This in turn drew more workers (Hassan 2004). The result is that Kuala Lumpur has added millions to its population and enjoys a far greater average annual income than does rural Malaysia. Indeed, Harris-Todaro also helps to explain urban-urban migration in Malaysia. As Kuala Lumpur has grown to be the country's primate city, it has captured migration from smaller urban areas, including the region's former primate cities such as Melaka and Georgetown. The transit system functions well and over 70% of the city's population uses it (Kotkin, 2009). There is a city-funded library system for the poorer residents, which allows for organic economic improvement. That said, Curitiba also benefits from the fact that it is not a primate city and therefore does not attract the millions of migrants that Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro attract. This helps the city to manage its growth much better than in those other cities.
Compact development for a sustainable city is generally possible when a long-term strategy is put into place. Typically, this will also involve a slower pace of rural-urban migration, so that the city will have the resources to handle the new migrants. Curitiba, Brazil is a city that has long had a sustainable development plan. By designing a city that encourages compact development, including dense and integrated transit networks, urban sprawl is contained. Compact development typically emerges as a deliberate policy, in Curitiba's case this policy has been a work in progress for several decades.
Compact development refers to a city plan that emphasizes a smaller city with a high density core and limited suburban sprawl. In the case of Curitiba, this plan was implemented in the 1960s and has continued to this day. The city has envisioned trip patterns that are shorter than most other cities, such that residents can live and work in the same spaces without the need for long commutes. This reduces greenhouse gas emissions and allows for a more livable urban environment (Magalhaes & Ortiz, 2009). This type of planning integrates both economic growth and ...
Hassan, a. (2004). Growth, structural change and regional inequality in Malaysia. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Kotkin, J. (2009). The world's smartest cities. Forbes. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.forbes.com/2009/12/03/infrastructure-economy-urban-opinions-columnists-smart-cities-09-joel-kotkin.html
Magalhaes, F. & Ortiz, M. (2009). Low carbon cities: Curitiba and Brasilia. 45th ISOCARP Congress 2009. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/1492.pdf
Misilu, M.; Nsokimieno, E.; Chen, S.; Zhang, L. (2010). Sustainable urbanization's challenge in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 3 (2).
Riadh, B. (no date) Rural-urban migration: On the Harris-Todaro model. CEIE. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://www.arab-api.org/cv/riyadh-cv/pdf/Riadh3.pdf
US Library of Congress. (no date). Urbanization. Country Studies.us. Retrieved November 23, 2010 from http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/33.htm
The transit system functions well and over 70% of the city's population uses it (Kotkin, 2009). There is a city-funded library system for the poorer residents, which allows for organic economic improvement. That said, Curitiba also benefits from the fact that it is not a primate city and therefore does not attract the millions of migrants that Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro attract. This helps the city to manage its growth much better than in those other cities.
Urbanization and Foreign Aid Africa has long been the site of urbanization and foreign aid since the so-called Scramble for Africa (Hopkins, 1993, p. 489). Other sources, however, indicate that if one were to look at the formal influence of colonization, the many different countries in Africa have been receiving a sort of 'forced' foreign aid even prior to the Scramble of Africa. As such, there has been a substantial amount
In developed nations this is easier because technologies and materials, often expensive and hard to come by, can help to mitigate pollution. In less developed nations, pollution is often somewhat of an afterthought as a product of production or prosperity (Termorshuizen, Opdam, and van den Brink, 380). By creating cheaper, more fuel efficient technologies and by making them available to all nations, pollution in the third world and developing
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1995, 359-365). However, Chicago is well placed due its geographical location to weather many of these ills. Being centrally located in the Midwest, it enjoys good lines of communication and trade with the rest of the country, mitigating many of the more extreme problems. Unfortunately, what is happening in Chicago is the result of years of developments in the deindustrialization of the city. Recently, studies have shown that this
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