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Flint Michigan Water Crisis Ethics

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 70299177

Abstract
Once the hub of General Motors, Flint, Michigan is now a town in disarray due to contaminated drinking water. In spite of dozens of class-action and individual lawsuits, the crisis has yet to be resolved fully. The city of Flint and the State of Michigan are both responsible for using lead piping in the town infrastructure, which is the direct cause of the lead contamination. Research definitively shows lead contamination causes innumerable, irreversible, and often fatal health problems. The Kantian, utilitarian, and egoism ethical perspectives all show that Flint residents deserve justice.
Summary of Case
In 2014, the city of Flint, Michigan diverted the town’s water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint River. The EPA and independent organizations like Virginia Tech tested the Flint River water and found “dangerous levels of lead” at point of contact such as in people’s homes (“Flint Water Crisis Fast Facts,” 2017, p.…… [Read More]

References
“Flint Water Crisis Fast Facts,” (2017). CNN. 28 Nov, 2017. https://www.cnn.com/2016/03/04/us/flint-water-crisis-fast-facts/index.html
Glenzain, J. (2017). Nestlé plays $200 a year to bottle water near Flint—where water is undrinkable. The Guardian. 29 Sept, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/sep/29/nestle-pays-200-a-year-to-bottle-water-near-flint-where-water-is-undrinkable
Moore, M. (n.d.). 10 things they won’t tell you about the Flint water tragedy. But I will. https://michaelmoore.com/10FactsOnFlint/
Ravve, R. (2017). Flint water crisis. Fox News. 3 Nov, 2017. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2017/11/03/flint-water-crisis-michigan-residents-still-unable-to-drink-tap-water-three-years-later.html
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Morality and the Claims of

Words: 2428 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83278473



Moreover, caring for her mother, the other option, would surely: a) create a feeling of being "unfulfilled" which brings with it depression and resentfulness; b) leave her with nothing to look forward to but the dark day when her mother actually passes away; and c) realize after a short time that she is not "a Mother Teresa" and that her live would be diminished (Stuart, 25).

hat does Stuart believe is the right choice for Alice? Stuart asserts that the virtue that carries the most weight in this instance is having Alice care for her mother. Giving up her career for her mother would outweigh the "…virtues of perseverance, love of truth…and self-knowledge" should she decide to go forward with her dissertation (26).

hat Stuart also mentions -- and this is a prime reason for this writer to believe Alice should find a competent person to be a caregiver for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hill, T.E.. "Assessing Moral Rules: Utilitarian and Kantian Perspectives." Philosophical Issues,

15(1), (2005): 158-178

Mautner, Thomas. "Act-Utilitarianism." The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. Retrieved June 12, 2013, from  http://utilitarianism.org . 2008.

Rivera, Lisa. "Sacrifices, Aspirations and Morality: Williams Reconsidered." Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 10.1 (2007): 69-87.
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Record Medical Administration Service for File Rationale

Words: 773 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32324816

ecord

Medical Administration Service for File

ationale in Support of Selection of Heart Transplant ecipient

Because time was of the essence in formulating this decision, this memorandum for the record sets forth the decision-making process and that was used to select the most appropriate candidate for a heart transplantation procedure. It was my responsibility as lead surgeon to select the most appropriate heart transplant recipient from a pool of three candidates, each of whom had suffered from several health-related issues that adversely affected their suitability for the transplant procedure. Therefore, in order to formulate as subjective an analysis as possible in a timely fashion, a utilitarian ethical analytical approach was used to identify the candidate that held the most promise of using the gift of additional life from the heart donor to its maximum advantage. The utilitarian ethical analysis showed that of the three potential heart transplant candidates, the 12-year-old…… [Read More]

References

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (1989, Winter). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Issues in Ethics, 2(1), 37.

Hollingsworth, J.A., Hall, E.H. & Trinkaus, R.J. (1991). Utilitarianism: An ethical framework for compensation decision making. Review of Business, 13(3), 17-19.

Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. London: Routledge.
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Attitude Change and Persuasion

Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43280548

Attitudes

Functional attitude theories hold the central notion that people have attitudes for different reasons. By understanding the different reasons that one has for an attitude and targeting these reasons can be the basis for being able to change an attitude. The basic attitude functions are:

The knowledge function of an attitude refers to the need for people to assign structure, meaning, or order to their surroundings. For instance, in studies of cognitive dissonance people need to assign order to a chaotic situation (incompatible behavior and attitude) and therefore bolster a particular attitude to do so. Advertisers have used this as strategic tactic for years when they target people who have chronic pain, depression, or some other particular condition that results in perceived disorder in their lives. Morals, ethics, and the need to find structure in ambiguous situations serve this function in much the same way. Such attitudes provide a…… [Read More]

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Ethics in the Emperors Club

Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25821786

Emperor's Club: Kantian, utilitarian, and Aristotelian views

According to Kantian ethical principles, Mr. Hundert should have allowed the grades of his four students to remain as they were, and not altered them. A Kantian ethical schema suggests that a person should behave as if he is setting a law for all time, not merely reacting to the specifics of a situation. A Kantian philosopher would say teachers cannot subjectively change grades simply because they believe that a particular student emotionally 'needs' to win more than another student. Hundert allowed his personal feelings for Bell and Bell's improvement as a student to influence his decision-making, and hurt another student in the process. However, from a utilitarian standpoint, by showing Bell the importance of hard work and moral activity, a great service is done to society because Bell is the child of a powerful man, and will likely grow up to be…… [Read More]

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2005 John Ellsworth Father of Deceased Soldier

Words: 1142 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1430515

2005, John Ellsworth, father of deceased soldier Justin Ellsworth, made national news when he asked to be granted access to his deceased son's e-mails. Twenty-year-old Justin had been killed in Fallujah on November 13, 2004, by a roadside bomb. The least, Mr. Ellsworth could do, the father felt, was to collect these e-mails that his son had written whilst in Iraq and fashion them into some sort of memorial. Yahoo! refused. They had promised privacy to their clients and they could not break the promise regardless of the situation. It was only after a Michigan probate court ordered them to release the e-mails that Yahoo complied.

The case reveals two types of ethics. Yahoo! On the one hand epitomized the deontological way of thinking that norms of right and wrong exist and cannot be breached regardless of the situation. The judge, however, took the family's happiness into account and, by…… [Read More]

Sources

Ferrera, JJ & Darrow GF (2005) WHO OWNS A DECEDENT'S E-MAILS:

INHERITABLE PROBATE ASSETS OR

PROPERTY OF THE NETWORK? LEGISLATION AND PUBLIC POLICY, 10:281

HU, J. (Dec. 21, 2004) Yahoo denies family access to dead marine's e-mail
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Pirate Steel Ethics Case Study

Words: 1579 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 83603289

Pirate Steel Ethics Case Study

Three issues are the main challenges in this case study. One is the theory of rights, which is particularly imperative in the existence of an organization. This theory claims that all parties should be well represented and has utmost satisfaction. There should be no violation of rights for any of the parties. In this case study, all the parties should have information on the proceedings of the company. This is to avoid any of them being on the dark on matters of the organization. The top-level management has all the right to know the destination of their finances. Violation for this is when there are unreliable reports on the purchases. There should be transparency in all the issues that deal with the top-level management, as they are the most answerable. The investors also have the right to know all the transparent issues for the company.…… [Read More]

References

Battaly, Heather. 2011. Virtue and Vice, Moral and Epistemic. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.  http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=792903 .

Hoffmann-Holland, Klaus. 2009. Ethics and human rights in a globalized world: an interdisciplinary and international approach. Tu-bingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Stammler, Rudolf. 2000. The theory of justice. Union, N.J.: Lawbook Exchange.
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Business as Defined by the

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43746638



Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This theory is hinged on three principles: transfer principle, acquisition principle, and rectification principle. The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired. In the same vein of argument, the second principle posits that people are entitled to have holdings/properties, so long as they are acquired in a just manner. Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner (i.e., a property unjustly acquired can be corrected by returning it back to the original owner/first owner).

John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…… [Read More]

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Mitigating Privacy Issues With Drones

Words: 2076 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97895331

Utilitarian Viewpoint of Drones

Ethical Issues

The topic discussed within this document is "Uncharted Territory: When Innovation Outpaces egulation for Private Use of Drones." What is interesting about this topic is that the crux of it revolves about the fact that quite frequently in technological applications, innovations and availability outstrips regulation and user consistency. For the sake of this document, however, this phenomenon will be explored solely through the usage and ramifications pertaining to drones.

The ethical issues pertaining to drones primarily involve privacy. Drones are a means of remotely achieving physical objectives by utilizing small, highly maneuverable objects that are controlled from vast distances. These objects first gained notoriety with their deployment in the United States military, in which they were used to conduct assaults and to obtain intelligence. Although it is highly unlikely that drones will become available for commercial use for the aforementioned purpose, it is worth…… [Read More]

References

Belfiore, M. (2015). Drone makers seek traffic control. www.bloomberg.com Retrieved from  http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-09/drone-makers-seek-traffic-control 

Deloitte. (2014). Live from SXSW: The truth about drones.  http://deloitte.wsj.com  / Retrieved from
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Moral Analysis the Food and

Words: 2417 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73000088

I have a clear written mandate that guides this decision. The other alternatives do not have the same clear, written mandate as the one that I made. hile a utilitarian approach may have yielded a different decision, in my position as a safeguard of public safety I am not obligated to undertake a utilitarian position unless I can do so without compromising my primary mandate. This is something I was able to do with generic drugs that I cannot do with biosimilars, even though it would be expedient for me to ignore the differences between the two products.

There are certainly those who would object with this decision. A utilitarian in particular would have a strong argument that total health outcomes depend not only on drug safety but on availability as well. I would argue, however, that this objection is invalid for a couple of reasons. The most important of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Van Arnum, P. (2010). Healthcare reform draws mixed reviews from pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. PharmTech.com. Retrieved December 8, 2010 from http://pharmtech.findpharma.com/pharmtech/Regulation/Healthcare-Reform-Draws-Mixed-Reviews-from-Pharmac/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/662434?contextCategoryId=48563
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Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues

Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77472400



Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:

The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether

permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).

Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…… [Read More]

(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).

Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.

Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
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Ethical Issues in Law Enforcement

Words: 2631 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29653362

J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.

A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.

4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…… [Read More]

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New Trucking Hours of Service

Words: 6880 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5163610

Off-duty time does not extend the 14-hour period.

15-Hour on-Duty Limit

May not drive after having been on duty for 15 hours, following 8 consecutive hours off duty. Off-duty time is not included in the 15-hour period.

60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit

May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days. A driver may restart a 7/8 consecutive day period after taking 34 or more consecutive hours off duty.

60/70-Hour on-Duty Limit

May not drive after 60/70 hours on duty in 7/8 consecutive days.

Sleeper Berth Provision

Drivers using the sleeper berth provision must take at least 8 consecutive hours in the sleeper berth, plus a separate 2 consecutive hours either in the sleeper berth, off duty, or any combination of the two.

Sleeper Berth Provision

Drivers using a sleeper berth must take at least 8 hours in the sleeper berth, and may split the sleeper-berth time into two…… [Read More]

References

About DOT. (2012). U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from  http://www.dot.gov/ .

Ashmore, R.B. & Staff, W.C. (1994). Teaching ethics: An interdisciplinary approach.

Milwaukee: Marquette University Press.

Belz, S.M., Robinson, G.S. & Casali, J.G. (2004). Temporal separation and self-rating of alertness as indicators of driver fatigue in commercial motor vehicle operators. Human Factors, 46(1), 154-156.
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Advertisements and Emerging Technology Studies Are Focusing

Words: 1526 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16339370

advertisements and emerging technology studies are focusing on increasing attention on advertising to children, this has been an issue of concern for decades now (Nurses Association, 2001). One of the main issues of contention is whether to researchers should direct their communication towards children or whether they should communicate with their parents directly. In this regard, the study has focused on utilitarian and deontology theories in putting this issue into perspective.

Concerning young kids, it is reasonable to direct research efforts of snack foods, toys and games to their parents because parents are the main buyers of such products. Nevertheless, researchers are aware that better results can be achieved through directing research messages to children, partly because children do not have the capability to analyze research findings and the underlying messages critically. Similarly, children would want the products regardless of the research findings. While pressuring parents, kids substantially force their…… [Read More]

References

Hill, T.E. (2009). Contemporary ethical theories. New York: Macmillan.

Vaughn, L. (2010). Bioethics: Principles, issues, and cases. New York: Oxford University Press

Cournoyer, B. (2011). The social work skills workbook. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage

Learning.
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Ethics as With Darwin's Theory

Words: 1281 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 5380015

The utilitarian perspective focuses on the broad impacts of the actions, rather than just how the actions affect specific individuals (Andre & Velasquez, 2010). From the utilitarian perspective, genetic testing has the potential to do great harm to many, and to benefit many. The utilitarian arithmetic points out that the benefits to the companies in utilizing genetic testing is that profits increase. The argument can also be made that wealthier companies provide more jobs and wealthier insurance companies are better able to pay out to those who do receive payments. The counter to the former point is that this employment is theoretical -- not only may it not occur, but it may not occur in the United States. The counter to the latter is that insurance is largely price inelastic, so there is no improvement in coverage likely from handing more profits to insurance companies.

On the harm side, many…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2010). Calculating consequences: The utilitarian approach to ethics. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from  http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v2n1/calculating.html 

Cline, a. (2011). Deontology and ethics: What is deontology, deontological ethics? About.com. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from  http://atheism.about.com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological.htm 

Miller, P. (2007). Genetic testing and the future of disability insurance: Thinking about discrimination in the genetic age. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. Vol. 35 (2) 47-52.

Schafer, S. (2001). Railroad agrees to stop gene-testing workers. Washington Post. In possession of the author.
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Barry Friedman Details the Ethical

Words: 2159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14270846

But if it wishes to stand by the stated principles of its founding and the message it attaches to its history, than profiling cannot be allowed to exist.

4) Deontological ethical systems "guide and assess our choices of what we ought to do," as opposed to suggesting what types of people we should be (Stanford, 2007). Another important distinction of deontological viewpoints is their emphasis on the motives and intentions behind an act in regards to that act's ethicality, as opposed to the consequences of that act. One narrow form of deontological ethics is moral absolutism, propagated by such thinkers as Immanuel Kant (Stanford, 2007). According to his view, acts are either moral or immoral in all situations, without any regard to the consequences (Stanford, 2007). Not all deontological viewpoints are this extreme, however it provides the clearest example of the deontological view. According to deontological ethics, acting in a…… [Read More]

References

Fauchon, C. (2004). "Counterpoint: the case against profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.

Friedman, Barry. (2004). "Policy point-counterpoint: profiling at airports." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.

Reddick, S. (2004). "Point: the case for profiling." International social review, Fall-Winter 2004.

Stanford. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 22 February 2009.  http://plato.stanford.edu
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Fairness in Hiring and Promotion

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32935501

All organizations and business have some form of ethical culture to carry out their goals, which cannot be inconsistent with the aims of utilitarianism. All organizations aim at the pleasure of achieving or creating something. This line of thought can be strictly infused into the awareness of employees during meetings or seminars. The goals of the theory may also be infused into new employees as part of their orientation. Existing employees may be promoted on the basis of their best contribution to organizational goals and the welfare of fellow employees. These are measurable criteria and a source of motivation to other employees.

The utilitarian theory necessarily states that it is an employee's duty to perform and behave in the best possible way to benefit the business, fellow employees, society and himself or herself. Consequently, he or she has the right to expect the same benefits from the organization, fellow employees,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gilani, N. (2011). Utilitarianism in the workplace. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved

on November 30, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/info8785999_utilitarianism-workplace.html

Lamont, J. (2007). Distributive justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Stanford

University. Retrieved on November 30, 2011 from  http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/justice-distributive
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William Styron's Sophie's Choice

Words: 2631 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24658395

William Styron's novel Sophie's Choice presents an almost unimaginably terrible moral dilemma to the reader. In the novel, the character Sophie and her two children are taken to the Nazi death camp Auschwitz-irkenau during the Nazi purge of the Jews. When entering the camp and being examined by an SS officer that is also a doctor, she tells the doctor that there has been a mistake, that she is not Jewish, but Catholic, and that she should be spared. Allegedly sympathizing with her, the doctor then allows Sophie a "reward," and her reward is to be able to save one of her children -- but she must choose which one is to be saved and which one is to die right there on the spot. There are several ways that one could ultimately view Sophie's decision to save Jan, her elder boy, such as using a Kantian, a utilitarian, or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Honderich, Ted, ed. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York: Oxford UP, 1995.

Styron, William. Sophie's Choice. New York: Random House, 1999.
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Buying Behavior of Organizations the

Words: 2885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42349934

The orchestration of all aspects of B2B marketing is significantly more complex and challenging as well, a point shown in the discussions. The researchers did find enough causality to create a model of value-driven marketing, and it does show that only through a continual focus and auditing of customer needs will B2B marketing reach the levels of performance in B2 markets (Leek, hristodoulides, 2012). There are also many limitations of this study, including the lack of an empirically sounds research methodology, more effective sampling frame, and the inclusion of more diverse respondents to better represent the markets of interest. The model has also created a model of causality based on limited data and the transformation of brand value to relationships strength, initially proven with the sample, is tenuous when evaluated from the context of am empirical study. Due to these factors the research needs to be considered anecdotal at best,…… [Read More]

Chang, S., Wang, K., Chih, W., & Tsai, W. (2012). Building customer commitment in business-to-business markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(6), 940.

Leek, S., & Christodoulides, G. (2012). A framework of brand value in B2B markets: The contributing role of functional and emotional components. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(1), 106.

Singh, R., & Koshy, A. (2011). Does salesperson's customer orientation create value in B2B relationships? empirical evidence from India. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(1), 78.
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Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy

Words: 1836 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74340233

Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry

The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…… [Read More]

References

Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.

Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.

Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.

Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.
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The Relevance of Business Ethics

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78216177

Introduction

In today’s globalized, interconnected, and interdependent business environment, ethics are more important than ever. Both internal and external operations need to be guided by ethical principles. Ethics are important for the self-interest of the company and its employees, helping to strengthen relationships with clients and prevent conflicts that could damage strategic alliances.

Utilitarian Ethics

Utilitarian ethical frameworks are especially applicable to the modern business environment. The fundamental principles of utilitarianism include maximizing happiness, minimizing unpleasantness, and promoting the greatest good for the greatest number of people (Mill, 2017). Utilitarian ethics also focus more on the consequences of actions rather than on the act itself. In fact, one of the challenges of applying a utilitarian ethical framework to business operations is balancing the need for achieving the most desirable outcome possible while also minimizing the use of means that might be ethically spurious. Because utilitarian ethics are focused on positive…… [Read More]

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Identification You Have Been Given

Words: 2981 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 58729326

Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.

The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.

Stakeholder:

The Afghan People

Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…… [Read More]

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Kant and Happiness for the

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58076432

For example, many individuals value freedom and knowledge as things that can bring happiness. So, having their own value, these things are parts of happiness.

Mill believed that everyone's happiness is important. He believed in what he called the 'greatest happiness principle.' According to the greatest happiness principle, a person is ethically required to try to bring about the consequences that would lead to the greatest amount of happiness for everyone affected. More simple stated, if a person can produce more happiness (and/or less suffering) in a certain situation, then he or she is ethically obligated to do so. In more contemporary ethical terms, this is called the requirement to 'maximize happiness. If one was considering doing something for one's own happiness, but that action would cause others suffering, then Mill would have to take both of the sides into account in deciding whether or not the action should morally…… [Read More]

References

Kant, Immanuel. (2009). Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Merchant Books.

Mill, John Stuart. (2010). Utilitarianism. CreateSpace.
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Rosa's Ethics Ever Since December

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63676332

The most convincing interpretation might be that, as she contended, she did not foresee the consequences. Parks stated that "it was not a time for me to be planning to get arrested." (Reader 2005). So, if she was not considering the consequences, then she was not thinking rationally; if she was not thinking rationally, according to Aristotle, then she was not behaving virtuously. Since we should probably use Parks' own words as the best evidence, we should conclude that Aristotle would not consider her a particularly virtuous individual.

Confucius, alternatively, maintained that all human morality was held together by a single concept: ren, or natural humanistic love. Simply put, ren is a love and respect for all things human. To Confucius, a person can only achieve ren if they undergo an attainment of knowledge to the point where they reach a workable grasp of the place for each form of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Confucius. The Analects. Reader 2005.

Ross, David. Aristotle: the Nichomachean Ethics. New York: Oxford, 1998.

Unknown. "Rosa Parks, 92, Founding Symbol of Civil Rights Movement, Dies." Reader 2005.
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Ethical Theories the Three Basic Ethical Theories

Words: 2729 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8101894

Ethical Theories

The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…… [Read More]

References

Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.

Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.

Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
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Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click

Words: 810 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57564314

Patents

Ethics in Patents in Amazon One Click

Patents are meant to protect the intellectual property of the people who apply for them. They are given when the process is a unique idea, or it offers an improvement to an existing idea that does not infringe on the original patent and is itself unique. The question is not whether patents themselves are ethical, but whether a business requesting a patent for a process, in its entirety, is ethical. People with different philosophical outlooks would see this case very differently. On the one had rule utilitarian's would see the patent rules and judge based on that criteria whereas a natural rights theorist would have a completely different outlook. This paper looks at the patent application for Amazon's revolutionary "one-click" payment processing through the lens of both a rule utilitarian and a natural rights theorist and determine how a person with that…… [Read More]

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Ethics - Moral Theory Ethics

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33922646



Deontological theory might criticize Guido's choice if the initial assumptions included the rule prohibiting lying. However, deontological analysis is only as useful as the underlying rules with respect to which it is applied. Therefore, the solution to the deontological issues raised by the issue presented by the movie is simply to reformulate a less restrictive rule that is incapable of being applied to every situation. Instead of proposing the rule that prohibits lying, the better rule might be to prohibit only lying for immoral purposes.

In fact, the blind adherence to rules under deontological principles often produces distinctly immoral results: it is difficult to imagine the moral purpose of informing a dying patient that a loved one was also killed in the same accident; nor is there a moral purpose for informing a child who is to young to understand the concept that he was adopted. In Guido's case, the…… [Read More]

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Fringe What Lies Below Fringe

Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10027860

There are no shades of gray and there aren't times when something is right and something is wrong. Something that is right is always right and vice versa for wrong. That means that killing people is always wrong, no matter what the situation is. The people in the office building may be infected with a virus that can wipe out all of mankind, but that still doesn't make it right for a person to kill another person. Kant believed that people must act in accordance to the maxim that they wish would become a universal law. So that means that if I think it is okay to go in and kill these people, then I must believe that this should be a universal law.

For Mill and Bentham, there is a right and wrong. Depending on the situation, right and wrong can change. Sometimes killing may be okay and sometimes…… [Read More]

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Ethics Leadership Analysis One of the Biggest

Words: 3281 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6388070

Ethics Leadership Analysis

One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)

In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Youth and Labor. (2011). Department of Labor. Retrieved from:  http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/youthlabor/ 

Elliot, J. (2009). Santa's Little Sweat Shop. Albimonitor. Retrieved from:  http://www.albionmonitor.com/sweatshop/ss-intro.html 

Farrell, O. (2009). Business Ethics. Mason, OH: South Western.

National Labor Committee. (2000). Children Found Sewing Clothes for Wal Mart. Harvard Law School. Retrieved from:  http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/lwp/NLC_childlabor.html
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Business Ethics Has Become a Serious Subject

Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36676110

Business ethics has become a serious subject of discussion the world over because of the rather intricate complexities attached to it. There are so many different facets to business related ethical problems that everyday something new emerges that needs to be tackled in the light of current legal structure or philosophical framework. The case of Patricia Dunn from HP might also sound like one of those complicated cases of ethics that need to be studied closely to reach a more reasonable solution. This case also highlighted the issue of pretexting which is strictly prohibited under California state law. Many people who had no way of knowing what pretexting meant learned about this ethical issue and hence something new was learned during the hearing of the case. We must understand that while each new major business ethics case might seem more complicated than the last one or even unique in some…… [Read More]

References

Federal Trade Commission: Pretexting.  http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/pubs/consumer/credit/cre10.shtm 

Biographies of HP board members.  http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/investor/board.html 

"Dunn charged in leak case" Accessed online from  http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aud2XbLOFANc 

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Normative Ethics and the Right to Privacy

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46615446

Normative Ethics and the Right to Privacy

Who owns a person's email after that person has died is a question that is coming up more and more with the advancement of technology. Cases such as those of deceased service members whose family wanted access to their email after they were killed in combat have made the news. Rulings were that the emails belonged to the deceased person and that person's Internet service provider, through the contract the person had with the company. Because of that, the parents or other family members who were grieving their lost loved one could not be given access to their emails. Whether that is "fair" is a matter of opinion, but is it ethical? In order to answer that question, it is important to explore the issue from both a utilitarian and deontological standpoint, as those are contradictory to one another. A conflict between two…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics Our Patient Referral

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34913674

Clients' rights are not being overtly violated because when they register for our referral services, they do not divulge any sensitive information. One could say they are assuming risk when they fill out our forms. On the other hand, when the client sees the doctor, social worker, or therapist, he or she does divulge sensitive information and does expect total confidentiality. The office workers also keep the jokes, and especially client names, within office walls. From this point-of-view, clients' rights are not actually being violated at all.

Similarly, it would be almost impossible for the client, the brunt of the joke, to find out about or be hurt by the gossip because when employees joke they do so without any references to the client's address or other vital information. A utilitarian could therefore argue that because the gossip causes more pleasure for the employees than it does pain for the…… [Read More]

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Borderline Leadership Discusses the Need for Policy

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27441322

Borderline Leadership" discusses the need for policy change regarding immigration. The form of reasoning used in this article is solidly utilitarian. The author urges the White House to take solid steps toward creating "realistic and enforceable" legislation to curb illegal immigration, and the federal government should "tailor the law to economic reality." The concept of economic need is the underlying reason used by the editor to support his view on immigration policy. Furthermore, the author refers to immigrants several times as being "needed" to maintain the American economy. The greatest good for the greatest number, according to the author, would be to change immigration laws to allow for more migrant workers.

However, twice the author slips slightly from his or her strictly utilitarian perspective, as when he or she discusses the high school student illegal immigrants. Referring to a judge's "sensible step of blocking their deportation," the author suggests that…… [Read More]