463+ documents containing “vaccination”.
Most pediatricians today hold that the manner in which the vaccine is administered is the key; while other specialists and experts maintain that it is the preservative (thimersol) in the vaccines, and still others contend that it is the vaccines themselves (Schulman, Daniel, 2005). The prevailing philosophy that governs the continued use of these vaccinations in lieu of the evidence supporting the fact that they cause neurological and other permanent damage to children is seemingly this: that the number of children who experience adverse reactions is out weighed by the number of incidents of disease prevented by the administration of the drug. In other words, we sacrifice a few so that the greater majority can live without disease.
That notion might be persuasive for many; however, unfortunately, the evidence supports an increase in the number of children experiencing adverse reactions and permanent damage from the continued use of these vaccinations (James,….
Schulman, Daniel (2005), Drug Test: Is Vaccine Preservative Linked to Autism? Politically, Scientifically, and Emotionally Complex, the Thimersol Challenges Journalism, Columbia Journalism Review, Vol. 44, November/December, pp. 44+.
James, Walene (1995), Immunization: The Reality Behind the Myth, Bergin and Garvey, New York.
vaccination process is one that dates back as far as the 1700's; the process took place using a needle that was inserted in a smallpox blister that had ruptured and then that same needle would be inserted under the skin of an uninfected individual (Okonek & Peters, p.1). This process did not have a high success rate, but there were instances when this process did prove to be effective at protecting against smallpox outbreaks. In order to understand how a vaccine works one should know some basic terminology. The disease causing organisms contain proteins called "antigens" which stimulate the immune response. The resulting response is the production of "antibodies." These proteins bind to the disease causing organisms and lead to their eventual destruction. In addition, during the immune response "memory cells" are created, these cells remain in one's blood stream and keep the body from contracting the disease (Okonek….
Ethics of Public Health Policies
Public health concerns necessarily introduce a tension between the individual and the greater good, which may have different resolutions depending on the ethical perspective that one uses to assess them. As a society, the United States has determined that certain public health policies so promote the greater good that they should be considered even if they infringe upon private liberties, or, in some cases, pose a threat to individual health or welfare. One widely discussed example of this type of policy is universal healthcare or affordable healthcare for the impoverished; others are forced to subsidize healthcare costs for those who can least afford it because it is believed to be in the best interest of overall public health. However, some public health policies are even more controversial. Vaccinations to prevent the spread of communicable illnesses, particularly childhood vaccinations, may be one of the most controversial public….
Anonymous. (2011). Ethical Theories and Principles [PowerPoint slides].
Buchanan, D. (2008). Autonomy, Paternalism, and Justice: Ethical Priorities in Public Health.
American Journal of Public Health, 98(1), 15-21. Available via ProQuest.
Selgelid, M.J. (2009). A Moderate Pluralist Approach to Public Heath Policy and Ethics. Public Health Ethics, 2(2), 195-205. Available via EBSCO.
Vaccines Causing Autism in Infants; Possibility of a More Appropriate Time to Vaccinate Other Than Shortly After Birth
The past 20 years has seen a drastic rise in the number of individuals suffering Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), with 1 in every 88 children in the U.S. diagnosed with the condition. The standardized criteria which define ASD are qualitative impairments with regards to communication and social interaction, as well as stereotyped, restricted interests, activities and behavioral pattern (Hooker et al. 2) ASD is defined by these basic characteristics, though recent studies throw light on several co-morbid physical, behavioral and health conditions prevailing in ASD-diagnosed persons, like gastrointestinal troubles, sleeping disorders, incontinence, eating disorders, sensory processing problems and behavioral instabilities. Furthermore, initial clinical reports depict that a large percentage of children suffering from ASD lose the skills they acquire from 6 to 18 months of age, and suffer regression at an estimated occurrence….
In 2006, an estimated 9,710 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the United States, and an estimated 3,700 women will die from this disease. Globally, cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women, with an estimated 510,000 newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases and 288,000 deaths." Saslow et.al, 2007, at http://caonline.amcancersoc.org/cgi/content/full/57/1/7?maxtoshow=&ITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=1&title=American+Cancer+Society+Guideline+for+uman+Papillomavirus&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=WCIT
PV is arguably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, with an estimated 24 million active cases and 5.5 million new cases each year. Most people contract a strain of PV that is suppressed by the immune system with no medical intervention. Other PV strains cause troublesome genital wads. An even smaller number of PV strains lead to cervical cancer, which kills around 4,800 women a year -- more than the number of women who die of AIDS."
Cheryl Wetzstein, "PV Emerging as the Next Epidemic," Insight on the News, 11….
educing Hospitalization in the Elderly Population
Practice Issue or Problem in Advanced Practice Nursing
Immunization has been regarded as the keystone of influenza-linked mortality and morbidity prevention (Dominguez et al. 2016). Inactivated Influenza Vaccine's efficacy in elderly individuals has been studied; a majority of scholars strongly recommend immunization in individuals aged 65+ (Dawood et al. 2014). Existing vaccines are given for the purpose of inducing serum anti-hemagglutinin antibodies to avoid ailment and infection resulting from an attack of natural influenza. Administration of annual influenza shots to vulnerable persons continues to be practiced on a widespread scale, with aged persons (i.e., 65+ years of age) being the key target population. Trivalent inactivated vaccines for influenza are deemed to be efficient as well as economical. But despite extensive influenza inoculation drives, aged inpatients are increasingly seen in hospitals, for severe cardiovascular and respiratory issues, in the course of recent yearly national outbreaks of….
Darvishian, M., Gefenaite, G., Turner, R. M., Pechlivanoglou, P., Van der Hoek, W., Van den Heuvel, E. R., & Hak, E. (2014). After adjusting for bias in meta-analysis seasonal influenza vaccine remains effective in community-dwelling elderly. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 67(7), 734-744.
Dawood, F. S., Prapasiri, P., Areerat, P., Ruayajin, A., Chittaganpitch, M., Muangchana, C.,... & Olsen, S. J. (2014). Effectiveness of the 2010 and 2011 Southern Hemisphere trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines against hospitalization with influenza-associated acute respiratory infection among Thai adults aged≥ 50 years. Influenza and other respiratory viruses, 8(4), 463-468.
Dominguez, A., Soldevila, N., Toledo, D., Godoy, P., Castilla, J., Force, L.,... & Martin, V. (2016). Factors Associated with Influenza Vaccination of Hospitalized Elderly Patients in Spain. Plos one, 11(1), e0147931.
Fry, A. M., Kim, I. K., Reed, C., Thompson, M., Chaves, S. S., Finelli, L., & Bresee, J. (2014). Modeling the effect of different vaccine effectiveness estimates on the number of vaccine-prevented influenza-associated hospitalizations in older adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(3), 406-409.
Vaccines represent one of the most debated topics within the modern day society and the debate is far from reaching any common grounds. On the one hand, for instance, there are the researchers and the pharmaceutical companies which promote the intensive usage of vaccines across the globe in order to reduce the incidence of certain illnesses. On the other hand, there is growing concern over the secondary effects of vaccines, with more people across the globe refusing to vaccinate their children. While a conclusion has yet to be reached, there are numerous aspects of vaccination which still need attention. And one relevant example in this sense is represented by the administration of the vaccine, particularly that of administering it in one dose or in multiple doses.
The mono-dose in vaccine administration refers to a situation in which the vaccine is administered one time only and it protects the individual from….
Lopez, A., Guris, D., Zimmerman, L., Gladden, L., Moore, T., Haselow, D.T., Loparev, V.N., Schmid, D.S., Jumaan, A.O., Snow, S.L. 2006, One dose of varicella vaccine does not prevent school outbreaks: is it time for a second dose? Pediatrics. Vol. 117, No. 6. pp. 1070-1077
The Vaccination Dilemma The rights of individuals to refuse vaccinations, and the rights of parents to refuse their children vaccinations, has been increasingly called into question because of the way individual autonomy conflicts directly with the rights of the general public. For example, outbreaks of vaccine-preventable illnesses have increased, with serious outbreaks of measles in the United States being a prime example. Although the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared the elimination of measles in 2000 due to effective vaccine penetration, in 2014 a spike in measles cases raised the possibility of a “public health crisis” that also “reignited a historic controversy” in medical ethics (Gostin, 2015, p. 1099). Essentially, unvaccinated persons spread diseases that are preventable, as well as possibly deadly. The rights of one person to refuse a vaccination in the interests of patient autonomy might not outweigh the right of every other citizen to a….
government be allowed to overrule the desires of parents when it comes to public health issues like vaccinations? Support your position
We live in the 2000s not the pre- and early '50s when polio was a disease as feared then as cancer is today. It is partially thanks to a determined and crippled president as well as to the public desire to eliminate the disease -- and to the courageous and resilient Dr. Salk -- that polio was mastered. The elimination of polio was based on one simple vaccine that had been thoroughly scientifically tested before it could be administered to even one individual. The repetitive success of the vaccine makes it a valuable and reliable intervention. Vaccines, therefore, are not only helpful but also critical interventions to eliminating and preventing national, if not global, scourges. It is the argument of this essay, therefore, that government should do all that….
American Medical Association (2000). Vaccines and infectious diseases: putting risk into perspective.
A Paralyzing Fear: The Story of Polio in America
They may also not agree with or trust the medical professionals, because they may feel those people have an agenda that involves kickbacks from medication companies and other issues.
Without that level of trust between parents and the doctors and nurses who treat their children, it is virtually impossible for those parents to simply take the advice of medical professionals when it comes to vaccinating their children. The internet has changed ethics in some ways, too, because people who were not sure how they felt about vaccinations or people who are easily impressionable may read things online that may sway them one way or the other. In other words, they may come to realize that vaccinations for their children are highly important, or they may read something that will lead them to believe that vaccinating their children could give those children autism or cause them to have serious issues such….
hile these are cogent points, I would argue against them on the basis of the following facts. One has in the first instance to bear in mind that the main reason for vaccinations is to prevent the spread of dangerous diseases. hile there are risks one has to "…weigh the potential risks of the vaccination against the potential risks of the diseases those vaccinations are designed to prevent." (Johns ) Vaccination has been proven to be an effective barrier to certain very virulent diseases for as long as fifteen years. (Mansfield, 25)
The second and most important point follows from the above and refers to the importance of herd immunity. Herd immunity is defined as follows: "If enough people in a community are immunized against certain diseases, then it is more difficult for that disease to get passed between those who aren't immunised." (hat is herd immunity?) In other words, the….
Ours is a privileged country. Serious communicable diseases are largely controlled in the United States, partly because we have a comprehensive network of public health systems to address pandemic threats, ready access to supplies of vaccines and medicines, hospitals prepared to address communicable disease risks, and because our public school systems require mandatory vaccinations as a requirement of attendance. Certainly, there are exceptions. Children whose parents object to vaccinations because of religious and sometimes philosophical reasons, for instance, can file for exemptions. Vaccine supplies sometimes run short, or become obsolete as viruses mutate over the course of a disease's "season." But, by and large, U.S. citizens enjoy one of the healthiest environments with regard to the spread of disease among developed nations. ecently, however, this status has come under threat -- not from foreigners carrying exotic diseases, not from increasing pest populations in crowded urban areas. But a threat….
Ciolli, A. (2008). Mandatory school vaccinations: The role of tort law. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 81 (3), 129-137. PMCID: PMC2553651. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553651/
Frompovich, C.J. (2011, October 10). Medical ethics & vaccines gone awry! Vaccine Truth, Retrieved http://vactruth.com/
Stern, A.M., and Markel, H. (2005). The history of vaccines and immunization: Familiar patterns, new challenges, Health Affairs, 24 (30), 611-621. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.24.3.611 Retrieved http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/24/3/611.full
Applying Ethical Principles: To Vaccinate or Not VaccinateCase Study SummaryIn the case study, To Vaccinate or Not Vaccinate, a young, college-educated couple, Jenna and Chris Smith, are adamant that they do not want their newborn child vaccinated for what they regard as highly valid reasons. Despite the best efforts of the couples pediatrician, Dr. Angela Kerr, to convince the Smiths to have their newborn vaccinated, the couple maintains that they have reviewed the scientific evidence as well as reports from other parents and their cost-benefit analysis convinced them that vaccination was not in their childs best interests. The purpose of this paper is to apply the three components of an ethical decision-making model to this ethical dilemma, together with a proposed solution to the situation that will result in the baby being vaccinated.Stakeholders Involved or Affected by the Ethical ProblemFirst and foremost, the newborn is the principal stakeholder in this….
Odone, A. et al. (2015, January). Effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to improve vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 11(1), 72–82.
To Vaccinate or Not Vaccinate. (n.d.). Capella University. Retrieved from https://media.capella.edu/CourseMedia/nhs4000element18655/wrapper.asp .
Rafi, M., Khan, A., Ahmad, K., & Khan, A. (2021). How Religious and Cultural Doctrines Affect Child Vaccination: An Analysis of Parents’ Understanding of Child Vaccination. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 21(4), 307–318.
The CDC and Vaccine Schedules
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) play an important role in promoting herd immunity and vaccine schedules for US citizens, as they are the ones who have the organization capabilities and visibility to push for vaccination. The CDC publishes information for health care professionals regarding vaccination and immunization literature. It offers material for ordinary citizens and patients who want to know more about the subject (“Immunization Schedules”, 2018). On its website, it also offers answers to common questions that people can use to feel more confident about getting vaccinated (“Why Immunize?”, 2018). Thus, the CDC acts as an educator and a provider of vaccination information for the masses.
As an advanced practice nurse, I would ensure that my patients get good information by providing them with access to the relevant literature on vaccinations and immunizations. I could have it readily available to deliver in print….
Vaccinations and Autism
Over the last several years, the direct link between vaccinations and autism has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because some studies showed how higher amounts of mercury had an impact on if someone would contract various neurological disorders (such as: autism). The result is that numerous theories were developed about the how this contributes to the condition. According to Pallares (2010) this was based upon one two possible scenarios with him saying, "The connection between vaccines and autism rests upon two theories. On the one hand, the anti-measles fraction of the vaccine is attributed with the development of an enteropathy due to malabsorption, which would facilitate the absorption of toxic neuropeptides and the effects of this process on the brain would favor the appearance of autism. The other theory involves thimerosal (a combination of ethylmercury and thiosalicylate), which is used as a preservative in some….
Gross, L. (2009). A Broken Trust: Lessons from the Vaccine -- Autism Wars. PLOS Biology, 7(5), pp. 112 -- 118.
Honey, K. (2008). Attention Focuses on Autism. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 118 (5), pp. 1586 -- 1593.
Hviid, A. (2003). Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism. JAMA, 290 (13), pp. 1763 -- 1766.
Jick, H. (2003). Epidemiology and Possible Causes of Autism. Pharmacotherapy, 23 (12), pp. 1524 -- 1530.
Most pediatricians today hold that the manner in which the vaccine is administered is the key; while other specialists and experts maintain that it is the preservative (thimersol) in…Read Full Paper ❯
vaccination process is one that dates back as far as the 1700's; the process took place using a needle that was inserted in a smallpox blister that had…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethics of Public Health Policies Public health concerns necessarily introduce a tension between the individual and the greater good, which may have different resolutions depending on the ethical perspective that…Read Full Paper ❯
Vaccines Causing Autism in Infants; Possibility of a More Appropriate Time to Vaccinate Other Than Shortly After Birth The past 20 years has seen a drastic rise in the number…Read Full Paper ❯
jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/1167. In 2006, an estimated 9,710 cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the United States, and an estimated 3,700 women will die from this disease. Globally, cervical…Read Full Paper ❯
educing Hospitalization in the Elderly Population Practice Issue or Problem in Advanced Practice Nursing Immunization has been regarded as the keystone of influenza-linked mortality and morbidity prevention (Dominguez et al.…Read Full Paper ❯
Vaccination Vaccines represent one of the most debated topics within the modern day society and the debate is far from reaching any common grounds. On the one hand, for…Read Full Paper ❯
The Vaccination Dilemma The rights of individuals to refuse vaccinations, and the rights of parents to refuse their children vaccinations, has been increasingly called into question because of the way…Read Full Paper ❯
government be allowed to overrule the desires of parents when it comes to public health issues like vaccinations? Support your position We live in the 2000s not the pre-…Read Full Paper ❯
They may also not agree with or trust the medical professionals, because they may feel those people have an agenda that involves kickbacks from medication companies and other…Read Full Paper ❯
hile these are cogent points, I would argue against them on the basis of the following facts. One has in the first instance to bear in mind that the…Read Full Paper ❯
Mandatory Vaccinations Ours is a privileged country. Serious communicable diseases are largely controlled in the United States, partly because we have a comprehensive network of public health systems to address…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Public Health Issues
Applying Ethical Principles: To Vaccinate or Not VaccinateCase Study SummaryIn the case study, To Vaccinate or Not Vaccinate, a young, college-educated couple, Jenna and Chris Smith, are adamant that…Read Full Paper ❯
The CDC and Vaccine Schedules The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) play an important role in promoting herd immunity and vaccine schedules for US citizens, as they are…Read Full Paper ❯
Vaccinations and Autism Over the last several years, the direct link between vaccinations and autism has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because some studies showed how higher…Read Full Paper ❯