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Value of Education
Many people go to university for economic reasons and hopes of earning higher incomes, and they are afraid that if they do not they will only be able to find some low-paying job in the service sector, like a convenience store or a fast food restaurant. They think they will be able to move into a higher social class and find some type of management or professional work, so upward mobility is the main reason that most people go on to higher education, unless they are already independently wealthy or have inherited a lot of money from their families. Parents also believe that, which is why they also put pressure on their children to succeed in school and move on to higher education. Even in the present recession, unemployment is lower among college graduates and their lifetime incomes are generally greater than those who only completed high…
Culture and Education
The cultural ideals that an individual develops during childhood remain as he/she grows into an adult, influencing basic functions, like communication, relational styles, and thinking processes, as well as conflict resolution. Therefore, these may have different impacts with regard to education for female and male graduates.
The influence of culture on education in graduate females and males is found through multivariate statistical analysis. Study participants come from twelve online graduate-level courses where females (n = 162) outnumbered male students (n = 31).
Culture and Education
The key cultural proficiency concept is to get a grasp of how far the culture pervades our lives. The cultural ideals that an individual develops during childhood remain as he/she grows into an adult, influencing basic functions, like communication, relational styles, and thinking processes, as well as conflict resolution. However, this awareness will not guarantee application of this knowledge by educators. Mindful…
Astin, A.W. (1991). Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice of assessment and evaluation in higher education. New York: Macmillan
Frazzetto G (2011) Teaching How to Bridge Neuroscience, Society, and Culture. PLoS Biol 9(10): e1001178. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001178
Guerra, P. & Nelson, S. (2011, December). The ability to value diversity requires extensive, ongoing learning experiences. JSD, 32(6), 59- 60.
Nuzhat, A., Salem, R. O., Hamdan, N. A., & Ashour, N. (2013). Gender differences in learning styles and academic performance of medical students in Saudi Arabia. Medical Teacher, 35S78-S82. doi:10.3109/0142159X.2013.765545
Value of Shakespeare
The works of illiam Shakespeare are staples in our educational system at least from secondary through college levels. This has been true in some degree for more than 400 years, virtually since these works were first performed. In Shakespeare's time, many of these plays were very popular, and they were reprinted and performed over and over in the centuries since. The use of these works in education shows that they are valued and that they impart some of this value to students, raising the question of how these plays have affected and changed society and what values they nurture in students today.
These plays first have contributed much to our language. illiam Shakespeare contributed to the language by perpetuating a large vocabulary -- which is why many have cited the large vocabulary of the plays as evidence that the largely uneducated Shakespeare could not have written the…
Lederer, Richard, "Looking at Language: Drawing Inspiration from Shakespeare." The Patriot Ledger (April 20, 1996), C3.
McArthur, Tom. The Oxford Companion to the English Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neumann, Anne Waldron. "Should You Read Shakespeare?" Meanjin 56(1)(1997), 17-25.
Papp, Joseph and Elizabeth Kirkland. Shakespeare Alive! New York: Bantam, 1988.
Invest More in Education
Higher spending on education is an investment in our collective future. It is an investment in our children. It is an investment in our community. It is an investment in the future world in which we want to live. A more educated community has better economic outcomes. A more educated community has hope. A more educated community is empowered to create their own pathways to their dreams. A more educated community has the ability to understand what really matters, rather than getting bogged down in inane minutiae. This paper will argue that greater investment in education pays dividends for our world down the road. We have a lot of challenges to solve, and they will not be solved any other way. Investment in education will benefit our community.
The Value of Education
What anybody with half a brain already knows intuitively, that education is a worthwhile…
London Economics (2012). Assessing the deadweight loss associated with public investment in further education and skills. BIS Research Paper Number 71. Retrieved May 18, 2015 from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32281/12-767-assessing-deadweight-loss-with-investment-further-education.pdf
Psacharapoulos, G. (1994). Return on investment in education: A global update. World Development. Vol. 22 (9) 1325-1343.
Schimit, P., Monteiro, L. & Omar, N. (2014). Cash transfer program and education investment: A model for social evolution. Communications in nonlinear science and numerical simulation. Vol. 19 (3) 570-577.
Solesvik, M., Westhead, P., Matlay, H. & Parsyak, V. (2013). Entrepreneurial assets and mindsets. Education + Training. Vol. 55 (8/9) 748-762.
Universities provide an amazing opportunity for both growth and development in regards to academic development. Universities in particular provide a means of providing a stable and more robust income for individuals seeking a particular specialization. The University of Phoenix, in particular, has a unique method of teaching and providing a quality educational experience. Small class sizes, online specialization, and knowledgeable professors all make the university experience all the more manageable. However, I personally have experienced conflict of values that undermine the overall university experience. This conflict pertains mainly to the notion of academic honesty. I have encountered instances where many of the university values would be compromised by actions. Cheating is particularly important in a university setting. As such, having strong values and convictions regarding cheating is important within the overall university setting (Stuart, 2006).
The experience, looking back, was not unique to me. In fact, many students…
1) Stuart P. Green. (2006). Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White Collar Crime. Oxford University Press.
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…
Ciccone, A. And Peri, G. "Identifying human-capital externalities: Theory with applications."
Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 2; (2006): 381-412.
Dur, R. And Glazer, A. "Subsidizing enjoyable education" Labour Economics, Vol 15, No.
5; (2008): 1023-1039.
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
Values and Morals in the Accounting Industry
The important questions to be addressed are taken from the "…business ethics/corporate social responsibility literature, oriented towards business enterprises but also of relevance to professional bodies: whether being ethical 'pays' in financial terms; and whether formal codes are useful in promoting ethical behavior…" (Cowton, 2009, p. 177).
Accountants are charged with carrying out ethical and moral decisions in their everyday work, but judging from some of the scandals in recent years (Enron, orldCom, the Anderson Accountancy, etc.) not all accountants are up to speed with those ethical and moral decisions. This paper reviews the judgments that accountants should be making based on morality and ethical values, whether the accountant is working for a multinational corporation or for a small business with only half a dozen employees.
Accounting Students and Moral Decision-Making
Deborah Leitsch writes in the Journal of Business Ethics that auditors are…
Brown-Liburd, Helen L., and Porco, Barbara M. (2011). It's What's Outside that Counts:
Do Extracurricular Experiences Affect the Cognitive Moral Development of Undergraduate Accounting Students? Issues in Accounting Education, 26(2), 439-454.
Cooper, Barry J., Leung, Philomena, Dellaportas, Steven, Jackling, Beverley, and Wong,
Grace. (2008). Ethics Education for Accounting Students -- a Toolkit Approach.
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…
Applebaum, P. (2002). Multicultural and diversity education Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Davis-Seaver, J. & Davis, E. (2000). Critical thinking in young children. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Gordon, T. & Nurch, N. (2003). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: Random House.
Winch, C. (2006). Education, autonomy and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.
Even within the United States, the education system has proven itself to be extremely vulnerable to the detrimental influence of intellectual corruption by the excessive entanglement of ideology and formal education. Specifically, the infamous Scopes Trial featured the criminal prosecution for teaching evolutionary biology because it conflicted with prevailing religious dogma (Davidson, 1999). Much more recently, a conservative political agenda has dominated the educational systems of individual American states in which educational administrative authorities have sought (in some cases, quite successfully) to promote religious or quasi-religious dogma under the very thinly veiled guise of teaching nonsense such as "Intelligent Design" (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005). Specifically, that approach (in conjunction with renewed attempts to challenge the legitimacy of established evolutionary science) was a deliberate attempt to promote particular religious beliefs in a manner designed to circumvent very explicit constitutional prohibition against that church-state entanglement (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005).
Davidson, K. (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Feldman, N. (2005). Divided by God: America's Church and State Problem and What
We Should Do about it. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
Finding out about other peoples and cultures, through technology, will be an essential part of education in the years to come.
Numerous aspects of the current educational system will need to be improved in future years. The focus must be on children's individual needs and abilities. Today, standardized tests and general requirements frequently restrict students' opportunities to learn. Many youngsters do not get the attention they need, or the enrichment they deserve. Teachers often lack the necessary resources to prepare children for the real world, or to deal with children's real world problems. "Teaching to the test" creates its own difficulties for the educator, leaving many unprepared for atypical classroom situations. Young people have difficulties at home, or in their personal lives, and educators do not have the training to deal with these potentially serious problems. Disruptive and violent behavior can lead to tragedy. Children do not receive sufficient ethical…
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui
Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf
Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…
references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information
The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance.
Adapted from C. Willet (2002) "eRoom for Power Users, http://www.akgroup.com/solutions/eRoom_powerusers.pdf
Part Seven: Miscellaneous.
The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation. Schools cannot guarantee equality of outcome between students, because the outcome is a function of the input the student applies. The equality of opportunity is the cry which must be heard in educational institutions. Whether a student is male of female, white or colored, upper middle class or urban poor, schools need to provide equal access, and equal opportunity. The results, ultimately, are up to the child to take advantage of the opportunity, and become an educated person.
Part of that includes instilling in students an intellectual curiosity, receptivity to learning through genuine understanding, and definitions of professional success that are motivated by positive aspirations rather than by overcompensation impulses triggered by negative assumptions, messages, or early experiences. In addition to ensuring basic literacy and computational skills required by adults in society, modern primary education must dedicate itself to producing graduates who have discovered their greatest intellectual abilities and developed a genuine interest in a specific academic and/or vocational application of those aptitudes and interests in a manner most conducive to their long-term fulfillment and (ideally) to their optimal benefit to their families and communities in adulthood.
Toward that end, modern education must adapt to the wealth of empirical evidence that traditional methodologies (such as passive lecture and rote memorization, in particular) are comparatively ineffective at achieving the highest goals of education in society. Specifically, as society becomes…
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.
The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
Education and Equality of Opportunity
The issue of equality in access to education has been a long running argument and each time legislations are passed and initiatives invented towards trying to make education actually equal and accessible, there are gaping gaps that still make these efforts run short of their target goal. There are several terms that are used in the education department that need to be well understood since most have been misused and hence leading to either a stereotype view of education, or a skewed perspective that only helps to make the situation worse than it already is.
The achievement gap; this is often referred to as the disparity or difference in the performance of students in various groups. From the surface of it, it looks justifiable definition, however, these groupings that are use to measure the academic performance are quite stereotyped and the academic achievements have nothing…
Reardon S.F., (2011). The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/reardon%20whither%20opportunity%20-%20chapter%205.pdf
Teachers College Columbia University, (2005). The Academic Achievement Gap: Facts and Figures. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://www.tc.columbia.edu/news.htm?articleID=5183
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
Denying certain individuals access to education at all, in a society that privileges literacy, also creates a societal imbalance and social inequality, as manifested in the examples of Frederick Douglass in America (Gutek, 2005).
Consider in our own contemporary public schools, how even simple actions taken for granted like pledging allegiance to the flag affirms the value of citizenship, how demarcating winter break as a time of rest reinforces the importance of Judeo-Christian holidays, and the content of the textbooks used determines what the child will later consider 'American history' or 'Great Literature.' Editing out certain authors or entire groups of people from the body of knowledge transmitted in a nation's schools creates an exclusionary message of what is intellectually valuable that the child will carry within his or her set of core assumptions, possibly forever.
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of…
Cahn, Steven M. 1997. Classic and contemporary readings in the philosophy of education. New York: McGraw-Hill
Gutek, Gerald L. 2005. Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A biographical introduction. 4th ed. Merrill/Prentice Hall.
13. I also think that field experiences in the community are extremely necessary for success.
14. I don't think enough teachers complete their practicum or student teach in minority schools, and I think this area is underserved and not supported enough by administration and community in many areas.
15. I don't think many teachers would want immersion, living and teaching in a minority community, and I think this is far underserved in the educational community.
16. The group-setting model is very prevalent, and it does make for more challenge and support throughout college.
Almost all of these elements are extremely relevant to the 21st century learner, teacher, and total school environment. As classrooms become more diversified and unique, today's teachers must make more attempts to understand the different blends of students and cultures that fill their classroom, and educational curriculum is key to this basic understanding. Classrooms are not going…
Coballes-Vega, C. (1992). Considerations in teaching culturally diverse children. Retrieved from the Eric Digests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-4/diverse.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Willis, a.I. (2000). Critical issue: Addressing literacy needs in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. Retrieved from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Web site: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Zeichner. (1993). 16 key elements of effective teacher education for diversity. Retrieved from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory Web site: http://ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/presrvce/pe3lk5.htm31 Aug. 2007.
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
One of the most pervasive new technological inventions is the cellular phone. The mobile phone has greatly impacted the social and aesthetical values of people in most parts of the world. It is not uncommon for people to receive calls in public places, and frequently these one-sided conversations are even louder than those between two people talking in person. Loud rings, which are often digital sound files of popular tunes, contribute to the cacophony of sounds in urban environments. People are becoming increasingly more used to the sounds of cell phones ringing, which proves that the technology has already altered our perception of the environment. Mobile phones are now a pervasive part of our culture; people of all ages walk down the street with telephone in hand.
However, cell phones also raise a lot of controversial social values issues. There seems to be a lack of common courtesy in…
This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.htm)
It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63
Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54
California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254
John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.
Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.
As Moore continues, he notes, "Such time spent in designing and producing high-quality materials, planning teaching strategies, training trainers will increase the chances of success. There is a direct relationship between the institutional the effectiveness of a program and the time and money spent in its design" (Moore,). He cannot overstress the importance of this early design and strategy, and without it, the class will never be as strong or as instructional to the student.
How to implement this strong foundation is another element of this tip. Clearly, the designer and the instructor have to be on the same page. The instructor may not be familiar with distance learning on a large scale, and in that case, they should receive training and education on how to effectively develop distance learning course materials. It is a skill, and not one everyone automatically understands, and so expert training should be available. Moore…
Moore, M. Tips for managers setting up a distance education program.
I hope to see my students gain confidence over intellectual challenges, and in so doing, form strength inside of themselves that will make them resilient over the challenges they will face professionally in the future. Ultimately I see my role as enabler of positive change in their lives, equipping them to be able to grow intellectually over their lives, but also to compete confidently both from an intellectual and professional standpoint as well. Measuring results as an educator has more to do with what your students accomplish over the long-term, and less to do with just their grade point averages or immediate academic gains. It is my contention that growth and progression, and the attainment of increasingly higher levels of intellectual curiosity on the part of students are even more important than immediate academic achievement. As an educator I would first focus on assisting my students to begin this journey…
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
John Gatto is one of the few teachers who are speaking out against the current educational culture who knows what he is talking about. After teaching the state of New York, which has one of the highest per student budgets in the nation, uses many progressive teaching theories, and still produces some of the lowest test scores in the nation, his frustration comes from a wealth of experience. Teachers who start their careers with a sincere desire to educate students have their hands are tied by multi-cultural disconnectedness and a socialist teaching culture which discourages individual accomplishment. The frustration expressed by Mr. Gatto (Berlau, 2003) is likely only the tip of the iceberg representing the depth of the nationwide problem. From Atlanta to Minneapolis, news papers are filled with stories of failing students, failing schools, and school systems which are confused as to the source of the problem. Maybe…
Pink, Daniel H. 'I'm a Saboteur.'., Fast Company, 11-01-2000, pp 242.
Asghar, I. (1995) Constructivism as Substitute for Memorization in Learning: Meaning Is Created by Learner. Education, Vol. 116
Berlau, J. (2003, Sept 30) Teachers Discard the Union Label; as the National Education Association Pursues a Liberal Agenda, Many of Its Rank and File Refuse to Toe the Line and Have Formed Their Own Teacher-Advocacy Groups. Insight on the News.
HAINES, ERRIN. EDUCATION NOTEBOOK. (02-07-2002) The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, pp J3.
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
The current state of institutions of higher learning is interesting and complex. The structure of universities throughout the world brings into question the traditional purpose of universities juxtaposed to the current climate at universities. In particular there is a great emphasis placed on the state of business education at Universities. An article entitled, "Scholarship in university business schools" written by Craig et al., 1999 explores issues of the changing university structure. The purpose of this essay is to provide a critical review of the conclusions made in the article. I will then discuss whether or not I agree with some or all of the conclusions, findings and opinions of the author.
The article takes into consideration different assertions made by academics throughout the years related to defining traditional universities and corporate universities.
I didn't find a clear definition of what a traditional university is in the article.…
Craig, R.J., Clarke F.L., Amernic, J.H.. (1999) Scholarship in university business schools Cardinal Newman, creeping corporatism and farewell to the "disturber of the peace"? Accounting Auditing & Accountability Journal, 12 ( 5), pp. 510-524.
Education mirrors life. And, life follows from education. Both entities are inextricably linked. This is a salient point that most teachers and students must recognize. And by teachers, one also means students of a particular domain -- even if that domain is global and extensible to every aspect of life -- since the process of learning never stops. In developing a philosophy of education, one must also be able to dissociate education from literacy -- the latter being far more important. The crux of this essay will be to show that since each individual -- and this is common knowledge -- is different, then the process of education should not devolve into a one- size-fits-all groupthink straitjacket. How should education then be defined? As a mode of instruction that leaves avenues open, into which, aspects of a student's (or teacher's) life experiences and richness of talents and culture might be…
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/cultural-diversity / (UNESCO)
This is information about cultural diversity in education, particularly in education for sustainable development found on UNESCO's website. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and I found the information about education on their website particularly interesting because it addresses education in a global, multicultural environment.
The first important aspect on their website is the institutional framework in which the educational segment operates at UNESCO, which particularly reflects cultural diversity. This is the Johannesburg Declaration, from 2002, which stipulates that "Our rich diversity . . . is our collective strength." Moving from this declaration, it proposes three general principles that link ESD to cultural diversity. These include the fact that the educational process (ESD, as UNESCO refers to it) has to be "locally relevant and culturally appropriate," but also that ESD requires "intercultural understanding."
According to UNESCO, the educational process has…
Strehorn states that:
To begin, I try to design a syllabus/course outline that is not only readable, but something that will be utilized more than once per semester (the first day!). This document, aside from basic course information (names and dates), emphasizes my expectation that all students must accept responsibility for their own learning as well as my flexibility in teaching style. I try to make the course syllabus available on disk, and it is always useful to have a clear, legible copy that can be blown-up, or scanned if needed."
What kinds of materials or activities has the teacher used with success with English learners?
Answer: Strehorn states that materials used are: Dictionaries and thesauruses, audio tapes of each class period, books on tape, additional reading/reference sources, study guides, support information, sample problems however, it is not so much the fact in the type of the materials…
Strehorn, Kregg C. (2004) the Application of Universal Instructional Design to ESL Teaching [at] yahoo.com Universidad Cat lica de Temuco (Temuco, Chile) [Online available at http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Strehorn-UID.html
Education Teaching Methods - ESL
Education Research Planning
hat are the critical aspects?
According to the United States Government's "National Directions in Education Research Planning," educational research planning must emphasize focus and selectivity in curriculum design and "concentrate on those areas that the public and profession believe are important as well as those that will become important," to render education practical for student's future lives outside of the classroom. Student learning is the touchstone issue and there must be "a particular but by no means exclusive emphasis on the challenges presented by ever-growing diversity and inequality." (Timpane, 1998)
Additionally, the selection of specific areas of inquiry for teachers, through the use of objective research, must be clear enough to "build strategies consisting of related projects executed over time." The candidates for the "short list of research priorities seemed rather obvious: continued focus on reading and language learning; expanded attention to mathematics; the dynamics of teacher…
Chaskin, Robert. (2005) "Democracy And Bureaucracy in a Community Planning Process." Journal of Planning Education and Research. 24: 408-419.
Timpane, Michael. (November 1998) "National Directions in Education Research Planning." U.S. Government Publications. Retrieved 31 May 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/nationaldirections/implicat.html
Education today has become more interesting and challenging than it has ever been before. This is particularly the case with the teaching and learning of English as a second language. Immigrants to the United States and other English speaking countries, for example, are faced with the challenge of not only learning a new language sufficiently to be able to communicate in their new environment, but also of fitting in with a lifestyle and culture that is more often than not completely foreign to them. These challenges can have both a motivating and demotivating effect on EFL and ESL learners. Teachers who are aware of these effects can then more effectively plan their lessons and work with such students to help them obtain optimal results. Hence, a myriad of research articles have seen the light regarding the challenges faced by this sector of learners. "EFL learners moving to an ESL context:…
Adriaensens, D. (2011). Further Destruction of Iraq's Higher Education: Blazing Fires, Forged Degrees And Silencer Guns. Countercurrents.org. Retrieved from: http://www.countercurrents.org/adriaensens021211.htm
Bao, D., Abdilah, H., and Chowdhury, R. (2012, Jan.). EFL learners moving to an ESL context: Motivating and demotivating factors in English language learning among Iraqis. The New English Teacher, Vol. 6.1
Griffiths, M. (2010). A Situational Analysis of Girls Education in Iraq. UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/A3F345FEB60FD713C12577AD00341F90-Full_report.pdf
McTaggart, R. (1996). 'Appraising reports of enquiry', in Social Science Methodology for Educational Inquiry: A Conceptual Overview, eds D. Caulley. H. Moore & J. Orton. Beijing Teachers College Press. Beijing.
My 7th grade student, Alice Harding, had problems since the beginning of the year. Not only was she painfully shy and never participated in group work; she also appeared not to be interested in either studying the lessons or doing her homework. Whereas her work in the beginning of the years was promising, it had reached a point where I felt intervention is necessary. Her grades had dropped with nearly 20% since the beginning of the year. I have chosen Alice for this project, because I feel she is a perfectly intelligent girl, who with the right methods can be motivated to perform much better.
I had previously tried several methods to attempt to enhance Alice's feelings of security in the classroom. One of the methods was dividing the class into smaller groups of four, and giving them simple tasks to do. Alice however still failed to…
Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating Students to Learn. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Brophy, J.E. & C.M. Evertson. (1976). Learning from Teaching: A Developmental Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Good, T.L. & J. Brophy. (1978). Looking In Classrooms. New York: Harper & Row.
1995). Contemporary Educational Psychology. New York: Longman Publishers, USA.
With the technology available in today's economy, it is probable that education could go back to the days when students received more individualized instruction. There is no refuting that technology will continue to alter education (Cornell, 2007).
Socialization is the development of a sense of being self connected to a larger social world by way of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of one's culture. During socialization people learn to carry out certain roles as citizens, friends, lovers and workers. In the course of internalization our culture becomes second nature. People learn to behave in socially suitable and adequate ways. Some social institutions have precise roles in socializing the young and others have less deliberate but still powerful roles in the process. The mass media is a very influential socializing force. Media affects how people learn about the world and interact with each another. People often base most…
A Guide to Critical Viewing for Parents and Children. (n.d.). Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Family Values Television Network Web site: http://fvtvn.com/articles/taking-charge-of -your-tv/
Bolen, Jackie. (2006). TV's Effect on the Family. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Web site:
Cornell, K. (2007). How Technology has Influenced Education. Retrieved July 30, 2010, from Writing Web site: http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id/1322931-How -
In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students.
Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. This tends to reinforce the position taken throughout this research, which is that the successful teacher will, therefore, tend to an educational strategy which diverts from strict academic prerogatives and instead approaches its subjects…
Chang, J.; De Silva, a.D.; Dien, T.T.; Mccarty, T.C.; Nordlander, a & Perez, B. (2004). Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literacy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Haselhurst, G. (1997). Aristotle Metaphysics. Space and Motion.com.
Slavin, R.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
Education and Society About Gender
The Perception of Gender Value Among Children
In Myra Sadker's book, Failing at Fairness, gender issues in the classroom are studied to evaluate how sexism is presented and to what extent it impacts female self-esteem. In a study entitled, "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl," the response to the hypothetical consideration of gender change was examined for eleven hundred Michigan children between 1988 and 1990. When asked what life would be like if they experienced a change to the opposite sex, the general conclusion that was drawn found that both girls and boys recognized weaknesses with the female sex as compared to males. This raises concern over the social impact of sexism that appears to exist even at a young age as the value of the female gender is compromised by views that males present the more advantageous sex. Thus, the evidence of sexism among…
Sadker, Myra. "Help Me, God. I'm a Girl." Failing at Fairness. New York: Scribner, 1994.
Some of te true reasons for wic settlers were coming in large numbers was te rumor tat Arizona old great rices in its soil. Te land ad a great number of places were gold or coal could be found and mining proved to be an excellent industry for te land of Arizona. ttp://www6.nau.edu/library/scadb/imagedisplay.cfm?item_num=1865&type=Image
Contrary to te belief tat its natural resources were endless, wit te passing of time, tey started to fade and te land was soon drained out of its precious elements. People began to loose interest in coming to Arizona and resumed to migrating to te more economically advanced areas from te U.S. Only te iger development of te industrial companies enabled tem to keep teir businesses. Te valuable potential of Arizona as dropped since te 1890's till today because of pollution, tree cutting, and excessive industrialization.
Some of the true reasons for which settlers were coming in large numbers was the rumor that Arizona hold great riches in its soil. The land had a great number of places where gold or coal could be found and mining proved to be an excellent industry for the land of Arizona. http://www6.nau.edu/library/scadb/imagedisplay.cfm?item_num=1865&type=Image
Contrary to the belief that its natural resources were endless, with the passing of time, they started to fade and the land was soon drained out of its precious elements. People began to loose interest in coming to Arizona and resumed to migrating to the more economically advanced areas from the U.S. Only the higher development of the industrial companies enabled them to keep their businesses. The valuable potential of Arizona has dropped since the 1890's till today because of pollution, tree cutting, and excessive industrialization.
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., Unruh, D., & Waintrup, M. (2004). Sustaining Secondary Transition Programs in Local Schools. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 39+.
Field, S., & Hoffman, a. (2002). Lessons Learned from Implementing the Steps to Self-Determination Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 23(2), 90+.
Accordingly, the ties between the psychological aspects of learning and the social aspects tend to be quite strong. Since the student's early social encounters take place within the classroom, he is learning far more than the step-by-step processes of test taking. Knowledge of his social conditions is necessary for the proper development of the student's abilities. Social and psychological features of education are so fundamentally related that they cannot be separated from each other without a sufficient loss of understanding concerning the other.
Primarily, the purpose of education is to produce functional members of society who value both each other and the work they perform. As simple as that may sound, it is an exceedingly difficult goal. In the United States the philosophical basis outlined by the Constitution demands that public institutions not only be employed, but also that they provide an equal level of schooling across geographic and social…
Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The Metropolitan Experience. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Sadovnik, Alan R. And Peter W. Cookson, Jr. Exploring Education: An Introduction to the Foundations of Education. Needham Heights: Pearson Educational, 2001.
Values and Beliefs:
Transformation and Change
Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the human psyche is how one's personal values and beliefs can transform and change. Whereas, one previously might have imagined that one's value systems and beliefs were "set in stone," events, circumstances, relationships, and changing community membership can either slowly or suddenly work to change one's central beliefs quite unexpectedly. Although many individuals can experience a real sense of personal internal resistance or struggle to changing beliefs and values (perhaps akin to the stereotypical "midlife crisis"), some respond to value change quite readily and without emotional crisis. However, regardless of how one responds, belief and value change is a normal and typically inevitable for those who function in a wide variety of relationships, communities, and situations.
Relationships and Communities:
Their Central Function
Cultural anthropologists have long known the important role that community, and the relationships within…
Therefore, our company's mission is to ensure that our customers receive the highest quality products, with similar services, while ensuring that our employees are satisfied and motivated on personal and financial levels. Our company is also determined to significantly engage in the life of the community of which we are part of.
Corporate Social esponsibility
In today's competitive market environment it does not suffice to provide high quality products and services. A company that intends to develop a sustainable position on the market must ensure that CS actions are being taken.
As a consequence, our company intends to make a difference in the eating style of people. Therefore, the company organizes seminars on this subject. People are invited to attend to these seminars held by authorities in the field that explain people the importance of a healthy eating style and the benefits of organic foods.
Also, the company is interested…
1. Smith, J. (2003). The Shareholders vs. Stakeholders Debate. MIT Sloan Management Review. Business Ethics and Public Policy, Leadership and Organizational Studies. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/articles/2003/summer/44411/the-shareholders-vs.-stakeholders-debate/ .
2. Phillips, R. (2004). Some key questions about stakeholder theory. IVEY Business Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/view_article.asp?intArticle_ID=471 .
3. Deal and Kennedy's Cultural Model (2010). MindTools. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_86.htm .
4. Cooke, R.A. & Szumal, J.L. (2000). Using the Organizational Culture Inventory to Understand the Operating Cultures of organizations. Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate. Retrieved April 26, 2010 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=AUt1i9ZEa48C&pg=PA147&lpg=PA147&dq=robert+a+cooke+organizational+culture&source=bl&ots=ZRyk-MTlUj&sig=R9niqrhTVi1q-VNdWnvL-fB9lAg&hl=ro&ei=FcXVS93VJ8-ZOIy8vJ4O&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=robert%20a%20cooke%20organizational%20culture&f=false .
In various trials in which learners were presented with different formats of video- only, auditory-only, combinations of both, and formats combining each with note-taking by students, researchers have determined that results are comparable, although more so for superior students than for average students. In that regard, average students learn better from repeated viewing in conjunction with audio-based information while superior students benefited equally regardless of the precise combination of those variables.
The author presents the results of research documenting the extent to which developers of computer-based video instruction may be overemphasizing the value of technical sophistication and suggests that the relative value of video-based lessons is substantially the same without the inclusion of all the bells and whistles available by virtue of the latest computer-based information formats. On the other hand, the author reports that vocational task-specific training effectiveness is somewhat more dependent on more sophisticated interactive information formats.
Gardner, like Emerson, Russell, and Einstein, also criticizes the substantive choice of subject matter and the ineficiency with which traditional educational methods inspire genuine understanding or long-term retention of what is learned that way.
I think that we teach way too many subjects and we cover way too much material and the end result is that students have a very superficial knowledge, as we often say, a mile wide and an inch deep. Then once they leave school, almost everything's been forgotten. And I think that school needs to change to have a few priorities and to really go into those priorities very deeply." (Gardner 3007)
Similarly, Gardner (2007) emphasizes the importance of transforming the educational environment from the accumulative approach of traditional education and the NCL approach to one that mirrors the suggestions of Emerson, Russel, and Einstein:
we need to have the individuals who are involved in education,…
BIBLIOGRAPHY Einstein, a. (1936) on Education (From Ideas and Opinions.) New York: Crown Emerson, R.W., (1884) on Education (From a World of Ideas). Friere, P. (1972) the Banking Concept of Education (From a World of Ideas)
Gardner, H. (2000) the Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests: The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves.
New York: Penguin Putnam.
Gardner, H. (2007): Multiple Intelligences and New Forms of Assessment. Edutopia: What Works in Public Education the George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved June 30, at http://www.edutopia.org/howard-gardner-interview#graph5
Russell, B. (1926) the Functions of a Teacher (From the Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London: Routledge.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
The courts retooled by a generation of conservative judicial appointments and crazed case law now function as social abettors, in which the poor and the dark skinned are shunted off to a concrete hell with industrial efficiency. Left behind are broken families, more addiction, more disease, more illiteracy, and thus a more docile society" (Parenti, 2001).
There are different changes being made in the system to reflect new and evolving values. For example, recommendations have been made that all police interrogations be video taped, so that juries have access to the process of confession and not just a typed end-product. This way police can ensure the values of integrity in the confession process. The increasing use of DNA testing, where possible, is also a way of helping to ensure that only the guilty are punished and justice is upheld.
The main purpose of police department is to provide services to…
Parenti, C. (July 2001). The "New" Criminal Justice System: State Repression from 1968 to 2001. Monthly Review. 539(3): 19.
Platt, a. (2001). Social Insecurity: The Transformation of American Criminal Justice, 1965 -- 2000. Social Justice. 28(1): 138.
Wright, K. (1999). Leadership Is the Key to Ethical Practice in Criminal Justice Agencies. Criminal Justice Ethics. 18(2): 2.
Townsend, P. (September 2005). Detention Redemption: In One California County, Progressive Leaders and Law-Enforcement Officials Are Transforming a Troubled Juvenile-Justice System. The American Prospect. 16(9): 20+.
It would seem that younger teachers might relate better to students, but this does not seem to be the case. The Hispanic students noted that teachers often gave them the answers, but did not explain how to arrive at the answers. It seems there is a wall between students and teachers that grows the longer the teacher is in the educational system, and that gives students a definite disadvantage. I am not sure how to conquer this, but it is clear it needs to be addressed and managed for educational opportunities to be effective and legitimate for all students, regardless of their background and youth culture.
It is not surprising that families play a vital role in the culture of youth, but it is surprising that family, and educating educators how to effectively deal with and include families in the process, is so lacking, especially as the student progresses through…
Tozer, Steven E., Senese, Guy, and Violas, Paul C. School and Society: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, 5th Edition. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Creating Democratic Citizens
In American society, individuals are taught that their thoughts and opinions are valued. From this idea, democracy is born. Each individual has the right to have an opinion of any subject and to present his or her idea in a public arena. To determine the best-suited idea for a group, a vote is conducted to determine the most agreed upon conclusion. Since the majority of participants choose the conclusion, it is the one that will take precedence and is considered the fairest conclusion for the group.
The United States of America is built upon democracy.
As a citizen of the nation, it is mandatory for each individual to understand his or her role within such a society. Each person has a variety of responsibilities to adhere to as a member of our democratic society. These responsibilities include respecting others, understanding the democratic system, questioning others' viewpoints…