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Ecological Problem
Words: 867 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73458095
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Ecological Problem

Grade Course

Walking on grass while it rains, looking at the blue sky and hearing the bird chirp, and letting cool breeze touch the skin are amongst some of the most refreshing moments which one would loathe. The refreshment and serenity arising from such moments rather define environment as a miraculous beauty. Despite the ease and satisfaction associated with nature, ecological problems go hand in hand with the reality of the surrounding. Ecological issues are environmental issues such as overpopulation, climatic changes, land degradation, pollution and many more. These problems do not only destroy the splendor of nature, but they adversely affect life. As a matter of fact, these ecological issues are a result of human activity which leaves a drastic impact on the environment.

While considering the different environmental issues, it is important to shed light on urbanization which is a major ecological issue. Urbanization is…


Jiang, L. (2008). Population, Urbanization, and the Environment: Growing Cities Stress Their Natural Surrounding, but They Can Also Help Protect Them. World Watch. Vol. 21, No. 5

Sustainable Development
Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79309132
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Urbanization in Latin America was the result of the industrialization that took place in the 18th century and attracted rural population to migrate in order to get better employment and life facilities. However, Neoliberalism caused privatization and resulted in the economic opportunities and growth prospects but the long-term effects tend to be declining in terms of growth due to the imbalance of job availability and job requirements and autonomy of corporate companies.

Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism

Urban primacy


Urban Growth

Over Urbanization

Informal Sector

Squatter Settlement

Sustainable Development


Drug Production

Neoliberalism and Sustainability



Import Substitution Industrialization vs. Neoliberalism

Import-Substitution-Industrialization or (ISI) refers to the policy which facilitates trade and country's economy by means of replacing imports with the products that are produced domestically which ultimately focuses on a country's dependency and protects it from the foreign economic shocks. The policy was adapted by many countries…


Butler, Richard W. "Tourism, environment, and sustainable development." Environmental conservation 18.03 (1991): 201-209.

Elliott, Jennifer. An introduction to sustainable development. Routledge, 2012.

Howell, D., and Mamadou Diallo. "Charting U.S. economic performance with alternative labor market indicators: The importance of accounting for job quality." online]. SCEPA Working Paper 6 (2007): 202007-6.

Jackiewicz, E.L., Bosco, E.J. (2012). Placing Latin America: Contemporary Themes in Geography. Roman and Littlefield Publishers.

Negative Effects of Globalization
Words: 876 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98385968
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Urbanization in Turkey

hen it comes to concerns about rural areas versus that of urban areas, there are most certainly pros and cons involved. Turkey is certainly a country that could and should be included in this debate. hile many people tout the improvements and advancements seen when an area becomes urbanized and more developed, it is seen by many that there are tradeoffs. One such tradeoff is the effect on wages. In many instances, people see stagnation and suffering of wages as an area becomes more urban. In other words, as populations shift, gross domestic product grows and so forth, there is a dragging effect on wages that is seen as people make less money than they probably should given the advancements and changes that are otherwise occurring. Put another way, it is seen that the wages of people like those in Turkey do not advance proportionally with the…

Works Cited

Fu, Albert. "Neoliberalism, Logistics & The Treadmill Of Production In Metropolitan Waste

Management: A Case Of Turkish Firms." Urban Studies 53.10 (2016): 2099-2117. Web.

Karahasan, Burhan Can, Fatma Dogruel, and Ali Suut Dogruel. "Can Market Potential Explain

Regional Disparities In Developing Countries? Evidence From Turkey." The Developing Economies 54.2 (2016): 162-197. Web.

environmentalism and'some positive and negative trends
Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75564738
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Urbanization, population growth, and environmental degradation are among the most pressing problems in the world today (Coleman & Kerbo, 2009). Until recently, these issues would have been dealt with on local, national, or regional levels. When the Industrial Revolution began, the results of urbanization, population growth, and pollution were experienced mainly on a local level. Yet now, these are problems shared by every person on the planet. Urbanization means that many rural communities are struggling, as they lose young people who seek opportunities in cities. It also means that cities struggle to accommodate for the influx of people, leading to infrastructure problems, overcrowding, and poor quality of life. Industrial growth and development worldwide has also led to widespread problems that are no longer localized. Climate change impacts even those areas with the least infrastructure or industrialization. Wind and water currents know no geo-political boundaries, and nor does the ozone layer.…

UK Urban Health Issue
Words: 3578 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9138501
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incidence tuberculosis as an Urban Health issue among ethnic minority group in Canning Town, Newham Borough of London. Large scale incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has been a major concern for public health planners in the UK. The report is structured as follows to enhance a greater understanding of the TB rate in Newham and strategies to reduce the TB rates in Newham London.

First, the report explores the TB rates in the entire UK. Moreover, the report provides the rational the TB cases in an urban health issue since Newham is a part of London. Moreover, the paper provides overall urban health issues and their implications to urban residents. The paprt explores the TB incidents in London and narrow the incidents to the Newham in London. Moreover, paper compares the TB rates of all important cities in the UK to enhance a greater understanding of urban health issues. Finally, the…


A2D, (2011).Newham -- Key Statistics. Advance to Deliver Project.UK.

Barton, H, Mitcham, C, Tsourou, C (2003), Healthy urban planning in practice: experience of European cities, WHO City Action Group on Healthy Urban Planning.

Bothamley, G.H. Kruijshaar, M.E. Kunst, H. et al.(2011). Tuberculosis in the UK cities: Effectiveness and Workload of control of tuberculosis programmes. BMC Public Health, 11:896

City of London, (2008 ), Pollution control, CITY OF LONDON, eshot, United Kingdom.

International Competitiveness Politics and Policy
Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51823334
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In my opinion, there is no excuse for them not accomplishing the objectives they have been created to attain.

6. egarding the economic situation and the context of the current financial and economic crises, things are not as clear as they are about environmental issues. In my opinion, the policies that must be implemented in the following period of time should take into consideration economic stagnation, and not economic evolution.

The crisis currently affects the real estate market. Then, it will affect the energy market. Eventually, it will affect the food market. In my opinion, the bailouts that everyone complaints about are not such a negative action.

Even if it does not seem fair to pay for other people's mistakes and greed, these bailouts will probably be responsible for saving thousands of jobs domestically and internationally. However, if the bailouts will be used for bonuses, than this measure will obviously…

Reference list:

1. Thoumrungroje et al. (2007). Globalization Effects and Firm Performance. Journal of International Business Research. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from .

2. Raphaeli, N. (2008). Saudi Arabia's Waning Influence on the Oil Market. The Middle East Media Research Institute. Inquiry and Analysis, No. 452. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from .

3. Urbanization and Globalization (2001). The United Nations. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from

4. The Great Global Schemer (2008). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2009 from .

Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the
Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40344392
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Urban Infrastructure and Services Changed in the Colonial Era to 1860

Urban infrastructure and connected services had a massive impact in the development of the colonies, all the way up to the end of the 19th century. In just a few decades, the quaint colonial townships which had once existed were no longer around, but had manifested into bustling metropolitan centers. This paper will demonstrate how much of that evolution was as a result of the values of Puritanism which guided and helped the colonies to evolve and develop into the modern era. The values of Puritanism spurred people to work and to thrive, causing the towns to work and to thrive into cities.

Pennsylvania is a shining example of how urban infrastructure and such related factors were able to modernize and urbanize such a colony. Philadelphia largely offers a clear example of how both privatism and a rejection of…

Works Cited

Anbinder, T. (2001). Five Points: The 19th-Century New York City . New York: Penguin Group.

Kang, N. (2009, December). Puritanism and Its Impact upon American Values . Retrieved from

Warner, S. (1968). The Private City: Philadelphia in Three Periods. Phhiladelphia: University of Pennsylvania.

U S History America as a
Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83007411
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Concurrently, while the agrarian sector and movements suffered from the effects of urbanization and the nation's laissez faire form of government, cities flourished as more and more economic progress happened in the area of industrialization. New technology allowed new industries to flourish; increased immigration made possible the increasing mandate of political groups and movements and policies that supported the path towards industrialization and urbanization. Railroads became a cause for faster transportation, in addition to electric streetcars, making trade and migration from city to city easier -- in effect, making business transactions and operations faster and easier for Americans during the period of 19th century.

Industrialization impacted on national economy by helping create and develop the corporation, perhaps the biggest business organization that could possibly be formed under the modernist economic system. Apart from the creation of the corporation, foreign trade also increased, in the same manner as migration and immigration…

Economy The Most Integral Aspect
Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33780461
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6. What factors contribute to globalization? The principle factor that contributes to globalization is economics. Transnational companies (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 485), for instance, have a vested interest in identifying -- and exploiting -- the most economically viable markets in which to conduct business so that they can maximize profits and reduce costs. However, there are also other factors that readily contribute to globalization, such as the exchange of global data in the form of communication. With people able to easily disseminate and receive information in virtually any part of the world -- such expedience naturally results in a reduction of national and even global barriers that were previously existent. The main forms of communication include the World Wide Web and the telecommunications (Giddens et al., 2012, p. 480).

There are also important political and economic changes that have influenced the spread of globalization. Capitalism's emergence as the dominant…


Allen, J. (1998). "Birth control and the Catholic Church." Undergraduate Review.11 (1): 7. Retrieved from: 

Babcock, H.M. (2008). "The National Environmental Policy Act in the urban environment: oxymoron or a useful tool to combat the destruction of neighborhoods and urban sprawl?." Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works. Retrieved from 

Giddens, a., Dunier, M., Appelbaum, R.P., Carr, D. (2012). "Essentials of sociology." New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Lee, E., Vivarelli, M. (2006). "The social impact of globalization in the developing countries." Iza. Retrieved from

Fort Bend County TX
Words: 1809 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5687759
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Fort Bend County, Texas

Urbanization is the process of becoming urban. Living together in villages, towns, and cities is a natural condition of human life that has obtained since the beginning of civilization 10,000 years ago. Cities, for better or worse, have been deeply involved in developing the main characteristics of civilization-literacy, government, high arts, commerce, technology (Miller & Sanders 1990).

Urban places have been focal points for action and ideas, and gateways for trade and migration. The future of humanity is to become urban; about half of the world's population will be living in cities in 2000. Texas shares this human legacy, for in the 1990s more than eighty percent of its citizens live within city limits (Miller & Sanders 1990). For Texas, therefore, urbanization is practically complete.

In 1990 in Texas, now the third largest state, the urban population reached 81.6%, compared to the 77.5% for the United…

Works Cited

Acheson, S.

Dallas Yesterday. Ed. Lee Milazzo. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press,

Barr, A. Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971. Austin: Jenkins, 1973.

Brewer, J. Negro Legislators of Texas and Their Descendants. Dallas: Mathis, 1935; 2d ed.,

Nation Develops by the End
Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78331406
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Family businesses and small artisan shops provided the main means of employment before the Industrial evolution, after which urban-area factories became a dominant economic and social force. Because factories attracted large numbers of domestic and immigrant laborers, they were able to grow rapidly in size and scope. Immigration became a major social revolution precipitated by the Industrial evolution, dramatically altering the ethnic, social, economic, and political landscape of the United States.

The owners of America's new industries, from textiles to steel, became known as robber-barons due to their ruthless business practices. A laissez-faire government permitted big business to flourish, and the big business barons retained significant political clout because of their economic power. Men like Carnegie, Gould, ockefeller, and Vanderbilt built massive fortunes, creating a new type of American aristocracy and an unprecedented level of wealth. The laissez-faire politics in vogue around the turn of the century increased the production…


DeLong, J.B. (1998). Robber Barons. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at

Industrial Revolution: Information Page." (nd). ThinkQuest. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at

The Roots of American Economic Growth." (nd). Digital History. Retrieved Sept 23, 2006 at

Southern and Midwestern States Comparison and Contrast
Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31525672
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Southern and Midwestern States

Comparison and Contrast: Southern and Midwestern States

The Southern and Midwestern states are very different in terms of their physical characteristics, their economic and agricultural bases, and their urbanization. For people moving from one place to the other, or doing business in states where they are not familiar, this can be a bit of culture shock. The look and "feel" of the areas are quite different, prompting people from one area to often have misconceptions about what life is like in another area. Here it is important to address the actual differences, to create a clearer picture of the Southern and Midwestern states, along with their differences and similarities.

Physically, the geography of the Southern and Midwestern states is both similar and different. While the Southern states have humidity virtually all year round, and Midwestern states are drier, overall. Both areas have a high level of…

Lewisian Model and Development
Words: 1171 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35880455
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Lewisian Model and Development

State the assumption of the model.

The Lewis Model was developed in 1954 whereby it was shown that expansion of industrial sector was crucial to the development of less-developed countries (LDCs). The model was based on following important assumptions:

a) Less-developed countries have dual economy system. This means that economy in such countries is dependent on two large sectors that operate in starkly different environment. These sectors were defined as agriculture and industry. It was assumed that while agricultural sector is the largest economic sector in LDCs, it fails to make equally significant contribution to the country's income because this sector is characterized by low income, low productivity, high unemployment and poor wages. On the other hand industrial sector operates in a capitalist environment where business is run in the same manner as in western societies. This leads to huge differences in productivity and efficiency in…


W.A. Lewis, "Economic Development with Unlimited Supply Labor" Manchester School of Econ & Social Studies. Vol. 22, 1954 pp.139-191

Country of Burundi
Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6118066
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The Republic of urundi is a small country in central equitorial Africa facing many challenges including a growing population of individuals with AIDS and an ongoing problem with tribal warfare. With an inflation rate of over 12% and the constant upheaval from internal turbulence, urundi faces many challenges as it attempts trade with the rest of the world.

urundi's population was about 6 million people in 2003 (CIA, 2003), with a high death rate due to AIDS and infant mortality. One population factor affecting urundi's economy is that nearly 50% of the population is 14 years old or under (CIA, 2003). The birth rate is markedly high at nearly 40 per 1,000 population (CIA, 2003). The death rate is just under 18 per 1,000, giving a rapid growth in the number of children. Partly because of AIDS, which over 8% of the adults have, life expectancy is about 43…


CIA. 2003. "Burundi," in World Fact Book, last updated Dec. 18. Accessed via the Internet 2/23/05.

Clark, David. 1998. "Interdependent Urbanization in an Urban World: An Historical Overview." The Geographical Journal, Vol. 164.

Ngaruko, Floribert, and Nkurunziza, Janvier D. 2000. "An Economic Interpretation of Conflict in Burundi

Journal of African Economies, Vol. 9.

Competitiveness Globalization Is an Extremely
Words: 1801 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18827595
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Third, massive investments should be made in research and development of alternative sources of renewable energy. This will positively impact not only the environment, but also the socio-economic conditions of numerous international players.

elative to the financial crisis, this should be addressed from its roots -- the real estate and credit crisis. In this line of thoughts, the mortgages should be bought by the U.S. Government, rather that having the borrowers executed. The measure would ensure a relaxation of the credit operations, meaning that liquidities would again enter the economy to support the growth of all industries affected -- real estate primarily, furniture, electronics and so on -- all those that fell like domino pieces with the credit crunch.

The petroleum exporting countries might find it unsettling to obey to the new environmental legislation and they could even feel that their economic stability is threatened by the development of renewable…


Friedman, T., the Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization, Knopf Publishing Group, May 2000

Sachs, J., Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet, Penguin Group USA, March 2008

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia -- a Welfare State, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia,  last accessed on April 2, 2009

Compression of Cities Negotiation of
Words: 1407 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47257487
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Los Angeles' worship of the culture of the car is likewise mocked. For example, Stan and his friend Gene have to find a new engine for their car, and to navigate their way to their other friend's house, they must wander through what looks like a graveyard of parked cars, where people are drinking cheap booze. The metaphor is clear -- they may be in cars, and Stan may be on a fruitless errand to fix his car, but the cars are going nowhere, just as Stan is going nowhere. The violence that resulted from the atts riots is palpable in the atmosphere of the film.

The city of Los Angeles, instead of being a place of opportunity, is a dead end, just as Paris is hardly a city of refinement for the protagonists of "Hate." The sheep become a metaphor for the people of atts, treated in an inhuman…

Works Cited

Hate." Directed by Mathieu Kassovitz. 1996

Killing Sheep." Directed by Charles Burnett, 1977.

The World." Directed by Jia Zhangke. 2004.

Railroad Expansion the New World
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95014315
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Urbanization is changing the way people live and work in America. With higher population density, residents are creating economies of scale that allow greater access to goods from around the world at competitive prices. All the cities of the Eastern United States are linked via trade routes to the Old World and beyond, introducing items ranging from spices and food to luxury goods. The American trade industry is booming so much so that this nation's raw materials are in demand all over the world. New immigrants to American cities can participate in the exiting endeavors of world trade, working on docks loading and unloading cargo or helping ship raw materials from mines and factories to the ships that will take them overseas.

The American housing industry needs laborers to build and help move large tracts of lumber across many miles of land. Similarly, giant steel companies are hiring as many…


American Industrialization." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at

Industrialization, Immigration, Urbanization." Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at 

Transportation Revolution." Interactive Maps. Retrieved Feb 25, 2009 at

Nostalgia for the Past Nostalgia Can Take
Words: 3047 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 880150
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Nostalgia for the Past

Nostalgia can take many forms, but can perhaps be summarized by the phrase 'appropriating selected aspects of the past for the use of the present'. It tends to involve an emotional or spiritual response to the past rather than a rationalizing one, and as a result is associated with the art of sentiment rather than of intellect. As we shall see, however, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artists who made use of nostalgia were prepared to shape its appeal in intellectual as well as purely sentimental or aesthetic forms.

Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) was a passionately political artist, a proponent of history painting in its most elevated form and of the neoclassicist aesthetic. His 'The Oath of the Horatii' of 1784 (Louvre, Paris) depicts a scene from the Roman historian Livy: the three Horatii brothers pledge to fight the three Curiatii brothers in order to settle a dispute between…

Demographics of Brazil There Are
Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48751175
Read Full Paper  ❯" However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females ("


AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 ("

One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…

Works Cited

Country at a Glance. Brazil: Health. (accessed 22 April 2005).

D'allegro, Joseph. "Brazil Attracting U.S. Insurers' Interest." National Underwriter Life & Health-Financial Services Edition. (1999): 25 October.

Encyclopedia: Demographics of Brazil. (accessed 22 April 2005). ).

Migration and Urbanization. (accessed 22 April 2005).

Gcrec and Brownfields Gcrec 2012 Conference --
Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51375818
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GCEC and Brownfields

GCEC 2012 Conference -- evisiting Brownfield edevelopment

The 4th Annual Conference of the Global Chinese eal Estate Congress (GCEC) was held on July 3-5, 2012 at the Grand Hyatt, Macau SA, in China. The event was hosted by the Faculty of Business and Administration of the University of Macau and served as a platform for the brainstorming among scholars, practitioners and government officials on the latest developments in the real estate field and challenges faced in the sector. Participants came from across the globe.

A central component of the event was the "evisiting Brownfield edevelopment" presentation which focused on the reuse and reclamation of land that has real or perceived contamination. Brownfield sites are typically abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for re-use, which are very prevalent in China and can be a major boon to the local economy.

Expansion or redevelopment of such a…


Knowlton, R.G., & Minier, J. (2001). Recent Trend for Environmental Compliance Provides New Opportunities for Land and Water Use at Brownfields and Other Contaminated Sites. Natural Resources Journal, 41(4), 919.

Zilei, L., & Li, C. (2011). Research on Chinese Real Estate Development and the Future Trends. Asian Social Science, 7(9), 207-211. doi:10.5539/ass.v7n9p207.

Large Scale Restructuring Has Taken Place in
Words: 1544 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 67659632
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Large scale restructuring has taken place in major urban centers of the worldthat included London, Singapore, San Francisco, Vancouver, and may more. 'Inner city' assumes much importance in the regional economics as the impact of globalization and rapid transformation in land use occur at inner parts of these cosmopolitan cities. "The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration and Dislocation in the 21st Century Metropolis" by Thomas A. Hutton addresses the critical issues of place and process in the development of 'new economies' in postindustrial cities. Thesis agenda of the book asserts that restructuring initiatives in cosmopolitan cities, specifically London, have enabled the emergence of creative enterprises in the 'new inner city' and thus has dislocated traditional industrial and manufacturing oriented regional economy (Hutton, 2009). Urbanization, migration, policy shifts in land use, restructuring initiatives, clustering of industries, and change in production-consumption has transformed the 'inner city economy'. The book…


DaCosta, M.N. (2010). A Review of "The New Economy of the Inner City: Restructuring, Regeneration and Dislocation in the Twenty-First-Century Metropolis." Journal of the American Planning Association, 76(4), 521-522.

Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (2001). Splintering Urbanism, Networked infrastructures, technological motilities and the urban condition. Journal of Urban Technology, 9(3), 109-113.

Hutton, T. (2008).The new economy of the inner city: restructuring, regeneration and dislocation in the 21st century metropolis. London: Routledge.

Hutton, T.A. (2006). Spatiality, built form, and creative industry development in the inner city. Environment and Planning, 38(10), 1819-1841.

American West United States Became One of
Words: 3016 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96829384
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American est

United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.

Railroads in America est

Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…

Work Cited

Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.

Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.

Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.

Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.

Country Report Spain This Report
Words: 2642 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25618498
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An interesting trend has been registered in the service industry, especially in the field of tourism. One of the main engines of Spanish economy in the past, now tourism in this country faces fierce competition from Eastern Europe countries. The beautiful resorts in Palma del Majorca and Costa rava must compete with low cost sea side resort, which offer similar services at incredibly low prices. Another field which needs reforms and reformulation policy is the agricultural and fishery one, which accounts only 4.1% out of GDP, although the important political forces attached to this sensible sector.

In order to be able to face the challenges and the opportunities on the regional and global market, Spain needs reforms in most fields of activity. Unemployment level is one of the highest in EU 9.2% at the end of 2005, while the rate of inflation was around 3.4 per cent in 2005, which…


1) Carol Matlack and Joan Tarzian - 'Spain: Immigrants Welcome', Business Week, May 21, 2007

2) 'Plain sailing no longer', the Economist print edition, 3rd of March 2007.

3) 'Spanish property - the pain in Spain', 26th of April 2007.

4) Human Development Index report, for the year 2006

Prospects for Madagascar - Breaking
Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61196581
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The Madagascar population is quite dispersed (UNHCHR 1993). The urban centers and other vital sectors, such as the deltas and alluvial plains are populated. ut the rest of the land is thinly populated. Only a few regions are enclaved and have roads, but these are in a deteriorating state because of the lack of material and financial resources. The growth rate of Madagascar went up from 1.59 to 3.5% between 1960 and 1970. In 1990, the population was estimated at 11 million and evenly distributed. There are 171 live births per 1,000 women of child-bearing age. The crude mortality is 17.6 per thousand with life expectancy at birth at 54.5 years. The natural increase in population is 2.7 to 3.2% per year or to double within 22-26 years. The population is 46% for those below 15 years old and only 3% for those over 60. The dependency ratio is…


BRIDGE (1992). What about women? 4 pages. Institute of Development Studies: University of Sussex, Retrieved May 30, 2007 at 

Ferraro, V. (1996). Dependency theory. 12 pages. Mount Holyoke College. Retrieved on May 31, 2007 at

Hamilton, R. (2003). Madagascar mixes religion and politics. 5 pages. BBC News: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at 

International Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (2006). The experience of the National Land Programme in Madagascar. 3 pages. Summary. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at

Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia
Words: 3430 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52239278
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There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.

Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…


Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.

Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.

Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.

Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.

Social Sciences Background- for Centuries
Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67274474
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It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…

Works Cited

American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from 

Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Nurse Take Risks Every Day
Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 93010631
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Caring is not simply a demonstration of sympathy and empathy for an individual's particular situation, as focusing on such might impair the ability of the nurse to look at long and short-term health goals that could be uncomfortable but might realistically assist the patient to maintain a better quality of life in the near future. Caring for those who are limited in ability to do so themselves, children, soldiers, the poor and the elderly and this is the historical precedence of nursing in general. The text of this course stresses that the development of nursing, like many other caring professions had a great deal to do with the need to provide professional caring to those who were at risk, and lacking the family and economic connection that was the basis for the maintenance of health in earlier times.

Urbanization, war, immigration and the reduction of the numbers of extended families…

St Petersburg Russia Metro What
Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37182710
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Furthermore, the importance of the metro in moving people in St.
Petersburg is illustrated in the impact the metro has on people's lives.
The article by Irina Titova on the St. Petersburg metro cites Valentina
Ivanova, deputy head of the State Duma's education and science committee.
According to the article, the city will open a Southwest aste Treatment
Station shortly, causing the district to develop. Ivavnova maintains that
when the district develops because of the opening of the Treatment Station,
that "the metro will be essential" and that two new stations will need to
be opened "at the south-west of the city" (Titova 2004). The fact that the
opening of a waste treatment center will create the need for two new metro
stations showcases the importance of the metro on daily life and the
movement of people in the city. Anywhere in the city that people need to
go to,…

Works Cited

Bennett, Philip. "The Daily Drama of St. Petersburg." The Boston Globe
[Boston] 8 Aug 1993:  .

Japan Fact Sheet. "Railways." Web Japan. 10 Mar 2007.
<  >

Railroad Maps Describe the Economic Opportunities Beckoning
Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54709314
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Railroad Maps

Describe the economic opportunities beckoning newcomers in all regions of the country as a result of industrialization, urbanization, and immigration.

The expansion of the nation's railroads by 1870, helped to fuel a tremendous amount of economic growth westward. as, the nation was rapidly developing regions that were considered to be difficult due to: adverse weather conditions, vast distances and the possibility of violence from Indian attacks. Once the railroad was established in the West, a shift occurred in how the nation was able to deal with these challenges. Where, many of these problems became non-existent and an increasing number of people began to move to these regions of the country. (illington, 2001, pp. 357 -- 375)

At the same time, the nation had developed a vast network of railroads throughout the entire Eastern half of the nation. This meant that many different natural resources in the West could…


Billington, R. (2001). Westward Expansion. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Cleaner Environment How Work Effectively Promote a
Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16824188
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Cleaner environment how work effectively promote a cleaner environment? Will ? Macionis, John J. (2009). Society basics (10th ed.) Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization Environment Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern Postmodern Societies.

How can you work most effectively to promote a cleaner environment?

educing waste is perhaps the most effective and immediate way to produce a cleaner environment. ecycling, reusing, and trying to buy as few new objects as possible are all simple ways to reduce one's carbon footprint. This can include steps as simple as buying from secondhand stores, avoiding the use of products that cause needless destruction to the environment (such as those which contain palm oil), and using a refillable water bottle. "It takes 95% less energy to recycle aluminum than it does to make it from raw materials. Making recycled steel saves 60%, recycled newspaper 40%, recycled plastics 70%, and…


Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York Times.

Retrieved August 16, 2011 at 

Recycling benefits. (2005). Recycling revolution. Retrieved August 16, 2011 at

Damns on Wildlife and the Environment Background
Words: 1720 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77674718
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Damns on Wildlife and the Environment

Background to Dams and Levees - One of the issues resulting from civilization and urbanization is that most of the places humans chose to locate, for reasons of convenience, agriculture, transportation, and economic independence, have been near water. Dams provide hydroelectric power, help control floods, and make rivers navigable. Levees are quite similar to dams in their purpose, although they are primarily build to restrict water in times of high flow -- and for the majority of time are not under water. Per capita, floods are the most destructive and frequent of Mother Nature's natural disasters. In the last 50-60 years, in fact, the number and severity of flooding has worsened globally. Several reasons have contributed to this: global warming and worsening of storm activity; the deforestation and paving of natural watersheds; and more people living and working on known flood-plains. However, many scholars…


Dams Solution. (2010). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved from:

Berga, L. (2006). Dams and Reservoirs, Societies and Environment in the 21st Century, Volume 1. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Chiras, D. (2010). Environmental Science. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Drijiver, C. (1986). Taming the Floods: Environmental Aspects of Floodplain Development in Africa. Nature and Resources. 22 (4): Retrieved from:

Differences Between the Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today
Words: 2234 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25941352
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Technology in Use in 1910 and the Technology in Use Today

Technology during 1910 and its rapid evolution to the present era:

The 19th century witnessed major upheavals in science and technology ushering a gamut of changes and widespread ripple effect on the society. The dawning of science in industry brought about by the Industrial evolution was a watershed in global technology that continued to shape the future of mankind. It was in that era when development of large scale metal working techniques popularised steam power. ailroads appeared and facilitated in mass migration of populations. Urbanizations started, commerce flourished, fortunes were made and a new class of affluent appeared. Major scientific inventions like electromagnetism by Clerk Maxwell and greater sophistication of electricity brought about technological changes and improved quality of life with telegraph, electric light and radio transforming the world for the better. (Jeff, 2002)

Development in natural science spearheaded…


Chandrinos, K.V; Trahanias, P.E. (n. d.) "Beyond HTML: Web-based Information Systems"

Institute of Computer Science, Retrieved 15 March 2012 from 

Davenport, Thomas H; Short, James E. (1990) "The new industrial engineering information technology and business process redesign" Center for Information Systems Research. CISR WP No. 213, Sloan WP No. 3190-90.

EEA. (2010) "SOER 2010 -- Assessment of global megatrends"

Government Sponsored Health Center and Emergencies
Words: 3797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Introduction Chapter Paper #: 34571706
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Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Chapter One:


Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…


About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.

Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical

Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.

Enabling Others to Act
Words: 2813 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61072196
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Old and New Leadership Styles

Max Weber was correct that in modern society, the power of the bureaucracy increased exponentially with urbanization and industrialization, particularly when it was called upon to deal increasingly with social and economic problems. Such organizations were hardly designed to enable others to act within a democratic or participatory system, but to act on their behalf and direct them from above in a very hierarchical system. For example, during the Progressive Era and New Deal in the United States, the civil service was expanded to regulate capitalism in a variety of ways, to administer large parts of the economy and the growing social welfare state. Of course, with the growth in the power and influence of the civil service, opportunities for bribery, corruption, authoritarian behavior and catering to special interests instead of the public interest became far more common as well. Building public trust and confidence…


Adrian, C. (2006). Political Democracy, Trust and Social Justice. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.

Coles, R. (2001). Lives of Moral Leadership: Men and Women Who Have Made a Difference. Random House.

DePree, M. (1992). Leadership Jazz. Dell Trade Paperbacks.

Dobel, P. (1998). "Political Prudence and the Ethics of Leadership." Public Administration Review, 58, 74 -- 81.

Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…


Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.

Famine in the 21st Century
Words: 2061 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42229894
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innovations in agricultural technologies, the dire predictions of global famine made by Stanford University Professor Paul . Ehrlich in his book, The Population Bomb (1968) have not materialized to date. Nevertheless, hunger continues to persist in many regions of the world, especially its major cities, due in large part to urbanization and 7.5 million people die of hunger each month (Holmes, 2008). The hunger that does exist in the world today is largely the result of increased urbanization and national political leadership that either uses food as a weapon or lacks the resources or will to ensure that adequate food distribution is achieved in their countries (Wurwag, 2014). To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning urbanization and the urban structure to identify those factors that are most responsible for preventing adequate distribution of food to urban residents. A summary of the research and…


Ehrlich, P.R. (1968). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine Books.

Gonzalez-Pelaez, A. (2005). Human rights and world trade: Hunger in international society. London: Routledge.

Holmes, J. (2008, June-September). Losing 25,000 to hunger every day. UN Chronicle, 2-3, 14-


Haze Problem in China
Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13526240
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Haze in China
Pollution has become a major issue across the globe given the devastating impacts of human activities, particularly industrial processes, on the Earth’s Atmosphere. Environmental pollution is regarded as one of the major causes of global warming or climate change, which has negative impacts on the Earth’s ecosystems. China is one of the countries affected by environmental effects associated with human activities and industrial/manufacturing processes. The country has been struggling with haze and fog since 2013, which have generated public anxiety and official concerns. Regional haze is regarded as one of the most devastating weather events in China over the past few years. Even though haze can emerge from natural causes, it is largely man-made, especially due to coal emission, huge coal incineration, and winter heating. This paper examines haze in China in relation to its devastating impacts with a view of identifying the most suitable approach…

Social and Environmental Challenges Facing Megacities
Words: 1483 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70163742
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Overcrowding in Megacities
Cities are increasingly getting larger, which results in the increased emergence of megacities worldwide. Megacities are increasingly emerging in developing nations due to mass urbanization. One of the major contributors to the rise of megacities worldwide is globalization and rapid technological advancements. By increasing connectivity, globalization has contributed to mass urbanization as people look for better environments for their socioeconomic growth and development. Globalization has transformed the nature of urbanization by making people’s movement to become global rather than intra-national rural-urban migration. According to Heyzer et al. (2016) the rise of megacities worldwide is an indicator that humankind is experiencing the highest ever growth in urbanization. While the rise of megacities is associated with some positive impacts relating to economic growth and development, these cities face some challenges due to overcrowding. This paper examines the social and environmental challenges facing megacities due to overcrowding.
Social Challenges Facing…

C-Sections Relative to Hospital Size a Cesarean
Words: 1405 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24338227
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C-Sections elative to Hospital Size

A cesarean section, more commonly known as a C-section, is a surgical procedure in which a fetus is delivered via a hysterotomy rather than a more typical vaginal delivery procedure. There are many medical reasons why a c-section is necessary, although the geographic and demographic distribution of c-sections shows many trends in the prevalence of the procedure, indicating medical necessity is not the only reason that the surgery is performed. Affluence and medical availability and infrastructure have clear impacts on the rate and outcome of c-sections.

In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that on average, 10-15% of live births were via c-section, and the rate of c-sections in the United States, despite a rising popularity of alternative birthing methods (midwifes, home births, doulas, etc.), the c-sections have increased by 48% since 1996. While the size of hospitals studied when studying c-section outcomes has been…


Chen, Chin-Shyan et al. (2008). "Urbanization and the likelihood of a cesarean section" European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ad Reproductive Biology

Volume 141, Issue 2, Pp 104-110

Chris Macourt, et al. (2007). "Elective Cesarean Section and Decision Making: A Critical Review of the Literature" Birth..Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 65 -- 79.

Kritchevsky, SB et al. (1996). "Decreasing the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: Success without mandated clinical changes." American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Volume 174, Issue 1. Pp 184-191.

Greek After the Death of
Words: 848 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18012603
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For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.

But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.

Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…


Boardman, J. Griffin, J. Murray, O. The Oxford Illustrated History of Greece and the Hellenistic World Oxford University Press, 2001

Tarn, W.W. The Greeks in Bactria and India Cambridge University Press, 1997


Growth of American Cities in
Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8212783
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As the wealthy people no longer had to live in the center of the city, the central business district was characterized by retail shops, office buildings and light manufacturing.

In America, the industrial revolution started just before the beginning of the 19th century. Prior to this, 6% of the United States' population lived in urban areas with close to 90% of practicing agriculture. This figure later fell to 50% in the following century meaning that every farmer could produce twice of what they required for themselves. American cities grew as a result of the enhancement in agricultural efficiency brought by the development of agricultural machinery. Agricultural machinery made manual labor of farming redundant because of large equipment which hastened agricultural productions. As a result, a very smaller proportion of the country's population could meet the entire nation's agricultural needs.

The other factor that led to the growth of American cities…

Works Cited:

Excalibur. "Urbanization in 19th Century America." Everything2. D and The Everything Development Company, 16 Oct. 2002. Web. 9 Apr. 2010. .

"Urbanization of America." Interactive Website About the United States. Active USA Center A.U.C. Web. 10 Apr. 2010. .

Housing Market in China
Words: 3029 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4602826
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Housing Market in China: A Critical Survey of the Literature

This is a critical survey of the literature on the state of housing market in China. It highlights the high and rising cost of housing in major markets, which have attracted worldwide attention, as well as the interest of the Chinese government. It is difficult to understand the Chinese housing market without delving into the background. In this regard, the paper also examines the housing reforms and the growth of housing sector in general. Furthermore, the paper looks at Price-to-rent ratios in Beijing and seven other major housing markets in China. The findings suggest that even simple declines in expected appreciation would result in substantial price declines in these markets. It concludes that Price-to-income ratios are at their peak in Beijing and some selected Chinese housing markets.


Since the beginning of People's epublic of China, most of the citizenry…


Ka Yui Leung, C., & Wang, W. (2007). An Examination of the Chinese Housing Market. International Real Estate Review, 131-165.

Bian, Y., & Logan, J.R. (1996). Market transition and the persistence of power: the changing strati-cation system in urban China. American Sociological Review, 739 -- 58.

Chan, K.W. (1994). Cities with invisible walls:reinterpreting urbanization in post-1949 China. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

Deutsche Bank . (2011). China's housing markets: Regulatory interventions mitigate risk of severe bust. Current Issues.

bahrain's environmental challenges including pollution
Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83322357
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Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.


Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…


Air Pollution in Bahrain: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

Bahrain Economic Development Board (2017). Water. Retrieved online: 

CIA World Factbook (2016). Bahrain Urbanization. Retrieved online: 

Fowler, S.W. (1993). Pollution in the Gulf. IAEA Bulletin. Retrieved online:

Lucifer Effect Philip G Zimbardo
Words: 552 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 81773193
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In order to understand the mental health challenges imposed on children growing up in poverty, psychologists propose two different, yet complimentary theoretical frameworks. The first is a Structural Model, emphasizing the structural differences inherent in dense populations. Structural theorists attempt to link structural data with children's mental health and well-being. The other theoretical model typically used to describe urbanization is the Ecological Model. This model highlights how a variety of systems interact to influence children.

The two authors of this article describe possible intervention strategies to improve the influence of urbanization on the mental health and well-being of children. Most of these interventions attempt to include community and family support. Benefits of this type of intervention include the increased availability of support for the children. These support groups can work together, as well as independently, in order to keep children motivated to succeed. Many children in urbanization are unmotivated and…

Urban Ecology on the Ground
Words: 2818 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 48027290
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Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…


City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from 

Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.

Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.

Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from