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Since the widespread legalization of gambling, illegal forms have greatly diminished, for example, state lotteries have largely replaced the illegal numbers rackets, and hundreds of legal casinos has lessened the demand for illegal table or slot gambling (Kelly pp). However, sports gambling, which is still illegal, is thriving, and one study estimates that Americans bet between $80 billion and $380 billion annually on sports events, making it the most widespread and popular form of gambling in the U.S. (Kelly pp). Sports gambling was made illegal by the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992, out of concern for the corrupting influence that gambling has over games and players through point shaving and game fixing (Kelly pp). Yet, bookies are available throughout the country and on college campuses, and are increasingly inked with organized crime (Kelly pp). In fact, it is safe to say that student bookies are present at…
Keisser, Bob. Officer: Bookies are Nicest People Arrested. Daily News. Los Angeles, California. January 05, 1997. Retrieved August 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Kelly, Timothy A. "A Booming $800 Billion Industry - Today, some form of gambling is legal in all but three states, and 68% of adult Americans say they've gambled over the past year. World and I. July 01, 2000. Retrieved August 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Saum, William S. "Sports Gambling in College: Cracking Down on Illegal Betting." USA
Today. July 01, 1999. Retrieved August 21, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
This includes the protection of children and protection of people who are victims of sexual crime. As it pertains to children there should be and there are laws in place that protect them from accessing or buying pornography. In addition there must be laws in place that protect children and adults that have been victims of sexual exploitation. ith this understood some pornography laws are unnecessary. For instance, people should be able to view pornography once they are 18. In some states people have to be 21 to view pornography. Many believe that when all parties involved in pornography are adults (18 and over) consenting to the activities there should be no criminality involved.
In recent months there has also been a concerted effort in some states to decriminalize the act of minors sending pictures of themselves to other minors. In most states this is treated as child pornography and…
'Dubber, M.D. (2001) Policing possession: the war on crime and the end of criminal law. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. 91 (4) 829-996
Dubner, S.J. (2009) What Would Happen if Marijuana Were Decriminalized? A Freakonomics Quorum. http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/22/pot-quorum/?apage=1
Farley, M. (2004)"Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart":1 Prostitution Harms Women Even if Legalized or Decriminalized. Violence Against Women, 10 (10), 1087-1125
Newbern, A.E. (2000) Good Cop, Bad Cop: Federal Prosecution of State-Legalized Medical Marijuana Use after United States v. Lopez. California Law Review, 88 (5), 1575-1634
This includes actions that could be considered detrimental to the individual (gambling, drugs, etc.) -- because the decision was made at the individual level (Hardaway, 2003).
Too, as the economic and political effects of globalization increase, the definition, prosecution, and attention to victimless crimes may sociologically change. Enforcing morality (e.g. prostitution and gambling), for instance, or black market goods and services may remain technically against the law, but may become so low a priority due to more serious matters. ndeed, international agencies are now taking the approach to crimes like illicit drugs of focusing on the suppliers who fail to pay taxes and thus hurt society, instead of the user. This also includes many of the underground financial crimes that have little societal or economic impact (Friedrichs, 2002). Drug use, specifically, is victimless because it is something the individual chooses to do, can do alone, and unless there is violence…
Individual freedom is the belief that there is an inherent freedom for the individual to partake in any actions they chose, with the stimulation that these actions do not impede on the rights of others. This includes actions that could be considered detrimental to the individual (gambling, drugs, etc.) -- because the decision was made at the individual level (Hardaway, 2003).
Too, as the economic and political effects of globalization increase, the definition, prosecution, and attention to victimless crimes may sociologically change. Enforcing morality (e.g. prostitution and gambling), for instance, or black market goods and services may remain technically against the law, but may become so low a priority due to more serious matters. Indeed, international agencies are now taking the approach to crimes like illicit drugs of focusing on the suppliers who fail to pay taxes and thus hurt society, instead of the user. This also includes many of the underground financial crimes that have little societal or economic impact (Friedrichs, 2002). Drug use, specifically, is victimless because it is something the individual chooses to do, can do alone, and unless there is violence involved, does not harm another person. The user may be a victim of their own predilection or addiction, but they are cognizant of the harm and risk, just as someone who has too many drinks. The ancillary factors that surround drug use would go away, this view holds, if drug use was legalized. Further, the idea of morally telling someone else what they may or may not do to and with their bodies is outmoded (Stylianou, 2010).
Part 2 -- in the American justice system, there is an assumption that the punishment should fit the crime. One would expect a harsher penalty, for instance, for someone committing willful, premeditated murder than being caught smoking a marijuana cigarette.
Victimless Crime: Illegal Gun Possession
The categorization of crimes as victimless crimes has been present throughout the history of the legal systems and as times change, there are more crimes that come into being and are categorized as victimless crimes for instance the misuse of the internet among others. The victimless crimes are those crimes that do not have a direct or apparent target or victim and there is no direct pain inflicted or injury sustained in the crime. In most instances, the victimless crimes have been viewed as acts of consent between adults like sodomy, prostitution, gaming among others where there are no complainants and no harm is sustained in the process of such activities (Ward D.S., 2003).
Illegal purchase and possession as well as carrying of firearms are not usually listed as victimless crimes though technically they can be said to be victimless crimes in most states. When…
Ward D.S., (2003). Victimless Crimes. Retrieved July 6, 2015 from http://www.halexandria.org/dward267.htm
Community-Oriented Policing and Victimless Crime:
Street-Level Drug Trafficking
The high rates of individuals who are arrested, on probation, incarcerated, or on parole throughout our nation have led some critical criminologists to advocate for the decriminalization of so-called victimless crimes. Victimless crimes include nonviolent crime such as gambling, prostitution, and illegal drug possession and drug sales. Although these activities may appear consensual or self-inflicted at first glance, this conduct creates victims indirectly because it presents larger threats to overall community security. The most pressing threats arise from drug use and trafficking, as these behaviors are a catalyst to gang activity, intimidation of law-abiding citizens, robberies, assaults, murders, and other forms of violence and community degredation. Indeed, drug users are disproportionately represented among the most active and dangerous offenders, and violence associated with the trade easily spreads to the general population (Moore & Kleiman). The question for law enforcement then…
Currie, E. (1998). Crime and Punishment in America. New York: Henry Holt & Co. 176-184.
Moore, M.H. & Kleiman, Mark A.R. (1989). The Police and Drugs. Perspectives on Policing,
11. National Institute of Justice, U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
Zimmer, L. (1990). Proactive Policing Against Street-Level Drug Trafficking. American Journal of Police, 9(1), 43-74.
Prostitution is sex between two willing adults and one of the adults pays the other adult for that sex.
While it is illegal to be the prostitute or the John it shouldn't be. Both are adults, that is not illegal, both are engaging willingly is sex, that isn't illegal, and one hands the other one money. If the John handed the prostitute money without getting sex, he would not be breaking the law. If the prostitute slept with one man, called him her boyfriend and the only thing he asked is that she maintain her figure and be available for Friday night visits, and in exchange he paid all of her bills it would not be illegal. But if that same woman decides to sleep with a dozen men a month and let them each contribute to her bill fund that makes her a criminal. The bottom line is one…
Eggen, Dan (2003) Major Crimes Rose Slightly, FBI Reports; Incidents Up in Suburbs, Down in Cities. The Washington Post
Marshall, Gordon (1998) victimless crime
Dictionary of Sociology
Walker, Bruce (2002) Reparations, Moral Crimes, and Real Justice (accessed 7-30-06)
Dark figure of crime is a term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime (Maguire & Reiner, 2007, p. 129). The notion of a dark figure undetected by standard crime reporting system casts doubt on the reliability of these systems. It also raises questions about the true magnitude of criminal activity in the United States.
The main source of crime data in the U.S. is the Uniform Crime Database, which is operated by the Federal ureau of Investigation. The UCR records crimes which are identified through the observation of a law-enforcement officer or reported by a victim or witness to law enforcement authorities. The UCR is not an exhaustive source of crime data because many crimes are neither observed by law enforcement officials nor reported by victims or witnesses.
There are two sources of crime data in the U.S. that try to ascertain…
Lynch, J.P. & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR
Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lewis, D.A., & Salem, G. (1986). Fear of crime: Incivility and the production of a social problem. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Books.
Lilly, R.J., Cullen, F.T., & Ball, R.A. (2007). Criminological theory: context and consequences
Dark Figure of Crime
The amount of crime in society gets known when it is reported to the police, through public response to victim surveys and studies of offenders who admit committing crime, and when transmitted to other agencies, such as hospital accident wards, battered women's refuge centers and similar ones (Young 2001). Other than these, the amount of crime committed is unknown. That unknown volume (of crime) that does not get reported, thus not registered, in criminal statistics, constitutes the dark figure of crime.
Statistician Adolphe Quetelet of the 1830s recognized this problem and modern statisticians do, too. All current methods of collecting crime incidence still have a dark figure. Victimization surveys, like the ritish Crime Survey (CS) and the National Crime Survey (NCS) are more accurate (Young). In 2000, CS estimated that the dark figure, or the actual extent of crime, was 4 1/2 more than what was…
Dougherty, J. (2000) Britain, Australia Top U.S. In Violent Crime. World Net Daily. http://power.consumercide.com/aust-uk-us-crimefigs.html
George, M. (2002) Tackling Crimes: Drug Links. BBC News Online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/uk/2253559.shtm
Kury, H. (2000) Concerning the Dark Figure of Crime in Eastern Europe. Max-Planck Institute. http://www.asc41/www/2000/absdm005.htm
Mason, T. (1991) Official Statistics and the Dark Figure. Lecture 2, p 196. Social Trends. HMSO: Central Statistical Office. http://peso-click-internet.fr/tmason/WebPages/Deviance/Deviance2.htm
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Organized Crime: A Contested Concept
The presence of organized crime in modern society is not as a cut and dry concept as most people would intuitively think. Take for example the existence of prostitution in virtually every society that has existed throughout the course of humanity. Although it is clear that this practice falls outside the realm of what is considered to be acceptable by the majority, many of the practitioners of this trade are actually grateful that they have the opportunity, the clients are obviously satisfied or else the demand for such services would not exist in the first place, and there is, in most cases, no one that is actually harmed in the process (at least directly). Therefore, whether organized or not, where does the actual criminality for such practices come into play? Is it because some people and/or groups believe it fall outside their limits of moral…
If one wants to verify the dangers of gambling one only needs to look at the statistics stating Las Vegas has one of the highest crime rates in the nation. People are desperate to get their win, they have lost everything and still believe that magic hand or slot is right around the corner and resort to robbing, stealing, fraud and other means to obtain gambling funds (Nauman, 2006).
Gambling is illegal in most areas of the nation. Law enforcement is charged with arresting those that break the law. In states across the nation gambling rings have been broken up and slot machines, video poker machines and roulette tables have been seized. The place for law enforcement with regard to gambling is to crack down on it and not turn a blind eye when they are aware that is going on. The children who do not have food…
Villa, Rod L. (2000) Corruption of police blamed on gambling.(Main News)
____(2000) INTERNET GAMBLING:ROBERT J. MINNIX
I maintain that all living things share an understanding that actions have consequence. I believe that even complex underlying psychological and sociological issues can be circumvented by directly addressing such most fundamental knowledge.
As for deterrence, I believe that the retributive system can in itself serve as a future deterrent, even if it does not do so intentionally. As mentioned, Kant held that any criminal activity is not only a crime against society, but a crime against the criminal him- or herself, since the criminal will suffer for these crimes, even as the victims of the crimes have suffered. Hence, there are no beneficiaries in the system and he deterrent is the threat of punishment itself.
As for rehabilitation programs, these have been notoriously ineffective, regardless of millions upon billions of dollars spent on the research and implementation involved. Even research into the underlying issues surrounding criminal activity has not…
Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).
Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point
It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.
Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…
Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .
Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]
Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
shame in teenage sextual relations," Nina Funnell outlines a conceptual criticism of the approach taken by the Commonwealth on matters relating to the laws governing various sex crimes. According to Funnel (2011), there are fundamental problems with the enforcement of certain sex crime laws against minors because they were obviously drafted and enacted mainly to protect minors and not to punish their sexual behaviour. In that regard, Funnell (2011) focuses especially on the issue of the prosecution of teenagers who transmit sexualised photographs of themselves to others as violators of child pornography laws even though those crimes are, essentially, victimless crimes. The author points out that in addition to the nonsensical application of those laws to the class of persons they were originally intended to protect rather than punish, the Commonwealth has exhibited a simultaneous lackadaisical approach to prosecuting sex crimes involving bona fide victims and adult perpetrators, such as…
Funnel, N. (2011) There's No Shame in Teenage Sextual Relations, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 September.
Gerrig, R. And P. Zimbardo. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Hinds, L. And K. Daly (2001) The War on Sex Offenders: Community Notification in Perspective, ANZ Journal of Criminology, 34(3), 256-276. DOI: 10.1177/000486580103400304
McLoughlin, C. And J. Burgess (2010) Texting, Sexting and Social Networking Among Australian Youth and the Need for Cyber Safety Education, paper available through Australian Catholic University at http://www.aare.edu.au
Whereas judicial decisions are more likely to concern substantive matters of law and definitions of legal concepts, legislative adjustments generally reflect social consensus, particularly over large spans of time. Admittedly, political access and the relative ability of specific individuals, communities, and entities to generate legislative changes beneficial to them are not, in any sense, equal when viewed from the microcosmic perspective. Nevertheless, over time, changes in the American criminal justice are largely functions of widely-shared societal concerns and social values in the United States.
In recent years, the American criminal justice system has changed in several significant respects: it has become increasingly federalized; it seen a dramatic increase in the privatization of criminal justice facilities; and it has become ever-more effective by virtue of its technological evolution. Likewise, concepts and principles of criminal reform have continually undergone cyclical changes, due in part to unanticipated flaws in prior approaches or simply…
The two should know better but their emotions got the best of them. In this case I would myself (or ask another person who knows the two) pull one of the two aside gently but firmly and ask that he take a deep breath and not cause commotion to the point where we all suffer. I would say, "Take a break guy, please cool your jets for a few moments because you are causing all of us to be distracted from what we are supposed to be doing here. You're forcing us to be involved and we aren't part of your problem, so please, quiet down…"
If that wouldn't work, the next step of course is to notify the supervisor or foreman that we need help -- or to follow company policy in whatever form is required in that situation.
Who are my heroes?
I don't have any "heroes" in…
measure situations of reality (Piquero, 2002). A dependent variable and an independent variable are studied for patterns of relation, covariance, and cause and effect. For example, the relationship between impulsivity, the independent variable, and criminal behavior, the dependent variable, or the effects of a mandatory arrest policy, the independent variable, on future patterns of domestic violence, the dependent variable, are both examples of quantitative research. For causality, three criteria are needed. In association, the variables must be related to each other. The independent variable must precede the dependent variable in time order. And the issue of no spuriousness, which occurs if there is no third variable observed.
Surveys are mostly used for observation within the social sciences, such as behaviors or the general public has feeling about certain issues. Experimental and quasi-experimental research is best to study the cause and effect situations. True experiments must have three features: two comparison…
Miller, J. (n.d.). The Status of Qualitative Research in Criminology. Retrieved from Harvard University: http://www.wjh.harvard.edu/nsfqual/Miller%20Paper.pdf
Piquero, A.R. (2002). Criminology and Criminal Justice Research: Methods. Retrieved from Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3403000080.html
Quantitative methods in criminology. (n.d.). Retrieved from Reference.com: http://www.reference.com/browse/Quantitative_methods_in_criminology
Rot, A. (2008, Oct 24). IT Risk Assessment: Quantitative and Qualitative Approach. Retrieved from World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science: http://iaeng.org/publication/WCECS2008/WCECS2008_pp1073-1078.pdf
Career in Prostitution
'CHOOSING' A CAEE IN POSTITUTION
Criminality, Sex, and Work
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
'Choosing' a Career in Prostitution
The concept of 'career' has been defined by economists as "… the means through which human capital is accrued through experience and education" (Murphy and Venkatesh, 2006, p. 132). Sociologists on the other hand, propose that the definition of 'career' also includes nurturing a positive social role. Mainstream America would probably define 'career' using both these concepts, in addition to others. For example, most Americans would probably include a significant degree of choice and commitment to a specific type of occupation.
While most Americans would probably not imagine crime as a possible career choice, many of the same core concepts of 'career' seem to be present when speaking of drug dealers, thieves, and prostitutes, as they are depicted in the HBO television series The Wire (Simon, 2002-2008). On…
Bourgois, Philippe. (2003). In search of respect: Selling crack in El Barrio, Second Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Egan, R. Danielle. (2003). I'll be your fantasy girl, if you'll be my money man: Mapping desire, fantasy and power in two exotic dance clubs. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 8, 109-120.
Murphy, Alexandra K. And Venkatesh, Sudhir Alladi. (2006). Vice careers: The changing contours of sex work in New York City. Qualitative Sociology, 29, 129-154.
Simon, D., Burns, E. Mills, D., Price, R., Lehane, D., Pelecanos, G. et al. (Writers), & Chappelle, J., Dickerson, E., Kecken, J., Kecken, S., Attias, D., Holland, A. et al. (Directors). (2002 to 2008). The Wire. [Television series]. In D. Simon, N.K. Noble, R.F. Colesberry, J. Chappelle, E. Burns, K.L. Thorson et al. (Producers). New York: Home Box Office, Inc.
Law enforcement and narcotics trafficking
In fact, one of the things that many Americans may fail to understand is that there is a relationship between the domestic narcotics industry and international terrorism. Illegal drug trafficking is an international crime problem, and it is rarer that criminal enterprises limit themselves to a single illegal activity. Many criminal enterprises involved in narcotics distribution are also involved in the trafficking of humans and weapons. Furthermore, much of America's narcotic supply comes from Afghanistan, where its production and distribution can provide revenue for terrorist organizations. "The specific dynamics of the linkage between narcotics and conflict remain poorly understood. Evolving theory on the link between organized crime and terrorism enhances and supplements the debate on economic incentives in civil war, proposing mechanisms whereby insurgent groups interact with narcotics production -- a crime -- rebellion nexus" (Cornell, 2007). This nexus is not yet fully understood and…
Cornell, S. (2007). Narcotics and armed conflict: Interactions and implications. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30(3), 207-227.
Gorvin, I. (2008, May). Targeting blacks: drug law enforcement and race in the United States.
New York: Human Rights Watch Organization.
Hartney, E. (2012, February 6). How to prevent addiction in your kids. Retrieved February 22,
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas
Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)
Shaw and McKay discovered a…
Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.
Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966
Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.
Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
The significant increase in prison terms has created unsafe, unhealthy, and potentially dangerous conditions for violent and non-violent criminals alike, frequently affecting the potential to rehabilitate felons. The Law has led to various unusual circumstances that have attracted national attention, especially those cases that send third-time offenders to prison for 25 years or more for simple, non-violent, victimless crimes, such as in the case of Santos Reyes in 1998. Despite the controversy and negative consequences, the Supreme Court upheld the Three Strikes Law, saying that it stopped short of constituting "cruel and unusual punishment."
The Three Strikes Law had the intention of limiting recidivism. However, numerous studies suggest that declines in recidivism have been negligible. This is another unintended consequence of the Three Strikes Law; the general failure to curb third offenses. Violent crimes have dropped in urban areas in California, but those declines are in line with declines in…
PA: Mason Crest Publishers.
Tyler, T. (1997). Three Strikes and You're Out, but Why? The Psychology of Public Support
for Rule Breakers. Law & Society Review, vol. 31, 2, pp. 23-246.
This memorandum is an analysis of the P&E issues raised by proposed legislative changes regarding criminal sexual behavior, as well as so-called "vices" and other related conduct. The purpose of this analysis is to define a coherent set of public policy objectives characterizing all legislative changes supported by the Fictitious State Governor's Office.
Upgrading penal classification of Solicitation/Prostitution misdemeanors and increasing sentences and fines associated with all Solicitation/Prostitution felonies.
This committee does not recommend enacting any of the proposed penal upgrades across the board as set forth. We recommend re-evaluating current "vice" policy regarding violations of existing
Solicitation/Prostitution statutes in order that funds for law enforcement and prosecution efforts be redirected and channeled more specifically toward violations that most affect "quality of life" issues for lawful citizens of Fictitious State.
Both anecdotal evidence and documented statistical information available from the seventeen counties in Nevada where prostitution…
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
Future Directions of Juvenile Corrections
he Failing Juvenile Correction System in America
History, Statement of the Problem, and Proposed Solutions
One of society's most difficult problems to solve is that of crime, and juvenile crime is a particularly difficult situation. he current juvenile correction system has many failings, and it is not improving society or curbing crime. Juveniles are being abused emotionally, physically, and sexually in detention facilities. his report introduces readers to the situation, gives a historical overview of how juvenile corrections has evolved in America, and states the problems that currently plague the system. Proposed improvements for the system, as well as examples of current programs and initiatives being taken to improve juvenile corrections, are given as well.
ABLE OF CONENS
ii Abstract iii.able of Contents
v Historical Perspective
Statement of the Problem vii....Proposed Future Directions viii...Summary and Conclusion
Crime has existed since…
The first juvenile court was established in 1899, but previous to that time children and adolescents were always processed in the adult system. By 1945, every state in America had established a separate juvenile corrections system, most of them based on theories of rehabilitation. "The original goals of the juvenile court were to investigate, diagnose, and prescribe treatment for offenders, not to adjudicate guilt or fix blame." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Judges were given a lot of freedom to choose the best way to handle juvenile offenders, rather than having strict sentencing rules to follow as they do now. In an attempt to rehabilitate and protect youth offenders, they were usually placed in reform schools that were thought to be a more beneficial experience than prison. Unfortunately, these schools became dumping grounds for unwanted children; "Common problems included lack of medical care, rehabilitation programs, and even food. Some poor conditions persist even today." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Some judges turned instead to probation sentences. Between the 1940s and 1960s, some attempts were made at providing healthier alternatives, such as probation camps, but it is difficult to say if they were at all effective because they were not available to the worst juvenile offenders, who were still generally locked up. In the 1970s, more foster care situations were made available, and alternatives such as electronic monitoring of youths on probation became available, which is still available today as a much better alternative to prison time. As people began to question the nonformal structure of the juvenile court proceedings which allowed judges to make their own calls about punishment, the focus of the juvenile corrections system has turned away from rehabilitation and instead embraces scare tactics and punishment. Legislation in the 1980s and 1990s has been targeted at more serious punishment, allowing minors to be tried as adults, and minimum sentencing laws that eliminate discretion based on circumstances. "As a result of many changes, the building of more secure facilities and development of other options, such as juvenile boot camps, house arrest programs, day treatment centers, experimental wilderness camps, and enhanced probation sanctions occurred." (Smith & Meyers 1998)
VI. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The juvenile corrections system originally had a goal to rehabilitate troubled youth, but even from the establishment of the early juvenile programs in America, the system has failed to help deter youth crime. Today, children are being specifically neglected and abused by the system, which is training them to become career criminals; "The U.S. is criminally negligent when it comes to children caught up in the nation's juvenile justice systems." (Califano 2005) One study found that four out of every five children and adolescents that are arrested are under the influence of drugs or alcohol, admit to having an addiction problem, or are arrested for a drug-related crime. However, only 3.6% of juvenile offenders that abuse or are addicted to drugs receive any treatment, and youth that go through the juvenile ...
What are the differences between jails and prisons?
Generally, jails are maintained by local municipalities and by state authorities and they are mainly intended to house criminals charged with crimes pending trial (Schmalleger, 2009). Jails are also used to incarcerate inmates convicted of misdemeanors and any other crimes whose sentences are less than a year. Meanwhile, prisons are maintained by states and by the federal government and are generally used to incarcerate inmates convicted of more serious crimes (i.e. felonies) who are serving sentences longer than a year. Federal prisons house inmates convicted on federal charges (Schmalleger, 2009).
Is the current jail/prison system effective? Why or why not?
In many respects the current jail/prison system is not particularly effective. For one thing, many have argued that members of racial minorities and those from economically disadvantaged backgrounds are much more likely to serve criminal sentences than members of non-minority groups and…
Healey, J.F. (2009). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group
Conflict and Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).
In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam
Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Before discussing crimes regarding sexuality, it is important to distinguish between those laws that are currently enforced and those that are not being actively enforced. For example, there are some laws that still punish engaging in consensual homosexual behavior, certain consensual sexual acts committed in privacy between adults in non-commercial transactions, or the use of sexual aids. While these laws exist, the fact is that there simply is not a push towards the investigation, prosecution, or punishment of these crimes. On the contrary, even challenges to the constitutionality of these laws often only arise after those who oppose such laws have arranged for an arrest and prosecution. Therefore, it is improper to consider this category of crime in a discussion of overcriminalization.
However, law enforcement, prosecution, and the judiciary do expend a tremendous amount of energy targeting commercial sexual transactions. Opponents of this cite the fact that many of those…
Luna, E. (2005). The overcriminalization phenomenon. American University Law Review, 54,
Richards, D. (1986). Sex, drugs, death, and the law: an essay on human rights and overcriminalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc.
The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…
Thus, even "victimless" deviant activities are regulated through various methods of formal and informal control. The deviancy ascribed to Brenda's teen pregnancy, for example, stems largely from the way she challenges the norms regarding sexual behavior. Conflict theorists believe that laws and norms do not reflect values of society as a whole, but only of the dominant segment.
Similarly, it could be said that Brenda's drug habit is a victimless crime. If she pursues reasonable precautions, such as avoiding driving and staying in a private place, her drug use does not differ much from smoking or alcohol consumption. However, since drug use is frowned upon by the social elite, Brenda is seen as a criminal.
Similar to conflict and Marxist theories, feminist theorists see much social inequity in society.
This social inequity is one that divides the sexes. Early on in Brenda's life, the loss of job of…
Thus the argument over whether prostitution should remain illegal or whether it should be decriminalized or made lawful, focuses principally on ethical and realistic considerations. Those opposed to legalized prostitution tend to underscore the horrors associated with the profession. They point to the trafficking in women and children, and the physical, sexual, and economic abuse of these same individuals. Prostitutes are thought to engage in a profession so reprehensible that no person would possibly choose to participate in it unless forced to do so by the most extremely adverse of circumstances. Law enforcement has failed to make much of a dent in prostitution despite an enormous amount of time, effort, and money. In fact, high-ranking officials, such as Governor Eliot Spitzer of New York have made their names breaking up prostitution rings while at the same time patronizing prostitutes themselves. The conflict reveals the very real conflict between desire and…
Davis, Nanette J., ed. Prostitution an International Handbook on Trends, Problems, and Policies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Farley, Melissa; and Malarek, Victor. "The Myth of the Victimless Crime." New York Times. 12 March 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113069928
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Further arguments that gay marriages do not contribute to the greater good are debatable, based largely on faith-based belief rather than empirical research.
In the 1930s, sociologist Edwin Schur wrote extensively about the idea of victimless crimes. For Schur, victimless crimes involve an exchange of commodities or services that are socially-disapproved. These exchanges are voluntary and do not cause anyone harm (Schur, 3).
Schur himself cited consensual homosexual unions as an example of victimless crimes. Schur writes that society has enacted laws against such deviant behavior based not on any harm these crimes cause, but because these crimes violate prevailing standards of socially acceptable behavior. These standards, however, are fluid and subject to change. Given this, Schur argues that laws against homosexuality, for example, penalize people who should not be labeled as criminals in the first place. Their actions meet the criteria of non-coercion and no harm. Therefore, no one…
Battles, Kathleen and Wendy Hilton-Morrow. "Gay characters in conventional spaces: Will and Grace and the situation comedy genre." Critical Studies in Media Communications, 19, March 2001: 87-105.
Clinton, Bill. "Congress Should Ban Antigay Job Discrimination." In Discrimination. Mary E. Williams, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. "Gay Marriage Should Not Be Legal." In Gay Marriage. Kate Burns, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press, 2005.
Gallagher, John. "Homosexuals Seek Equal Rights, Not Special Rights." In Homosexuality Helen Cothran, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2003.
The Inextricable Correlation between Human Trafficking and Prostitution
Despite ongoing efforts by the international community, human trafficking remains a global problem today. Tens of thousands of men, women and children are routinely exploited by human traffickers each year, and the practice generates billions of dollars in criminal proceeds at home and abroad. In fact, after drugs and gun-running, sex trafficking is the largest source of money for criminal organizations in the United States. Given the enormity of the problem and the vast sums of money that are involved, it is not surprising that the international community has not been successful in eliminating this practice. To determine the facts, this paper provides an analysis of the relevant literature concerning the correlation between prostitution and human trafficking to demonstrate that the two have an inextricable but difficult to quantify effect on each other. A summary of the research and important findings…
Prostitutes are often represented and protected by a pimp. A pimp is a man who is responsible for protecting the prostitute, and collecting the money that she gets paid for her services. Pimping is also illegal as it has commonly led to violence against the prostitute or Johns and it is often steeped in drug use or providing drugs to the prostitute to keep her hooked and willing to perform sex in exchange for those drugs.
There are many types of prostitutes. The street prostitutes walk around on city streets soliciting customers who drive by in cars. They generally have a room or access to a hotel nearby or they will get into the vehicle and perform acts of sex for money.
There are also brothels in some parts of the world as well as Nevada.
Brothels are controlled houses or environments in which prostitutes work. They have an…
Prostitution (Accessed 10-6-06)
U.S. Constitution is the highest law of the land. As such, is has a significant effect on public policy not only in what is possible and what is not but also through the processes it establishes for addressing issues of public interest. For this assignment, you will participate in a discussion about the U.S. And Texas constitutions and their effects on public policy. When responding to the discussion questions, be sure to reference course materials to support your conclusions and opinions. You should do the same whenever you respond to another person's discussion post. By doing so, you not only make a stronger case, but better support your own learning.
Answer the following questions:
• Both the U.S. And Texas constitutions were written when American society was mainly agrarian, rural, and governed by values relevant to the19th century. American society has changed significantly since then. This modernization has led…
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
The author of this report has been asked to select a crime control policy and then use the facts and facets of the policy to answer a few questions. First, there will be a summary of the key elements of the policy. Second, there will be an explanation of the political process for the policy. Third, there will be an examination of the role that the federal government plays when it comes to formulating crime control policy. To get a little more specific about the federal role, there will be an evaluation of how the United States Congress gets involved and influences crime control policy. This is despite the fact that many of the applicable crime control policies in play are decided at the state level. All of this will be looked at through the lens and rubric of who has the most influence and control when it…
Brookings. (2014). Legal Marijuana: Comparing Washington and Colorado. The Brookings Institution. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/fixgov/posts/2014/07/08-washington-colorado-legal-marijuana-comparison-wallach-hudak
Costa, J. (2016). Punishment for repeat DUI offenders inconsistent. Wcax.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.wcax.com/story/23033725/punishment-for-repeat-dui-offenders-inconsistant
Glazer, S. (2014). Sentencing Reform. CQ Researcher by CQ Press. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ document.php?id=cqresrre2014011000
MADD. (2016). MADD - Statistics. Madd.org. Retrieved 13 June 2016, from http://www.madd.org/statistics/?referrer=https://www.google.com/
That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).
It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).
Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…
Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com .
An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
The author of this report is to answer a few questions relating to drug trafficking. The primary focus of the questions and answers will be on two sources in particular, those being the movie Traffic and the class text authored by Thio, Calhoun and Conyers. The questions include references to the links between drugs and crime, the roles and events surrounding certain people in Traffic and so forth. There will be references other than the two mentioned above throughout the answers, as is required by the parameters of the assignment. While many depict drug use as a victimless crime, this is far from being true and the scope of the people that can be affected by drug use, drug dealing and drug trafficking literally knows no bounds or limits.
There is a heavy amount of examples of how drug use and crime are related, but the author…
Abbey, Antonia. 2011. 'Alcohol's Role In Sexual Violence Perpetration: Theoretical Explanations, Existing Evidence And Future Directions'. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5):481-489.
Helfand, Ezra. 2015. 'U.S. Says Drug Abuse Needs Treatment, Not Just Jail'. NCADD. Retrieved October 16, 2015 (https://ncadd.org/in-the-news/358-us-says-drug-abuse-needs-treatment-not-just-jail).
IMDB,. 2015. 'Traffic (2000)'. IMDb. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181865/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1 ).
Thio, Alex, Thomas C Calhoun, and Addrain Conyers. 2013. Deviance Today. Boston: Pearson.
These women make outcalls, where they visit the home of the client; or in-calls, where the clients visit their homes. At the second tier are women who work at established locations such as strip clubs, sex juice bars, brothels and massage parlors, where erotic services are also included following or during, what is an often a therapeutic massage. The third and lowest tier of prostitutes are the streetwalkers who roam certain areas, are picked up by customers and the sex acts are performed in motels that cater to this service, or cars or in back alleys. For each encounter, the prostitutes who belong to this third tier often charge only a few tens of dollars for their services. These lower tiers also include drug addicts who perform these acts in drug dens or at truck stops catering to long haul truck drivers.
Legalization of Prostitution
The term legalization can be…
Bazelon, Emily. Why Is Prostitution Illegal? 2008. Slate.com. Available:
BreakingFreeInc. Breaking Free Inc.: Sisters Helping Sisters Break Free. 2008. BreakingFreeInc.net. Available:
Establishment owners who have been interviewed say that most of these men are highly educated family men, who frequent the establishment by day and then return home to their families at night. Women who try to maintain legitimate relationships with men find more and more that their partners are visiting these brothels and sex establishments (aymond, 2003).
Legalization Does Not Protect Women's Health
The legalization of prostitution mandates that the women submit to health checks and certifications, but does not require this from male consumers. This makes no sense at all since women oftentimes contract the disease from the men. The women are not protected from contracting HIV, AIDS, or other STDs. This is not to support that both the prostitutes and male consumers be checked -- it simply points out the ridiculousness that the policy implies. "A regulated and decriminalized system of prostitution will promote safer sex and HIV…
Gerdes, L. (2007). Policies favoring legalization encourage prostitution and sex trafficking. At Issue: What are the causes of Prostitution? Detroit: Greenhaven Press. Opposing Viewpoints Resource.
Raymond, J. (2003). Ten Reasons for not Legalizing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. Haworth Press, Inc.
Roleff, T.L. (2006). Legalization and decriminalization of prostitution would not help prostitutes. Contemporary Issues Companion: Prostitution. Greenhaven Press. From Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center.
Criminal Court Observation
I must admit that when I entered the courthouse I was a bit nervous. It was my first time to attend any trial, let alone a criminal one. However, I thought that a criminal case would be far more interesting than a civil one. Yet, despite my decision, and my belief that it would be "no big deal" to watch a criminal court case, I began to feel very nervous the minute I hit the line for the metal detector. It's funny -- but I always feel just a little bit paranoid before I go through one of those machines -- almost as if I really were hiding some kind of weapon without knowing it.
Anyway, as I finally made my way into the courtroom after a long wait at security, I certainly did not feel any more at ease. For one, the room was too warm,…
Legalization of Marijuana
Pro-Side: There are many good reasons for the legalization of marijuana. While there are few jurisdictions from which to pull evidence on the positive benefits of legalization, we do have extensive experience with the negative impacts of marijuana prohibition. Marijuana prohibition has resulted in high arrest rates, in particular for minorities, which has created social chaos in those communities as young men are incarcerated long-term for what is a victimless crime. Marijuana prohibition also denies governments a potentially important source of tax revenue, as there is a fairly high consumption rate of the plant already. Marijuana prohibition costs law enforcement millions, has created a massive and bloody gang war in Mexico, and has done nothing to stem the use of the plant. These financial and law enforcement resources would be put to better use elsewhere. It is the interests of law enforcement, many politicians and the…
ProCon.org. (2014) Medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000141
LegalizationOfMarijuana.com (2014). Pros for legalizing marijuana. LegalizatoinOfmarijuana.com. Retrieved January 8, 2014 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/pros-and-cons-of-marijuana.html
..for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research" was a more important right to protect under Fair Use Doctrine (Liebowitz, 1985, p.4). Freedom of access to information was more important, and creating an unregulated market environment of ideas. Granted, file sharing is not always used for such a legitimate purpose, but then again, neither were 'taped' VHS movies and programs.
hile on the surface it would seem because intellectual property law that "provides the copyright holder an exclusive right to copy the intellectual product," is necessary because "the lack of competition in the reproduction of the intellectual product allows greater remuneration to the copyright holder than would otherwise be the case," the right to profit off of one's product is not absolute, and the consumer also has a right to fair use and access (Liebowitz 1985). Furthermore, even if Grokster…
Hersche, Cody. "Zeros and Ones reach High Court." Legal Redux. April 2005. http://ledux.blogspot.com/2005/04/zeros-and-ones-reach-high-court.html
Liebowitz, S.J. "The Economics of Betamax: Unauthorized Copying of Advertising Based
Television Broadcasts." University of Chicago/University of Texas. June 1985.
November 18, 2008. http://www.utdallas.edu/~liebowit/intprop/betamax.pdf
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.
Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .
French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
, 2001). Based on the proliferation of the Internet and the near-ubiquity of personal computers in many affluent homes, these rates can reasonably be expected to have increased even further in subsequent years.
In fact, it would appear that the more people of both sexes are using the Internet for these purposes, the more ways they are finding to do so. In this regard, Green and her associates point out that, "The fact that one can access sexually related materials and interact with others anonymously on the Internet has opened the doors even wider. Using anonymous screen names, individuals can explore and express their sexual interests with little fear that friends, coworkers, or even spouses will discover their activities" (2001, p. 303). Furthermore, the individuals who participate in these encounters can do so with other anonymous individuals without the risks typically associated with face-to-face relationships; if an anonymous online relationship…
Benotsch, E.G., Cage, M., & Kalichman, S. (2002). Men who have met sex partners via the Internet: Prevalence, predictors, and implications for HIV prevention. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(2), 177.
Giuseppe, R., Tiziana, T., & Anolli, L. (2003). The use of the Internet in psychological research: Comparison of online and offline questionnaires. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(1), 73.
Green, A., Katelyn, S., Mckenna, Y.A., & Smith, P.K. (2001). Demarginalizing the sexual self. The Journal of Sex Research, 38(4), 302.
Hill, R.J. (2005, Spring). Poz-itively transformational: Sex workers and HIV / AIDS education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 105, 74.
Life of excess, hedonism and instant gratification vs. A life of substance, solid relationship, and a life of purpose
Pleasure and freedom is a practice in futility and wasted time and years
Life of excess, hedonism and instant gratification in The Great Beauty
Instant gratification leads to lost relationships, present or starting to blossom
Hedonism in the form of sex and prostitution, drug use, and alcohol abuse
estatement of thesis: There is more to life than shallow relationship and mindless pleasure-seeking.
Media acts as a venue that counteracts the thesis (ie, media promotes life of excess, hedonism, and instant gratification)
Divergent views in the film: religion and morality vs. A life without concern for anyone else
Prostitution and media's perpetuation of it as a "victimless crime"
b. Banning of night clubs and casual/non-marital sex in the film
eiteration of thesis: there is a potentially huge price to be paid…
Brooks, X. (2013, December 20). The 10 best films of 2013, No 2 -- " The Great Beauty.
The Guardian. Retrieved April 1, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2013/dec/19/10-best-films-2013-the-great-beauty
Ebert, R. (2013, November 23). The Great Beauty. All Content. Retrieved April 1, 2014,
legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.
Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.
On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.
The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.
Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).
The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).
The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.
Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Kingsley Davis, regard prostitution not only as a harmless service to society, but also a necessary one. However, when considering the criminal aspect of prostitution, there are many cases in which participants are indeed harmed, or run the risk of being harmed. This is the case for Lisa, who is at risk of both harming herself and her clients. First, her regular use of drugs is a significant risk factor in her own health. Second, her use of unprotected sex to procure these drugs puts both herself and her clients at risk of infection and death. For these reasons, The two main components of Lisa's actions -- her drug addiction and unprotected sex -- could be potentially criminal and should be discouraged by means of legal safeguards.
First, Lisa's drug addiction needs to be addressed by both legal and healthcare means. Rather than imprisoning her in already overcrowded facilities, which…
The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.
The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's
Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…
Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,
2009, from http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
The criminalization of the mentally ill is one of law enforcement's greatest challenges and tragedies. As Stephey points out, prisons have become the de facto mental health provider in the United States. That means that criminal behavior is one of the primary means by which an individual is diagnosed with mental illness. One judge claims that, "mentally ill people end up in front of her instead of receiving the services that may prevent them from landing behind bars," (cited by Hefley). As many as a quarter of all persons using the public defender system are later diagnosed with mental illnesses (Hefley). If those illnesses were recognized and treated sooner, the eruption of criminal behavior might have been easily prevented. This is a proposal to federal lawmakers, requesting a revision of the mental health system. Mental health services, like services for physical health, are highly sophisticated in the United…
Hefley, Diana. "Mentally Ill Often Adrift in the Criminal Justice System." Herald.net. 13 Sept 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.heraldnet.com/article/20090913/NEWS01/709139880
Stephey, M.J. "De-Criminalizing Mental Illness." Time. 8 Aug, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1651002,00.html
People often feel and think they are on solid ground when they make statements and assertions. Many people are wise enough to hedge and qualify their statements as their own opinion and/or something that some people believe. However, others are not quite so adept at remaining impartial and keeping a full perspective. The below statement reactions will reflect and describe the more common miscues that people can engage in. The reactions will follow the corresponding letter item in the textbook for each item. While people may be sure of themselves, it does not mean they are making a logical or reasonable point.
A is deceiving because while wealth is indeed a pursuit of many people, while it does tend to be hard and while many famous people have pursued it, it does not mean it is the goal and aim of everyone and the difficulty thereof is basically…