Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Poor working conditions had a tremendous and negative effect on the health of the working class in England in the Victorian Age. The Victorian Age (the nineteenth century) saw the rise of a large working class, where women, men, and children are spent long hours in employment in substandard conditions. Working conditions were poor, and physical mistreatment was common, as were long hours, unhealthy conditions, and poor wages. As a direct result of these poor conditions and ensuing poverty, the health of the average working class Victorian was poor. Nutrition and hygiene were poor, and disease was common, as was malnutrition.
During the Victorian age, the image of employment is often one of the male worker toiling in factories that were established during the Industrial evolution. While this image is certainly true, as discussed later, women were also an important part of the workforce. A number of factors led to…… [Read More]
Carmilla chooses her victims (young women isolated from society and without friendship) mainly because they are easy prey. She is a sensual, tender and affectionate woman herself -- beautiful to behold, as Laura describes: "She was slender, and wonderfully graceful…her complexion was rich and brilliant; her features were small and beautifully formed; her eyes large, dark, and lustrous" (Fanu 30). Bertha is a young woman intended to meet and befriend Laura, till she falls victim to Carmilla; and Laura is equally young and eager for a confidante. The fact that Carmilla first introduces herself to Laura when Laura is a girl and crying because she has been left alone in the nursery suggests that Carmilla is an altogether different kind of femme fatale -- not one who preys upon men to achieve her own aims but rather one whose very nature compels her to seek the embrace of young women…… [Read More]
Meanwhile, Melmotte introduces Marie into the matrimonial arena at an extravagant ball for which, in hope of favors that will come, he gains the patronage of several duchesses and other regal individuals. Marie, believed to be the heiress of millions, has many highly placed but poor young noblemen asking for her hand in marriage. She falls in love with Sir Felix Carbury, who is the most shady of them all. Felix's interest in Marie has nothing to do with love, but only with her wealth. This behavior is expected, since he is just following through on all that he has been told while growing up. He has learned his lessons well. His mother commends him often for winning Marie's heart, even if it is for the wrong reasons.. As Trollope writes:
It was now his business to marry an heiress. He was well aware that it was so, and was…… [Read More]
In the face of this awareness of human decline and despair the protagonist pledges love to his partner. This love is described as "true," which implies a love that is faithful and enduring and which can transcend the loss of faith in the world.
This vision or poetic image of loss of faith in human nature can be seen, albeit in a different light, in the work of Browning. An example would be the poem "Fra Lippon Lippi." In this poem the poet questions the nature of art and whether it should be true-to -- life or idealistic. The question is related to the way that art can best serve religious purposes and also refers to the gap between ordinary life and religious faith. The argument that runs throughout the poem is that the religious authorities are more concerned with appearances than expressing deep religious convictions.
Many of Browning's poems…… [Read More]
Victorian Female Sexuality
Victorian Sexuality: George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid"
omen in the Victorian era must have suffered enormously under the massive double standards and the shameful image of a woman who wanted to be on her own. It is clear from examining the literature of the period how much discrimination was placed on women in the era. George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid" show the intense sexual and gender discrimination that women in the Victorian era had to endure and the extreme consequences that were reserved for them upon breaking such strict traditions on sexuality and love relationships; however, George Bernard Shaw does allow for a greater sense of freedom for his female characters as his work was written much later at the tail end of the Victorian era, as long as they avoid the contact…… [Read More]
Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.
For Victorians, control was part of…… [Read More]
life of a clergyman in Victorian society as presented in the novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. The paper explains how the society of those days perceived Church and focuses on the negative portrayal of clergymen by Austen.
PIDE AND PEJUDICE: LIFE OF A CLEGYMAN
Pride and prejudice is undoubtedly the most important work of Jane Austen and one, which presents Victorian society in its true light. The novel sheds light on the society of those days and shows how various characters evolved under restriction posed by societal rules and regulations. This is probably one reason why we find Austen's clergymen to be repressed figures who were more inclined to serve themselves than others. The negative portrayal of the life of a clergyman in Pride and prejudice is closely linked with the fact that Victorian society was a highly class conscious society where people of humble professions were not…… [Read More]
Victorian literature was remarkably concerned with the idea of childhood, but to a large degree we must understand the Victorian concept of childhood and youth as being, in some way, a revisionary response to the early nineteenth century Romantic conception. Here we must, to a certain degree, accept Harold Bloom's thesis that Victorian poetry represents a revisionary response to the revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism, and particularly that of ordsworth. The simplest way to summarize the ordsworthian child is to recall that well-known line from a short lyric (which would be appended as epigraph to later printings of ordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality, from Recollections of Early Childhood") -- "the child is father of the man." Here, self-definition in adulthood, and indeed the poetic vocation, are founded in the perceived imaginative freedom of childhood.
Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might
Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,
hy with…… [Read More]
dining room. day.
MOTHER, ALICIA, and BOBBY are seated around the table. ALICIA and BOBBY are eating hungrily; MOTHER is staring at the wall vacantly.
What's wrong, Mom?
I asked you what's wrong. You've been taring at the wall for the past five minutes.
It's nothing, honey.
It's the kitchen.
MOTHER looks sharply at BOBBY.
The kitchen. it's weird in there. I don;t really like it. It feels...funny. Like someone is after you.
(in a spooky voice)
And if you aren't a good little boy, the spirit of the kitchen will put you in the oven and make you into Thanksgiving dinner!
ALICIA cackles wickedly. FATHER enters, dressed for work and carrying a briefcase. He kisses MOTHEr on the top of the head.
Isn't it a little early for evil laughter? What's going on?
I'm just telling…… [Read More]
The Victorian and Other Healthcare Facilities still have issues with horizontal violence in their work environments where many of these incidents occur, however, their facility feels, according to the Contemporary Nurse web site, that the main reason that there is so much animosity in the Victorian health center is because of the constant aggression that these nurses receive from dementia patients which causes some of these nurses to be more anxious, uptight, restless, and more likely to say something to offend other nursing staff especially the younger, less experienced, new graduates that have just joined the healthcare team. The Victorian chairman addressed in a letter he had wrote to the Minister for Health to politely ask him to think about his opinion on the report that the Victorian's Taskforce hostile working environment even though he shares his own beliefs and facts, noted in the "Victorian Taskforce on Violence…… [Read More]
Religion and Family on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Children in a Cup of Water Under My Bed: A Memoir by Daisy Hernandez (2015)
In her memoir, A Cup of Water Under My Bed, Daisy Hernandez describes her first-hand experiences growing up in the United States as the daughter of Latin American parents from two different countries. Although Hernandez provides a number of salient examples of how cross-cultural issues affect her life, perhaps the most poignant issue explored in her memoirs concerns her coming to grips with being bisexual and what this meant for her and her family based on her Catholic education and her parents' views about human sexuality. Given the increasingly widespread acceptance of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States in recent years including legislation and changes in social practices, it is important to identify any significant issues that could hamper this…… [Read More]
Victorian Prose and Poetry, by Lionel Trilling and Harold Bloom. Specifically, it will discuss ealism and compromise in Victorian Literature. How do Victorian writers search for realistic compromises with the world around them?
In Victorian literature, ealism followed the age of omanticism, and ealism quickly evolved into Naturalism, practiced by many authors of the time, including Jack London, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, and Sinclair Lewis. "There was a time when the intellectual and spiritual life of Europe as a whole was dominated by neo-classicism; it was dominated in the next era by omanticism; and then it was dominated by ealism, which developed into Naturalism" (Baker 58). ealism in literature attempted to portray things as they really were, scientifically and without emotion, placing man in balance with nature.
The task of realism, Howells felt, was to defend "the people" against its adversaries. The realist, he wrote, "feels…… [Read More]
Women identified their hrist Jesus who was food during mass as the redemption of humanity. The women believed reaching spirituality was through food, since naturally they were food from their ability to breastfeed. The Medieval women associated the breast as seen in Holy mother, Mary's own breastfeeding as a Eucharistic feeding of the soul.
The painting also indicates that to the Female saints of the Middle Ages, prayer was an important element in their connection to God. In the "The life and Miracles of Saint Godelieve," Godelieve makes prayer requests and offerings of food to God, that are answered by angels who bring delicacies for the poor.
Amy Hollywood. "Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History (Religion and Postmodernism)," University of hicago Press, (2002).
This article carries out an analysis of anthropological studies of the medieval times, and looks into the connection of the body,…… [Read More]
omen's Nature In Oliver Twist
hen assessing women's original nature and how it is manifested and displayed in Oliver Twist, it becomes clear that the three main female characters all portray a different version of how women can be perceived and render themselves. Rose, Agnes and Nancy. However, the exploration of women's nature and how it was defined in the Victorian age need not be limited to those three. It is illuminating and revealing how Dickens poses and presents the women of Oliver Twist and the reactions that tend to be elicited by those that read and review this work. On the whole, it is obvious and clear that Dickens levied a full-frontal assault against the system and regimentation that were held against women, the poor and the ruffians of society. As it pertains to women, this obviously included the concept and idea that woman that keep themselves virginal, prim…… [Read More]
He tells alton he was "surprised that among so many men of genius . . . that I alone should be reserved to discover so astonishing a secret" (37). Here Shelley illuminates the weakness of man with Frankenstein's inability to control himself in this situation. Shelley placed Frankenstein in this environment because he represented "modern scientist is search of the spark to animate lifeless matter" (right 14). Like Prometheus, he is penalized for "meddling in the work of the gods" (14). Shelley foreshadows the mood of the novel when she writes, "Frightful it must be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavor to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world" (Shelley xxv). Here Shelley is making a stand against certain aspects of knowledge. hile knowledge itself is not bad, the desire for knowledge to do great things for the sake of fame or…… [Read More]
role of religion in the history of European society is a tumultuous one. Christianity, from its obscure beginnings in the classical age, eventually took the reins as the centerpiece of philosophical, literary, and scientific thought. It is true that religion, often, tends to justify actions that might objectively be perceived as incongruous to the established faith. It has historically been the case that when traditional forms of worship become threatened, morally questionable methods are undertaken to strengthen the order. This is certainly the case with Christianity. Since the birth of the Catholic Church in the Roman Empire, Church officials have actively attempted to make their privileged positions in society impervious to assault -- this process has progressed for centuries and, indeed, tens of centuries. For many years this single faith dominated nearly every aspect of European society and was a strong force in maintaining the status quo. However, the many…… [Read More]
Both Andrew and Abby had been killed in a similar manner -- crushing blows to their skills from a hatchet (Tetimony of Bridget Sullivan in the Trial of Lizzie Borden).
Just prior to the murder there was a great deal of conflict at the Borden house. The two living Borden sisters, Lizzie and Emma, occupied the front of the house, while Andrew and Abby the rear. Meals were rarely served as a family; Andrew was very tight and rejected many modern conviencences and the two daughters, well past marriage age for this time period, argued with their Father about his decision to dive the valuable properties among extended relatives before his death instad of the estate going to them. Lizzie did not hate her step-mother, but did not really enjoy her company and the combination of Andrew's monetary views, the new social mores of the time, and Andrew's insistence that…… [Read More]
shades of colorful descriptions, the prevalent mood, characters of Jane and Rochester as portrayed by the author as well as the use of language and image patterns in the novel Jane Eyre penned down by the popular author of the Victorian and the contemporary age, Charlotte Bronte. The orks Cited appends one source in MLA format.
Jane Eyre, the masterpiece by Charlotte Bronte conveniently made it to the victory stand and tops the list of some of the world's best literary works because of the skillful blending of various themes and several thought-provoking issues enveloped in the novel. It follows the rules of the Gothic literature and the intense mythic quality of Jane Eyre differentiates it from the modern literary text. Jane Eyre is no doubt a Victorian Novel, addressing the norms of the Victorian society, the societal pressures compelling women to remain suppressive and inducing chauvinistic attitude in men…… [Read More]
slavery and segregation had contributed to the establishment of a wealthy
ownership class in the United States, so had the nature of its 20th century
consumer culture helped to enforce separate racial societies. Thus, even
as white women struggled for recognition and equal rights, the climb from
domestic servitude would be a great deal more arduous for a female African
American culture which had been conditions through centuries of slavery
toward assumed domestic servitude. To this extent, the parallels which
Odem's text draws between slavery and female inequality bear a shared
relationship in defining America's gendered culture.
Today, women have in many ways been relieved of the domestic roles
once foisted upon them with no outlet of relief. Indeed, it is
increasingly common and standardized to find women in all walks of
professionalism and at positions of authority. Moreover, the premise that
the woman should be expected to…… [Read More]
hereas many of the other posts about Emily Dickenson focused on the poet's obsession with death, you chose to focus on her equally powerful interest in the theme of love. I appreciated this change of pace, and being able to explore Dickenson's poetry from a more cheerful standpoint. Love, at least romantic love, is an old theme as you point out. Dickenson does borrow some of her perspective on romantic love from influences like Shakespeare and also from mythology and also the Bible, which also has some love poetry. here do you think Dickenson derives most of her love-related themes from in literature? Although you focus on Dickenson's "ild Nights, ild Nights!" you do not mention whether the poet was also writing about sexuality as well as love. To write about sexuality as a woman in the Victorian Age would have been outright scandalous, so perhaps Dickenson cloaked her…… [Read More]
Elizabeth Browning's Changed Role Of omen In The Victorian Age Using Poetry
During the course of the nineteenth century including the Victorian Age, the rights and roles of women were widely controversial and debated. The controversy and debates relating to the Victorian roles for women were particularly centered on middle-class women. There were concerns on whether these women should be educated, allowed to work in other settings other than the home, and have a political voice. As these debates continued, many Victorian women such as Elizabeth Barrett Browning made significant contributions to the roles and rights of women through their literary works. As one of the most prominent writers during this period, Browning made powerful and engaging contributions based on her belief that educational training was a crucial factor towards the success of women in the society. Through poetry, Elizabeth Browning explored and challenged the conventional rights and roles for…… [Read More]
lives of women in the late 19th and early 20th century, including Susan B. Anthony and Ida B. Wells. Specifically, it will analyze the private lives of American women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries - as daughters, wives, and mothers. Did their lives mesh or clash with their participation in the wider public world of education, work, and politics? How so? Women in Victorian times and beyond were expected to conform to society's mores, which did not include rights for women. If a woman stepped outside the norm, she did not "fit" in polite society, and she was often ostracized and abandoned by those around her.
WOMEN'S PIVATE LIVES
Women in the Victorian age, which lasted from1880 to 1900, were placed on pedestals, as long as they managed to conform to society's dictates about how women should act and dress, took care of their family and their…… [Read More]
Nights at the Circus" is a fairy tale in the modern times. It revolves around the circus star, Sophie Fevvers, who is half-human and half-swan, and who is the passionate object of professional and moral pursuit of Jack Walser, a devout journalist who must seriously investigate into the truth or falsity of this half-human, half-animal phenomenon. Fevvers is surrounded by equally phenomenal characters, such as the prophesying pig named "Sybil,," the clown offo, the circus owner Colonel Kearney, Mignon and Lizzie. Wasler's intense investigation leads him to join the circus team, disguised as a clown, in order to complete and satisfy his obsession of getting to the bottom of Fevver's mysterious person and reality. In the course of their togetherness -- which begins in London, proceeds to Petersburg and Siberia and returns to London --, it is Wasler who transforms from his selfish point of reference to a childlike one,…… [Read More]
Otherwise put, why do the conservatives still follow unattainable goals and why does the population still vote for them?
Thomas Frank builds his book on a simple belief: the most popularity in America is raised by the conservative coalition. However, this is not uniform, but divided into two wings: the economic conservatives and the social conservatives. While the first wing desires to implement tax cuts and other financial regulations, the second wing wishes to ban abortion and gay marriages.
D.J. Waldie's Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir
The action in the book by poet and historian D.J. Waldie is set in the 1950s and it is written in the style of a novel. Holy Land tells the story of a suburban community in California - Lakewood, a prototypical suburb of the post war period. Through a generalization, the book reveals the commencement of the American suburbia. "Laid out in 316 sections…… [Read More]
The door itself is a barrier, and she does not realize what is behind that door until she is inside and it is too late.
This kind of innocence is repeated in other Griffith films, and some of his biographers have speculated that the sort of character represented mirrors Griffith's view of his older sister, who raised the family after the mother's and father's deaths and who herself never married (Henderson 23-26). hether this is the true source or not, the innocent female from the country was a staple in Griffith's films and a character tested again and again as various temptations are placed in her path. In ay Down East, the temptation may include the more affluent lifestyle of Lennox Sanderson and the Tremonts, and this desire to rise above her station may be the real sin for which Anna must atone. Sanderson's house has a high ceiling that…… [Read More]
S. Those who had lived for generations in the U.S. were unsettled and wary as these changes occurred. Immigration soon became a social and political issue among the public, groups began to form based on beliefs held which were similar from group to group, and the prevalence of organizations experienced growth with the KKK being no exception to the rule. The KKK used phrases such as "America for Americans" (Ludwig, nd) Ludwig additionally states: "Anti-Catholic prejudice was alive and even rejuvenated in some quarters in the twentieth century. Protestant "fundamentalists" and other new Christian denominations revived anti-Catholicism as part of an insistence on "original," pre-Rome Christianity. Americans, goaded on by hate groups, feared that Catholics would pay allegiance to their "foreign King" (the Pope) rather than their new country (Pencak, 110). Although there was a strong argument for this, as much of the Italian immigrant population consisted of devout Catholics,…… [Read More]
You see he does not believe I am sick!" (Gilman).
In fact, there is a question as to whether the narrator drags her husband along with her in her journey into madness. Two feminist writers note, "At the moment when Gilman's narrator completes the identification with her double in the wallpaper, she experiences an epiphany. To John she exclaims, 'I've got out at last... In spite of you and Jane!'" (Delashmit, and Long 33). She has realized her freedom, but at a very heavy cost. Like Nora, she leaves behind a child and a husband in order to live in her private "mad" world. Some critics believe she is the result of a "sick" society that treats women so inhumanely they have few options but to desert their families or go mad (Herndl 114). Obviously, the cost to the women and the family is extremely high, and the obstacles they…… [Read More]
1920s and Social Values
The 1920s and their many excesses were quite disturbing to religious conservatives like Protestant Americans. To them, the 20s were a time of fast cars, loose women, booze, jazz, and lax morals among young people. This was especially difficult because the morals of the Victorian era, which had just ended, were extremely strict and confining, so older people were extremely disturbed by the changes they saw in society. They saw the sexual freedom of the 1920s as a threat to the very core of a society that was built on hard work, ethics, and religion. The rural areas of America still tended to be agricultural, and so, these conservative farmers were not caught up in the faster pace of city life, and did not understand the youths and their wild lives and abandon.
One major response to the threat these values placed on conservative society was…… [Read More]
Tide Detergent and the Political Environment
According to Otto Bettmann's memorably titled book, The Good Old Days -- They Were Terrible, adulteration of soaps and foodstuffs were rife in the era of the 1910's and 1920's before Tide Detergent became a reality in the 1930's America. (Bettmann, 1974) Thus, the main legal consideration for Proctor & Gamble was not the safety of Tide or indeed any detergent as a product, rather it was forming a patent for its manufacture, to avoid the chemical process for manufacturing detergent becoming widely known. Today, the method of securing patents is so widely circulated that there are books written on the subject in the form of do-it-yourself guides. (Pressman, 2000) Also, there are sites on the Internet devoted to patent protection. But at the time, P&G's methodology of creating something to make whites truly whiter was a hotly contested patented product. After all, "for…… [Read More]
Ethics of Belief
Knowledge, Truth and Belief -- Cphl 550
For a long time, issues of faith and ethics have raised many concerns. In this study, I have used Clifford's argument to elucidate my support for the "ethics of belief." The Ethics of Belief by illiam Clifford state that it is incorrect for anyone to believe on anything based on insufficient evidence. Clifford mentions that the immorality of belief unsupported by evidence is similar to that of shipowners who forgo overhaul for their ship and overcome their doubts on the ship's sea-worthiness (Clifford 45). The costs and efforts used in monitoring the implementation are sourced from necessary repairs. The depiction shows the play-off beliefs against elements of self-interest. Ship owners overcome their doubts based on self-interest. The management collects the insurance after people dies in his ship at sea because of the proven unseaworthy nature of the vessel.
Clifford generalizes…… [Read More]
History Of Psychology and Hysteria
Hysteria, symbolize women in the field of psychology during history and in many different cultures for the reason that the issues that society goes through are reflected in the area of psychology. Hysteria has been broken down into various parts in history that had to change influences on the diagnosis and its implication for women. History has shown that parallel patterns can be observed in the growth of menstruation and sexuality. Hysteria is unquestionably the first mental disorder attributable to women, precisely labeled in the second era BC. This was until Freud looked at it as being an entirely female illness. Above 4000 years of history, this syndrome was reflected from two viewpoints which were the scientific point-of-view and the demonological standpoint.
What is Hysteria?
esearch shows that Hysteria was the ?rst psychological disorder that was labeled at women. This condition is known for having…… [Read More]
" The point made by the poet is similar to the poem above. The reference to John,
The Father of our souls, shall be,
John tells us, doth not yet appear;
is a reference to the Book of Revelations, at the end of the Bible.
That despite the promises of an Eternal life for those who eschew sin, we are still frail and have the faults of people. We are still besought by sin and temptations and there's really no escape. People are people. No matter what we say or do, we find that life is not so simple. Consider this reference, which really refers to a person's frame of reference or "way of seeing."
Wise men are bad -- and good are fools,
This is a paradoxical statement: there is large gap between spirituality and reality. Those we consider wise or bad, might make decisions that are globally profound,…… [Read More]
Feminization of Poverty and Education in Canada
It is often assumed that gender divisions in the economy and major political and social institutions are higher in the developing countries than in the developed nations of Western Europe, Japan, and the United States. Many UN, UNDP, UNIFEM and other reports suggest that women suffer from greater inequality of opportunities in the non-industrialized world. Estimates suggest that from sixty to seventy percent of the poor people in the developing world are female (Marcoux 1998). While these reports are not without merit, they are sometimes misleading as the level of gender inequality is still quite high in much of the industrialized countries.
Available data suggests that poverty in the developed countries is also unevenly distributed among men and women. This paper will discuss the specific case of Canada where feminization of poverty has significantly influenced the so-called "equality of opportunity" for education in…… [Read More]
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…… [Read More]
In other words, contemporary men and women have lost sight of the philosophical for the commercial, and have replaced the sociological enlightenments of socialism and democracy. That contemporary men and women consume without thought as to their how their abundance or consumption of abundance came to them. Mills says:
"No social study that does not come back to the problems of biography, of history and of their intersections within a society has completed its intellectual journey (p. 6)."
Mills does not mince words as he puts the burden for contemporary men and women failing to connect their history and their biography on the shoulders of the sociologists who have, like Narcissi fallen for their own rhetoric such that it has bloomed into empty words (pp. 1-7). Without the sociologist's connection, there is no meter by which to measure progress in the present. The present becomes void of historical significance,…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"
Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…… [Read More]
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw change of a manner and magnitude never before experienced in world history. Technological, governmental, and ideological transformations made the nineteenth century span the gap between the modern world and the ancient world. "At the start of the century, life was not so very different from Roman times -- although a Roman would have been very shocked by the state of the roads and the filthy towns. But by the end of the century life was not so very different from the world we know today." (Chamberlin 6). By this interpretation of events, the middle ages in Europe had taken well over a millennium to finally match the living conditions and way of life enjoyed by the Romans; however, the next hundred years would be a period of unprecedented change and social upheaval. Largely, these changes were associated, in some way, with the industrial revolution, which…… [Read More]
human nature that people like to categorize and have thinks set clearly to them in 'black and white'. People have always liked to think in terms of dualisms: there is the Cartesian 'body and soul' and 'paradise and hell', and "good and evil' amongst so many other dualisms. Either one category or the other exists. Belonging to that same schematic order of pattern is 'man and woman'. Shades of grey such as sexless individuals perplex and disturb people. They are bound to react with intolerance when faced with these exceptions. Nonetheless, differences of sex are not so clear. This essay is an elaboration on just that, showing that the popular view that there are only two genders in a dichotomous relationship need not necessarily be so. Gender and biological differences of gender are not so clear.
As part of our evolutionary background, people tend to categorize and think in terms…… [Read More]
"I cry at nothing, and cry most of the time… I lie here on this great immovable bed -- it is nailed down, I believe -- and follow that pattern about by the hour. It is as good as gymnastics, I assure you. I start, we'll say, at the bottom, down in the corner over there where it has not been touched, and I determine for the thousandth time that I will follow that pointless pattern to some sort of a conclusion." She does not think of her child, and only occasionally of her husband. The wallpaper and the imaginary woman command her focus. Forced into a pointless existence, and denied the mobility and the intellectual excitement that make life meaningful, the woman's mind turns to other intellectual and imaginary pursuits, Gilman suggests.
Eventually, rather than describing herself as looking at the pattern of the wallpaper, Gilman's heroine disassociates and…… [Read More]
One such sin would be to not accept the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit as seen by Guthrie flowed through Jesus Christ. For one to not accept the Holy Spirit, then one would not be able to accept Jesus and not be a Christian, not be apart of God's salvation.
For Christian life, discipleship, and ministry, hopeful signs appear. The struggle present itself in that research in the theological realm follows the lines drawn out by Scripture, and avoids the extremes and excesses, in various directions, that have reared their heads throughout the history of Christian thought. With the start of the new millennium, systematic theology faces struggles and opportunities. Yet these are not merely issues of academic interest. Some of these developments are good, some are not.
In conclusion to answer the question "Who are the people of God?" In biblical terms forces the systematic theologian to wrestle with…… [Read More]
1415 Euopeans began a long pocess of expansion though impeial conquest and colonization. This ealy moden fom of impeialism continued up to the late eighteenth o ealy nineteenth centuy. Explain how and why the vaious Euopean powes expanded beyond thei oiginal bodes and in many instances beyond the continent. Be sue to distinguish between at least thee of the pincipal Euopean impeial powes, among which wee the Potuguese, Spanish, Bitish, Fench, Dutch, and Russians.
Thee wee many factos that caused Euopean powes to expand beyond thei oiginal bodes and, in many instances, beyond the continent.
One of these was simply colonization whee one county battled anothe and claimed its teitoy as its own. Anothe facto was tade whee the tade dealings of specific counties bought them into contact with anothe and, theeby impoted thei influence into foeign soil. The slave tade too was a contibutoy facto whee people fom one…… [Read More]
feminist rhetorical theory. omen have been historically minimized and isolated by the domination of the patriarchal majority. Although women have been able to make a degree of progress, finally achieving positions of social and political power, the number of women in these high offices is still far less than the roles that are filled by man. Modern women, far removed from the "angels in the house" of the Victorian age, are nonetheless still impacted by the sociological oppression of women which was reinforced during that era, according to the rhetorical theory of feminism. Given that this is the case, men and women need to be aware of these underlying gender biases so that they can both combat them and make sure that they themselves do not fall prey to them. People who deny that this subjugation of women may be enlightened by closer examination of the power dynamics which exists…… [Read More]
Peter, Wendy & the Victorian ritish Family
In J.M. arrie's epic fantasy, Peter and Wendy, three children from Victorian England set off for a distant paradise of endless boy-centered adventures called 'Neverland'. This land that can be reached by Peter Pan's nonsensical directions, "second to the right, and then straight on till morning" (arrie 24), represents an upside-down world where the codes of Victorian England can be deeply analyzed and challenged. arrie utilizes the various characters and situations to illustrate how the ritish society of his time left no room for imagination, romanticism, or simple fun, which alienated men from their children and discouraged the latter from ever wanting to 'grow up' and become 'responsible'. Moreover, arrie illustrates the unjust roles that women are forced to play through the context of the story's matriarch, Wendy Darling. From knowledge of arrie's personal life and his usage of subtle, yet potent symbols…… [Read More]
She does not believe that she has a reputation worthy enough of being allowed entry into the upper echelons of Victorian society. Her perception of Cecily, and her prospects for marrying her nephew -- change dramatically, however, when Lady Bracknell ascertains how much money the young woman stands to inherit. The following quotation suitably demonstrates this point.
A hundred and thirty thousand pounds! And in the Funds! Miss Cardew seems to me a most attractive young lady, now that I look at her. Few girls of the present day have any really solid qualities, any of the qualities that last, and improve with time. We live, I regret to say, in an age of surfaces (Act III).
Once Bracknell finds out how much money Cecily is worth, the latter becomes "attractive." The true irony in this quotation is the fact that Lady Bracknell's sudden change in attitude about Cecily as…… [Read More]
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…… [Read More]
Indeed, this is also clear in his occupation with both scientific, philosophical, and literary things. Being human in a well-rounded and complete way, despite the conflict he experiences regarding this, is the poet's triumph.
The conflict indicated in the poem is one that Lord Tennyson has experienced throughout his life, according to authors such as Andrew Lang. Indeed, as a boy he was continually investigating even early theories of evolution, long before it became socially fashionable to consider such issues. The poem is therefore the culmination of long years, not only of writing the poem itself, but also of deeply philosophical thought about scientific and biological issues.
Viewed in connection with the rest of the poem, Lyric CXX can then be seen as representing Tennyson's philosophical thought about death as representing hope within despair, loss, and sorrow. The loss of faith does not necessarily need to mean loss as a…… [Read More]
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]
That could lead to all kinds of advertising insights," even though it could just be a coincidence (Baker 2008, p.3). The result could be a cutting-edge campaign for a rental car company stressing romance and danger, rather than safety and budget-conscious effectiveness.
No company wishes to miss out on the next new marketing trend, and all want to find the next 'hot' new connection between two seemingly discordant interests or types of behaviors. One idiosyncratic, accidental click or glance is meaningless, but being able to keep track of large amounts of data makes such decisions is significant for market researchers, as a consistent pattern can be drawn. And the blog world of online journalism is an even more willing source of "unfiltered immediacy" for marketers, who can track what types of blogs generate the largest amount of traffic for specific types of ads. Blogs are especially useful because marketers can…… [Read More]
hen Edith harton tells us that "it was the background that she [Lily] required," we understand that both Emma Bovary and Lily have a very important thing in common. They are first of all women in the nineteenth century society, fettered by social conventions to fulfill any kind of aspirations or ideals. A woman, as it is clearly stated in both novels, had no other means of being having a place in society than by acquiring respectability and money through a good marriage. To marry was the only vocation of a woman, as harton tells us.
Of course, there interferes a great difference between the two heroines here, because Madame Bovary, as her very title proves it, is already a married woman, while Lily in harton's book is in constant pursue of a redeeming marriage. But, essentially the frustration of the two heroines is the same, as Emma is as…… [Read More]
One cannot build the right sort of house -- the houses are not really adequate, "Blinds, shutter, curtains, awnings, were all closed and drawn to keep out the star. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot arrow." The stare here is the metonymic device -- we assume it is stranger, the outside vs. The inside, but for some reason, it is also the authority involved, and one that is able to ensure adequacy. In a similar vein, the "churches were freest from it," but they offer only an homage' to safety, and use their power to shut people out from the light that "made the eyes ache" and had been inhumanly oppressive. The prison, though, is "so repulsive a place that even the obtrusive star blinked at it and left it to such refuse of reflected light as could find." The stare is…… [Read More]
Old Nurse's Story
Elizabeth Gaskell's "The Old Nurse's Story" uses gothic imagery and Victorian themes to elucidate the role and status of women. Online critics claim the story is filled with themes of "male domination, females' sense of powerlessness due to this dominance, and the ambiguous results of women's struggle against males in the Victorian era," ("The Damning Effects of a Patriarchal Society in "The Old Nurse's Story" and "The Yellow allpaper"). Indeed, these three core elements are absolutely evident in this haunting tale about rediscovering personal identity via encounters with the past. The motif of haunting allows the past to return to the present in eerie ways. Relying on ghosts allows the author to present the suggestion that the past haunts the lives of all individuals, and that women have trouble extricating themselves from negative situations because of the constraints of dead social institutions and norms.
However, Hughes and…… [Read More]
He has tried to live a life of pure pleasure with no concern for others, but he cannot escape his own fear, because he knows all the wrongs he has done. The ultimate sin was killing the only person who ever saw true beauty in him.
For its time, this book was extremely well done, and the writing cannot be faulted in the light of Victorian English literature. The story, in fact, is still a good tale, but the long passages of exposition, even in the guise of conversation, makes it difficult for today's audience to read. It is so full of discussions of philosophy and morality that I have to suspect that it was intentionally done to point out the excessive moralizing in much Victorian literature. Nearly every rule of political correctness is broken by one or more of the characters. Yet the story underlying the whole is compelling.…… [Read More]
I should wish her to be brought up in a manner suiting her prospects," continued my benefactress; "to be made useful, to be kept humble: as for the vacations, she will, with your permission, spend them always at Lowood." (Bronte, 1922, p. 28)
The young girl was to be defined by her future prospects, being meager, as she was an orphan with little income, she was to be taught an even more extreme form of humility because she would have to use her charm alone to get a good match or secure a position as a governess or ladies maid. There was little love in her early years, whether with her hostile relatives or in her school. As any reader would find it was this poor disposition she gained from her early life that she had to overcome to gain her match.
Just as women were ideally brought up by…… [Read More]
Australia Have a Bill of ights?
Australia is the last remaining Common Law country without a Bill or ights or Human ights Bill. It is important to note that the Australian variant of liberalism differs from the Anglo-American model in two important ways. First, the establishment of Australia as a series of British colonies under authoritarian governors and the absence of any political revolution has meant a lesser stress on the idea of individual rights vs. The state. There has been no one in Australian history to shout 'Give me liberty or give me death', no real pressure to incorporate a Bill of ights into our Constitution (owse, 1978).
Second, these factors combined with the problems of economic development in Australia and the generally inhospitable nature of the land, a staple theme of Australian literature, has meant an absence of any real laissez-faire tradition. 'Socialism' may be abhorred in the…… [Read More]
British Lit. Romanticism to Present
Following the liberating Age of Reason, the Enlightenment, the age when humanity was triumphing through literature and Rousseau's philosophy was inspiring revolutions, the age of Romanticism saw the birth of some genius writers of its own. Among them, Lord Byron, a man who lived his thirty-six years with the intensity of one who wants to know it all and do it all, was a prolific writer whose works were the expression of his time.
Lord Byron was the restless soul who burnt every resource he had in his inquiries about the meaning of life. He traveled extensively and, like most of his fellow artists, was enchanted with the exotic of the East. Byron was both blessed and haunted by his genius. His image on the seashore, watching the fire lit to burn Shelly's body at Via Reggio, in Italy, is one of those images most…… [Read More]
In contrast to both Mead and Freud: "The genius of Malinowski was to perceive, and substantiate, the fact that the mind of the 'primitive' man was essentially no different than that of 'civilized' peoples. That is, although beliefs, motives, and emotional responses to situations might vary markedly from one culture to the next (a fact which would disprove the universality of Freud's Oedipal Complex), the ability of the mind to perceive and process information and to formulate creative, intelligent responses was the same regardless of race or culture" (Bronislaw Malinowski, NNMD, 2009). Myths, irrational as they might be, were common to all cultures -- and all cultures had unique elements of such irrationality. Malinowski's attitudes and expressions prefigure modern postmodernism and its emphasis on subjectivity and irrationality, and its suggestion that sexuality is merely one impulse amongst many, as opposed to the most significant impulse, as believed by Freud and…… [Read More]
Scientific Objectivity and Scientific Irascibility:
Melvin Harris' rhetoric on the perpetration of the fraud of the Maybrick Ink test
According to author Melvin Harris, one of the most infamous hoaxes ever perpetrated against the community of scientists, historians, and laypersons was that of the Maybrick 'Jack the Ripper' diaries. Jack the Ripper, the serial killer who terrorized prostitutes during the late Victorian Era, remains a great unsolved crime. The supporters of the so-called Maybrick diaries claimed to solve the Jack the Ripper murders by implicating convicted 19th century murderer John Maybrick. The diaries were 'discovered' during the late 20th century and a subsequent book by Shirley Harrison was published to support this claim that Maybrick was 'Jack.' However, Melvin Harris in his essay "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," disputes the scientific evidence presented by the supporters of the Maybrick theory. Scientific tests of the diaries proved contradictory,…… [Read More]
From these examples there is a varied sense of the realism of Eliot in both her prose and her poems. The realism of Eliot demonstrates a reflection of the era. The naturalist and realism movements were ingrained in the Victorian 19th century and yet the descriptive nature of Eliot's works make them in many ways timeless. The characters are enveloped with the reader into the surroundings of events of human social drama.
Eliot, George. The Best-Known Novels of George Eliot: Adam Bede, the Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola. New York: Modern Library, 1940.
Eliot, George, Brother and Sister
Eliot, George, Two Lovers
Eliot, George in a London Drawingroom
Eliot, George, Mid my Gold-brown Curls
Eliot, George, Two Lovers, in Stevenson, Burton Egbert. The Home Book of Verse. At http://www.famouspoetsandpoems.com/poets/george_eliot/poems/3456
Pizer, Donald. Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. Revised ed. Carbondale, IL:…… [Read More]
Embattled Paradise by Arlene Skolnick
Title, Author, Publication Date
Arlene S. Skolnick, Embattled Paradise: The American Family in an Age of Uncertainty, 1993
The conflation of the evolution of the family and revolutions in society are chronicled in Skolnick's book in an optimistic and realistic treatment. With deep longitudinal research of families extending from childhood years in the 1920s, the book is objective and informed. Skolnick's interpretation is both eloquent and enlightening. With a strong research base and a social scientist's eye, Skolnick reasons that the American family has not been devastated. Countering the political right, Skolnick asserts that the changes in American family life reflect and resonate with sea change in society. In her words, "Changes in our hearts and minds are responses to large-scale social change, rather than a fall from moral grace." Skolnick firmly grounds the changes she discusses in history, economics, politics,…… [Read More]
Fitzgerald and Hemingway
The writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway have quite a lot to do with one another. Besides the fact that both men were writing during the same historical period in time, both men were interested in some of the same themes and expressed their feelings through their writings. Two novels, F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender is the Night and Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, deal with American male protagonists who find themselves in foreign lands following the First orld ar. Each turns his back on his American nationality and becomes an expatriate, wallowing in the grandeur of foreign pleasures while at the same time serving no real function in the world outside of their indulgences. The men are part of what would come to be known as "The Lost Generation." This was a group of people who were so impacted by the blood, gore, and…… [Read More]