1516&InNewsItemID=1746 last accessed on April 2, 2009
Los Angeles' worship of the culture of the car is likewise mocked. For example, Stan and his friend Gene have to find a new engine for their car, and to navigate their way to their other friend's house, they must wander through what looks like a graveyard of parked cars, where people are drinking cheap booze. The metaphor is clear -- they may be in cars, and Stan may be on a fruitless errand to fix his car, but the cars are going nowhere, just as Stan is going nowhere. The violence that resulted from the atts riots is palpable in the atmosphere of the film.
The city of Los Angeles, instead of being a place of opportunity, is a dead end, just as Paris is hardly a city of refinement for the protagonists of "Hate." The sheep become a metaphor for the people of atts, treated in an inhuman…
Hate." Directed by Mathieu Kassovitz. 1996
Killing Sheep." Directed by Charles Burnett, 1977.
The World." Directed by Jia Zhangke. 2004.
Urbanization is changing the way people live and work in America. With higher population density, residents are creating economies of scale that allow greater access to goods from around the world at competitive prices. All the cities of the Eastern United States are linked via trade routes to the Old World and beyond, introducing items ranging from spices and food to luxury goods. The American trade industry is booming so much so that this nation's raw materials are in demand all over the world. New immigrants to American cities can participate in the exiting endeavors of world trade, working on docks loading and unloading cargo or helping ship raw materials from mines and factories to the ships that will take them overseas.
The American housing industry needs laborers to build and help move large tracts of lumber across many miles of land. Similarly, giant steel companies are hiring as many…
American Industrialization." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/lec.indust.html
Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://faculty.utep.edu/LinkClick.aspx?link=industry_immigration.ppt&tabid=20250&mid=66301
Transportation Revolution." Interactive Maps. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073124923/student_view0/chapter17/interactive_maps.html
Nostalgia for the Past
Nostalgia can take many forms, but can perhaps be summarized by the phrase 'appropriating selected aspects of the past for the use of the present'. It tends to involve an emotional or spiritual response to the past rather than a rationalizing one, and as a result is associated with the art of sentiment rather than of intellect. As we shall see, however, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artists who made use of nostalgia were prepared to shape its appeal in intellectual as well as purely sentimental or aesthetic forms.
Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) was a passionately political artist, a proponent of history painting in its most elevated form and of the neoclassicist aesthetic. His 'The Oath of the Horatii' of 1784 (Louvre, Paris) depicts a scene from the Roman historian Livy: the three Horatii brothers pledge to fight the three Curiatii brothers in order to settle a dispute between…
un.org)." However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…
Country at a Glance. Brazil: Health. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.un.org/).
D'allegro, Joseph. "Brazil Attracting U.S. Insurers' Interest." National Underwriter Life & Health-Financial Services Edition. (1999): 25 October.
Encyclopedia: Demographics of Brazil. (accessed 22 April 2005). http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Demographics-of-Brazil ).
Migration and Urbanization. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/brazil/29.html).
GCEC and Brownfields
GCEC 2012 Conference -- evisiting Brownfield edevelopment
The 4th Annual Conference of the Global Chinese eal Estate Congress (GCEC) was held on July 3-5, 2012 at the Grand Hyatt, Macau SA, in China. The event was hosted by the Faculty of Business and Administration of the University of Macau and served as a platform for the brainstorming among scholars, practitioners and government officials on the latest developments in the real estate field and challenges faced in the sector. Participants came from across the globe.
A central component of the event was the "evisiting Brownfield edevelopment" presentation which focused on the reuse and reclamation of land that has real or perceived contamination. Brownfield sites are typically abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for re-use, which are very prevalent in China and can be a major boon to the local economy.
Expansion or redevelopment of such a…
Knowlton, R.G., & Minier, J. (2001). Recent Trend for Environmental Compliance Provides New Opportunities for Land and Water Use at Brownfields and Other Contaminated Sites. Natural Resources Journal, 41(4), 919.
Zilei, L., & Li, C. (2011). Research on Chinese Real Estate Development and the Future Trends. Asian Social Science, 7(9), 207-211. doi:10.5539/ass.v7n9p207.
Large scale restructuring has taken place in major urban centers of the worldthat included London, Singapore, San Francisco, Vancouver, and may more. 'Inner city' assumes much importance in the regional economics as the impact of globalization and rapid transformation in land use occur at inner parts of these cosmopolitan cities. "The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration and Dislocation in the 21st Century Metropolis" by Thomas A. Hutton addresses the critical issues of place and process in the development of 'new economies' in postindustrial cities. Thesis agenda of the book asserts that restructuring initiatives in cosmopolitan cities, specifically London, have enabled the emergence of creative enterprises in the 'new inner city' and thus has dislocated traditional industrial and manufacturing oriented regional economy (Hutton, 2009). Urbanization, migration, policy shifts in land use, restructuring initiatives, clustering of industries, and change in production-consumption has transformed the 'inner city economy'. The book…
DaCosta, M.N. (2010). A Review of "The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration and Dislocation in the Twenty-First-Century Metropolis." Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(4), 521-522.
Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering Urbanism, Networked infrastructures, technological motilities and the urban condition. Journal of Urban Technology, 9(3), 109-113.
Hutton, T. (2008).The new economy of the inner city: restructuring, regeneration and dislocation in the 21st century metropolis. London: Routledge.
Hutton, T.A. (2006). Spatiality, built form, and creative industry development in the inner city. Environment and Planning, 38(10), 1819-1841.
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
An interesting trend has been registered in the service industry, especially in the field of tourism. One of the main engines of Spanish economy in the past, now tourism in this country faces fierce competition from Eastern Europe countries. The beautiful resorts in Palma del Majorca and Costa rava must compete with low cost sea side resort, which offer similar services at incredibly low prices. Another field which needs reforms and reformulation policy is the agricultural and fishery one, which accounts only 4.1% out of GDP, although the important political forces attached to this sensible sector.
In order to be able to face the challenges and the opportunities on the regional and global market, Spain needs reforms in most fields of activity. Unemployment level is one of the highest in EU 9.2% at the end of 2005, while the rate of inflation was around 3.4 per cent in 2005, which…
1) Carol Matlack and Joan Tarzian - 'Spain: Immigrants Welcome', Business Week, May 21, 2007
2) 'Plain sailing no longer', the Economist print edition, 3rd of March 2007.
3) 'Spanish property - the pain in Spain', 26th of April 2007.
4) Human Development Index report, for the year 2006
The Madagascar population is quite dispersed (UNHCHR 1993). The urban centers and other vital sectors, such as the deltas and alluvial plains are populated. ut the rest of the land is thinly populated. Only a few regions are enclaved and have roads, but these are in a deteriorating state because of the lack of material and financial resources. The growth rate of Madagascar went up from 1.59 to 3.5% between 1960 and 1970. In 1990, the population was estimated at 11 million and evenly distributed. There are 171 live births per 1,000 women of child-bearing age. The crude mortality is 17.6 per thousand with life expectancy at birth at 54.5 years. The natural increase in population is 2.7 to 3.2% per year or to double within 22-26 years. The population is 46% for those below 15 years old and only 3% for those over 60. The dependency ratio is…
BRIDGE (1992). What about women? 4 pages. Institute of Development Studies: University of Sussex, Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/R20%20What%20About%20Women%202c.doc
Ferraro, V. (1996). Dependency theory. 12 pages. Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved on May 31, 2007 at http://www.mtkolyoke.edu/acad/intrel/depend.htm
Hamilton, R. (2003). Madagascar mixes religion and politics. 5 pages. BBC News: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2681011.stm
International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (2006). The experience of the National Land Programme in Madagascar. 3 pages. Summary. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.icarrd.org/en/icarrd/_madagascar_Sum.doc
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…
American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm
Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Caring is not simply a demonstration of sympathy and empathy for an individual's particular situation, as focusing on such might impair the ability of the nurse to look at long and short-term health goals that could be uncomfortable but might realistically assist the patient to maintain a better quality of life in the near future. Caring for those who are limited in ability to do so themselves, children, soldiers, the poor and the elderly and this is the historical precedence of nursing in general. The text of this course stresses that the development of nursing, like many other caring professions had a great deal to do with the need to provide professional caring to those who were at risk, and lacking the family and economic connection that was the basis for the maintenance of health in earlier times.
Urbanization, war, immigration and the reduction of the numbers of extended families…
Furthermore, the importance of the metro in moving people in St.
Petersburg is illustrated in the impact the metro has on people's lives.
The article by Irina Titova on the St. Petersburg metro cites Valentina
Ivanova, deputy head of the State Duma's education and science committee.
According to the article, the city will open a Southwest aste Treatment
Station shortly, causing the district to develop. Ivavnova maintains that
when the district develops because of the opening of the Treatment Station,
that "the metro will be essential" and that two new stations will need to
be opened "at the south-west of the city" (Titova 2004). The fact that the
opening of a waste treatment center will create the need for two new metro
stations showcases the importance of the metro on daily life and the
movement of people in the city. Anywhere in the city that people need to
Bennett, Philip. "The Daily Drama of St. Petersburg." The Boston Globe
[Boston] 8 Aug 1993:
Japan Fact Sheet. "Railways." Web Japan. 10 Mar 2007.
< http://web-japan.org/factsheet/pdf/TRANSPOR.PDF >
Describe the economic opportunities beckoning newcomers in all regions of the country as a result of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.
The expansion of the nation's railroads by 1870, helped to fuel a tremendous amount of economic growth westward. as, the nation was rapidly developing regions that were considered to be difficult due to: adverse weather conditions, vast distances and the possibility of violence from Indian attacks. Once the railroad was established in the West, a shift occurred in how the nation was able to deal with these challenges. Where, many of these problems became non-existent and an increasing number of people began to move to these regions of the country. (illington, 2001, pp. 357 -- 375)
At the same time, the nation had developed a vast network of railroads throughout the entire Eastern half of the nation. This meant that many different natural resources in the West could…
Billington, R. (2001). Westward Expansion. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
Cleaner environment how work effectively promote a cleaner environment? Will ? Macionis, John J. (2009). Society basics (10th ed.) Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization Environment Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern Postmodern Societies.
How can you work most effectively to promote a cleaner environment?
educing waste is perhaps the most effective and immediate way to produce a cleaner environment. ecycling, reusing, and trying to buy as few new objects as possible are all simple ways to reduce one's carbon footprint. This can include steps as simple as buying from secondhand stores, avoiding the use of products that cause needless destruction to the environment (such as those which contain palm oil), and using a refillable water bottle. "It takes 95% less energy to recycle aluminum than it does to make it from raw materials. Making recycled steel saves 60%, recycled newspaper 40%, recycled plastics 70%, and…
Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/weekinreview/27bittman.html
Recycling benefits. (2005). Recycling revolution. Retrieved August 16, 2011 at http://www.recycling-revolution.com/recycling-benefits.html
Damns on Wildlife and the Environment
Background to Dams and Levees - One of the issues resulting from civilization and urbanization is that most of the places humans chose to locate, for reasons of convenience, agriculture, transportation, and economic independence, have been near water. Dams provide hydroelectric power, help control floods, and make rivers navigable. Levees are quite similar to dams in their purpose, although they are primarily build to restrict water in times of high flow -- and for the majority of time are not under water. Per capita, floods are the most destructive and frequent of Mother Nature's natural disasters. In the last 50-60 years, in fact, the number and severity of flooding has worsened globally. Several reasons have contributed to this: global warming and worsening of storm activity; the deforestation and paving of natural watersheds; and more people living and working on known flood-plains. However, many scholars…
Dams Solution. (2010). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from: http://www.fws.gov/r5crc/Habitat/damsolutions.html
Berga, L. (2006). Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century, Volume 1. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Chiras, D. (2010). Environmental Science. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Drijiver, C. (1986). Taming the Floods: Environmental Aspects of Floodplain Development in Africa. Nature and Resources. 22 (4): Retrieved from: http://openagricola.nal.usda.gov/Record/IND87078020
Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today
Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:
The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial evolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. ailroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)
Development in natural science spearheaded…
Chandrinos, K.V; Trahanias, P.E. (n. d.) "Beyond HTML: Web-based Information Systems"
Institute of Computer Science, Retrieved 15 March 2012 from http://www.ercim.eu/publication/ws-proceedings/DELOS6/chandrinos.pdf
Davenport, Thomas H; Short, James E. (1990) "The new industrial engineering information technology and business process redesign" Center for Information Systems Research. CISR WP No. 213, Sloan WP No. 3190-90.
EEA. (2010) "SOER 2010 -- Assessment of global megatrends"
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
Old and New Leadership Styles
Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…
Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.
DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.
Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
innovations in agricultural technologies, the dire predictions of global famine made by Stanford University Professor Paul . Ehrlich in his book, The Population Bomb (1968) have not materialized to date. Nevertheless, hunger continues to persist in many regions of the world, especially its major cities, due in large part to urbanization and 7.5 million people die of hunger each month (Holmes, 2008). The hunger that does exist in the world today is largely the result of increased urbanization and national political leadership that either uses food as a weapon or lacks the resources or will to ensure that adequate food distribution is achieved in their countries (Wurwag, 2014). To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning urbanization and the urban structure to identify those factors that are most responsible for preventing adequate distribution of food to urban residents. A summary of the research and…
Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine Books.
Gonzalez-Pelaez, A. (2005). Human rights and world trade: Hunger in international society. London: Routledge.
Holmes, J. (2008, June-September). Losing 25,000 to hunger every day. UN Chronicle, 2-3, 14-
Haze in China
Pollution has become a major issue across the globe given the devastating impacts of human activities, particularly industrial processes, on the Earth’s Atmosphere. Environmental pollution is regarded as one of the major causes of global warming or climate change, which has negative impacts on the Earth’s ecosystems. China is one of the countries affected by environmental effects associated with human activities and industrial/manufacturing processes. The country has been struggling with haze and fog since 2013, which have generated public anxiety and official concerns. Regional haze is regarded as one of the most devastating weather events in China over the past few years. Even though haze can emerge from natural causes, it is largely man-made, especially due to coal emission, huge coal incineration, and winter heating. This paper examines haze in China in relation to its devastating impacts with a view of identifying the most suitable approach…
Overcrowding in Megacities
Cities are increasingly getting larger, which results in the increased emergence of megacities worldwide. Megacities are increasingly emerging in developing nations due to mass urbanization. One of the major contributors to the rise of megacities worldwide is globalization and rapid technological advancements. By increasing connectivity, globalization has contributed to mass urbanization as people look for better environments for their socioeconomic growth and development. Globalization has transformed the nature of urbanization by making people’s movement to become global rather than intra-national rural-urban migration. According to Heyzer et al. (2016) the rise of megacities worldwide is an indicator that humankind is experiencing the highest ever growth in urbanization. While the rise of megacities is associated with some positive impacts relating to economic growth and development, these cities face some challenges due to overcrowding. This paper examines the social and environmental challenges facing megacities due to overcrowding.
Social Challenges Facing…
C-Sections elative to Hospital Size
A cesarean section, more commonly known as a C-section, is a surgical procedure in which a fetus is delivered via a hysterotomy rather than a more typical vaginal delivery procedure. There are many medical reasons why a c-section is necessary, although the geographic and demographic distribution of c-sections shows many trends in the prevalence of the procedure, indicating medical necessity is not the only reason that the surgery is performed. Affluence and medical availability and infrastructure have clear impacts on the rate and outcome of c-sections.
In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that on average, 10-15% of live births were via c-section, and the rate of c-sections in the United States, despite a rising popularity of alternative birthing methods (midwifes, home births, doulas, etc.), the c-sections have increased by 48% since 1996. While the size of hospitals studied when studying c-section outcomes has been…
Chen, Chin-Shyan et al. (2008). "Urbanization and the likelihood of a cesarean section" European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ad Reproductive Biology
Volume 141, Issue 2, Pp 104-110
Chris Macourt, et al. (2007). "Elective Cesarean Section and Decision Making: A Critical Review of the Literature" Birth..Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 65 -- 79.
Kritchevsky, SB et al. (1996). "Decreasing the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: Success without mandated clinical changes." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Volume 174, Issue 1. Pp 184-191.
ole and Process of Suburbanization in Creation of Metropolitan Areas
The divide between city and rural areas and the rise of the metropolis were features of the previous century. While the development of cities had its own problems, the development of the cities into metropolises created new hinterlands that other cities did not have. The new type of development across the metropolitan areas and its periphery came to be called urbanization. The process of suburban development in the United States was a result of the growth of the middle and upper classes. But there was also urbanization in industrial cities resulting in employment by the working-class that created settlements in industrial suburbs. Modern scholars identify three types of suburban growth- One the residential suburbs created by the rich and the second the industrial suburbs and the third, the development of 'unincorporated districts at the urban fringe.' (Harris; Larkham, 91)
Banfield, Edward C; Grodzins, Morton. Government and Housing in Metropolitan Areas.
McGraw-Hill: New York.
Clawson, Marion. Suburban Land Conversion in the United States: An Economic and Governmental Process. Resources for the Future: Baltimore, 1971.
Fellmann, Jerome Donald; Getis, Arthur; Getis, Judith. (1997) Human geography: landscapes of human activities. William C. Brown Pub.
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…
Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001
Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997
As the wealthy people no longer had to live in the center of the city, the central business district was characterized by retail shops, office buildings and light manufacturing.
In America, the industrial revolution started just before the beginning of the 19th century. Prior to this, 6% of the United States' population lived in urban areas with close to 90% of practicing agriculture. This figure later fell to 50% in the following century meaning that every farmer could produce twice of what they required for themselves. American cities grew as a result of the enhancement in agricultural efficiency brought by the development of agricultural machinery. Agricultural machinery made manual labor of farming redundant because of large equipment which hastened agricultural productions. As a result, a very smaller proportion of the country's population could meet the entire nation's agricultural needs.
The other factor that led to the growth of American cities…
Excalibur. "Urbanization in 19th Century America." Everything2. D and The Everything Development Company, 16 Oct. 2002. Web. 9 Apr. 2010. .
"Urbanization of America." TheUSAonline.com: Interactive Website About the United States. Active USA Center A.U.C. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .
Housing Market in China: A Critical Survey of the Literature
This is a critical survey of the literature on the state of housing market in China. It highlights the high and rising cost of housing in major markets, which have attracted worldwide attention, as well as the interest of the Chinese government. It is difficult to understand the Chinese housing market without delving into the background. In this regard, the paper also examines the housing reforms and the growth of housing sector in general. Furthermore, the paper looks at Price-to-rent ratios in Beijing and seven other major housing markets in China. The findings suggest that even simple declines in expected appreciation would result in substantial price declines in these markets. It concludes that Price-to-income ratios are at their peak in Beijing and some selected Chinese housing markets.
Since the beginning of People's epublic of China, most of the citizenry…
Ka Yui Leung, C., & Wang, W. (2007). An Examination of the Chinese Housing Market. International Real Estate Review, 131-165.
Bian, Y., & Logan, J.R. (1996). Market transition and the persistence of power: the changing strati-cation system in urban China. American Sociological Review, 739 -- 58.
Chan, K.W. (1994). Cities with invisible walls:reinterpreting urbanization in post-1949 China. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Deutsche Bank . (2011). China's housing markets: Regulatory interventions mitigate risk of severe bust. Current Issues.
Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.
Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…
Air Pollution in Bahrain: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://aqicn.org/map/bahrain/
Bahrain Economic Development Board (2017). Water. Retrieved online: http://www.bahrain.com/en/bi/key-investment-sectors/Pages/Water.aspx#.WQ5rmInyuRs
CIA World Factbook (2016). Bahrain Urbanization. Retrieved online: http://www.indexmundi.com/bahrain/urbanization.html
Fowler, S.W. (1993). Pollution in the Gulf. IAEA Bulletin. Retrieved online: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/35205980913.pdf
In order to understand the mental health challenges imposed on children growing up in poverty, psychologists propose two different, yet complimentary theoretical frameworks. The first is a Structural Model, emphasizing the structural differences inherent in dense populations. Structural theorists attempt to link structural data with children's mental health and well-being. The other theoretical model typically used to describe urbanization is the Ecological Model. This model highlights how a variety of systems interact to influence children.
The two authors of this article describe possible intervention strategies to improve the influence of urbanization on the mental health and well-being of children. Most of these interventions attempt to include community and family support. Benefits of this type of intervention include the increased availability of support for the children. These support groups can work together, as well as independently, in order to keep children motivated to succeed. Many children in urbanization are unmotivated and…
Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…
City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/pdfs/disaster/Hurricane%20Preparation%20files/City%20of%20Miami%20Master%20Plan.pdf
Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.
Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.
Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from http://www.udbline.com/organizations.htm