Victorian Era Essays (Examples)

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Victorian Female Sexuality Victorian Sexuality George Bernard

Words: 2004 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51014090

Victorian Female Sexuality

Victorian Sexuality: George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid"

omen in the Victorian era must have suffered enormously under the massive double standards and the shameful image of a woman who wanted to be on her own. It is clear from examining the literature of the period how much discrimination was placed on women in the era. George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid" show the intense sexual and gender discrimination that women in the Victorian era had to endure and the extreme consequences that were reserved for them upon breaking such strict traditions on sexuality and love relationships; however, George Bernard Shaw does allow for a greater sense of freedom for his female characters as his work was written much later at the tail end of the Victorian era, as long as they avoid the contact…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hardy, Thomas. "The Ruined Maid." All Poetry. 1866. Web. http://allpoetry.com/poem/8442925-The_Ruined_Maid-by-Thomas_Hardy

Shaw Festival. Mrs. Warren's Profession: Connections Shaw Festival Study Guide. 2008. Web. http://www.shawfest.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Mrs_Warrens_Study_Guide.pdf

Shaw, George Bernard. Mrs. Warren's Profession. Gutenberg EBook. 2011. Web. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1097/1097-h/1097-h.htm
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Victorian Childhood and Alice in Wonderland

Words: 3889 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33413380



Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.

For Victorians, control was part of…… [Read More]

Sander, David. The Fantasic Sublime: Romanticism and Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Fantasy Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

Thacker, Debora and Jean Webb. Introducing Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Walker, Stan. "Novels for Students: Alice in Wonderland." 1999. Enotes.com. .
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Victorian Women During the Victorian

Words: 3277 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97182955



Meanwhile, Melmotte introduces Marie into the matrimonial arena at an extravagant ball for which, in hope of favors that will come, he gains the patronage of several duchesses and other regal individuals. Marie, believed to be the heiress of millions, has many highly placed but poor young noblemen asking for her hand in marriage. She falls in love with Sir Felix Carbury, who is the most shady of them all. Felix's interest in Marie has nothing to do with love, but only with her wealth. This behavior is expected, since he is just following through on all that he has been told while growing up. He has learned his lessons well. His mother commends him often for winning Marie's heart, even if it is for the wrong reasons.. As Trollope writes:

It was now his business to marry an heiress. He was well aware that it was so, and was…… [Read More]

Books Cited

Austin, J. Pride and Prejudice. Retrieved August 25, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2007. http://www.bookwolf.com/Free_Booknotes/Pride____Prejudice/pride____prejudice.html

Chopin, K. "Story of an Hour." Retrieved August 25, 2007. http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/webtexts/hour/

Eliot, G. Middlemarch. Retrieved August 25, 2007. http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/eliot/middle/

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "Yellow Wallpaper" Retrieved August 25, 2007 http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/wallpaper.html
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Victorian Storm Kate Chopin Is Often Referred

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92006790

Victorian Storm

Kate Chopin is often referred to as a writer who was well ahead of her time both in her observations of human nature, and in her daringness to write about intimate issues when such a topic was not commonly acknowledged or discussed. Her short story, "The Storm," helped reveal the universality of human passion, extending it to the female as well as the male, and it also helped disclose a truer, more human nature to the emotions and sensuality of the female.

When Kate Chopin was born in St. Louis in 1850, the scope of a woman's life was primarily limited to domestic duties. By the time Chopin began to write, in the 1880s, she was a young widow and mother of six children. Widely read, and also influenced by very strong and freethinking females in her own family, Chopin began her writing career at a time when…… [Read More]

References

Chopin, Kate. "The Storm." 1898. 2/4/02

http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/english/hudson/fiction/works/TheStorm.html

Ewell, Dr. Barbara. "Chopin: The Woman Question." Loyola University. Fall, 2001.

2/4/02
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Victorian the Significance of Love

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34865001

In the face of this awareness of human decline and despair the protagonist pledges love to his partner. This love is described as "true," which implies a love that is faithful and enduring and which can transcend the loss of faith in the world.

This vision or poetic image of loss of faith in human nature can be seen, albeit in a different light, in the work of Browning. An example would be the poem "Fra Lippon Lippi." In this poem the poet questions the nature of art and whether it should be true-to -- life or idealistic. The question is related to the way that art can best serve religious purposes and also refers to the gap between ordinary life and religious faith. The argument that runs throughout the poem is that the religious authorities are more concerned with appearances than expressing deep religious convictions.

Many of Browning's poems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnold M. Dover Beach. 12 August, 2010.


Browning R. Fra Lippo Lippi. 12 August, 2010.

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Influential Victorian Literature Scott and Historical Fiction

Words: 2772 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75596424

Sir Walter Scott was a writer a part of the romantic era, roughly 1797 -- 1837. Scott was born slightly before the beginning of this era, in 1771, and died nearly at the same time the period changed in 1832. Scott is known as a novelist, playwright, and poet of Scottish descent. The beginning of the omantic period is typically attributed to the publication of Wordworth's and Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads, and closed with the rise into power of Queen Victoria. This is a period in literature that produced outstanding lyrical poetry, a few dramas, and several novelists that were popular, including Scott. Scott was known for the ability to blend European history into entertaining narratives. Scott happened to have mass appeal during this period, able to reach readers of various classes and places within the Victorian era. At the time of the omantic Era, authors such as Jane Austen were…… [Read More]

References:

Edinburgh University Library. "Walter Scott." Edinburgh University Library, Web, 2014, Available from:  http://www.walterscott.lib.ed.ac.uk/home.html . 2014 March 04.

MacKenzie, Robert Shelton. Sir Walter Scott: The Story of His Life. Kessinger Publishing, 2009. Print.

Scott, MD, Professor Walter. The Complete Works of Sir Walter Scott: With a Biography, and His Last Additions and Illustrations, Volume 7. Nabu Press, 2010. Print.
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Kitchen Stairs Final Ext Victorian

Words: 4730 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85092753

dining room. day.

MOTHER, ALICIA, and BOBBY are seated around the table. ALICIA and BOBBY are eating hungrily; MOTHER is staring at the wall vacantly.

ALICIA

What's wrong, Mom?

MOTHER

(distracted)

Hmm?

ALICIA

I asked you what's wrong. You've been taring at the wall for the past five minutes.

MOTHER

It's nothing, honey.

BOBBY

It's the kitchen.

MOTHER looks sharply at BOBBY.

MOTHER

What?

BOBBY

The kitchen. it's weird in there. I don;t really like it. It feels...funny. Like someone is after you.

ALICIA

(in a spooky voice)

And if you aren't a good little boy, the spirit of the kitchen will put you in the oven and make you into Thanksgiving dinner!

ALICIA cackles wickedly. FATHER enters, dressed for work and carrying a briefcase. He kisses MOTHEr on the top of the head.

FATHER

Isn't it a little early for evil laughter? What's going on?

ALICIA

I'm just telling…… [Read More]

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Treatment Representation of Women or Children in Nineteenth Century Victorian Literature

Words: 3472 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95230579

Victorian literature was remarkably concerned with the idea of childhood, but to a large degree we must understand the Victorian concept of childhood and youth as being, in some way, a revisionary response to the early nineteenth century Romantic conception. Here we must, to a certain degree, accept Harold Bloom's thesis that Victorian poetry represents a revisionary response to the revolutionary aesthetic of Romanticism, and particularly that of ordsworth. The simplest way to summarize the ordsworthian child is to recall that well-known line from a short lyric (which would be appended as epigraph to later printings of ordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality, from Recollections of Early Childhood") -- "the child is father of the man." Here, self-definition in adulthood, and indeed the poetic vocation, are founded in the perceived imaginative freedom of childhood.

Thou little Child, yet glorious in the might

Of heaven-born freedom on thy being's height,

hy with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnold, Matthew. "The Forsaken Merman." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at:  http://www.bartleby.com/101/747.html 

Arnold, Matthew. "William Wordsworth." In Steeves, H.R. (ed.) Selected Poems of William Wordsworth, with Matthew Arnold's Essay on Wordsworth. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1921. Print.

Arnold, Matthew. "Youth's Agitations." Web. Accessed 15 April 2012 at: http://www.readbookonline.net/readOnLine/12118/

Bloom, Harold. "Introduction." In Bloom, Harold (ed.). Bloom's Major Poets: A.E. Housman. New York: Chelsea House, 2003. Print.
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Realism and Compromise

Words: 1189 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52706821

Victorian Prose and Poetry, by Lionel Trilling and Harold Bloom. Specifically, it will discuss ealism and compromise in Victorian Literature. How do Victorian writers search for realistic compromises with the world around them?

VICTOIAN LITEATUE

In Victorian literature, ealism followed the age of omanticism, and ealism quickly evolved into Naturalism, practiced by many authors of the time, including Jack London, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, and Sinclair Lewis. "There was a time when the intellectual and spiritual life of Europe as a whole was dominated by neo-classicism; it was dominated in the next era by omanticism; and then it was dominated by ealism, which developed into Naturalism" (Baker 58). ealism in literature attempted to portray things as they really were, scientifically and without emotion, placing man in balance with nature.

The task of realism, Howells felt, was to defend "the people" against its adversaries. The realist, he wrote, "feels…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Joseph E., ed. The Reinterpretation of Victorian Literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950. Borus, Daniel H. Writing Realism: Howells, James, and Norris in the Mass Market. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Decker, Clarence R. The Victorian Conscience. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1952.

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, ed. A Victorian Anthology, 1837-1895; Selections Illustrating the Editor's Critical Review of British Poetry in the Reign of Victoria. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1895.

Trilling, Lionel and Bloom, Harold, eds. Victorian Prose and Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
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Science and Religious Beliefs of

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 838405



Another Victorian poet, Gerard Manley Hopkins, was more forthright in his beliefs. Biblical typology was a signature to his poetry, and his poems often included biblical phrasings and in the case of "The Barnfloor and Winepress," even a passage from a scripture as an epigraph. Hopkins addresses the sinning Christians and even unbelievers, and reveals to them the various gifts that Christ has rewarded them with, as a result of the ultimate sacrifice. 'And on a thousand alters laid, Christ our sacrifice is made'. He offers hope through belief, and cites historical examples in his writings reminding the reader that God is their only hope in adversity (giving the example of the people of Samaria who were besieged by the Syrians). In his poems, he also opines that God must bruise and test the human being, in order to create good, as he deals with this issue in "The loss…… [Read More]

References

Glenn Everett, 2006, "Browning's Religious Views," the Victorian Web

George P. Landow, 2004, "Paradigm, Point-of-View, and Narrative Distance in Verbal and Visual Arts," Victorian Web

John Matterson, 2002, "Constructing ethics and the ethics of construction: John Ruskin and the humanity of the builder," CrossCurrents
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Alone Are Wanted in Life

Words: 1496 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46753736



Stephen lackpool, on the other hand could be considered to be from the other side of the tracks. He was a poor man and worked in ounderby's factory as a weaver. The language that Dickens' uses to describe the world that lackpool is from is quite depressing. He tells us that the Gradgrinds live at Stone Lodge. This name itself conjures up and image of a mini castle surrounded by lush, green grass. He describes Stephen lackpool's environment as a place 'where Nature was as strongly bricked out as killing airs and gases were bricked in' and 'the whole an unnatural family, shouldering and trampling and pressing one another to death'. He even lets us know that Stephen looks much older than his forty years because of the life and environment he is from. Poor Stephen loses his job for standing up for his coworkers and also left Coketown in…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dickens, Charles. (1987). Hard times for these times. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

http://teachers.ewrsd.k12.nj.us/savedoff/humanities_9/victorian/characteristics_of_victorian_era.htm (Accessed on June 30, 2010).

 http://www.victoriaspast.com/FrontPorch/victorianera.htm  (Accessed on June 30, 2010).
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Vic Women as Outsiders A Comparison of

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39343057

Vic Women

Women as Outsiders: A Comparison of Jane Eyre and "The Horse Dealer's Daughter"

Women are often portrayed as a marginalized "other" or outsider in literature, reflecting the degree to which they are outside the traditional patriarchal concepts of authority and power as well as (for much of Western history) outside the practical and legal means of self-sufficiency and self-direction. As the times have shifted, the particular perspective and definition of women as outsiders has also changed, as can be seen in a comparison of the central figures in Charlotte Bronte's Victorian-era novel Jane Eyre and DH Lawrence's more modern short story "The Horse Dealer's Daughter." Interestingly, both heroines are seen as similarly detached from traditional power structures, yet the degree to which Jane distances herself through her morality actually gives her power, while the increasing amorality of the times leads Mabel (Lawrence's protagonist) down a path of deeper…… [Read More]

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About Controversial Science

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1423369

Scientific Objectivity and Scientific Irascibility:

Melvin Harris' rhetoric on the perpetration of the fraud of the Maybrick Ink test

According to author Melvin Harris, one of the most infamous hoaxes ever perpetrated against the community of scientists, historians, and laypersons was that of the Maybrick 'Jack the Ripper' diaries. Jack the Ripper, the serial killer who terrorized prostitutes during the late Victorian Era, remains a great unsolved crime. The supporters of the so-called Maybrick diaries claimed to solve the Jack the Ripper murders by implicating convicted 19th century murderer John Maybrick. The diaries were 'discovered' during the late 20th century and a subsequent book by Shirley Harrison was published to support this claim that Maybrick was 'Jack.' However, Melvin Harris in his essay "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," disputes the scientific evidence presented by the supporters of the Maybrick theory. Scientific tests of the diaries proved contradictory,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Harris, Melvin. "The Maybrick Hoax: A fact-file for the perplexed," 1997: 1-5.
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Realism of George Eliot George

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91708238



From these examples there is a varied sense of the realism of Eliot in both her prose and her poems. The realism of Eliot demonstrates a reflection of the era. The naturalist and realism movements were ingrained in the Victorian 19th century and yet the descriptive nature of Eliot's works make them in many ways timeless. The characters are enveloped with the reader into the surroundings of events of human social drama.

orks Cited

Eliot, George. The Best-Known Novels of George Eliot: Adam Bede, the Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola. New York: Modern Library, 1940.

Eliot, George, Brother and Sister

http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2696.html

Eliot, George, Two Lovers

http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2696.html

Eliot, George in a London Drawingroom

http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2696.html

Eliot, George, Mid my Gold-brown Curls

http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2696.html

Eliot, George, Two Lovers, in Stevenson, Burton Egbert. The Home Book of Verse. At http://www.famouspoetsandpoems.com/poets/george_eliot/poems/3456

Pizer, Donald. Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. Revised ed. Carbondale, IL:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eliot, George. The Best-Known Novels of George Eliot: Adam Bede, the Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola. New York: Modern Library, 1940.

Eliot, George, Brother and Sister

http://rpo.library.utoronto.ca/poem/2696.html

Eliot, George, Two Lovers
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Knowledge and Peril Explored in

Words: 2257 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55926262

He tells alton he was "surprised that among so many men of genius . . . that I alone should be reserved to discover so astonishing a secret" (37). Here Shelley illuminates the weakness of man with Frankenstein's inability to control himself in this situation. Shelley placed Frankenstein in this environment because he represented "modern scientist is search of the spark to animate lifeless matter" (right 14). Like Prometheus, he is penalized for "meddling in the work of the gods" (14). Shelley foreshadows the mood of the novel when she writes, "Frightful it must be; for supremely frightful would be the effect of any human endeavor to mock the stupendous mechanism of the Creator of the world" (Shelley xxv). Here Shelley is making a stand against certain aspects of knowledge. hile knowledge itself is not bad, the desire for knowledge to do great things for the sake of fame or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Garrett, Martin. Mary Shelley. New York. Oxford University Press. 2002.

Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.

Graham, Richard. The Masters of Victorian Literature, 1837-1897. London: Simpkin, Marshal

and Co. 1897.
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Old Nurse's Story by Elizabeth Gaskell

Words: 1943 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64350896

Old Nurse's Story

Elizabeth Gaskell's "The Old Nurse's Story" uses gothic imagery and Victorian themes to elucidate the role and status of women. Online critics claim the story is filled with themes of "male domination, females' sense of powerlessness due to this dominance, and the ambiguous results of women's struggle against males in the Victorian era," ("The Damning Effects of a Patriarchal Society in "The Old Nurse's Story" and "The Yellow allpaper"). Indeed, these three core elements are absolutely evident in this haunting tale about rediscovering personal identity via encounters with the past. The motif of haunting allows the past to return to the present in eerie ways. Relying on ghosts allows the author to present the suggestion that the past haunts the lives of all individuals, and that women have trouble extricating themselves from negative situations because of the constraints of dead social institutions and norms.

However, Hughes and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"The Damning Effects of a Patriarchal Society in "The Old Nurse's Story" and "The Yellow Wallpaper." Retrieved online: http://www.unc.edu/~hernande/comparecontrast.htm

Gaskell, Elizabeth. "The Old Nurse's Story." Retrieved online:  http://www.lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~matsuoka/EG-Nurse.html 

"Victorian Fin de Siecle." Retrieved online: http://www.unc.edu/~slivey/gothic/
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British Poetry

Words: 1309 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22043678



"The Sleeping Beauty" by Lord Alfred Tennyson uses several narrative techniques. The first of which can be seen in the second line of the first stanza. "She lying on her couch alone" (). The phrase uses incorrect English to change the tone of the poem. Although the poem does not try to establish a rhyming pattern in the BC in the first stanza with "grown" and "form," the two words sound well together as though they rhyme. The pattern however is ABABCDCD with BC sounding like they should rhyme. All the "slumberous light" uses personification to describe light.

Many of the lines within the first stanza are filled with imagery of this woman: "A braid of pearl" and "rounded curl." She is so beautiful and magnificent that even the smallest things she does are explained or described on a grand scale. She is the epitome of beauty and wears the…… [Read More]

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Symbolism in Children's Literature Animals

Words: 2131 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40538319



I should wish her to be brought up in a manner suiting her prospects," continued my benefactress; "to be made useful, to be kept humble: as for the vacations, she will, with your permission, spend them always at Lowood." (Bronte, 1922, p. 28)

The young girl was to be defined by her future prospects, being meager, as she was an orphan with little income, she was to be taught an even more extreme form of humility because she would have to use her charm alone to get a good match or secure a position as a governess or ladies maid. There was little love in her early years, whether with her hostile relatives or in her school. As any reader would find it was this poor disposition she gained from her early life that she had to overcome to gain her match.

Just as women were ideally brought up by…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=49023764"(1998). Aristocratic Women and Political Society in Victorian Britain. Oxford: Oxford University. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99268553

Bronte, C. (1922). Jane Eyre. London: J.M. Dent & Sons. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=80978341

Oliver, E.J. (1956). Coventry Patmore. New York: Sheed and Ward. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=88994351

Patmore, D. (1949). The Life and Times of Coventry Patmore. London: Constable. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27215314
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Being Earnest This Play Is

Words: 1433 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42824557

Jack proceeds to let the audience know "…the vital importance of Being Earnest."

Distortion, Moral Conduct, and Restoration Comedy

Of course, deception and frivolity are part of a farce, and the way that ilde has written the play characters switch identities as a way for the theme to be deliberately distorted. So this bothers critic Mary McCarthy, who complained that the play has the character of a "…ferocious idyll" and insists that the only moral alternatives offered by ilde are "selfishness and servility" (Parker, 1974). By "deliberately distorting actuality" ilde is actually expressing what most people can see is a "comic version of the human condition," Parker writes in the Modern Literature Quarterly. Parker explains that though McCarthy is using standards that don't really fit with a farcical play (particularly in that era), she may be onto something with her assertion that the play is about selfishness because indeed the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Parker, D. (1974). Oscar Wild's Great Farce: The Importance of Being Earnest. Modern Literature Quarterly, 35(2), 173-186.

Princeton University. (2008). Restoration Comedy. Retrieved June 28, 2013, from http://www.princeton.edu.

Wikipedia. (2010). The Importance of Being Earnest. Retrieved June 28, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org.
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British Literature Romanticism to Present

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88607468

British Lit. Romanticism to Present

Following the liberating Age of Reason, the Enlightenment, the age when humanity was triumphing through literature and Rousseau's philosophy was inspiring revolutions, the age of Romanticism saw the birth of some genius writers of its own. Among them, Lord Byron, a man who lived his thirty-six years with the intensity of one who wants to know it all and do it all, was a prolific writer whose works were the expression of his time.

Lord Byron was the restless soul who burnt every resource he had in his inquiries about the meaning of life. He traveled extensively and, like most of his fellow artists, was enchanted with the exotic of the East. Byron was both blessed and haunted by his genius. His image on the seashore, watching the fire lit to burn Shelly's body at Via Reggio, in Italy, is one of those images most…… [Read More]

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Metonymics in Little Dorit Metonymy

Words: 5420 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71958786

One cannot build the right sort of house -- the houses are not really adequate, "Blinds, shutter, curtains, awnings, were all closed and drawn to keep out the star. Grant it but a chink or keyhole, and it shot in like a white-hot arrow." The stare here is the metonymic device -- we assume it is stranger, the outside vs. The inside, but for some reason, it is also the authority involved, and one that is able to ensure adequacy. In a similar vein, the "churches were freest from it," but they offer only an homage' to safety, and use their power to shut people out from the light that "made the eyes ache" and had been inhumanly oppressive. The prison, though, is "so repulsive a place that even the obtrusive star blinked at it and left it to such refuse of reflected light as could find." The stare is…… [Read More]

Labor in Little Dorrit." Journal of the Novel. 31 (1) 21+.

Young, Arlene. (1996). "Virtue Domesticated: Dickens and the Lower Middle

Class." Victorian Studies. 39 (4): 483+.
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Matthew Arnold British Liberalism and

Words: 1404 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26235538



hile the contemporary society might regard an issue such as one's marriage with the sister of his deceased wife as being absurd, this problem dominated affairs in Great Britain for most of the Victorian era. "The "Deceased ife's Sister" controversy was about the potential for triangular desire: two women as potential rivals for one man and one man desiring two women -- who, moreover, are sisters" (Chambers). Religion was particularly important in this situation, as concerns regarding rivalry between sisters go back to biblical times. The authorities saw this problem as one that would negatively affect the cleanliness of the English family and the individuals who were involved in the controversy claimed that the government should be able to impose moral laws upon British citizens.

The relationship between biological sisters was apparently one of the strongest connections from the Victorian era, thus meaning that a disruption would severely affect individuals…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Arnold, Matthew, "Culture and anarchy," Cambridge University Press, 1960.

Chambers, Diane M. "Triangular Desire and the Sororal Bond: The "Deceased Wife's Sister Bill.," Mosaic (Winnipeg) 29.1 (1996)

Kelly, Richard N. And Cantrell John, "Modern British statesmen, 1867-1945," Manchester University Press ND, 1997.

Pugh, Martin, "The making of modern British politics, 1867-1945," Wiley-Blackwell, 2002
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Interpretation Analysis Evaluation of a Poem

Words: 1431 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25650472

Idyllic, Idolizing, Late Victorian Tears

The poem by the Victorian poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson entitled "Tears, idle tears," has the unfortunate status of having its become such a common phrase in modern parlance, that the reader finds him or herself bracing his or her ear for more and more cliches as the poem progresses. In other words, one hears that tears are idle so often, one can easily forget, not only that Tennyson said, "I know not what they mean," but that the poem attempts to express the seriousness of futility of grief, or outward displays of affection by calling tears idle, in that they do no real work in the world. The use of 'idle' in multiple variances of meaning, from impractical and lazy, to idyllic, to idolizing is in fact quite profound and sophisticated, yielding a poem with a compact linguistic and stylistic structure.

It is also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flanders, Judith. Inside the Victorian Home. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2004.

Hilton, N. "Tears, Ay, Dull, Tears" Lexis Complexes. Chapter 6. 2004. http://www.english.uga.edu/nhilton/lexis_complexes/chap6.html

Tennyson, Alfred. "Tears, Idle Tears." From The Bedford Reader. Sixth Edition, 2000.

Tears Idle Tears." Poetry Page. 2004.  http://glenavalon.com/idletears.html
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Female Sexual Subjugation and Domesticity

Words: 1848 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20984703

Particularly, as
slavery and segregation had contributed to the establishment of a wealthy
ownership class in the United States, so had the nature of its 20th century
consumer culture helped to enforce separate racial societies. Thus, even
as white women struggled for recognition and equal rights, the climb from
domestic servitude would be a great deal more arduous for a female African
American culture which had been conditions through centuries of slavery
toward assumed domestic servitude. To this extent, the parallels which
Odem's text draws between slavery and female inequality bear a shared
relationship in defining America's gendered culture.
Today, women have in many ways been relieved of the domestic roles
once foisted upon them with no outlet of relief. Indeed, it is
increasingly common and standardized to find women in all walks of
professionalism and at positions of authority. Moreover, the premise that
the woman should be expected to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Breines, W. (2001). Young, White and Miserable: Growing Up Female in the
Fifties. University of Chicago Press.

Odem, M.E. (1995). Delinquent Daughter: Protecting and Policing
Adolescent Female. The University of North Carolina Press.

Schrum, K. (2004). Some Wore Bobby Sox: the Emergence of Teenage Girls'
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Gender and Science

Words: 840 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22706559

gender have influenced the historic development of science in the west, as reason and science have long been seen as male traits. Similarly, gender ideals such as the characterization of females as maternal, associated with nature, irrational, and week have been reflected in scientific literature. Today, science continues to be influenced by ideas of gender, as literature reflects gender biases, and female scientists routinely must challenge gender biases.

Many of the ideals the influence the historic development science come from the Enlightenment, a time during the 17th and 18th centuries where reason was seen to be a driving force for progress. Enlightened men were rational, and sought happiness, knowledge, and freedom. Given this emphasis on rationality, and the association of women with the home and emotion, women were largely excluded from the ideals of the Enlightenment. The rational affairs of humankind were thought to be left to men, who acted…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Martin, Emily. 1991. The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs 16:3, 485-501.

Schiebinger, Londa. 1993.

Why Mammals Are Called Mammals. In: Nature's Body: Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Beacon Press, 40-74.
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Architecture of Boston Is a

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61756872

com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.bostonhistory.org

Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.storyofboston.com

Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008.  http://www.iboston.org 

Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
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Embattled Paradise by Arlene Skolinck

Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70191398

Embattled Paradise by Arlene Skolnick

Embattled Paradise

Title, Author, Publication Date

Arlene S. Skolnick, Embattled Paradise: The American Family in an Age of Uncertainty, 1993

Book Summary

The conflation of the evolution of the family and revolutions in society are chronicled in Skolnick's book in an optimistic and realistic treatment. With deep longitudinal research of families extending from childhood years in the 1920s, the book is objective and informed. Skolnick's interpretation is both eloquent and enlightening. With a strong research base and a social scientist's eye, Skolnick reasons that the American family has not been devastated. Countering the political right, Skolnick asserts that the changes in American family life reflect and resonate with sea change in society. In her words, "Changes in our hearts and minds are responses to large-scale social change, rather than a fall from moral grace." Skolnick firmly grounds the changes she discusses in history, economics, politics,…… [Read More]

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Greek Culture

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31403257

Anatomy of an Aesthete

The Picture of Dorian Gray and the Rise of Aestheticism

Oscar ilde's the Picture of Dorian Gray is the manifesto of Late Victorian Aestheticism.

The Late Victorian Era was characterized by numerous artistic and literary movements that were reactions to the growing industrialization and homogenization of contemporary society. As trains, telephones, and factories rushed humankind headlong to an unknown future, many of the greatest lights of the Age looked back into the Past, and to a simpler, more clearly-defined time and place; a time and place with readily-recognized rules and standards. For centuries, the Classical orld of Ancient Greece and Rome had provided a model for modern Europeans. Artists, writers, philosophers, architects -- even musicians -- let themselves be guided by what they believed to be the Classical canons of behavior and taste. Until the dawn of the Industrial Age, Europe's intellectual class entertained no illusions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, Robert. The Seduction of the Mediterranean: Writing, Art, and Homosexual Fantasy. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Beckson, Karl, ed. Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.

Boscagli, Maurizia. Eye on the Flesh: Fashions of Masculinity in the Early Twentieth Century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.

Harris, Jose. "1 Ruskin and Social Reform." Ruskin and the Dawn of the Modern. Ed. Birch, Dinah. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 7-33.
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What Made Virginia Woolf Mad

Words: 1512 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50888248

Virginia Woolf knew there were deaths visible to the public and deaths that occurred deep within one's heart and mind to which no one else is witness. The Victorian period was an incubator for the private death of every woman's thoughts and ideas. Woolf laments, "There is no woman in the Cabinet; nor in any responsible post. All the idea makers who are in a position to make ideas effective are men…Why not bury the head in the pillow, plug the ears, and cease this futile activity of idea-making?" (1Thoughts on Peace in an Air Raid).

In her essay Evening Over Essex: Reflections in a Motor Car, Woolf captured the sequence that kept repeating in her life -- a sequence all too common during the period in which Woolf lived: "Also there was disappearance and the death of the individual. The vanishing road and the window lit for a second…… [Read More]

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Robert Browning's Poem My Last

Words: 1650 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67857839

Chekhov employed an attitude similar to most nineteenth century short story writers, as he attempted to captivate the reader's attention through putting across concepts that would make it especially difficult for him or her to keep his or her state of mind. The lawyer and the banker both go through intense emotional and physical occurrences as they struggle to find their personal identity. The fact that the banker eventually comes to feel sorrow for his thinking is essential because the story provides readers with a turn of events as characters experience significant change as a result of observing that their previous perspective concerning the world was not necessarily accurate.

The moment when the reader becomes acquainted with the fact that the lawyer has won when considering his state of mind as he left confinement is essential for the short story. This concept and the fact that the banker starts to…… [Read More]

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Holly Bilski English 130b Dr

Words: 5197 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65373221

" Instead of establishing a set rhythm as with his rhyme scheme, he punctuates in order to delineate an end of a particular episode within the poem which also helps the audience understand when and where his narration changes. Each period concludes an establish section of the poem, the first period ends on "Over her, thrashing and thrusting until he was spent." (ln 8), which importantly ends his narrative of Victorian sex. The following breaks each connote the ending of one thought tangent and the beginning of another. The implication on narrative voice occurs through the shifting of his speaking tone and message after periods. In his first address the narrator is informative, the second he is reflective and the third he places mockery on contemporary standards. Thus, punctuation in this case is use to delineate what specific theme and audience he is address. The use of commas is also…… [Read More]

Bibliography http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102501905

Acheson, James, and Romana Huk, eds. Contemporary British Poetry: Essays in Theory and Criticism / . Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Atkins, G. Douglas and Laura Morrow. Contemporary Literary Theory. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1989.

Bagwell, Timothy J. American Formalism and the Problem of Interpretation. Houston: Rice, 1986.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14120810
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French Lieutenant's Woman Book &

Words: 1111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96249540



Karel Reisz' 1981 motion picture The French Lieutenant's Woman is based on the novel and the director also seems to be appreciative in regard to postmodernism and existentialism when considering the elements that he introduces in the film. Reisz created his film by designing a story within a story as he presents viewers with an account involving the actors playing Victorian characters. The director is not apparently concerned about criticizing a Victorian society, as he apparently wants audiences to think about how dilemmas present in the nineteenth century could also emerge in the 1980s. Reisz was well aware that he needed to address existentialism in his film, and he knew that he needed to do so by combining concepts contemporary to him and elements originating in Victorian England.

While Fowles used the narrator's voice with the purpose of intervening at different moments in the novel, Reisz has characters in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Lynn Dodson, Mary, "The French Lieutenant's Woman: Pinter and Reisz's Adaptation of JohnFowles's Adaptation," Literature/Film Quarterly 26.4 (1998)

Mahmoud, Fowles, " Mary Lynn Dodson, "The French Lieutenant's Woman," Random House, 2010.

Salami, Mahmoud, "John Fowles's fiction and the poetics of postmodernism," Associated University Presse, 1992

Dir. Reisz, Karel, The French Lieutenant's Woman. United Artists, 1981.
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Changing World of American Women's

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14983619



Even though many sought change, it took many decades for their reform to take hold and of course, like all change there were many set backs along the way. One popular writer of the time quipped that the women of New York City should be paid as street sweepers for each stroll they took. Reform of the era's fashions may have been hard to come by because dress reform was a dangerous topic. The Victorian era was a male dominated culture intent on maintaining the boundaries between the masculine and feminine genders.

The United States in the nineteenth century was a time when abandoning the accepted norms of fashion could provoke violence and ridicule. Even clothing for children was slow to change. Infants were almost habitually dressed in long night gowns and older children in both urban and rural families wore poorly fitted dress like clothes until they could work…… [Read More]

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Analyzing the Wuthering Heights

Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42283053

uthering Heights

Emily Bronte is an author who was born in 1818. She is known for publishing her only novel, uthering Heights, in 1847 under the name of Ellis Bell, a year before her death. Her stellar work of art, uthering Heights, narrates her experience with both the Romantic periods, which lasted from years 1785 to 1830, to that early Victorian era, from 1830 to 1848 (Landers).

The Theme of Love in uthering Heights

The uthering Heights is a passionate story of a love triangle involving two family generations that intermarry. These families are the Earnshaws and the Lintons. The love tale includes a technique of a story within a story, and is narrated by two different characters. It is of importance to note that the two characters also happen to have different knowledge about the two families. One character has a profound knowledge of the families. Her name is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

BBC. Wuthering Heights. 2014. Web. 21 July 2016

E-notes. Wuthering Heights Analysis. 2016. Web. 21 July 2016

Landers, Kendell. "Wuthering Heights: From Victorian To The Romantic." The St. Lawrence Review (2004): n. pag. Web. 21 July 2016
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Great War on Modern Western

Words: 477 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76989882

Further, the modern novel also focuses on issues of social and historical change and the use of such points-of-view as stream of consciousness. Other typical characteristics of modernism are open form, free verse, discontinuous narrative, juxtaposition, classical allusions, unconventional metaphors and the bringing in of other cultures and languages.

Clearly, the experiences of the Great War had a lasting effect on its generation of writers. Many of them served in the military during the war, such as Ernest Hemingway, and witnessed the atrocities personally. The disillusionment felt by this generation at the notion of so many deaths for no real reason created a mentality of pessisims and questioning of society as it has been. This sense of disillusionment was expressed in their writing, where the great writers shunned the traditions of the Romantic and Victorian eras and instead created works that focused on human misery, suffering and cruelty. They incorporated…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hemmingway, Ernest. A Moveable Feast. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Hemmingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.

Kasenon, Michael. The Lost Generation. New York: Xlibris Corporation, 2004.
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Manchester Town Hall and St Pancras New Church

Words: 1609 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20096353

London has a rich architectural history. Some of the most popular buildings today come from the 19th century when Victorian Gothic architecture was popular. St. Pancras New Church offers a take at Greek revival style with a brick build, faced with Portland stone. Another Victorian style building, Manchester Town Hall, while built in the same century as St. Pancras, has its differences thanks to the rapid expansion and accompanying pollution so frequently seen in Victorian cities. Both structures hallmarks of British Victorian architecture, but also indelibly varied and indicative of the skill and engineering of the architects of the era.

Pancras Paris Church, also called St. Pancras New Church is a Greek evival church located in St. Pancras, London. The structure was constructed in three years from 1819-1822 and designed by Henry William and William Inwood. Placed along the south side of Euston oad and the northern boundary of Bloomsbury,…… [Read More]

References

HARTWELL, C. (2001). Manchester. London: Penguin Books.

Historic England, (2016). CHURCH OF ST. PANCRAS - 1379062 -- Historic England. [online] Historicengland.org.uk. Available at: http://www.historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1379062 [Accessed 11 Apr. 2016].

Parkinson-Bailey, J. (2000). Manchester. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Richardson, J. (1991). Camden Town and Primrose Hill past. London: Historical Publications.
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Nights at the Circus Is a Fairy

Words: 2611 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26144005

Nights at the Circus" is a fairy tale in the modern times. It revolves around the circus star, Sophie Fevvers, who is half-human and half-swan, and who is the passionate object of professional and moral pursuit of Jack Walser, a devout journalist who must seriously investigate into the truth or falsity of this half-human, half-animal phenomenon. Fevvers is surrounded by equally phenomenal characters, such as the prophesying pig named "Sybil,," the clown offo, the circus owner Colonel Kearney, Mignon and Lizzie. Wasler's intense investigation leads him to join the circus team, disguised as a clown, in order to complete and satisfy his obsession of getting to the bottom of Fevver's mysterious person and reality. In the course of their togetherness -- which begins in London, proceeds to Petersburg and Siberia and returns to London --, it is Wasler who transforms from his selfish point of reference to a childlike one,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Burnett, John. The Annals of Labour: Autobiographies of British Working Class People. Indiana,

USA: Indiana University Press, 1974

Carter, Angela. Nights at the Circus. Vikings Penguin, 1986

Cohen, William A. "Sex, Scandal and the Novel," Sex Scandal: The Private Parts of Victorian
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Coco Channel

Words: 2803 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8834011

CO Chanel

Today, the term "designer" is too often associated with people who churn out clothing lines every season. In this sense, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel stands as a breed apart. Fashion analysts today attribute the birth of modern fashion to Coco Chanel. She is viewed as a woman and an artist ahead of her time. Her clothing influenced not only the way women dress, but the way women define femininity. In this sense, Chanel is very much a part of the modern artistic movement, along with the likes of Pablo Picasso and Jean Cocteau.

This paper examines the many facets of Coco Chanel's artistry. The first part of the paper looks at Chanel as a product of her social environment, discussing the factors that have contributed to the evolution of Chanel's style and clothing designs. The next part then looks at Chanel's designs and choice of fabrics. Chanel never defined…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dunn, Jennifer. "Coco Chanel and Fashion." Transcription Topics. 20 December 1999. University of California at Santa Barbara. 13 March 2004 http://transcriptions.english.ucsb.edu/archive/topics/infoart/chanel/.

This website offers a complete and insightful account of Coco Chanel's designs. The first section provides a good resource not only regarding the "look" of Chanel's designs. In addition, this website is useful for identifying how Chanel's "look" evolved in relation to prevailing social norms. The sections on the role both World Wars played in changing the social roles of women were especially illuminating. While many Internet sites on Coco Chanel focus on the designs, Dunn's scholarly approach teases out how designs such as the "working uniform" and the "Chanel suit" both reflect social trends and open new opportunities for working women.

Madsen, Axel. Chanel: A Woman of Her Own. New York: Henry Hold and Company, Inc.

It is well-known that many of the stories regarding Coco Chanel's past are just fabrications. Many were in fact spread by Chanel herself. Considering this, Madsen does a remarkable job of presenting a thorough biography of one of the 20th century's most innovative women. Madsen's work, however, shows some weaknesses. He often underestimates, for example, the importance of the class system and social cachet in early 20th century Europe. This leads him to wonder why associations with royalty and powerful men were important to a modern woman like Coco Chanel. Despite this, his work is an interesting account of how Chanel managed to rise to the top of the fashion industry. The illustrations and Madsen's novelistic style of writing make this book both entertaining and informative.
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Self Is Empty Toward a

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87967478

An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cushman, P. (1990). "Why the Self is Empty: Toward a historically Situated Psychology." American Psychologist. Vol. 45 (5), 599-611. doi: 003-066X/90
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Great War Social Technological Changes of the 1920s

Words: 2912 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1363907

Gender and Sex after World War I

We usually assume that great changes in American sexual behavior began just after World War I; however, Maurer (1976) argues that there was foreshadowing as far back as the 19th century. The woman's rights movement, a tendency to violate sexual taboos (called free love), and a preoccupation with blander forms of Marxism dramatically came together in the United States at the end of the war. When The Great War was over and the men came home, they found a different world in the making. For one thing, women finally got the vote after a nearly 100-year struggle. Social change was everywhere, not the least of which were modified sexual mores and new ideas about sex.

The 1920s were a time of great optimism. There was a general belief that sociology and psychology were going to the make the world a better place. Now…… [Read More]

References

Devices and Desires web site. A history of contraceptives in America: http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/birthcontrol/a/deviceanddesire_2.htm

Doan, L. (1998). Passing fashions: Reading female masculinities in the 1920s. Feminist Studies, 24 (3), 663-700.

Grant, J. (2004). A "real boy" and not a sissy: Gender, childhood, and masculinity, 1890-1940. Journal of Social History, 37 (4) 829-851.

Haag, P.S. (1992). In search of 'the real thing': Ideologies of love, modern romance, and women's sexual subjectivity in the United States, 1920-40. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 2 (4), 547-577.
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Environmental Theory and Emancipatory Knowledge

Words: 5800 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395592

Nightingale met a friend Richard Monckton Miles in 1842. Then in 1844, Nightingale asked Dr. Howe if she could do a charitable job in a hospital like the catholic nuns, and refused her marriage to her cousin, Henry Nicholson. By 1845, Nightingale started training herself in the nearby Salisbury Hospital, but her parents were not happy about it, seeing nursing as an inappropriate job for a well to do woman like their daughter. In the next year, Nightingale began teaching herself from the government blue books. In the meantime, Monckton Miles wanted to marry her, but soon she travelled to Rome, Italy with friends to avoid him. Britain unlimited, 2009). Finally, after she attended the Herbert's Charmouth convalescent home, her knowledge was recognized. In 1849, after refusing finally to Miles proposal, she decided to go to Egypt while accompanying her friends, the Bracebridges. They then travelled through Europe, and ended…… [Read More]

(Source: Cody, 2006, p. 259).

Differences Between Nightingale's Theory and Emancipatory Knowing -- When Nightingale thought about the benefits of a well-ventilated room, she was not basing her view on previous knowledge. Emancipatory progress is now evident in the way world healthcare approaches a patient's room -- typically well-ventilated and clean (Beck, 2005, pg. 140). Nightingale was born in an era were by women has very little voice most of the work done by women were in-house work so most of Nightingale's major innovation was providing place for women to work with and for women (Selanders, 2005, pg., 83). Today with Emancipatory knowledge we see a more educated workforce of both men and women in nursing. Although in the late 19th century there were still arguments regarding Nightingale's visions, today's theorists use her broad-based knowledge as a best -- practice template for modern conceptions (Attewell, 2005).

The Legacy of Nightingale Part 1 -- Nursing Ethics -- Most modern ethical theorist are based on traditions dating back as far as Ancient Greece. However, medical, and in particular nursing, ethics are clearly a post-Nightingale logical evolution (never a conclusion). The philosophical combination of advocacy and ethics, while still remaining true to the realities of budgets and the need for a medical institution to
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Sarah Orne Jewett and Feminism

Words: 2040 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73988265

Throughout her novels and short stories, Jewett uses the weakness or malicious of the male characters to allow her female characters more power and therefore independence. Many scholars also believe that Jewett was also commenting on the decreased importance of the old New England male image of fisherman and provider of the household. As New England itself became industrialized, the role of the sole provider as the male failed to keep its significance which would then increase the separation between male and females. Therefore, Jewett sometimes intentionally paralyzes the male characters within New England contexts, and then places more social and economic power within the hands of the women of New England; who she portrays as much more adaptable then their male counterparts.

In the midst of this failing male patriarchal system, Jewett presents a myriad of strong female characters who are more than amble to handle life without such…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blanchard, Paula. Sarah Orne Jewett: Her World and Her Work. Addison-Wesley. 1994.

Jewett, Sarah Orne. The Country of the Pointed Furs. Signet Classic. 2000.

Jewett, Sarah Orne. "The White Heron." VOA News. 2006. Retrieved 30 Nov 2008 at http://www.voanews.com/specialenglish/archive/2006-03/2006-03-19-voa1.cfm?CFID=73945542&CFTOKEN=65579149.

Roman, Margaret. Sarah Orne Jewett. University of Alabama Press.
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Parenting in Henry James's Novels

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21035262

Henry James's work is not only a book about bad parenting, as it is not a book about relationships. It is about a fragmented and decadent society where normal values, such as caring for your child and offering her a loving home, become relative. This relativism of values leaves the character without a norm and without intrinsic knowledge about doing what is right.

Maisie's parents are not necessarily bad people in a complex meaning of the concept of "bad," just as Mrs. Wix, no matter how much the reader gets attached to her because of the way she adores Maisie, is not a sublimely good person. At least, despite developing interesting characters, James's objective is not to define good and bad and categorize his characters accordingly. I believe his goal is to see what the characters are doing and how they are behaving in a particular societal context, namely that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Sethi, Mira, (2010). Henry James's Most Affecting Portrait. Wall Street Journal

2. James, Henry, (1897), What Maisie Knew. The Project Gutenberg

3. French, Philip, (2013). What Maisie Knew -- review. The Guardian. On the Internet at  http://www.theguardian.com/film/2013/aug/25/what-maisie-knew . Last retrieved on November 1, 2014
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Memory and Place of Carlton

Words: 3276 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30816634

).

Waverley Park was designed for and reflected a demographic shift in Melbourne's population away from the inner suburbs to the south and east. Waverley Park was a symbol of, and a contributor to, the shift of the locus of power within the Victorian, later Australian, Football League from the clubs to the league, a change whose consequences are still being felt in 2000. The stadium reflected an Australian tradition of multi-sports facilities despite its genesis in Australian ules, both in its conception and subsequent development. Waverley Park played a significant role in the development of post-war Australian football, cricket and baseball. In April 2000 it was nominated for the Victorian Heritage egister by the City of Greater Dandenong (Hay et al.).

Waverley reflected also a major geographic shift, taking the game away from the traditional inner urban areas to outlying suburbs where a more affluent society with discretionary income…… [Read More]

References

And the winners are...: The votes are in and business travellers across the region have had their say on Asia's best hotels. Business Asia, 15(2), 20.

Berry, J. & McGreal, S. (1999). Cities in the Pacific Rim: Planning systems and property markets. London: E & FN Spon.

Cannon, M. (1995). The land boomers: The complete illustrated history. Carlton: Melbourne University Press in Berry & McGreal at p. 225.

Crozier, M. (2003). Political legacies: Australian political studies and the University of Melbourne. Melbourne Journal of Politics, 29, 8.
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Cather a Quote From a

Words: 2302 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65365355

This reveals the more liberated ideals of the west and of the pioneer culture. First, Alexandra envisions herself "being lifted and carried lightly by some one very strong. He was with her a long while this time, and carried her very far, and in his arms she felt free from pain." The masculine figure takes the place of the gossamer female angel. She is about to be subsumed by the ethereal lover. "hen he laid her down on her bed again, she opened her eyes, and, for the first time in her life, she saw him, saw him clearly, though the room was dark, and his face was covered." Here, gender roles are again reversed as they are in the previous passage when the man is the angel. The man is now being veiled, his "face was covered." Veil is usually used to conceal the woman's but not the man's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Dee Alexander. The Gentle Tamers: Women of the Old Wild West. University of Nebraska Press, 1958.

Cather, Willa. O Pioneers! Searchable online version: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/24/24-h/24-h.htm

The Chronicle, San Francisco. "The Foremothers Tell of Olden Times." 9 Sept, 1900. Retrieved online:  http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist5/foremoms.html 

Jameson, Elizabeth. "Women as Workers, Women as Civilizers: True Womanhood in the American West." Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. Vol. 7, No. 3, Women on the Western Frontier (1984), pp. 1-8
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White on Black

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8256192

accepting slavery in the west may never be uncovered to a level of acceptance of those who suffered under the terrible treatment. Slavery was an unjust and evil order which structured society on the basis of skin color, nationality, and land ownership. While understanding this concept is difficult to some, alternate theories which have been brought forth over the past three decades as a result of the merging of advancing sociology, psychological, and political studies are even more difficult to comprehend, unless the proponents of the same are still holding an axe which needs to be ground.

One such theory is expounded in White on Black. The article, which propounds to be a piece of scholarly research, attempts to piece together apples and oranges in order to create a reasonable theory. But what seems to be more the object of the article is to give black Americans, and blacks world…… [Read More]

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Version of Wilde's Play and

Words: 821 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99975604

People living double lives and the adult themes associated with many of the main characters' forays were hard to talk about openly at the time of its writing. But the play allowed people an insight into others' lives, and also gave them an outlet for their own thoughts, since the Victorian era was relatively repressive. This is also important to remember when considering the 2002 Parker adaptation. This version had the same themes, but in a modern times contextual way. This helps current audiences relate to the same feelings and emotions that 1890's audiences were able to.

The Parker adaptation takes Wilde's original concept and sheds new light on it. While it retains the same setting, the lines in the Parker version are delivered by modern actors and actresses. n a way, it is entirely impossible to capture the exact same meaning, tone, structure, and themes if the linguistics are…… [Read More]

It is also important to remember the cultural and historical contexts from which the play originated. During its first showing, in the 1890's, the cultural and social climate were obviously quite different. The content and material in the play itself was considered quite risque by many of the Victorian era citizens. Seeing the play and these controversial concepts and actions played out on stage must have been somewhat of a personal and social expression or release, even for the audience. People living double lives and the adult themes associated with many of the main characters' forays were hard to talk about openly at the time of its writing. But the play allowed people an insight into others' lives, and also gave them an outlet for their own thoughts, since the Victorian era was relatively repressive. This is also important to remember when considering the 2002 Parker adaptation. This version had the same themes, but in a modern times contextual way. This helps current audiences relate to the same feelings and emotions that 1890's audiences were able to.

The Parker adaptation takes Wilde's original concept and sheds new light on it. While it retains the same setting, the lines in the Parker version are delivered by modern actors and actresses. In a way, it is entirely impossible to capture the exact same meaning, tone, structure, and themes if the linguistics are changed at all from the play, or as it was originally worded. While the movie is less verbose and condensed than the written work, the central ideas and themes are still retained, and Wilde would have likely approved of this version, since it paints such a clear picture of the characters. These film also removes the stuff, static feeling of the play on stage and places the interactions into new categories that can be better understood by today's audiences. Parker does an excellent job of weaving Wilde's tail. There is little of substance that is removed from the plot, and any audience familiar with the original work should be pleased with Parker's adaptation. Wilde's original intentions, which were to convey the variety of emotional reactions and energies to the audience in live motion, are successfully preserved through the film adaptation.

There are many subtle and not so subtle differences between the Parker adaptation of Wilde's play and the original written work. Parker has cleanly updated the tale and shed new modern-context light on the same themes and ideas. It is important to remember that Wilde's play was once considered an artistic outlet for Victorian era misgivings and anxieties, and the characters in the play are meant to both help entertain and tell a story as well as be a cathartic social outlet for the audience masses. One of England's most successful and best-known works survives intact, albeit somewhat contextually updated in the Parker film adaptation.
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Gender in Poetry Literature Lesson Duration

Words: 1983 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71176397

Gende in Poety / Liteatue Lesson

Lesson Duation

mins

Rational: This is an intoduction to the gende issues which wee so pevalent in the Victoian ea, and a backdop to show why they still exist today and the ham they can inflict.

Syllabus Outcome: This pat of the lesson helps meet outcome 1, o the ability to intepet meanings and themes within texts. By using abstact thinking pocesses, the students will make connections between the texts pesented and show how they ae, o ae not elated. Accoding to the eseach, "A student esponds to and composes inceasingly sophisticated and sustained texts fo undestanding, intepetation, citical analysis and pleasue" (Boad of Studies fo NSW 2003 p 32).

Syllabus Content: This will help meet outcome 4, whee "a student selects and uses languages foms and featues, and stuctues of texts accoding to diffeent puposes, audiences and contexts, and descibes and explains thei…… [Read More]

references to at least two of the texts read

Less than three sentences per response and mentioning one or none of the texts read so far

Lesson 5

Strong use of creativity. The poem or short story breaks three or more of the gender stereotypes learned

Simply rewriting a previously published story or poem. Only two or less gender stereotypes were broken by the female character
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Domestic Prison Gender Roles and Marriage the

Words: 3215 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58318174

Domestic Prison

Gender oles and Marriage

The Domestic Prison: James Thurber's "Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour"

James Thurber's "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (1939) and "The Story of an Hour" (1894) by Kate Chopin depict marriage as a prison for both men and women from which the main characters fantasize about escaping. Louise Mallard is similar to the unnamed narrator in Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" is that they are literally imprisoned in a domestic world from which there is no escape but death or insanity. As in all of this early feminist fiction, the women characters are defined as 'sick', either physically or mentally, for even imaging a situation on which they might be free, for they are allowed no lives of their own. Louise Mallard was overjoyed when she heard that her husband was killed in an accident,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allen, J.A. (2004) The Feminism of Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Sexuality, Histories, Progressivism. University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Chopin, K. (1997). "The Story of an Hour" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, pp. 158-159.

Davis, S. (1982). "Katherine Chopin." American Realists and Naturalists. D. Pizer and E.N. Harbert (eds). Detroit: Gale Research, 1982. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 12.

Gilman, C. (1997)."The Yellow Wallpaper" in A. Charters and S. Charters (eds). Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997, pp. 230-242.
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Women and the Homefront in Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee During the Civil War

Words: 11672 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56537237

Women and the Home Front in Western North Carolina and Eastern Tennessee during the Civil War

This paper examines the living conditions and attitudes that shaped the lives of the women in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee during and after the American Civil War. The thesis statement should deal with the breakdown of long standing ties between the people of the mountains as they chose to fight for the Confederacy or the Union. In the pre-war years, these close ties had become strong out of a mutual attempt to try to built a life in the rugged environment they encountered. ased on primary and secondary documentary evidence, this paper will investigate how could friends and family become bitter enemies and how this process played out in the mountains of western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee to better understand what the women went through while their brothers, husbands and fathers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Among the Pines," State Chronicle, September 22, 1883 in Leloudis.

Barret, John G. And W. Buck Yearns (Eds). 1980. North Carolina Civil War Documentary. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

In an appendix, the editors provide this excerpt from the diary of an eighteen-year-old girl of Everittsville, who recorded her concerns about the fate of women in the Confederacy and her views about the part played by the Confederate male:

Aug. 30, 1861. Hatteras taken by Yanks-- women and children fleeing. "Quick oh God! Save us from the enemy. Surely thou hast not forsaken us."
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Down East and What Society

Words: 1826 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29681239

In this scene Anna points at Sanderson and identifies him as "the man who betrayed me," but it makes no difference. She is banished. Sanderson is not. David, the Squire's son who is in love with her, is shocked and anguished to learn the truth about his beloved, that she is not a pure and moral woman. Everyone jumps to the conclusion that Anna is "wanton" and immoral -- she probably likes sex and cannot control her baser instincts.

If a woman becomes impure as a result of sexual activity, this implies a societal view of sex as low and dirty. At the same time it is juicy and fun to gossip about Anna's scandalous behavior, as Griffith clearly shows when Martha tells the Squire and appears to be tremendously self-satisfied in her total condemnation of Anna. Men, because they are men, cannot be expected to resist, but women because…… [Read More]

References

Way Down East (1920) D.W. Griffith, director, with music added in 1928.

Making Movies, 1920 web site: http://www.eyewitnessstohistory.com/gish.htm

Welter, B. (1983). The cult of True Womanhood, 1820-1860 in Michael Gordon (Ed.) The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective, New York: St. Martin's Press.
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Architectural Analysis Unidentified Brick Building India

Words: 1002 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81490889

Indian Architecture

In the photographs provided, the building's architectural context has quite obviously changed over time.

The oldest-looking photo of the three shows little development in the surrounding area, while the placement of trees on the building's immediate ground looks artful.

The other two photos are more recent, as one shows subsequent development in the area behind the building.

One give a glimpse of a large white building whose twentieth-century style does not sit entirely harmoniously with the Victorian-seeming construction of the building under consideration -- and also shows broken windows visible in the main central tower.

The other photo displays recent blight and disrepair on a smaller building -- advertising posters, missing bricks and roof tiles -- although it's not clear whether this smaller building is part of the larger complex around the building under consideration.

One other noteworthy bit of context can be glimpsed in the oldest of…… [Read More]

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Hawthorne's Rejection of Puritan Values

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68867437

"

Mather 22)

Hawthorne clearly stepped away from the Puritan ethic by consistently alluding to the existence of the earthly supernatural. Though this was a fear of the Puritans, clearly it was associated with Satan and possession of the living. In Hawthorne's works the supernatural was associated with less grand sources, such as those seen in Young Goodman Brown. (Hoeltje 39-40) Hawthorne allows his characters to explore concepts that would have been those deemed heretical within the Puritan settings of the works.

In The Birth-Mark, Hawthorne associates the active expulsion of character traits of humanity clearly results in the death of the whole.

The line of divergence in "The Birth Mark" is indicated by its name. e all have our birth-marks, -- traits of character, which may be temporarily suppressed, or relegated to the background, but which cannot be eradicated and are certain to reappear at unguarded moments, or on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hawthorne, Nathaniel." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Emmett, Paul J. "Narrative Suppression: Sin, Secrecy and Subjectivity in "The Minister's Black Veil." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 25.1-2 (2004): 101+. Questia. 16 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

Gartner, Matthew. "The Scarlet Letter' and the Book of Esther: Scriptural Letter and Narrative Life." Studies in American Fiction 23.2 (1995): 131+. Questia. 16 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. London: J.M. Dent, 1906.
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History of Psychology and Hysteria 1

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95011493

History Of Psychology and Hysteria

Hysteria, symbolize women in the field of psychology during history and in many different cultures for the reason that the issues that society goes through are reflected in the area of psychology. Hysteria has been broken down into various parts in history that had to change influences on the diagnosis and its implication for women. History has shown that parallel patterns can be observed in the growth of menstruation and sexuality. Hysteria is unquestionably the first mental disorder attributable to women, precisely labeled in the second era BC. This was until Freud looked at it as being an entirely female illness. Above 4000 years of history, this syndrome was reflected from two viewpoints which were the scientific point-of-view and the demonological standpoint.

What is Hysteria?

esearch shows that Hysteria was the ?rst psychological disorder that was labeled at women. This condition is known for having…… [Read More]

References

Pearson, C. (2016, March 12). Female Hysteria: 7 Crazy Things People Used To Believe About The Ladies' Disease. Retrieved from ***

(1).pdf
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American Moderns Fashioning a New National Culture

Words: 1613 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67791376

American Moderns: Fashioning a New National Culture

Literature and historians alike look to the past to define the present. In many ways, one can look at the defining moments in American history to understand the foundation in which today's culture exists. This paper asks one to examine the specific period of time after the Civil ar and how the men and women born of these decades until the First orld ar created a new American culture. This involves looking at the work of historians like Christine Stansell in order to gain a better understanding of the pillars and forces that shaped American culture at the time.

It is apparent that times were changing drastically from the Victorian era to the Modern era. People's morals and values were changing as writers and artists pushed the envelope and introduced new ideas into the mainstream. It can also be assumed that these "new…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"American Moderns." The Journal of American History 88, 3 (2001): 79.

Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio. Free Books Online.



Cohen, Patricia Cline. "Village Voices." The New York Times Online Book Review
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Sarah Emma Edmonds Private Thompson Sarah

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60797059

These changes would not come to fruition until the omen's Suffrage Movement. However, the treatment of Sarah demonstrates that although she broke law and strict gender roles, rather than punishment, she received honor and the pension that she deserved. omen who attempted to circumvent the established rules would often find themselves shamed and ridiculed, or in some cases, charged criminally. A soldier's camp was not thought to be the place for a woman of high social status.

omen who broke the mold were an insult to mainstream society. omen who took on male roles were not considered to be socially acceptable, but the fact that Sarah was not court marshaled, but instead received her pension that was due demonstrates that the underpinnings of a shift in societal attitudes was beginning to weave itself into the fabric of society and the traditional definition of masculinity was being threatened (Vettel-Becker). The first…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Civil War Home. Sarah Emma Edmonds. <  http://www.civilwarhome.com/edmondsbio.htm 

Accessed April 29, 2010.

Lemaster, T.M/Othering Children. Genders. Issue 47. 2008.

http://www.genders.org/g47/g47_lemaster.html. Accessed April 29, 2010.