Autism In Infants And Vaccination Research Paper

Length: 16 pages Sources: 5 Subject: Medicine Type: Research Paper Paper: #20228391 Related Topics: Vaccines, Infant Mortality, Toxicology, Infant Observation
Excerpt from Research Paper :

Vaccines Causing Autism in Infants; Possibility of a More Appropriate Time to Vaccinate Other Than Shortly After Birth

The past 20 years has seen a drastic rise in the number of individuals suffering Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), with 1 in every 88 children in the U.S. diagnosed with the condition. The standardized criteria which define ASD are qualitative impairments with regards to communication and social interaction, as well as stereotyped, restricted interests, activities and behavioral pattern (Hooker et al. 2) ASD is defined by these basic characteristics, though recent studies throw light on several co-morbid physical, behavioral and health conditions prevailing in ASD-diagnosed persons, like gastrointestinal troubles, sleeping disorders, incontinence, eating disorders, sensory processing problems and behavioral instabilities. Furthermore, initial clinical reports depict that a large percentage of children suffering from ASD lose the skills they acquire from 6 to 18 months of age, and suffer regression at an estimated occurrence of about 15% to higher than 62% of all recorded ASD cases (DeLong 14) The significance of damage to neurological functioning after birth in ASD- diagnosed children aged from 6 to18 months, who have regressed, is that the phenomenon suggests neuro-degeneration or progressive encephalopathy based on an etiological pathogenic basis taking place after birth. The etiology of autism spectrum disorder is still under debate, although several researches hint at toxicity in ASD-diagnosed individuals. Recent reports also suggest the possibility of mercury being one of the factors causing or contributing to brain pathology, and interacting with other pathogens or toxic compounds to cause the irregularity observed in the brain pathology of ASD- diagnosed patients (Geier 2).

British researcher, Andrew Wakefield put forward the idea that autism might be caused by MMR vaccines, in 1998. In The Lancet, a medical journal, he published an article on 8 children who, shortly after being vaccinated for MMR, got diagnosed with intestinal troubles and autism. Medical researchers, in a bid to confirm his suspicions, conducted numerous studies and compared several thousand children administered with MMR vaccine, with a several thousand children who had never been administered the dose (Seneff 2227).

Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study is an evaluation of the harmful results of exposure to organic mercury from Thimerosal present in vaccines for children, as well as the effects of the aluminum adjuvants used in vaccines, by carrying out a literary analysis of the recorded exposure to different aluminum and Thimerosal levels from vaccinations. This study performs a comparison between the organic mercury exposures from Thimerosal contained in the Diphtheria-Tetanusacellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine with a DTaP vaccine without Thimerosal, to evaluate the risks of acquiring ASD (Hooker et al. 2).

Significance of the study

The U.S. is afflicted by a rapidly growing rate of autism cases, with the condition affecting an individual's behavior, speech, language and social abilities. Autism was a rare condition in 1990, but within 2 decades, every 1 in 91 children in the U.S. was diagnosed with the disease. (DeLong 903). Scientists believe that the tendency to acquire the disease is genetic, but this study assumes that genes cannot change so rapidly and therefore, cannot be the sole factor in causing this epidemic in recent years. The current escalation in the number of autism cases suggests that environmental triggers may be responsible for its explosive increase, with a suspicion that vaccinations administered to children could be one such factor (DeLong 903).

Vaccination and autism

Both humans as well as animals have been affected by chronic, negative side-effects of vaccinations ever since the latter part of the 19th century, when small-pox vaccinations induced long-term side-effects like fatigue, eczema and diarrhea in certain individuals administered with the vaccine. DeLong (903) Veterinarians reported chronic ailments in animals, in the form of seizures and autoimmune disorders, in the 1990s. The early part of the 21st century confirmed that vaccines and autoimmune conditions were interconnected, with autism in individuals also being possibly related to vaccines administered (DeLong 903). Vaccines can trigger autism for a variety of reasons.

The preservative Thimerosal, used in certain vaccines, is composed of nearly half- mercury...


It was discovered that autism-diagnosed children had higher precoproporphyrin levels as compared to neurotypical children (Seneffet al. 2230); precoproporphyrin is a biomarker that measures mercury toxicity. Furthermore, this observation was confirmed in the U.S. (Geieret al.3), and it was further noted that hepatitis B vaccines containing Thimerosal were responsible for late acquisition of essential reflexes in infant boys (Sharpe et al.) From 2000, many vaccines began to be made Thimerosal-free, but almost all influenza vaccines still contain Thimerosal, as do 8 other child vaccines in the U.S. (DeLong 904).

Additionally, the early part of the last decade saw the CDC encouraging influenza-inoculation for expecting women and 6 to 23-month-old children (Pichichero et al. e208). Despite Thimerosal being removed from most shots, with influenza vaccinations containing Thimerosal used increasingly, children were ever more exposed to mercury through shots, in utero as well as after birth. However, other possibilities besides mercury may link autism and vaccines. Vaccines are composed of aluminum, a neurotoxin, and also live viruses. Aluminum present in vaccines is linked with Central Nervous System or CNS- related disorders and autism, as well. A combination of mercury and aluminum tends to intensify their toxicity (DeLong 904). These metals are known suppressants of the human immune system; therefore, a vulnerable individual may not be capable of mounting an immunological response to live viruses present in MMR shots and other such vaccines. A possible contributing element to autism may be the Measles-vaccines, which stimulate cytokine- production, thereby inflaming and damaging the brain (Hooker et al. 7).

Autism- diagnosed children possess vulnerabilities not present in neurotypical children, with the former possessing poorer levels of methylation and higher oxidative stress levels as compared to the latter; methylation is the process of self-detoxification of the body (Geier et al. 180.). This impediment to detoxification may come from metals present in vaccines, which are sequestered in the human brain and result in neurological damage. Also, vaccines may enhance oxidative stress in children with already-existing mitochondrial dysfunction to such a level as to result in autism. Generally, the likelihood of being afflicted with neurological disabilities on being exposed to environmental triggers like vaccines is dependent upon factors like the child's age during the time of exposure, amount exposed, stress and genetic predisposition (DeLong 905).

To add to these biological factors, children in the U.S. were recommended with no less than 27 vaccines before attaining 2 years of age in 2010, which is almost triple the amount of vaccines administered in 1983 which was 8 shots (DeLong 907). Each individual vaccine is tested and deemed safe to use, however, no examination has ever been conducted by the CDC to test the safety of, or short-term as well as long-term interactions among, vaccines in the entire recommended schedule of U.S. children.

Aluminum and Mercury in Vaccines

Recent studies have proposed the possibility of aluminum, a common vaccine-adjuvant, being the most crucial factor causing adverse reactions in individuals, with the human nervous system being highly susceptible to aluminum toxicity. Clinical trials of vaccines are found to contain aluminum in placebo, with the exact same or higher concentrations than in the vaccines. Aluminum is found to be a vital factor to vaccine-toxicity, as suggested by research studies.

A maximum of five micrograms Al/kg/day intake has been set by the FDA for newborns and persons having impaired kidney functions (Hooker et al. 16). This issue of aluminum prevalence in child vaccines was also highlighted in a recent, highly informative review that discussed the possibility of a relationship between Alzheimer's disease and aluminum toxicity (Geier et al. 181). The review drew attention to the fact that vaccines today burdened children with a collective aluminum amount that may go beyond FDA's approved limit by as great a factor as 50. Vaccine industries find it difficult to design vaccines that prove to be both efficient and safe. Weakened, yet live pathogens are contained in these shots, which can cause vaccine-induced diseases in children whose immune system is impaired; however, debris resulting from dead pathogens does not necessarily cause a reaction sufficient enough to induce antigen-specific memory CD8 T-cell - production, which protects the body from future exposures. The vaccine industry proclaims to have successfully created dead pathogen-containing vaccines, with the use of adjuvants like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli, polycationic surfactants and aluminum, which further enhance immune response (Seneff 2231).

Precisely how aluminum manages to stimulate immune reaction is yet unclear, however aluminum- adjuvant is considered to be impacting humoral systems through its positive effect on inflammasome complexes. The industry offers another reason for making mercury or aluminum- containing vaccines, which is, to enhance antigen-stability for long-term storage. Studies show that acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucose-1-phosphate takes place at a slower rate on adsorption of the molecule to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, thus increasing the environment's effective pH by 2 units (DeLong 910). However, this…

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