Vaccination Essays (Examples)

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Vaccine and Austism Parents Have Every Right

Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74070865

Vaccine and Austism

Parents have every right to be concerned about their child's health and well- being and for this reason; it's not very hard to fathom why they got seriously worried over an important research study that established a link between MMR vaccine and autism. The research was not ordinary. It was published in one of the most prestigious medical journals of Britain, The Lancet, and was written by a well-respected name in the field, Dr. Wakefield. The research established a link between vaccine and autism after eight children had allegedly developed autism symptoms after MMR vaccine.

The research came out more than a decade ago and was soon followed by series of studies on the subject that mostly rejected the original finding and found no link between the vaccine and autism symptoms. Interestingly after so many rejections, British medical community got involved in discovering the veracity of claims…… [Read More]

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Vaccine Trial

Words: 405 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54708338

IRB's add a certain and authentic stamp of approval for research and clinical trials. This system is by no means perfect, as there are countless examples of how IRB's failed, but in this particular instance where a Central African country may be exposed to a vaccine, this oversight is deemed necessary. The IRB needs to understand what is the purpose of these tests and how the population of this vulnerable nation may benefit from this research. Historically, this region of the world has been used as a virtual Petri dish for Western scientists wishing to test their new medical breakthrough. Caution is necessary.

The ethical conflicts are obvious. There are profit motives in mind for the vaccine, as they are valuable commodities in many parts of the world. The IRB can act as an ethical buffer by creating a circumstance where the research can be done humanely, and with a…… [Read More]

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Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine Human Papilloma Virus

Words: 3343 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61015170

Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine

Human Papilloma Virus

The paper deals with HPV epidemiology and associated diseases, the licensed HPV vaccines, recommendations of ACIP, concerns on mandating the HPV vaccine among young girls and the personal perspective on HPV vaccination issue. The Human Papilloma Virus infection is incredibly high and almost 80% of the population is expected to get infected with the virus at any stage of life. The virus is normally cleared by the immune system quite easily but persistent infection may lead to various types of cancers. Since the development of HPV vaccine, a lot of research, media coverage, and policies have been made to deal with. In U.S., only one-third of the pre-adolescent girls have acquired the three dose HPV vaccine. Thus, the question of its mandate arises. ACIP's provided recommendations are a big step towards the increased awareness and implementation of HPV vaccine program.

All the latest…… [Read More]

References

Arvis, L. (2005). Merck and GSK target HPV. Chemical Market Reporter; 267 (17): 21

Castellsague, X. (2008). Natural History and Epidemiology of HPV Infection and Cervical Cancer. Gynecologic Oncology. 110, 4-7.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56.

"HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics" (2012).CDC.gov. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/statistics/
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Progress of Vaccine Development Particularly the Challenges

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33109389

progress of vaccine development, particularly the challenges. There is also a discussion of funding and its impact on HIV research.

Ever since HIV / AIDS made the evolutionary jump from chimpanzees to humans, it has infected approximately one percent of the global population; in 2005 it killed almost three million people alone. HIV's continued spread is due to its ability to evade the human immune system and vaccines (Understanding Evolution, 2007).

Even with recent advances in scientists' understanding of HIV origination, development and immunology, there are still major scientific obstacles. Several prototype HIV vaccine candidates have failed so far to protect against HIV infection or to reduce viral loads, that is, the concentration of HIV virus in the blood after infection during clinical studies of effectiveness. Therefore there must be a renewed, well-coordinated commitment to conducting basic discovery research as well as preclinical studies and clinical trials (Barouch, 2008).

In…… [Read More]

Reference List

Barouch, DH (2008 October 2). Challenges in the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Nature, 455(7213): 613-619. doi: 10.1038/nature07352

Cohen, J. (2008 July 25). The great funding surge. Science. 321(5888), 512-519. doi: 10.1126/science.321.5888.512

Koff, W.C. & Berkley, S.F. (2010 July 29). The Renaissance in HIV vaccine development -- Future directions. The New England Journal of Medicine. 363:e7 Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1007629

National Institutes of Health. (2010 November 17). Global HIV vaccine development. Retrieved February 15, 2012 from: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hivaids/research/vaccines/research/pages/globalvaccinedev.aspx
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MMR Vaccine Autism MMR Vaccine

Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56361000

This dramatic event followed the revelation that Wakefield had accepted money from lawyers representing parents who had filed lawsuits claiming that the MM vaccines had caused autism in their children. Some of these children were even part of Wakefield's original study. (Schreibman, 2005)

This disclosure may have laid some doubts to rest but is still not enough to answer the question whether there is actually a link between MM and autism. Firstly, there is a doubt amongst parents and scientists whether MM may cause measles, encephalitis or a depression of the immune system in general. However, numerous studies have looked into this possibility and have concluded that the chance is extremely less at the rate of… [Read More]

References

Bauman, Margaret L; Kemper, Thomas L. (2005) "The neurobiology of autism"

JHU Press.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008) "Measles, Mumps, and Rubella

(MMR) Vaccine" Retrieved 25 March, 2009 from   http://www.cdc.gov / vaccinesafety/concerns/mmr_vaccine.htm
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Nursing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Cervical

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85677989

Preferably, females should be vaccinated before onset of sexual activity. Sexually active females may also benefit from vaccination since there are very few young women are infected with all four HPV types that are targeted by the vaccine. Females who already have been infected with one or more HPV types would still get protection from the vaccine types they have not yet been exposed to. At the present time there is no test available for clinical use to determine whether a female has had any or all of the four HPV types targeted by the vaccine (HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians, 2008).

The only way to prevent the spread of HPV and reduce the amount of cervical cancer cases that exist is to make the HPV vaccination mandatory. Those who argue against making the vaccination mandatory often claim that providing the vaccine will encourage promiscuity. This was the same argument…… [Read More]

Reference List

Boskey, Elizabeth. (2007). Should States Be Allowed to Mandate the HPV Vaccine? Retrieved

November 2, 2009, from About.com Web site:

http://std.about.com/od/stdsinthemedia/i/hpvmandatevac.htm

HPV Vaccine Information for Clinicians. (2008). Retrieved November 2, 2009, from Center for Disease Control and Prevention Web site:   http://www.cdc.gov / std/hpv/STDFact-HPV-vaccine-hcp.htm
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MMR Vaccine and Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Words: 6800 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49586616

Controversy with vaccines, adverse reactions of the MM vaccine and the negative publicity surrounding it

SHAPE

Measles, Mumps and ubella Vaccine:

Absence of Evidence for Link

to Autistic-Spectrum Disorders

Henry K. Nguyen, MD Candidate

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Correspondence to:

Mentor:

Dr. Anshu Kacker

5650 including Abstracts

Increased incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella is directly due to controversies regarding the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine despite the absence of data supporting a correlation between this combined vaccine and development of autism.

Methods and materials: A literature search was performed using key phrases, including the search-requisite abbreviation 'MM' (measles, mumps, rubella), such as: 'autism mmr vaccine', 'colitis mmr vaccine', 'controversy mmr', 'mmr adverse results', 'vaccines autism-spectrum disorders', 'vaccine effects…… [Read More]

References

Anderberg, D. (2009). Anatomy of a Health Scare: Education, Income and the MMR Controversy in the UK. Wrong source cited -- found article ===> Journal of Health Economics 03/2011; 30(3):515-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.01.009

Andrews, N.,Miller, E., Taylor, B., Lingam, R., Simmons, A., Stowe, J., Waight, P. (2002). Recall bias, MMR, and autism. Arch Dis Child, 87, 493-4.

ADDED

Autism Watch (2015)  http://www.autism-watch.org/news/lancet.shtml
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Smallpox Vaccine

Words: 1896 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95380333

Smallpox

The recent concerns regarding bio-terrorism have given rise to calls for a mass vaccination program against smallpox. The Bush administration has floated plans to administer the smallpox vaccine to healthcare and military workers, to protect against a smallpox outbreak in the United States. This paper examines the symptoms and morbidity rates of smallpox, and studies the arguments both for and against a mass smallpox vaccination campaign.

Smallpox first appeared in northeastern Africa or the Indus Valley of south-central Asia nearly 12,000 years ago (Mayo Clinic 2002).

Throughout history, outbursts of smallpox broke out in various parts of the globe.

The smallpox contagion was also played a decisive role in the colonization of the Americas. In the 15th century, European explorers acted as the unwitting carriers of smallpox to the New orld. Because they lacked natural resistance, Native Americans quickly succumbed to the disease. They also transmitted the virus to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

De las Casas, Bartolome. 2002. "The Devastation of the Indians: A Brief Account." Excerpted in The Conquest of the New World. Helen Cothran, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. Smallpox Fact Sheet. available at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/overview/disease-facts.asp

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Factsheet on Smallpox Vaccine. Available at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/vaccination/facts.asp

Gilmore, Gayle. 2003. "IC issues surround smallpox vaccine." Nursing Management 34(6): 58.
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Transgenic Plants and Oral Vaccine Development

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2460099

Kumar, G.B.S., Ganapathi, TR. Bapat, V.A. Revathi, C.J. & K.S.N. Prasad. (2002). Expression

of Hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants and NT- I cell line of tobacco. BARC. Retrieved from: http://barc.gov.in/publications/nl/2003/200310-12.pdf

ne of the most difficult and intractable health issues worldwide is that of Hepatitis B The disease is difficult to treat and potentially deadly. "There are about 350 million chronic carriers in the world and it is estimated that 75- 100 million of them will die of liver cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma" (Kumar, Ganapathi, Bapat, Revathi, Prasad 2002:85). Although vaccinations do exist, the injectable form of the vaccine is expensive and has been difficult to distribute throughout the developing world where Hepatitis B is most prevalent. Injectable vaccines also require trained healthcare professionals to disseminate. There is also the risk of needle contamination in unsanitary conditions, again, making vaccines in the developing world potentially more dangerous. Cold…… [Read More]

One possible solution is the development of oral vaccines. This proved to be a great advantage in the treatment of polio. Unlike injectable vaccines, "they can activate the mucosal immune system against many pathogens by oral delivery" and also because they do not contain whole pathogens, there is no risk of actually transmitting the disease by accident through the vaccination process (Kumar et al. 2002: 86). Plant-based vaccines have proven to be particularly effective in the developing world through the use of transgenic banana plants. At present, the surface antigen of Hepatitis B (HBsAg) has been successfully found to be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants as well. "The HBsAg derived from transgenic tobacco plants is physically, biochemically and immunologically similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" but is cheaper to produce (Kumar et al. 2002: 87). Both transgenic tobacco and banana plants, it is hoped, hold the potential to develop an effective oral vaccine.

The series of experiments conducted by the study's authors to support their exploratory research to find plant-based vaccines were promising. For the transgenic tobacco plants, "Western analysis confirmed the presence of HBsAg specific band corresponding to yeast derived rHBsAg in pHBs100 and pHER100 transformed tobacco cells whereas in the control non-transformed cells the same was absent…the denatured HBsAg expressed in plant cells showed 4 kDa peptides similar to yeast derived rHBsAg" (Kumar et al. 2002: 91). This antigen is not naturally occurring in tobacco plants, it should be noted: transgenic manipulation would be required for the vaccine to be generated, thus there still would be considerable expense in generating the vaccine initially. The hope would be, however, that once it was developed, it would be useful in the context of the developing world to provide treatment.

The most desirable and promising potential vaccine source, however, would still be to derive the vaccine from a banana plant, given the proliferation of the fruit in the tropics and also its palatability. "Expression of HBsAg in bananas may be advantageous as they are grown in most of the tropical and subtropical countries, where cost effective vaccines are required and their digestibility and palatability by infants makes it an attractive choice" (Kumar et al. 2002: 93). It must be noted that the development of the vaccine in any plant form is still very much in its nascent stages. At present, the closest to an oral vaccine that has been derived in a lab is an HBsAg prototype from a transgenic potato plant tested in mice. Still, the research indicates potentially promising developments in this area which should not be ignored.
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The Spread of Hiv and the Flu Globally

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68583620

Vaccines have all but eliminated some diseases that were once pandemics or epidemics like polio and smallpox. The power of vaccines to control infectious diseases cannot be underestimated, and can promote public health worldwide. However, new strains of existing diseases like influenza and potent viruses like HIV continue to plague researchers. Of the various epidemics and pandemics currently facing the international community, all are concerns but it is possible that influenza will become the gravest threat to humanity because of its continual mutations and changes.

The international research community needs to respond to influenza by more aggressive programs in vaccine development, designing new vaccines using methods like those described by Berkeley in his Ted talk. Every few years, a new type of infectious disease becomes a pandemic, according to Berkeley, and this means that the research community around the world must work tirelessly to target new expressions of the same…… [Read More]

References

Berkeley, Seth. "HIV and Flu: The Vaccine Strategy." TED Talks. Retrieved online: https://www.ted.com/talks/seth_berkley_hiv_and_flu_the_vaccine_strategy?language=en#t-35482

Campbell, Patricia J., MacKinnon, Aran and Stevens, Christy R. An Introduction to Global Studies. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
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Children Putting to a Test

Words: 2877 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92746564

Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).

The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).

Vaccination Efficacy not…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:

Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302

Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed

Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
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Gardasil an Analysis of the

Words: 2616 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7697937

Perhaps the latter sentiment may be regarded as baseless speculation, but as we shall see after this section, there are a number of researchers whose view supports such a sentiment. Nonetheless, here is the report made available by the mainstream media in 2009:

CDC and FDA researchers wrote in the Journal of the American Medical Association that problems such as fainting and nausea remained rare among females who received Gardasil and the vaccine did not appear to be causing unusual side effects. The researchers said 32 deaths were listed in a government database that collects reports of health problems seen in people after vaccination. The reports show only that a patient became ill or died after receiving a vaccine, not that a vaccine was the cause. The FDA and CDC statement said 'concerns have been raised about' the reports of deaths of people who received Gardasil. 'There was not a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amiya, N. "Va Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis." Publikationsansicht. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.

Brinkman, S. "Gardasil Researcher Drops a Bombshell." The Bulletin. 2009. Web. 15

Oct 2011.

"Gardasil Vaccine Safety." FDA. 2009. Web. 15 Oct 2011.
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Community Coalition for Improving Child

Words: 861 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79936346

The children's information was controlled for Medicaid, ethnicity, and other factors. Once those things were adjusted for, children in the Right Start program were fifty-three percent more likely to have been immunized on time and thoroughly than the control children who were not part of the Right Start initiative. The main conclusion reached was that children have a much better chance of being immunized if their parents are educated regarding their options and the importance of the vaccinations that their children will be receiving.

5. What were the limitations of this study in regards to its applicability to the general population?

Even though this study had a lot of great information regarding immunizations and how programs to educate parents can improve the number of children who are properly immunized and therefore reduce disease, this was targeted to a very specific group of people in specific zip codes in one community.…… [Read More]

6. Examine the details of this research study and propose an alternative research study design that would address the same research goals of this study and explain how the alternative study design would answer the research questions.

While this study worked well, there are other ways to address the issue. If a large sample population or a more generalized one was needed, the study could have looked at past literature. The rationale for the study at that point would be to look at a very large sample to see whether the people who live in this country in all kinds of age, ethnic, and income groups are having their children immunized, or whether there are specific factors that keep people from having their children cared for in this way. The downside to doing this is that the methodology would have been a bit more subjective because there might not have been statistics that could have been collected so easily. There would have been a certain amount of guesswork when it came to why certain people did or did not immunize their children, which could have skewed the study.

Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York city. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.
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Health Immunizing Your Baby Protecting or Harming

Words: 1600 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99685893

Health

Immunizing Your Baby, Protecting or Harming?

Positives for Vaccinations

Recommended and Minimum Ages for Early Childhood Vaccinations

Negatives for Vaccinations

Ethical Issues

Vaccines against diphtheria, polio, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella, hepatitis B and chicken pox, have given humans powerful immune guards to ward off unwelcome disease and sickness. Because of this the CDC works closely with public health agencies and private partners in order to improve and sustain immunization coverage and to monitor the safety of vaccines so that public health can be maintained and expanded in the future. Despite the good that vaccines appear to do there is a debate stirring in regards to the safety of vaccines and whether or not they are link to disorders such as autism. There are some studies that appear to link childhood vaccinations to autism but the evidence is very weak at best. But because of these types of studies…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carolyn Drews-Botsch, et al. "Timeliness of Childhood Immunizations: A State-

Specific

Analysis." American Journal Of Public Health 95.8 (2005): 1367-1374. Business

Source
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Tennessee H1N1 Issues in Healthcare

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21571645

While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is even more important that each node in the network is given access to all relevant information in a current and comprehensive manner (Porche, 2004). A plan needs to be in place for dealing with these health issues that takes the potentials of each entity's position in the public healthcare network into account, such that there is greater consistency and efficiency in the decisions made by each of these individual entities (Porche, 2004). If all counties or health districts/departments had similarly understood the potentials of the mist-form vaccine, as one key example, the vaccine shortages for the population at large would not have been as severe even though certain high priority could not have utilized this vaccine (Giles & Howitt, 2011). Furthermore,…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2010). 2009 H1N1 Flu. Accessed 15 October 2012.    http://www.cdc.gov / h1n1flu/ 

Gilbert, G., Sawyer, R. & McNeill, E. (2010). Health Education. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Porche, D. (2004). Public and Community Health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

WHO. (2010). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Accessed 15 October 2012. http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/index.html
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How Best to Prevent Cancer

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32885497

HPV Case Study

The author of this report has been asked to assess and reflect upon a public health dilemma. In particular, the issue is whether HPV vaccination should be mandated or at least widely encouraged on a wide-spread or targeted basis. Unlike other vaccines such as those for polio, the measles, mumps, rubella and pneumonia, HPV cannot be contracted through casual contact. Indeed, sexual contact is really the only way to get it. At the same time, not being protected against HPV can cause cervical cancer in women. While there are certainly detractors when it comes to vaccines, the efficacy and importance of those vaccines cannot be understated or under sold.

The main dilemma cited is that HPV is not transmittable through anything other than sexual contact. While this may lessen the chances of it being passed from person to person, most everyone will engage in sexual contact at…… [Read More]

References

Bohlin, R. (2016). The Epidemic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Leaderu.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/epid-std.html

CDC. (2016). CDC Press Releases. CDC. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from   http://www.cdc.gov / media/releases/2014/p0424-immunization-program.html

Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Kassam, A., & Lewis-Holmes, E. (2008). Reducing stigma and discrimination: candidate interventions. Int J Ment Health Syst, 2(1), 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-4458-2-3

Weissmann, J. (2014). For Millennials, Out-of-Wedlock Childbirth Is the Norm. Now What?. Slate Magazine. Retrieved 17 March 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2014/06/for_millennials_out_of_wedlock_childbirth_is_the_norm_now_what.html
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H1N1 Briefing Case Briefing This

Words: 1063 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30031739



nalysis

Though the impact of H1N1 on the population of Tennessee was relatively mild, especially in light of initial fears about the dangers the virus posed, there were still significant problems in the state's handling of the public health issue that warrant examination. Response times to specific incidents were excellent, and despite changing recommendations from the CDC state officials responded well to the lack of certainty and clarity and managed to keep the public fairly well informed about the risks they faced and the steps that were being taken to address these risks, however more complete communication with media outlets and other means of providing information to the broader population might have alleviated some concerns and limited confusion in the early weeks of the virus' appearance. Initial success can also be seen in the design and implementation of a pre-registration system that allowed relevant parties to place orders for vaccines…… [Read More]

All of the problems in this case can be traced in some measure to communication issues. Communications with the public, between governmental agencies, and with physicians and pharmacies providing vaccines all took place with a fair amount of efficacy but with key gaps or missteps. Though practical issues of the virus itself and the lack of an appropriate vaccine created the problem, it could have been more effectively dealt with had there been a more established and tested means of communication amongst Tennessee's public health entities. Greater transparency and immediacy in communications would also have been desirable.

Recommendations

Tennessee and the relevant officials/authorities in the state clearly learned from the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, given their comments in the case, and the lessons of this case can also be used to generate broader recommendations regarding the handling of public health issues and communication issues in complex systems on a more general basis. It is highly recommended that current communication protocols and hierarchies be examined and tested as applicable to ensure that an event with rapidly changing information and a need for comprehensive knowledge can be properly addressed. Ensuring that a clear system of communication that includes all relevant parties is in place before an emergency event is the only real means of ensuring that it will adequately operate during an emergency event. It is also recommended that even loosely organized and laterally extended networks, such as Tennessee's public health network, be given some degree of centrality when it comes to communication in order to facilitate the more effective and efficient spread of knowledge.
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Thimersal Does Not Cause Autism

Words: 1370 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20742184

Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - with a high level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work in it, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others. As might well be expected to be the case with any severe condition the etiology of which is understood a number of "folk" explanations for the condition have developed, including the idea that childhood vaccinations (and especially the mercury-based preservative Thimerosal that is used in the formulation of many vaccines) is responsible for triggering the condition. This paper argues against any connection between Thimerosal and autism (or rather argues that…… [Read More]

References

Barak, Y., etal. (Spring 1998). "Autistic subjects with comorbid epilepsy: a possible association with viral infections." Child Psychiatry and Human Development 29 (3): 245-51

Comi, A.M. et al. (June 1999). "Familial clustering of autoimmune disorders and evaluation of medical risk factors in autism." Journal of Child Neurology 14 (6): 388-94. http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/thimerosal.htm#thi

Kiln, M.R. (May 1998), "Autism, inflammatory bowel disease, and MMR vaccine." Lancet 351 (9112): 1358.

Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
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Protecting Public From Misinformation

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15962505

Program Planning

The author of this report has been asked to create a program based on one of three overall types, those being prevention programs, disease management programs and quality management programs. The author has chosen the first of those three. Specifically, the author will be focusing in vaccinations and how important they are for children and even adults on some occasions. There is a ton of misinformation and lies that abound out there and the truth needs to be made clear.

Narrative Description

The author of this report, as noted above, will be championing an enhanced measles vaccination campaign. This campaign has become necessary due to many people not getting vaccinated and this is thus causing outbreaks to occur when the disease should really be as eradicated as polio at this point. The author of this report plans a three prong plan:

Find resources and funds to offer measles…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, M. (2015). Young adults more likely to say vaccinating kids should be a parental choice. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/02/02/young-adults-more-likely-to-say-vaccinating-kids-should-be-a-parental-choice/

CDC. (2015). Vaccines: Vac-Gen/Side Effects. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from   http://www.cdc.gov / vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm

Harris, G. (2010). British Journal Retracts Paper Linking Autism and Vaccines. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/03/health/research/03lancet.html
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Designing Qualitative and Quantitative Studies

Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42316139

Designing a eseach study: Two scenaios

Lewisville Health Sevices, a family health clinic, has seen few people coming in to eceive the influenza vaccine. The bochue advocating getting the vaccine that is distibuted to clinic uses seems to be ineffective. The goal of the eseach is to encouage moe clients to eceive the vaccine.

Reseach method and souces of infomation

This quantitative study will distibute a suvey to clinic uses, asking them if they intend to get the vaccine, if they eceived the vaccine in the past and ask them vaious questions about why they did o did not eceive the vaccine. Thei peceptions of the clinic's cuent maketing of the vaccine will also be assessed.

Natue of data to be gatheed and analyzed

The data gatheed and analyzed will be quantitative in natue, as it will be based upon a distibuted suvey to all clinic paticipants. Client's demogaphic infomation…… [Read More]

references and given sample pizzas to taste-test. Then, they will answer a quantitative survey on their buying habits.

Nature of data to be gathered and analyzed

A mixed method approach will be used: testers will be interviewed and observed in a qualitative fashion. They will also answer a quantitatively analyzed questionnaire about their tastes, eating habits, and frozen food consumption.

Hypothesis or hypotheses to be proved or disproved

The new frozen pizzas will be popular amongst teenagers and working couples who need to put a hot meal quickly on the table every night.
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Herpes An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Words: 3406 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37785685

Herpes: An Insidious Disease of Modern Times

Herpes is considered one of the most insidious and pervasive viral diseases to affect the world population today. Conservative studies suggest that as many as 39% of men and nearly 1/2 of all women are expected to contract herpes in the U.S. alone by the year 2025 (Wetstein, 2002). Already nearly 1 in 5 people will have some form of herpes by the time they reach adolescence or early adulthood (Herpes, 2004).

In light of such dire statistics and information, it is important to examine the disease and its implications for the future. esearchers and scientists are working diligently to uncover new avenues for treatment of this incurable disease, and studies are underway for uncovering potential and promising vaccines to halt the spread of this increasingly common problem affecting millions.

There are many different forms of therapy that have been introduced in recent…… [Read More]

References

ASHA. "National Herpes Resource Center." (2001). American Social Health

Association. 27, October 2004, http://www.ashastd.org/hrc/index.html

CDC. "Epstein Barr Virus." (October 26, 2002). National Center for Infectious Diseases.

28, October 2004,   http://www.cdc.gov / ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm
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Healthcare Ethics - Gardasil Healthcare

Words: 344 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29843597



Assuming all those issues are addressed, mandatory HPV vaccination may be a good idea for all children and the option should be made available to adults and funded, at least in part, by government funds and profit limitations on vaccine sales. EFEENCES

Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). etrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401

Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. etrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allen, Terry, J. Merck's Murky Dealings: HPV Vaccine Lobby Backfires; Corpwatch (March 7, 2008). Retrieved March 26, 2008, from Corpwatch: Holding Corporations Accountable website, at  http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14401 

Pharmaceutical News (March 5, 2008) Safety of Merck's HPV Vaccine Gardasil 'Lost' in Debate. Retrieved March 26, 2008, from News-Medical.net website, at http://www.news-medical.net/?id=22415.
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Rotavirus Healthcare -- Rotavirus According to the

Words: 774 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45991744

otavirus

Healthcare -- otavirus

According to the World Health Organization, otavirus is "the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children globally." (2013, p.1) There are approximately 527,000 that die each year due to otavirus and it is stated that "more than 85% of these deaths occur in Africa, Asia, and other low-income countries with more than two million annually hospitalized due to dehydration that is of a pronounced nature. It is reported as well by the World Health Organization that of the 43 countries that participated in the Global Surveillance Network for otavirus in 2009, "36% of hospitalizations for diarrhea among children aged… [Read More]

References

New and Under-Utilized Vaccines Implementation (NUVI) (2013) World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nuvi/rotavirus/en/

Rotavirus (2013) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:    http://www.cdc.gov / rotavirus/about/transmission.html 

Rotavirus (2013) eMedicinehelath. Retrieved from: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rotavirus/page5_em.htm#self-care_at_home

Rotavirus Disease (2013) GAVI Alliance. Retrieved from: http://globalvaccinesummit.org/Resources/en/03_Fact%20Sheets/Rotavirus-Disease-Fact-Sheet-(English).pdf
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Childhood Immunizations

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36150639

Findley, S., et al. (2009). Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health. 98 (11): 1959-62.

Abstract and Citation -- the title of the article was quite specific, indicating a narrow topic -- how effective a community coalition would be for helping improve vaccination rates in a specific city, in this case New York. The abstract was rather weak in this case, and while it did provide a broad overview, it was very succinct: what was done, who the population was, and what the outcome was. One could not infer nor glean more than cursory knowledge about the topic through the Abstract.

Research Question- the research question was primary within the documents. Essentially, the question was would a community coalition using reminders, tracking and outreach improve the likelihood that children in New York City would receive appropriate and timely…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Catch Planning. (2013) Community Access for Child Health. Retrieved from:  https://www2.aap.org/catch/funding.htm 

Centers for Disease Control, (2009). The Importance of Childhood Immunizations. Retrieved from education.com at: http://www.education.com/reference / article/importance-childhood-immunizations/

Findley, S., et al. (2009). Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health. 98 (11): 1959-62.
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Syphilis Also Known as The

Words: 1104 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93358710

(a.D.A.M., 2008) Neurosyphilis has been speculated as the cause for eccentricites among well-known figures such as Henry VIII, Vincent Van Gogh, Adolf Hitler, Oscar Wilde, and Friedrich Nietzsche (McMyne, 2008). Oddly, some dementia caused by syphilis is preceded by a phase of mania and euphoria in which patients feel excitable and "high," often with relaxed inhibitions (Hayden, 2003).

In the United States today, syphilis rarely progresses beyond the first or second stage since treatment is widely available. Upon diagnosis, antibiotics such as penicillin or tetracycline are administered; follow-up tests must be performed at three, six, and twelve month intervals to ensure complete removal of the infection. Syphilis is always contagious, particularly in the first and second stages, so all sexual partners should be notified and treated as well. If treated during the primary stage, syphilis is completely curable with no risk of permanent health damage. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be…… [Read More]

References

A.D.A.M. (2008, 08-01). Syphilis - Tertiary. Retrieved 11-26, 2010, from health.nytimes.com: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/syphilis-tertiary/overview.html

Baseman, J., Nichols, J., & Hayes, N. (1976). Virulent Treponema pallidum: aerobe or anaerobe. Infectious Immunity, 704-711.

Bonifield, J. (2010, 11-22). Syphilis infections up; progress made on other STDs. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.cnn.com: http://pagingdrgupta.blogs.cnn.com/2010/11/22/embargo-12p-1122-cdc-progress-on-stds/?iref=allsearch

Cullen, P., & Cameron, C. (2010, 01-10). Progress toward an effective syphilis vaccine: the past, present, and future. Retrieved 11-26, 2010, from www.expert-reviews.com: http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/abs/10.1586/14760584.5.1.67
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Bird Flu Avian Influenza and

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28499028

Symptoms of the bird flu in humans vary depending on the exact subtype which that individual has been infected with. Most people contract the avian influenza from coming into contact with infected birds, "During an outbreak of avian influenza among poultry, there is a possible risk who have contact with infected birds or surfaces that have been contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds," (CDC 2007). The etiological agents which infect the body are transmitted through fluids and feces.

The most typical subtype is the Avian Influenza A, or the H5N1 virus (CDC 2007). A frightening percentage of more than half of all people who have contracted H5N1 have died. Most cases of contraction between humans falls into the realm of extremely close familial relationships, like between mother and child. However, there are still fears that H5N1 could mutate into a form which could be easier transmitted through human…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Department of Health and Human Services.

Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1

Virus)." 2007.  http://www.cdc.gov 

Department of Health and Human Services. "Pandemic Flu." 2007. http://www.pandemicflu.org
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Transmission and Symptoms of the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51472344

S. inhabitants would be vaccinated and thus the spread of influenza mitigated.

In regards to flu transmission, the virus can be transferred in numerous ways. First according to the CDC, influenza a is found in many different animal products. These products include, ducks, chickens, pigs, and whales. According to the CDC, "Wild birds are the primary natural reservoir for all subtypes of influenza a viruses and are thought to be the source of influenza a viruses in all other animals. Most influenza viruses cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds; however, the range of symptoms in birds varies greatly depending on the strain of virus." These symptoms can provide wide spread fatalities among wild animals.

Influenza B, circulate widely through human interaction. Symptoms include runny nose, sore throat, coughing, congestion, and nausea. More importantly, in regards to transmission, if an animal such as a pig is infected with a human…… [Read More]

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International Transmission of Measles

Words: 464 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15694688

Spread of Measles Globally

Community Health Nursing: Environmental and Global Health Issues and How Communities Are Affected by Environmental and Global Health Issues

This study intends to examine the impact of increased mobility of the human population, the spread of disease, changes in vaccination patterns and the global issues for health community health professionals. This study intends to analyze the communicable disease outbreak of measles and to discuss the route of transmission of measles. In addition, this work will create a graphic representation of the outbreak's international pattern of movement or possible movement.

Measles Outbreaks In Europe

It is reported that measles outbreaks in Europe served to contribute to a global rise in the number of reported measles cases between 2009 and 2010 stated at 7,499 and 30,625 cases respectively. The outbreaks in Africa over the same time period are reported as representative of a "widespread resurgence of measles that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Global Measles and Rubella: Strategic Plan 2012-2020. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/Measles_Rubella_StrategicPlan_2012_2020.pdf
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Ethics Issues in Nursing the Quality of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28014279

Ethics Issues in Nursing

he quality of healthcare experienced by patients today is radically impacted by the personal resources that can be accessed by those in need of routine healthcare, preventative healthcare, and medical treatment. Well-to-do patients have always been able to purchase quality medical treatment at a premium, and the opposite has also always been true: patients who are marginalized by society or live in poverty typically forego preventative healthcare and often receive medical treatment for both chronic and acute conditions when it is too late to be effective.

he poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of ropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and…… [Read More]

The poverty analysis statistics provided by the Gini Coefficient ("Measuring Inequality," 2012) paint a grim picture of impoverished people living in the Gulf Coast states who experience levels of inequality equivalent to those experienced by people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Dr. Peter J. Hotez is the dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the president and director of the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development. Hotez resides in a poor county in Texas where he has observed the link between poverty and a cluster of tropical diseases that are typically considered to be a problem only in developing countries (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In addition, Hotez is clear that fiscal incentives are weak or nonesistant for pharmaceutical companies to develop new vaccines and treatments for these tropical diseases (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4). In his words,

A key impediment to eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the United States is that they frequently go unrecognized because the disenfranchised people they afflict do not or cannot seek out health care. Even when there is a clinic or community health center in an impoverished area, it often lacks the necessary diagnostic tests, and the staff is rarely trained to recognize and manage neglected tropical diseases. (Hotez, 2012, p. SR-4)

With many healthcare fronts today requiring funding and service redesign, tropical diseases may not fare well in the line-up until and unless they impact mainstream populations. But what about those diseases that are common in the overall population, for which treatments do exist, yet the provision of service is inadequate or ineffective? This is the healthcare issue that gets a full-court press from Dr. Aaron Shirley. Dr. Shirley has personal and institutional memory of healthcare in Mississippi: he was the first black resident at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, served as physician at the first community health center in the Mississippi Delta in the 1960s, and is a co-founder of the HealthConnect system in Mississippi (Hansen, 2012). In 1993, Dr. Shirley received a MacArthur Foundation "genius" award as a health care leader. Yet, in 2012, Shirley said, "I've been coming here [the Mississippi Delta] for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). The issue is that regardless of Medicaid or health insurance, or access to community clinics or home health services, poor people in Mississippi continue to have health problems. "They don't get better, and the diseases borne of poverty and obesity are not prevented; thousands of people frequent emergency rooms for illnesses that could have been tackled by primary care. They need something more." (Hansen, 2012, p. SR-4). Ironically, the healthcare solution for Mississippi Delta residents may reside in a model based on prerevolutionary Iran. James Miller, healthcare system consultant learned about the Iranian model for primary-healthcare during a meeting in Europe and recognized how well the model could overlay the Mississippi healthcare crisis. Miller noted, "When the
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Prediction'so We Have to Assume That

Words: 1807 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91289389

prediction so we have to assume that the research question is nondirectional. In this case the research question is that there will be a difference in the rate of people to get the flu depending on whether or not they get the nasal spray or the shot. In terms of the null and alternative hypotheses we could state them as:

H0: There will no difference in flu rates between groups that get the nasal spray and shot.

H1: There will be a difference between the groups in flu rates.

The Descriptions suggests the use of random assignment to the two different conditions of the study indicating that this is a variation of a true experiment (however there really is no control group). The results are significantly different as the alpha level was set at .05 and the obtained p value was .008. The results were statistically significant because there was…… [Read More]

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Hepatitis a Causative Agent Virus Affects the

Words: 1038 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51903246

Hepatitis A

Causative agent

Virus

Affects the liver

Symptomatic 2-6 weeks after exposure

Speaker notes: Hepatitis A is caused by a virus. Symptoms of hepatitis A include dark-colored urine, pale stools, chronic fatigue (with no other explanation), itching, anorexia (loss of appetite) and nausea, fever, vomiting, and jaundice. The symptoms usually present manifest 2-6 weeks after the initial exposure (Zieve 2011). To test for the disease, the doctor may test for raised IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis A and elevated liver enzymes through liver function tests (Zieve 2011). Persons in high-risk occupations may wish to be periodically tested.

eservoir

Food and water

Stool and blood

Sexual contact

Speaker notes: Disease reservoirs for hepatitis A include food that has been contaminated by the feces of carriers of the disease; contaminated water or ice; direct contact with stool or blood of persons with the disease; and sexual contact. To protect against…… [Read More]

Reference

Hepatitis A (2013). World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved:

 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs328/en/ 

Zieve, David. (2011). Hepatitis A PubMed Health. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001323/
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Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.

References

Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
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Findley Et Al 2008 Utilize

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42935791

Further, the children who participated in the Start ight program were found to have a significantly higher rate of immunization that their control counterparts as well as having completed their immunization series sooner than the control group by 11 days (Findley et al., 2008). Despite the increased prevalence of children of Latino ethnicity and who were receiving Medicaid, this factor was not found to be significant to immunization outcomes.

Limitations of this study

A major limitation of this study that was identified by the researchers was the provider's incomplete data reporting to the CI (Findley et al., 2008). This may have resulted in an overrepresentation of the number of children who lacked proper immunization. When compared to the parent maintained immunization cards, the researchers found that 24% of immunizations were on the cards but not entered into the CI database. This reliance on the CI database for records may have…… [Read More]

References

AllPsych and Heffner Media Group Inc., (2004). Research Methods. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/experimentaldesign.html

Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (3rd end). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.

Gay, J. (1999). Clinical Epidemiology & Evidence-Based Medicine Glossary: Clinical Study
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Video Crossing the Line the

Words: 1599 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96395088

In some countries, bed numbers began to drop before the introduction of the drugs. In others, bed numbers actually increased despite this introduction. The drugs also have been used on a variety of populations that were not deemed to be mentally ill (such as people with learning difficulties and older people). The drugs were only relevant in giving psychiatric staff more confidence in dealing with community-based patients; they do not explain the policy of deinstitutionalization. At the end of the twentieth century deinstitutionalization has become a dominant mental health policy goal in most Western democracies (Sax, 1984).

Conclusion

However, this formal goal has become clouded by evidence that the gradual reduction of large institutions has been replaced by a scattering of smaller ones 'in the community' (Roe, 1976). Also, most countries still have legal statutes to coercively remove madness from community set- tings. The extent of this continued coercive control…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gale, F. 2007 A changing Aboriginal population. In F. Gale and G. Lawton (eds), Settlement and Encounter: Geographical studies presented to Sir Grenfell Price, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 65-88.

Smith, L. 2006 The Aboriginal Population, The Australian National University Press, Canberra.

CDHHS 2004, The National Aboriginal Health Strategy: an evaluation, Commonwealth Department of Health and Human Services, Canberra.

Roe, M 1976, 'The establishment of the Australian Department of Health: its background and significance', Australian Historical Studies 17(67):176-92.
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Authors Used to Evaluate Their Study Rationale

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6776569

authors used to evaluate their study rationale was a quasi-experimental, retrospective matching birth cohort. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic and immunization record data in 2006-2007. The data was gathered from 10,857 birth records of children born between April 1999 and September 2003. The researchers chose to study a Latino community located in New York City and sampled from four zip codes. Birth data was collected from the primary community hospital that serves these zip codes. The authors divided the birth study population into four groups, or cohorts. Each cohort represented birth data from children who were aged 19-35 months as of April 1st during 2002-2005. Each birth cohort was then divided into two groups: intervention and control. Demographic data was collected from the hospital database, and immunization data was collected from the New York Citywide Immunization egistry (CI). Outcome measures included immunization timelines such as being up-to-date for a specific…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Findley S, et al. Effectiveness of a Community Coalition for Improving Child Vaccination Rates in New York City. Am J. Public Health. 2008;98:1959-1962.

2. Peter J. Fos (2011). Epidemiology Foundations: The Science of Public Health. San Francisco, CA.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3. Irigoyen MM, et al. Challenges and successes of immunization registry reminders at inner-city practices. Ambul Pediatr. 2006;6(2):100-4.

4. Smith, AD. (2000). Myths and Memories of the Nation. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Corynebacterium Diphtheria The Answered The Pdf

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76274818

Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…… [Read More]

Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.

Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
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Newspapers Frequently Feature Stories Democratic Principles Processes

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30312525

Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result influence application democratic principles processes.

Public policy issue: Healthcare reform

The issue of healthcare

Healthcare is an extremely complex, bureaucratic public policy issue. However, it is also very emotional for many Americans given healthcare encompasses the 'hot button' issues of physical health and spending large amounts of money. The recent debate over the Affordable Care Act is only one of many national 'conversations' about healthcare that has resulted in partisan divisions even within families.

Democratic principle 1: Autonomy

Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the ACA is the individual mandate, which states that all Americans must have health insurance or pay a penalty unless this will cause them undue hardship. Many conservatives bridle at the fact that they are being 'compelled'…… [Read More]

References

Belvedere, M. (2013). Truth about Obamacare? Mandate wasn't needed. CNBC. Retrieved:

http://www.cnbc.com/id/101301394

Nelson, S. (2013). Colin Powell endorses single-payer health care. U.S. News and World Report.

Retrieved: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2013/12/10/colin-powell-endorses-single-payer-health-care
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Social Justice in Global Health

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12906124

Blog: Place Within Populations

Blog -- Place Within Populations

How individual and community social behaviors and responses to the physical environment alter, disrupt, impair and/or damage the ability of human physiology to fight infectious diseases. The following concepts will be explored: drug resistant microorganisms, herd immunity, and re-emergence of vaccine preventable diseases, genetic susceptibility of some populations.

The idea that individual and social responses to the environment can impact human health, particularly with regard to the ability to fight off infectious disease is not new. As far back as the 1800s when John Snow connected an epidemic of cholera to sewage in the Broad Street pump, epidemiologists (as they are now known) have been making connections between behavior, environment, and disease. Some variables influence public health through policy rather than through medical practice. The public health system has labeled phenomena such as these social determinants of health (SDH). The World…… [Read More]

Gore, D.M. & Kothari, A.R. (2013). Getting to the root of the problem: health promotion strategies to address the social determinants of health. Canada Journal of Public Health, 104(1), e52-e54.

2. How the practice decisions of health care providers, health educators, health organizations, policy nation and globally. Consider the leadership and management roles of nurses in recognizing the global health implications of patient education, screening and care delivery management.

An unwillingness to accept health care advice from outsiders is not a trait buried in our historic past, as I will discuss in more detail below. Trust is more readily given to those who are live among us or who are like us in important ways. Dr. Shirley, who has established clinics and home visitation networks in the Mississippi Delta, can attest to the resistance to outsiders that seem intractable in local residents. Referring to the diseases born of poverty and obesity that are not prevented by traditional -- and even non-traditional -- approaches to healthcare, Dr. Shirley told The New York Times staff reporter, "I've been coming here for 40 years and nothing has changed" (Hansen, 2012). Could it be that this reluctance -- to let those outside of one's culture or ethnic group influence how things are done -- be a residual from the days when keeping to one's tribal practices meant greater survival rates? Scientists who study social collectivism and individualism have observed that the further away from the equator one goes, the more individualism increases and collectivism decreases. Their conclusion: equatorial environments are saturated with pathogens and colder environments are not. These researchers have attributed this difference to the
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Immunizations and Public Org India

Words: 3532 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13081055

The resulting information points to the idea that there are more factors at play than simply developing and then providing vaccination doses to developing nations. The action plans that produce better results are paramount to success, and factors of social significance are just as important as or more important than having enough clinicians or clinics to administer the immunizations. The idea that community based and local volunteers would be needed to help administer and do family teaching about immunizations in India is also supported by Prinja, Gupta, Singha & Kumar who stress that in their large trial, associated with timely vaccinations of children in India with the DPT vaccination the results were far better when local volunteers were recruited as the presence of these individuals as well as their supportive education helped individuals better understand the need for their children to get the vaccination (eb-97). Another concept that is raised…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, Hammad, Nicholas Zwar & Jo Wild. "Improving Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates: Evaluation of a Divisional Program." Australian Family Physician. 38 (10) (October 2009): 833-835. . (10 November 2010).

Arora, Narendra K., Sanjay Chaturvedi & Rajib Dasgupta. "Global Lessons from India's Poliomyelitis Elimination Campaign." Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2010) 88-232 -- 234 (10 November 2010).

"Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2009" MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 59 (42) (October 29, 2010) 1368-1371. <    http://www.cdc.gov / mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5942.pdf >. (10 November 2010)

Hull, Harry F. The Future of Polio Eradication Lancet Infectious Diseases (2001) 1 299 -- 303.
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West Nile Virus in Horses

Words: 2009 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14315101

" (Science Daily, 2008) it is related that these testing and diagnosis of West Nile in horses assist in the identification of where the disease is spreading and helps in the decision concerning whether to vaccinate horses in an area. Dr. Magnarelli states that the information used in this testing " is useful in confirming the epidemiology of the virus, determining when it arrived in certain areas and how it spreads." (Science Daily, 2008) the following illustration shows West Nile Virus (2008) in State with Equine cases with the total number of cases as of September 2, 2008 being 42.

West Nile Virus in 2008 (States with Equine Cases)

Total number of cases September 2, 2008

Source: United States Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (2008)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

West Nile Virus in horses requires diligent preventive factors because horses are more prone to become infected with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

West Nile Virus Vaccination Guidelines (2005) American Association of Equine Practitioners. Supplement to the AAEP Guidelines for Vaccination of Horses, January 2001. Online available at http://www.aaep.org/pdfs/AAEP_WNV_Guidelines_2005.pdf

West Nile Encephalitis in Horses (nd) Penn State University. College of Agricultural sciences - Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension. Online available at http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/FreePubs/pdfs/un008.pdf

Society for General Microbiology (2008, August 22). New and Improved Test for West Nile Virus in Horses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 13, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080819213052.htm

Animal Health Monitoring & Surveillance (2008) West Nile Virus - States with Equine Cases, Total Cases as of September 2, 2008-42. United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
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Rand Report Critique as Discussed

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27729493

26 Yet public health continued to mean, even more than in the Clinton administration, a technological approach to national defense. In the Bush administration, pharmaceutical protection became the centerpiece of biodefense policy. On December 13, 2002, convinced of the Dark Winter-type threat of smallpox, President Bush announced his nationwide smallpox inoculation program. Publicity about Iraq's potential biological arsenal, especially in the lead-up to the 2003 invasion, and the threat of bioterrorism had convinced many in the public to participate. The states and the CDC were ready to handle the logistics. In addition, civilian participation was voluntary, which reduced legal liability for those who administered the vaccine and for the government.

As might have been predicted, this smallpox vaccination campaign found it difficult to circumvent the well-known fears of vaccination as a source of bodily pollution and the mistrust engendered when vaccines appear a worse health risk than the forecast epidemic.…… [Read More]

References

Fauci, Anthony S.M.D., Bioterrorism Preparedness: NIH Smallpox Research Efforts, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011102b.htm Accessed on October 22, 2011.

Frist, William. The Political Perspective of the Bioterrorism Threat, in Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities, 29 (Stacy L. Knobler & Adel A.F. Mahmoud & Leslie A. Pray eds., National Academy Press 2002).

Neergaard, Lauran. Postmaster: Anthrax Threatens Mail, The Washington Post, Oct. 24, 2001, available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/aponline/20011024 / aponline090115_002.html Accessed on October 21, 2011.

Tanielian, Terri. Ricci, Karen. Stoto, Michael A. David Dausey, J. Lois M. Davis, Myers, Sarah. Olmsted, Stuart. Willis, Henry H. (2005) Exemplary Practices in Public Health Preparedness. RAND Corporation.  http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR239.pdf  Accessed on October 21, 2011.
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Avian Flu Avian Influenza If

Words: 8056 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63286298



In the event of such an epidemic, it is reasonable to assume that public health departments will be pressed to find ways to maintain their services even when employees are ill, normal supply chains are disrupted, and the nation's infrastructure is inoperative; furthermore, the traditional roles of environmental health professionals can also be expected to change in dramatic ways during a period of pandemic influenza (Fabian, 2006). As U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services Secretary Leavitt has noted, states and local jurisdictions will be in the vanguard of the battle that has 5,000 fronts. According to the secretary, "A lot is going to be expected of us. Fortunately, a great deal of the preparation activities laid out below have already become part of our awareness and skill set as a result of some of the terrorism and emergency response planning that public health has recently experienced" (Fabian, 2006, p.…… [Read More]

References

Aguirre, A.A., House, C., Ostfeld, R.S., Pearl, M.C., & Tabor, G.M. (2002). Conservation medicine: Ecological health in practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235

Chikombero, P.M., Haridakis, P.M., Hullman, G.A., Pornsakulvanich, V., & Sun, S. (2003). Television exposure not predictive of terrorism fear. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 128.

Executive Order. (April 1, 2005). Amendment to E.O. 13295 relating to certain influenza v iruses and quarantinable communicable diseases.
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Anthrax in the United States Postal Service

Words: 4898 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69190781

Anthrax: An Attack on the United States

Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.

Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]

References

Anthrax." (2003). CDC. Retreived on June 25, 2003 at   http://www.cdc.gov / ncidod / dbmd/diseaseinfo/anthrax_g.htm#What%20is%20anthrax.

Anthrax Vaccine Availability Concerns USA." (2001). Hospital Management.Net. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.hospitalmanagement.net/informer/breakthroughs / break81/.

Anthrax Vaccine? Officials and Experts Weigh Risk Against Need." (2001). CBS News.Com. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/01/31 / health/main327482.shtml.

Fernandez, Manny and Phuong Ly. "Brentwood Deaths Put Employees on Edge." (2002). Washington Post.Com. Retrieved on June 25, 2003 at http://www.washingtonpost.com / ac2/wp-dyn/A54188-2002Jun14?language=printer.
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Pandemic Flu

Words: 3534 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81177912

Pandemic Flu

Apart from the seasonal influenza epidemics caused by antigenic drifts, a significant change in the virus's virulence through antigenic shifts has been a major source of concern for healthcare professionals. These new strains may reach pandemic proportions. Predicting the next outbreak is an impossible task but historically, the longest period between two outbreaks has been forty one years and it usually occurs every 30-40 years. An outbreak can reach pandemic proportions in as little as 6-month's time, or even lesser. This fast spread can be attributed to globalization and urbanization. Countries, such as Bangladesh or Indonesia, where overcrowding is common, can prove to be a haven for the emergence of new strains, but it may still be irrational to predict where the next pandemic may originate from. Two out of the last four strains originated from Southeast Asia and the most recent outbreak of 2009 was from Mexico.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Addressing ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning. (2008). World Health Orginazation.

Retrieved from www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/cds_flu_ethics_5...

Balkhy, H., Abolfotouh, M., Hathlool, R., & Jumah, M. (2010). Awareness, attitudes, and practices related to the swine influenza pandemic among the saudi public. Infectious Diseases, 10(42).

Damery, S., Wilson, S., Draper, H., Gratus, C., Greenfield, S., Ives, J., & Parry, J. (2009). Will the nhs continue to function in an influenza pandemic? A survey of healthcare workers in the west midlands, uk. BMC Public Health, 9(142), doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-142
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Idsa Lecture Finch 2006 Offers Seven Arguments

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66258687

IDSA lecture, Finch (2006) offers seven arguments against mandatory influenza vaccinations for health care workers. The reasons are primarily philosophical, political, and ethical in nature. Although Finch (2006) substantiates his primary claims with references to literature and historical precedent, none of the claims refer to the ultimate goal of vaccination programs: reducing rates of serious illness or death resulting from influenza. Finch's (2006) arguments are sound and tight, but would be enhanced greatly by references to the role mandatory vaccination might play in reducing the spread of highly communicable diseases. Likewise, the author does not provide sufficient counterpoints to the core arguments and does not entertain the opposing viewpoint. There is no mention of influenza rates, the potential for disease proliferation among at-risk communities, or the role mandatory vaccinations may play in diseases other than influenza, such as Ebola.

In spite of the weaknesses in the Finch (2006) argument, the…… [Read More]

Whether or not mandatory vaccine programs are effective in achieving health care goals is the core point. The issue of civil liberties infractions is a serious one, as health care workers do have the right to self-determination. However, it can also be said that health care workers are a special community of individuals exposed on a regular basis to infectious diseases. Given this fact, health care workers may need to occasionally sacrifice their civil liberties for the common good to which their profession is pledged: to uphold and promote public health.

Reference

Finch, M. (2006). Point: Mandatory influenza vaccination for all health care workers? Seven reasons to say no. IDSA Lecture. In Clinical Infectious Diseases 42, 1141-1143.
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Democracy and Public Administration

Words: 5642 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63787304

Policy

Democracy and Public Administration

This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…… [Read More]

References

Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.

American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site:  http://www.apha.org  aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org

CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at    http://www.cdc.gov / h1n1flu/ sick.htm.

Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site:
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Biological Weapons How Real Is

Words: 4788 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67241031

Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.

The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Analysis: U.S. Unprepared for Bio-Attack. NewsMax Wires. Retrieved from: http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/11/10/114328.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Threat to U.S. Homeland is Very Real. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.aviationnow.com/content/ncof/view_19.htm. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Biological Weapons and Threat Detection. Osborn Scientific Group BADD white paper. April, 2002. Retrieved at http://osborn-scientific.com/PDF/osg_wp_bw_041802.pdf. Accessed on 28 November, 2004

Brennan, Phil. Bio-terrorism Threat to U.S. is Real & Deadly. October 4, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/10/3/142304.shtml. Accessed on 28 November, 2004